Level of Measurements

© All Rights Reserved

97 views

Level of Measurements

© All Rights Reserved

- Final RM Notes
- Research Management
- Intorductory Statistics, Chapter 1- Prem Mann
- 10.1.1.21
- 02 Process
- Level of Measurement
- Definition of Business Research
- MB0040 Chapter 1
- Ste3a01 - Lecture 1
- Reseaarch Methodology
- Research Methods
- 1 Introduction (1)
- QNT 351 Final Exam Guide
- Types of Data
- Chapter 1
- Measurements and Scaling
- Lecture 3 - Variables
- Case & case questions(RM-1).docx
- Objective
- Data and Variables

You are on page 1of 30

MEASUREMENTS

OVERVIEW: NATURE OF DATA

STATISTICS

SPECIFIC NUMBERS: numerical

measurement determined by a set

of data

METHOD OF ANALYSIS: a collection

of methods for planning

(quantitative research), obtaining

data, and then then organizing,

summarizing, presenting, analyzing,

interpreting, and drawing

conclusions based on the data

STATISTICS

Specific number - numerical

measurement determined by a set of

data

Example: Seventy-seven percent (77%)

f people surveyed believed that learning

statistics is easy and fun.

The new Miss Universe has the following

vital statistics: 34-24-34.

STATISTICS

Method of analysis : a collection of methods for

(1) planning experiments,

(2) obtaining data, and then

(3) organizing,

(4) summarizing,

(5) presenting,

(6) analyzing,

(7) interpreting, and

(8) drawing conclusions based on the data

Two Broad Areas

STATISTICS

(Collection,

Organization, Summary,

Presentation, Analysis

and

Interpretation of Data)

DESCRIPTIVE

-deals with processing data without attempting to draw

any inferences/conclusions from them.

-It refers to the representation of data in the form of

tables, graphs and to the description of some

characteristics of the data, such as averages and

deviations.

INFERENTIAL

-is a scientific discipline concerned with developing

and using mathematical tools to make

estimates/projections and inferences/conclusions.

THE NATURE OF DATA

(LEVELS OF)MEASUREMENT

DEFINITIONS

DATA

QUALITATIVE

(CATEGORICAL)

OR

(ATTRIBUTE)

consist of attributes, labels,

or non-numerical entries

QUANTITATIVE

(NUMERICAL)

consist of numerical

measurements or counts

Classifying Data by Type

The suggested retail prices of several Ford vehicles are shown in the

table. Which data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data?

Model Suggested Retail

Price

Focus Sedan

Fusion

Mustang

Edge

Flex

Escape Hybrid

Expedition

F-450

$15,995

$19,270

$20,995

$26,920

$28,495

$32,260

$35,085

$44,145

Classifying Data by Type

The information shown in the table can be separated into two data sets.

One data set contains the names of vehicle models, and the other contains

the suggested retail prices of vehicle models.

Model Suggested

Retail Price

Focus Sedan

Fusion

Mustang

Edge

Flex

Escape Hybrid

Expedition

F-450

$15,995

$19,270

$20,995

$26,920

$28,495

$32,260

$35,085

$44,145

The suggested

retail prices are

numerical entries,

so these are

quantitative data.

The names are

non-numerical

entries, so

these are

qualitative

data.

Classifying Data by Type

The populations of several regions in Thailand are shown in the table. Which

data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data? (Source:

http://www.citypopulation.de/Thailand-Cities.html) Identify the two data sets.

Decide whether each data set consists of numerical or non-numerical entries.

Specify the qualitative data and the quantitative data.

Name Population (2010)

Bangkok (and Vicinities)

Eastern

Northeastern

Northern

Southern

Sub-central

Western

14,565,546

5,163,868

18,808,012

11,432,488

8,841,364

3,109,531

3,558,644

Levels of Measurements

Another common way of classifying data is to use

four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal,

interval, and ratio.

In applying statistics to real problems, the level of

measurement of the data is an important factor in

determining which procedure to use.

Never do computations and never use statistical

methods with data that are NOT appropriate.

TYPES OF DATA

Qualitative

Categorical or Attribute data

can be separated into different categories that are

distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic

NOMINAL

ORDINAL

Quantitative

Consist of numbers representing counts

or measurements

INTERVAL

RATIO

DEFINITIONS

Data at the nominal level of measurement are qualitative

only which are categorized using names, labels, or

qualities.

The data cannot be arranged in an ordering or ranking

scheme (like low to high).

No mathematical computations can be made at this level.

Example: Gender: male or female (2 levels)

Survey responses: yes, no, undecided (3 levels)

Marital Status: Single, Married, Divorced (3 levels)

Type of Residence: Owned, Rented, Living with Relatives

DEFINITIONS

Data at the ordinal level of measurement are mostly

qualitative.

Data at this level can be arranged in order or ranked, but

differences between data entries are not meaningful.

