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# Integrals of simple functions

C is used for an arbitrary constant of integration that can only be determined if something
about the value of the integral at some point is known. Thus each function has an infinite
number of antiderivatives.
These formulas only state in another form the assertions in the table of derivatives.
Integrals with a singularity
When there is a singularity in the function being integrated such that the integral becomes
undefined, i.e., it is not Lebesgue integrable, then C does not need to be the same on both
sides of the singularity. The forms below normally assume the Cauchy principal value around
a singularity in the value of C but this is not in general necessary. For instance in

there is a singularity at 0 and the integral becomes infinite there. If the integral above was
used to give a definite integral between -1 and 1 the answer would be 0. This however is only
the value assuming the Cauchy principal value for the integral around the singularity. If the
integration was done in the complex plane the result would depend on the path around the
origin, in this case the singularity contributes i when using a path above the origin and i
for a path below the origin. A function on the real line could use a completely different value
of C on either side of the origin as in:

Rational functions
More integrals: List of integrals of rational functions
These rational functions have a non-integrable singularity at 0 for a 1.

(Cavalieri's quadrature formula)

More generally,


Exponential functions
More integrals: List of integrals of exponential functions

Logarithms
More integrals: List of integrals of logarithmic functions

Trigonometric functions
More integrals: List of integrals of trigonometric functions

(See Integral of the secant function. This result was a well-known conjecture in the
17th century.)

(see integral of secant cubed)

Inverse trigonometric functions
More integrals: List of integrals of inverse trigonometric functions

Hyperbolic functions
More integrals: List of integrals of hyperbolic functions

Inverse hyperbolic functions
More integrals: List of integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions

Products of functions proportional to their second derivatives

Absolute-value functions
Let f be a function which has at most one root on each interval on which it is defined, and g
an antiderivative of f that is zero at each root of f (such an antiderivative exists if and only if
the condition on f is satisfied), then

where sgn(x) is the sign function, which takes the values -1, 0, 1 when x is respectively
negative, zero or positive. This gives the following formulas (where a0):

when for some integer n.

when for some integer n.

when for some integer n.

when for some integer n.
If the function f does not has any continuous anti-derivative which takes the value zero at the
zeros of f (this is the case for the sine and the cosine functions), then
is an anti-derivative of f on every interval on which f is not zero,
but may be discontinuous at the points where f(x)=0. For having a continuous anti-derivative,
one has thus to add a well chosen step function. If we also use the fact that the absolute
values of sine and cosine are periodic with period , then we get:
[citation needed]

[citation
needed]

Special functions
Ci, Si: Trigonometric integrals, Ei: Exponential integral, li: Logarithmic integral function,
erf: Error function

Definite integrals lacking closed-form antiderivatives
There are some functions whose antiderivatives cannot be expressed in closed form.
However, the values of the definite integrals of some of these functions over some common
intervals can be calculated. A few useful integrals are given below.
(see also Gamma function)
for a > 0 (the Gaussian integral)
for a > 0
for a > 0, n is 1, 2, 3, ... and !! is the double factorial.
when a > 0
for a > 0, n = 0, 1, 2,
....
(see also Bernoulli number)

(see sinc function and Sine integral)

(if n is an even
integer and n 2)
(if n is an odd
integer and n 3)
(for , , m, n
integers with 0 and m, n 0, see also Binomial coefficient)
(for , real and n non-negative integer, see also
Symmetry)
(for , , m, n integers with 0 and m, n 0, see also Binomial coefficient)
(for , , m, n integers with 0 and m, n 0, see also Binomial coefficient)
(where exp[u] is the exponential
function e
u
, and a > 0)
(where is the Gamma function)
(for Re( ) > 0 and Re() > 0, see Beta
function)
(where I
0
(x) is the modified Bessel function of the first
kind)

(for > 0 , this is related to the
probability density function of the Student's t-distribution)
If the function f has bounded variation on the interval [a,b], then the method of exhaustion
provides a formula for the integral:

(Click "show" at right to see a proof or "hide" to hide it.)[show]
The "sophomore's dream"

Many identities interrelate the trigonometric functions. Among the most frequently used is
the Pythagorean identity, which states that for any angle, the square of the sine plus the
square of the cosine is 1. This is easy to see by studying a right triangle of hypotenuse 1 and
applying the Pythagorean theorem. In symbolic form, the Pythagorean identity is written

where is standard notation for
Other key relationships are the sum and difference formulas, which give the sine and cosine
of the sum and difference of two angles in terms of sines and cosines of the angles
themselves. These can be derived geometrically, using arguments that date to Ptolemy. One
can also produce them algebraically using Euler's formula.
Sum

Subtraction

These in turn lead to the following three-angle formulae:

When the two angles are equal, the sum formulas reduce to simpler equations known as the
double-angle formulae.

When three angles are equal, the three-angle formulae simplify to

These identities can also be used to derive the product-to-sum identities that were used in
antiquity to transform the product of two numbers into a sum of numbers and greatly speed
operations, much like the logarithm function.
Calculus
For integrals and derivatives of trigonometric functions, see the relevant sections of
Differentiation of trigonometric functions, Lists of integrals and List of integrals of
trigonometric functions. Below is the list of the derivatives and integrals of the six basic
trigonometric functions. The number C is a constant of integration.