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STATISTICS AND

MEASUREMENTS
OVERVIEW: NATURE OF DATA
STATISTICS
SPECIFIC NUMBERS: numerical
measurement determined by a set
of data
METHOD OF ANALYSIS: a collection
of methods for planning
(quantitative research), obtaining
data, and then then organizing,
summarizing, presenting, analyzing,
interpreting, and drawing
conclusions based on the data
STATISTICS
Specific number - numerical
measurement determined by a set of
data
Example: Seventy-seven percent (77%)
f people surveyed believed that learning
statistics is easy and fun.
The new Miss Universe has the following
vital statistics: 34-24-34.
STATISTICS
Method of analysis : a collection of methods for
(1) planning experiments,
(2) obtaining data, and then
(3) organizing,
(4) summarizing,
(5) presenting,
(6) analyzing,
(7) interpreting, and
(8) drawing conclusions based on the data
STATISTICS
(Collection,
Organization, Summary,
Presentation, Analysis
and
Interpretation of Data)
DESCRIPTIVE
-deals with processing data without attempting to draw
any inferences/conclusions from them.
-It refers to the representation of data in the form of
tables, graphs and to the description of some
characteristics of the data, such as averages and
deviations.
INFERENTIAL
-is a scientific discipline concerned with developing
and using mathematical tools to make
estimates/projections and inferences/conclusions.
THE NATURE OF DATA
(LEVELS OF)MEASUREMENT
DEFINITIONS
DATA
QUALITATIVE
(CATEGORICAL)
OR
(ATTRIBUTE)
consist of attributes, labels,
or non-numerical entries
QUANTITATIVE
(NUMERICAL)
consist of numerical
measurements or counts
Classifying Data by Type
The suggested retail prices of several Ford vehicles are shown in the
table. Which data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data?
Model Suggested Retail
Price
Focus Sedan
Fusion
Mustang
Edge
Flex
Escape Hybrid
Expedition
F-450
\$15,995
\$19,270
\$20,995
\$26,920
\$28,495
\$32,260
\$35,085
\$44,145
Classifying Data by Type
The information shown in the table can be separated into two data sets.
One data set contains the names of vehicle models, and the other contains
the suggested retail prices of vehicle models.
Model Suggested
Retail Price
Focus Sedan
Fusion
Mustang
Edge
Flex
Escape Hybrid
Expedition
F-450
\$15,995
\$19,270
\$20,995
\$26,920
\$28,495
\$32,260
\$35,085
\$44,145
The suggested
retail prices are
numerical entries,
so these are
quantitative data.
The names are
non-numerical
entries, so
these are
qualitative
data.
Classifying Data by Type
The populations of several regions in Thailand are shown in the table. Which
data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data? (Source:
http://www.citypopulation.de/Thailand-Cities.html) Identify the two data sets.
Decide whether each data set consists of numerical or non-numerical entries.
Specify the qualitative data and the quantitative data.
Name Population (2010)
Bangkok (and Vicinities)
Eastern
Northeastern
Northern
Southern
Sub-central
Western
14,565,546
5,163,868
18,808,012
11,432,488
8,841,364
3,109,531
3,558,644
Levels of Measurements
Another common way of classifying data is to use
four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal,
interval, and ratio.
In applying statistics to real problems, the level of
measurement of the data is an important factor in
determining which procedure to use.
Never do computations and never use statistical
methods with data that are NOT appropriate.
TYPES OF DATA
Qualitative
Categorical or Attribute data
can be separated into different categories that are
distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic
NOMINAL
ORDINAL
Quantitative
Consist of numbers representing counts
or measurements
INTERVAL
RATIO
DEFINITIONS
Data at the nominal level of measurement are qualitative
only which are categorized using names, labels, or
qualities.
The data cannot be arranged in an ordering or ranking
scheme (like low to high).
No mathematical computations can be made at this level.
Example: Gender: male or female (2 levels)
Survey responses: yes, no, undecided (3 levels)
Marital Status: Single, Married, Divorced (3 levels)
Type of Residence: Owned, Rented, Living with Relatives
DEFINITIONS
Data at the ordinal level of measurement are mostly
qualitative.
Data at this level can be arranged in order or ranked, but
differences between data entries are not meaningful.
Examples: Course grades A, B, C, D, F (5 levels)
Survey Responses: Always, Oftentimes, Sometimes, Seldom,
or Never (5 levels)
Year Level: Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior (4Levels)
Educational Attainment: Elementary, High School, College
(3 levels)
The two highest levels of measurement
consist of quantitative data only.