Examples: Course grades A, B, C, D, F (5 levels)

Survey Responses: Always, Oftentimes, Sometimes, Seldom,

or Never (5 levels)

Year Level: Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior (4Levels)

Educational Attainment: Elementary, High School, College

(3 levels)

The two highest levels of measurement

consist of quantitative data only.

Data at the interval level of measurement can

be ordered, and meaningful differences

between data entries can be calculated.

At the interval level, division between data

entries can be calculated but has no important

meaning.

At the interval level, a zero entry simply

represents a position on a scale; the entry is

not a natural or inherent zero.

interval level of measurement

Calendar Years: 1850, 1998, 1776, and 2014

1. Category: [19

th

, 20

th

, 18

th

, 21

st

Centuries]

2. Rank/Order: [1776, 1850, 1998, 2014]

3. Difference between two values can be

calculated: 1998 2014 = 16

(year 1998 is 16 years earlier than year 2014)

2014 1850 = 164

(year 2014 is 164 years later than year 1850)

interval level of measurement

Number Grades: 75, 88, 94, 90, 85

1. Category: (75-80), (81-85), (86-90), (9195)

2. Rank/Order: 75, 85, 88, 90, 94

3. Difference between two values can be

calculated: 85 88 = 3

(85 as a grade is 3 points lower than 88 as a grade)

94 90 = 4

(95 as a grade is 4 points higher than 90 as a grade)

Interval Data

Example: IQ score

1. Category

2. Rank

3. Difference between 2

values can be calculated

4. No inherent zero (Zero

is not a starting point)

Data at the ratio level of measurement are

similar to data at the interval level, with the

added property that a zero entry is an

inherent or natural zero.

A ratio of two data values can be formed

(division between two data entries) so that

one data value can be meaningfully expressed

as a multiple of another.

DEFINITIONS: Ratio

Example: Prices of college textbooks in US dollars: $25, $150, $200

1. Category: ($1 - $99), ($100 - $199), ($200 - $299)

2. Rank/Order: $25, $150, $200

3. Difference between two values:

$25 $150 = - $125 (a $25 book is $125 cheaper than a $150 book)

$200 $150 = $50 (a $200 book is $50 more expensive than a $150

book)

4. Inherent Zero (Zero as starting point)

$150 $25 = 6

A $150 book is 6 times more expensive than a $25 book or

A $25 book is 6 times cheaper than a $150 book

DEFINITIONS: Ratio

Example: Examination Scores (100 points): 70, 88, 45, 55, 72

1. Category: (0 25), (26 50), (51 75), (76 100)

2. Rank/Order: 45, 55, 70, 72, 88

3. Difference between two values

70 45 = 25

(A score of 70 is 25 points more than a score of 45)

55 88 = 33

(A score of 55 is 33 points lower than a score of 88)

4. Inherent Zero (Zero as starting point)

88 45 = 1.96

A score of 88 is about 1.96 times higher than a score of 45 or

A score of 45 is about 1.96 times lower than a score of 88

The following tables summarize which operations are

meaningful at each of the four levels of measurement.

When identifying a data sets level of measurement, use

the highest level that applies.

Level of

Measurement

Put data in

Categories

Arrange

data in

order

Subtract

data values

Inherent/

Natural Zero

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

YES

YES

YES

YES

NO

YES

YES

YES

NO

NO

YES

YES

NO

NO

NO

YES

DEFINITIONS

Population (N): the complete

collection of all elements (scores,

people, measurements, and so on)

to be studied. The collection is

complete that it includes all

subjects to be studied.

Population

Study Unit

Target Population

The whole group of study units which we are

interested in applying our inferences or

conclusions

Study Population (Sample)

The group of study units to which we can

legitimately apply our inferences or

conclusions

DEFINITIONS

DEFINITIONS

The whole pizza

represents a

POPULATION.

The slice of a

pizza represents a

SAMPLE (Study

Population)

DEFINITIONS

The whole pizza

represents a

POPULATION.

The slice of a

pizza represents a

SAMPLE (Study

Population)

DEFINITIONS

Example: A fisheries researcher is interested

in the behaviour pattern of a crab along the

coast of the Gulf of Siam. It would be

impossible to investigate every crab

individually. The only way to make any kind of

educated guess about their behaviour would

be by examining a small sub-collection, that

is, a sample.

DEFINITIONS

Example: Suppose a machine has produced

10,000 electric bulbs and we are interested in

getting some idea about how long the bulbs will

last. It would not be practical to test all the bulbs

so just select randomly 50 of these bulbs to test.

The 10,000 bulbs constitute the population and

the 50 bulbs a sample.

