R e ne w able and Sustainable Energy Re v ie w s 3 1 (2 0 1 4) 7 4 6 – 7 6 1

Contents lists available at Siene!iret
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
"ournal #o$e%age& www'else v i er'o$(l o a te(rser
) new generation o* s$all #ydro and %u$%ed+#ydro %ower %lants&
)dvanes and *uture #allenges
,' )rdi--on. ,' Cava--ini
n
. ,' /avesi
!e%art$ent o* 0ndustrial Engineering – 1niversity o* /adova. 0taly
a r t i l e i n * o
)rtile #istory&
Reeived 13 )ugust 2013
Reeived in revised *or$
10 !ee$ber 2013
)e%ted 12 !ee$ber 2013
)vailable online 22 3anuary 2014
4eywords&
5ydro%ower
/u$%ed+#ydro energy storage %lant
S$all #ydro %ower %lant
C6!
7ariable+s%eed %u$%+turbine
8%ti$al $anage$ent strategies
a b s t r a t
5ydro%ower is not only a renewable and sustainable energy soure. but its 9e:ibility and storage
a%aity also $a;es it %ossible to i$%rove grid stability and to su%%ort t#e de%loy$ent o* ot#er
inter$ittent renewable energy soures su# as wind and solar %ower' )s a result. a renewed interest in
%u$%ed+#ydro energy storage %lants (/5ES) and a #uge de$and *or t#e re#abilitation o* old s$all
#ydro%ower %lants are e$erging globally'
)s regards /5ES. advanes in turbine design are re<uired to inrease %lant %er*or$ane and
9e:ibility and new strategies *or o%ti$i-ing storage a%aity and *or $a:i$i-ing %lant
%ro=tability in t#e deregulated energy $ar;et #ave to be develo%ed'
!uring t#e u%grading o* old s$all #ydro%ower %lants. t#e $ain #allenges to be *aed are t#e
design o* new runners. t#at #ad to $at# t#e e:isting stationary %arts. and t#e develo%$ent o*
o%ti$al si-ing and $anage$ent strategies to inrease t#eir eono$i a%%eal'
>#is %a%er traes an overview o* t#e %ros%ets o* %u$%ed+#ydro energy storage %lants and s$all
#ydro %ower %lants in t#e lig#t o* sustainable develo%$ent' )dvanes and *uture #allenges in bot#
turbine design and %lant %lanning and $anage$ent are %ro%osed' /5ES and #ybrid wind(solar+/5ES are
illustrated and disussed. as well as t#e li$its and %euliarities o* t#e new design strategies. based on
o$%utational 9uid dyna$is. *or bot# /5ES and s$all #ydro%ower %lants'
? 2014 Elsevier @td' )ll rig#ts reserved'
Contents
1' 0ntrodution ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 746
2' /u$%ed #ydro energy storage %lants (/5ES) ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 74A
2'1' 7ariable+s%eed te#nology ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 74A
2'2' 8%ti$al o%erating strategies *or %u$%ed #ydro energy storage %lants ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B1
3' S$all #ydro %ower ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B3
3'1' 8%ti$al si-ing ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B4
3'2' 8%ti$al o%eration strategy *or s$all #ydro %ower ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7BB
4' C6! as a tool *or i$%roving #ydrauli turbine and %u$%+turbine %er*or$ane ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B6
4'1' 0nter*ae $odel between rotating and stationary o$%onents ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B7
4'2' /elton C6! ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B7
4'3' C6!+based runner design a%%roa#es *or t#e re#abilitation o* old s$all #ydro %ower %lants ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7B2
B' Conlusions ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7BA
Re*erenes ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 7BA
1' 0ntrodution
n
Corres%onding aut#or' >el'& C 3A 04A 2276200D *a:& C 3A 04A 227672B'
E+$ail addresses& guido'ardi--onEuni%d'it (,' )rdi--on).
