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UNIT ONE REVIEW

May 27, 2014


Early Man
Great Rift Valley (East Africa)
Where humans are believed to have evolved
Out of Africa theory

Stone Ages
Paleolithic: Man was nomadic hunter-gatherer
Neolithic Revolution:
Man domesticated plants and animals
Permanent settlements form near rivers civilizations
Characteristics of Civilizations:

SCRAP.ORG

Social Classes Cities Religion Art & Architecture
Public Works Occupations Record-Keeping - Government
River Valleys

Polytheistic

Traditional Economic Systems
Barter: Trade without using $$$
Agriculture
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Civilizations: Commonalities
River Valley Civilizations
Mesopotamia:
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Sumer & Babylon
Cradle of Civilization

Achievements:
Cuneiform
Ziggurats
Hammurabis Code
Eye for an eye

River Valley Civilizations
Other Mesopotamian Peoples:

Hebrews
Monotheistic! Founders of Judaism
Led by Abraham

Phoenicians
Sailed around Mediterranean Sea
Invented the alphabet

River Valley Civilizations
Egypt
Nile River
Gift of the Nile flooded predictable
Sahara Desert provided protection from invaders

Achievements:
Hieroglyphics
Papyrus
Pyramids
River Valley Civilizations
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
Indus River
Affected by seasonal monsoons (winds)

Achievements:
Urban Planning
Streets in a grid
Irrigation & sewage system


River Valley Civilizations
Shang Dynasty
Yellow River (China)
Isolated (Himalayas)
Ethnocentrism Middle Kingdom
Filial Piety: ancestor worship
Dynastic Cycle

Achievements:
Paper
Oracle Bones
New Dynasty
comes to
power
Stability +
Achievements
Corruption
Natural
Disaster
Strikes
Civil war
New dynasty claims
Mandate of Heaven*
Old dynasty loses
Mandate of Heaven*
Dynastic Cycle
*Mandate of Heaven = permission from the gods to rule
Classical Civilizations
Greece
Rome
Qin
Han
Maurya
Gupta
Greece
Geography: Mountainous
Independent city-states

Sparta: Military Society

Athens: Golden Age
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Democracy (Direct)
Education: Math & Science
Philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Writing: Comedy & Tragedy
Art & Architecture: Realistic Sculptures; Columns
Greece
Alexander the Great
Famous leader who conquered Greece, Egypt,
Persia (Iran), and part of India

Hellenistic Culture Cultural Diffusion!
Rome
Geography:
Italian Peninsula
Empire: conquered lands around Mediterranean Sea

Achievements:
Main contributions in law and engineering
Pax Romana: Roman Peace
200 year Golden Age
Rome, continued
Law:
Republic: representative govt
Twelve Tables:
Written set of laws; displayed in public
All men equal under law
Innocent until proven guilty

Engineering:
Concrete used to build roads to unite empire
Arches & Domes
Aqueducts: clean, running water thru empire
Qin Dynasty (China)
Leader = Shi Huangdi
Used Legalism

Centralized Government
Unified currency
Standardized measurements
Repaired canals & roads

Great Wall of China

Terra Cotta Army
Han Dynasty
Based on Confucianism
Filial Piety
Five Relationships
Education

Civil Service System

Silk Road
Long trade route from China to Mediterranean
Cultural Diffusion!
Maurya Dynasty
Asoka: Converted to Buddhism

Pillars of Asoka

Built hospitals, wells; stopped attacking
neighbors


Gupta Dynasty
Hindu Dynasty
Golden Age of India
Zero
Sanskirt writing
Ajanta Cave Paintings
Plastic Surgery

Religions!