END OF SESSION

- Final RM NotesUploaded byAnantha Regis
- Research ManagementUploaded bymachevallie
- Intorductory Statistics, Chapter 1- Prem MannUploaded byKazi93_thefat
- 10.1.1.21Uploaded bychanmatha
- 02 ProcessUploaded byTusharNimbhorkar
- Level of MeasurementUploaded byPuzita Binti Tardan
- Definition of Business ResearchUploaded byVinodh_Shankar_6121
- MB0040 Chapter 1Uploaded byacorneleo
- Ste3a01 - Lecture 1Uploaded byTshepo Sharky Sebe
- Reseaarch MethodologyUploaded byFrancisca Rebello
- Research MethodsUploaded byObed Quaicoe
- 1 Introduction (1)Uploaded bySue Ahmad
- QNT 351 Final Exam GuideUploaded byassignmentclick07
- Types of DataUploaded byJannahJoyCatamio
- Chapter 1Uploaded byjgwentworth877o
- Measurements and ScalingUploaded byPadmarajPop
- Lecture 3 - VariablesUploaded byColin
- Case & case questions(RM-1).docxUploaded byPranati Aggarwal
- ObjectiveUploaded bymuralidharan
- Data and VariablesUploaded byMaritza Mendez Reina
- Week 1 StatisticsinBusiness WVegasUploaded byRusselle Abrantes Arrienda
- 1 Basic ConceptsUploaded byIzzeah Ramos
- CH 1 Up 9 Probability Note( for Engineering)-1Uploaded bytazeb Abebe
- Lesson 3.docxUploaded byاحمد صلاح
- 176867_Tugas ASPKUploaded byNabilatun Sholikha
- Preference, Type of ScaleUploaded byBandana Yadav
- Quantitative Research ProcessUploaded byAlthea Marie Bahan
- introtostatistics-190706115020.pdfUploaded byJasMisionMXPachuca
- Chapter 1 intro.pptxUploaded byPohuyist
- Educational StatisticUploaded byRembran Estrada

- Anthology-Richard Clayderman 98 Collection-Sheet MusicUploaded byAyan Mitra
- Research and StatisticsUploaded bymiguelxerxes
- Statistics ModuleUploaded byMiguel Xerxes Villacrucis
- Sampling TechniqueUploaded bymiguelxerxes
- Brain BoosterUploaded byΘανάσης Δρούγας
- Great Book Of Math PuzzlesUploaded byrohitgargus4775
- J. Matthews - Violin Music of Beethoven.pdfUploaded byfaonfaon
- IMSLP57852-PMLP118758-opera_intermezziUploaded byjimomeara
- My Best Puzzles in Mathematics - Hubert PhillipsUploaded bysheetalparshad
- Gershwin - Three PreludesUploaded bydjwmasbad
- Correlation and Regression AnalysisUploaded bymiguelxerxes
- Choosing Statistical Procedures for Research ProblemsUploaded bymiguelxerxes
- Rachmaninoff Prelude in C-Sharp MinorUploaded byMatt Mueller

- Slides on Descriptive StatisticsUploaded byPranshu Batra
- TQM 1.4 - 2.1Uploaded byVi Le
- Outcomes After Treatment of High Energie Tibial Plafond FracturesUploaded byAmila Atic Jasarevic
- Week 7 L.S.Uploaded byWalid Aloula
- ASSIGNMENT_A132.docxUploaded byAwnieAzizan
- 3-3-PBUploaded byFitria Mardika
- Tarun Qt AssignmentUploaded byjyotirbkgmailcom
- Munazza & Danyal FYP (2)Uploaded byMehmood Hussain
- 3.Data Summarizing and Presentation.pdfUploaded byIoana Croitoriu
- An Overview of Sustainability Assessment MethodologiesUploaded byArun Nagarkatti
- 00007485_94744Uploaded byPorshothman Elenggoven
- Data Science Training on Statistical Techniques for AnalyticsUploaded byArun Kumar G
- MKT-301Uploaded byHaniya Khan
- 45741901 Project on Reliance Fresh HubliUploaded byPreetham Ks
- Overall Descriptive StatisticsUploaded byMind Cooler
- hw1_spring2016Uploaded byQu Xunjie
- Method for Constructuring Likert ScalesUploaded byDuc Nguyen
- Spss WorkbookUploaded byGigi
- Asahi India Glass Project by DEEPAK SINGH AaaUploaded byDeepak Singh
- Handbook v2Uploaded byadhissl
- Types of Data, Measurements Scale, Parametric vs Non Parametric SimplifiedUploaded byChalo Salsa
- Tutorial 1 (Week 2)Uploaded bysdfklmjsdlklskfjd
- SPSSUploaded byRyan Mills
- Descriptive Statistics 2015Uploaded byRae Ray
- Chapter 1 Concepts Guide QuestionsUploaded byssaride
- CH 4 quiz bank Testing and AssessmentUploaded byJB
- 9. Scales and Questionaire Design Oct 2018 v1Uploaded byAiman Omer
- Six Sigma Exam PreparationUploaded byMujtaba Alnaeem
- VTU syllabus MBA 2014-2015Uploaded bysuhaspatel84
- CocoUploaded byazrarajan