Data at the interval level of measurement can
be ordered, and meaningful differences
between data entries can be calculated.
At the interval level, division between data
entries can be calculated but has no important
meaning.
At the interval level, a zero entry simply
represents a position on a scale; the entry is
not a natural or inherent zero.
interval level of measurement
Calendar Years: 1850, 1998, 1776, and 2014
1. Category: [19
th
, 20
th
, 18
th
, 21
st
Centuries]
2. Rank/Order: [1776, 1850, 1998, 2014]
3. Difference between two values can be
calculated: 1998 2014 = 16
(year 1998 is 16 years earlier than year 2014)
2014 1850 = 164
(year 2014 is 164 years later than year 1850)
interval level of measurement
Number Grades: 75, 88, 94, 90, 85
1. Category: (75-80), (81-85), (86-90), (9195)
2. Rank/Order: 75, 85, 88, 90, 94
3. Difference between two values can be
calculated: 85 88 = 3
(85 as a grade is 3 points lower than 88 as a grade)
94 90 = 4
(95 as a grade is 4 points higher than 90 as a grade)
Interval Data
Example: IQ score
1. Category
2. Rank
3. Difference between 2
values can be calculated
4. No inherent zero (Zero
is not a starting point)
Data at the ratio level of measurement are
similar to data at the interval level, with the
added property that a zero entry is an
inherent or natural zero.
A ratio of two data values can be formed
(division between two data entries) so that
one data value can be meaningfully expressed
as a multiple of another.
DEFINITIONS: Ratio
Example: Prices of college textbooks in US dollars: \$25, \$150, \$200
1. Category: (\$1 - \$99), (\$100 - \$199), (\$200 - \$299)
2. Rank/Order: \$25, \$150, \$200
3. Difference between two values:
\$25 \$150 = - \$125 (a \$25 book is \$125 cheaper than a \$150 book)
\$200 \$150 = \$50 (a \$200 book is \$50 more expensive than a \$150
book)
4. Inherent Zero (Zero as starting point)
\$150 \$25 = 6
A \$150 book is 6 times more expensive than a \$25 book or
A \$25 book is 6 times cheaper than a \$150 book
DEFINITIONS: Ratio
Example: Examination Scores (100 points): 70, 88, 45, 55, 72
1. Category: (0 25), (26 50), (51 75), (76 100)
2. Rank/Order: 45, 55, 70, 72, 88
3. Difference between two values
70 45 = 25
(A score of 70 is 25 points more than a score of 45)
55 88 = 33
(A score of 55 is 33 points lower than a score of 88)
4. Inherent Zero (Zero as starting point)
88 45 = 1.96
A score of 88 is about 1.96 times higher than a score of 45 or
A score of 45 is about 1.96 times lower than a score of 88
The following tables summarize which operations are
meaningful at each of the four levels of measurement.
When identifying a data sets level of measurement, use
the highest level that applies.
Level of
Measurement
Put data in
Categories
Arrange
data in
order
Subtract
data values
Inherent/
Natural Zero
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval
Ratio
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
YES
DEFINITIONS
Population (N): the complete
collection of all elements (scores,
people, measurements, and so on)
to be studied. The collection is
complete that it includes all
subjects to be studied.
Population
Study Unit
Target Population
The whole group of study units which we are
interested in applying our inferences or
conclusions
Study Population (Sample)
The group of study units to which we can
legitimately apply our inferences or
conclusions
DEFINITIONS
DEFINITIONS
The whole pizza
represents a
POPULATION.
The slice of a
pizza represents a
SAMPLE (Study
Population)
DEFINITIONS
The whole pizza
represents a
POPULATION.
The slice of a
pizza represents a
SAMPLE (Study
Population)
DEFINITIONS
Example: A fisheries researcher is interested
in the behaviour pattern of a crab along the
coast of the Gulf of Siam. It would be
impossible to investigate every crab
individually. The only way to make any kind of
educated guess about their behaviour would
be by examining a small sub-collection, that
is, a sample.
DEFINITIONS
Example: Suppose a machine has produced
10,000 electric bulbs and we are interested in
getting some idea about how long the bulbs will
last. It would not be practical to test all the bulbs
so just select randomly 50 of these bulbs to test.
The 10,000 bulbs constitute the population and
the 50 bulbs a sample.
END OF SESSION