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You are on page 1of 4

that is suspended from a horizontal bar

as illustrated in the figure. When the

object comes to rest we say it is at

"equilibrium" which is labeled 0 on the

vertical number line. If you give the

weight a push, either up or down, it will

start to move and the motion can be

modeled by sine and cosine functions.

The "stiffness" of the spring and the

mass of the object affect how far the

object moves from the equilibrium

position. The initial velocity and initial

position also affect the motion of the

spring. (We don't always start at the

equilibrium position.)

If we neglect any damping forces (air

resistance etc.) then the motion of the

spring can be modeled by

x(t) = v sin(wt) + xo cos(wt)

w

where x(t) is the position of the object along the number line at time t. The other

quantities are constants: cv is a constant that depends on the stiffness of the spring and

the mass of the weight, vo is the initial velocity, and xo is the initial position of the object.

Model the motion of a weight on a spring:

Suppose a weight is set in motion from a position 3 centimeters below the equilibrium

position and with a downward velocity of 4 centimeters per second. (Please note that the

vertical number line used for position is "upside down". This is a convention from

physics and it means that positions below equilibrium actually correspond to a positive

value.) Assume that the spring stiffness and mass of the weight mean that co = 2 for this

system.

Part I

1) Write the function x(t) that gives the position of the weight as a function of time t in

seconds. (Your function should consist of a sine term and a cosine term.)

Ii

2) Graph the separate sine and cosine components of your function from (1) on the same

set of axes. That is graph x, = v sin(wt) and x2 = xo cos(cot) on the set of axes below.

CO

U

(Sketch these graphs by hand and show two full cycles.)

5

S

3) Use a graphing calculator (or online graphing utility) to graph the entire function from

part (1). Use the window settings indicated below. Sketch what you see on your

calculator display.

xmin =0

xmax = 2 ,r J*

xscl = 4

ymin = -5

ymax=5

yscl = 1

_ r ,

4) Write an equation for your calculator graph in the form x(t) = A cos[B(t C)] . (Use

the trace or maximum feature of your graphing utility to help you find values for A, B,

and C. I expect to see decimal approximations for these values.)

4

Q \

\\k

"phi", is called the phase angle and is

5) How are the graphs from part 2) related to the graph in part 3)? Are the values for

period and amplitude the same or different? Why do you think we see these results?

Please write out your explanation using complete sentences.

7

1k

d

Part II:

6) Prove that the following is an identity (A is a positive constant) by filling in the blanks

below.

A sin

0

sin(cot) + A cos 0 cos(at) = A cos(at

-0)

A sin 0 sin(c)t) + A cos

0

cos(cot)

=

Factor out A

ir /GO4

Commutative Property of

Addition

=A {cos(wt) cos

0

+ sin(cot) sin

}

ropy of

=A cos(1

-0)

Difference identity for

cosine

Part Ill:

Rewrite an expression of the form

AE

____

cl ,

sin(cot) + cos(at)

=

sin(an') + A cos

0

cos(wt) in terms of a cosine function:

A cos(cor

-0).

Use the following definitions and your result from part II:

Qf

l y

/AC

C

1

C 2 = A cos

0

cos

0=

tan

A

[A=\/cl2+c

I

A, is the amplitude of the cosine function and

0,

measured in radians.

a

Example: Write 4 sin 1' + 2 cos 3t in terms of a cosine function.

+

5CO5(S K=

I V

I , - a ~ ~ r - os\3(o

7) Rewrite ybur function from part 1) in terms of a cosine function: A cos(cot

-0).

Show

your work. -

Q3Lt

(c,Z

A

4

4v()

8) Compare your function from part 4) and part 7). What do you observe? Write a one or

two sentence explanation.

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