gio v anna' av a--iniEuni%d'it (,' Cava--ini). giorgio'% a vesiEuni%d'it (,' /avesi)'
0n t#e last deades. world eletrial energy onsu$%tion #as
signi=antly inreased wit# a s#are t#at #as rea#ed 17'7F in
2010 and is %redited to double by 202B G1H'
>#e inreasing onern about environ$ental as%ets #as
*avored a orres%onding ra%id growt# o* t#e de%loy$ent o* t#e
1364+0321(I + see *ront $atter ? 2014 Elsevier @td' )ll rig#ts
reserved' #t t % &((d:'doi'org(10'1016("'rser'2013'12'043
,' )rdi--on et al' ( Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 746–
761
23B
23B
renewable energy soures ai$ed at t#e %rogressive redution o*
*ossil *uel e:%loitation and de%endene' 0n su# a onte:t #ydro+
%ower is undoubtedly one o* t#e $ost $ature te#nologies wit#
an eletriity %rodution o* about 3B00 >J# in 2010 (16'3F o* t#e
world
0
s eletriity). greater t#an t#at o* t#e ot#er renewable
soures o$bined (3'6F). but $u# s$aller t#an t#at o* t#e *ossil
*uel %lants (67'2F) G2H (6ig' 1)'
0n t#e E1+27 t#e #ydro%ower generation was 323 >J# in 2010
(A'2F o* t#e Euro%ean eletriity) and around 60F o* eletriity
generation *ro$ renewable soures G3H'
Even t#oug# today #ydro%ower %lays a ;ey role in t#e green
energy %rodution. avoiding t#e o$bustion o* 4'4 $illion barrels
o* oil e<uivalent daily. only 33F o* %otential #ydro resoures #as
been develo%ed and t#e re$aining te#nial %otential is esti$ated
6ig' 1' Jorld eletriity generation by *uel'
6ig' 2' Jorld #ydro%ower te#nial %otential G2H'
to be very #ig# (14.B76 >J#(year) G2H (6ig' 2)' >#e #ig#est
%erentage o* undevelo%ed %otential is loated in )*ria (A2F).
*ollowed by )sia (20F). 8eania (20F) and @atin )$eria (74F).
even t#oug# t#is region is also #arateri-ed by two o* t#e to% ten
#ydro%ower %roduers in 2010 (>able 1) and by several ountries
wit# a very large s#are o* eletriity generation obtained by
#ydro%ower (>able 2) G2H'
Kesides t#e %ositive e**ets on li$ate $itigation. #ydro%ower
also %resents ot#er onsiderable advantages& it %ro$otes %rie
stability beause. unli;e *uel and natural gas. it is not sub"et to
$ar;et 9utuationsD it redues environ$ent vulnerability to
9oodsD it ontributes to *res# water storage *or drin;ing and
irrigation e:%loitationsD it $a;es a signi=ant ontribution to
develo%$ent by bringing eletriity. roads. industry and o$+
$ere to o$$unities w#i# an bene=t *uture generations as
#ydro%ower %ro"ets are long+ter$ invest$ents wit# an average
li*e s%an o* B0–100 years'
!es%ites nu$erous e:a$%les o* e:ellent. sustainable and sa*e
e:%loitation o* t#e water resoures by #ydro%ower. large #ydro
%ro"ets. w#i# inlude a da$ and a reservoir. enountered a
substantial o%%osition in t#e latter end o* t#e last entury beause
o* t#eir environ$ental and soial i$%liations (landsa%e. wildli*e.
biodiversity. %o%ulation settle$ent. #ealt# and water <uality. et')'
>#is o%%osition was one o* t#e $ain *ators o* t#e slowdown in
t#e #ydroeletriity generation between t#e late 1AA0s and t#e
early 2000s G2.3H'
5owever. eli$inating large #ydro%ower %ro"ets *ro$ renew+
able energy %rogra$s will not redue t#e %ower de$and. w#i#
will be %artially satis=ed by t#er$al %lants. t#ereby inreasing t#e
global level o* green#ouse gas e$issions' 6or instane. it was
de$onstrated t#at two %u$%ed+#ydro energy storage units o$+
bined wit# a t#er$al generation unit $a;e it %ossible to redue
t#e e:ess e$issions o* t#e t#er$al unit by 60F G4H'
0n su# a onte:t. a renewed interest in large %u$%ed+#ydro
energy storage %lants and a #uge de$and *or t#e re#abilitation
and re%owering o* old s$all and $iro+#ydro %lants are globally
e$erging bot# due to *urt#er inreases in t#e orres%onding
s#are o* renewable eletriity %rodution and due to t#e
su%%ort. in ter$s o* storage a%aity. o* a wider e:%loitation o*
ot#er renew+ able energy soures su# as wind and solar %ower'
>able 1
>o% ten #ydro%ower %roduers in 2010
G2H'
Country 5ydro eletriy G>J#H S#are o* eletriity generation
GFH C#ina 6A4 14'2
Kra-il 403 20'2
Canada 376 62'0
1nited States 322 7'6
Russia 16B 1B'7
0ndia 132 13'1
Lorway 122 AB'3
3a%an 2B 7'2
7ene-uela 24 62'0
Sweden 67 42'2
Even t#oug# t#ese renewable energy soures #ave largely
inreased in t#e last years. rea#ing in 2010 a s#are o* 3'6F o*
t#e world eletriity generation G1H. t#is s#are would need to be
greatly inreased in order to signi=antly ontribute to t#e redu+
tion o* green#ouse gas e$issions (,5,)' >#e Euro%ean 1nion
%oliy #as $ade great e**orts towards develo%ing t#ese resoures
in res%onse to environ$ental onerns. but t#eir un%reditable
and inter$ittent #arateristis #ave restrained t#eir de%loy$ent
beause o* t#e negative i$%at on %ower syste$ seurity. stability.
reliability and e*=ieny GB–2H'
)t %resent. t#e eletriity grid is #ig#ly entrali-ed wit# a
o$%le: syste$ o* energy %rodution+trans$ission #arateri-ed
by a long distane between %ower %lants and end+users and by a
li$ited use o* storage. w#ose installed a%aity was about
127'A ,J in 2010 (2'BF o* t#e world installed a%aity) GAH' >o
ensure t#e seurity o* t#e %ower syste$. a ontinuous balane
between de$and and su%%ly s#ould be guaranteed and t#is
atually li$its %enetration in t#e grid o* inter$ittent renewable
energy soures. w#ose energy %rodution is 9utuating. un%re+
ditable and deloali-ed' 6or e:a$%le. as regards t#e %otential
wind energy %enetration in t#e eletriity grid. an instantaneous
inrease u% to 20F o* t#e total energy %rodution was esti$ated to
be *easible wit#out te#nial #it#es *or t#e grid stability G10H'
5owever. *urt#er inreases in wind energy generation (u% to 20F)
are *easible only in isolated grids (s$aller t#an 10 MJ). w#ereas
greater eletrial grids re<uire energy storage to ae%t a wind
energy %enetration greater t#an 20F G11H'
>#e develo%$ent o* a signi=ant energy storage a%aity is.
t#ere*ore. a neessary solution to *avour t#e de%loy$ent o* t#e
renewable energy soures not only in isolated grids. but also in
interonneted grid syste$s. as de$onstrated by several analyses
arried out on a national sale G12–17H'
6or t#is reason. t#e Euro%ean 1nion is arrying out a Cli$ate
and Energy %oliy. de=ned in t#e Strategi Euro%ean >e#nology
/lan (SE>+/lan) G3H. one goal o* w#i# is to study $ore in de%t# t#e
bene=ts o* storage a%%liations' 0n su# a onte:t. several studies
GA.12–23H #ave been arried out to analyse t#e urrent status o*
t#e wide range o* available te#nologies ($e#anial.
eletro$agneti. #e$ial. t#er$al) in ter$s o* te#nology
$aturity. e*=ieny. energy storage a%aity. %ower dis#arged
a%aity. a%%liation si-e. ost o* invest$ent. li*e ti$e and
environ$ental i$%at'
)ll t#ese analyses identi*y /u$%ed 5ydro Energy Storage
(/5ES) as being t#e $ost ost+e*=ient large+sale storage
te#nology urrently available. wit# an e*=ieny range o* 7B–2BF
and o$%e+ titive osts (1B00–4300 I(;J. 2B0–430 I(;J#) G23H' 0n
Euro%e. t#is te#nology re%resents AAF o* t#e on+grid eletriity
storage GAH wit# $ore t#an 7400 MJ o* new /5ES %lants
%ro%osed and a total invest$ent ost o* over N 6 billion G24H' 0n
s%ite o* t#is boost %rovided by t#e inreasing need *or storage
a%aity. one o* t#e $a"or li$its *or t#e *urt#er develo%$ent o*
/5ES is t#e la; o* suitable loations *or t#e onstrution o* new
*ailities G1A.2B–27H' >o overo$e t#is %roble$. a %rogra$. able
to identi*y areas t#at ould be <uite easily $odi=ed in order to
onstrut t#e reservoirs o* t#e /5ES. was develo%ed G22H and
t#e %ossibility o* e:avating underground reser+ voirs was
onsidered G2A.30H' 5owever. in t#e long+ter$ %ers%etive
>able 2
Countries wit# $ore t#an a #al* o* t#eir eletriity generation *ro$ #ydro%ower in 2010 G2H'
S#are o* #ydro%ower Countries 5ydro%ower ,eneration
100F )lbania. !R o* Congo. Mo-a$bi<ue. Le%al. /araguay. >a"i;istan. Oa$bia B4 >J#
4 A0F Lorway 126 >J#
4 20F Kra-il. Et#io%ia. ,eorgia. 4yrgy-stan. La$ibia 403 >J#
4 70F )ngola. Colu$bia. Costa Ria. ,#ana. Myan$ar. 7ene-uela 77 >J#
4 60F )ustria. Ca$eroon. Canada. Congo. 0eland. @atvia. /eru. >an-ania. >ogo 3B1 >J#
4 B0F Croatia. Euador. ,abon. !/R o* 4orea. Lew Oealand. Swit-erland. 1ruguay. Oi$babwe 36 >J#
to *ul=l t#e inreasing storage a%aity need. besides t#e
installation o* new /5ES sites. it would be neessary to ada%t and
e:%loit t#e e:isting #ydro%ower %lants. as was a#ieved in
6rane during t#e
1A70s and 1A20s to su%%ort t#e nulear %ower reators G22H or as
reently %ro%osed in ,reee to su%%ort RES %enetration G12H' >o
rea# t#is ai$. t#e e:isting #ydro%ower and /5ES %lants s#ould
not only $odi*y t#eir o%eration strategies in order to $a:i$i-e
t#e revenue *ro$ t#e day+a#ead $ar;et and *ro$ t#e regulation
servies. but also o%ti$i-e turbine %er*or$ane by $eans o*
innovative design riteria so as to inrease t#e orres%onding
storage e*=ieny and to a#ieve t#e re<uired greater 9e:ibility'
>#e resulting storage a%aity will also *avour a di**erent
eono$ial a%%roa# to invest$ent in RES %rodu+ tion based not
only on t#e inentive $e#anis$s. but also on t#e te#no+
eono$i o%ti$i-ation o* t#e %lant o%eration' >#is would be ai$ed
at $a:i$i-ing returns by storing t#e a$ount o* green
%rodution during t#e low de$and %eriods and selling it to t#e
syste$ during t#e %ea; de$and %eriods. t#ereby %roviding t#e
re<uired grid stability by $eans o* a *ast res%onse ti$e'
)s regards s$all #ydro%ower %lants (S5/). t#e $ain barriers
to t#e develo%$ent o* new %lants are re%resented by t#e
environ+ $ental re<uire$ents. in %artiular t#ose de=ned by t#e
Environ+ $ental 0$%at )ssess$ents (E0)) and by t#e Jater
6ra$ewor; !iretive (J6!)' >#ese re<uire$ents. generally
e:tre$ely restri+ tive. do not %ro%erly onsider t#e bene=ts o*
t#e S5/ renewable energy %rodution and lead to a
li$itation o* t#e #ours o* %rodution and to an inrease o*
t#e invest$ent osts' So. to sa*eguard t#e %ro=tability o* t#e
S5/ %lants and to obtain a *urt#er inrease o* t#e green energy
%rodution. t#e $ost ost+e**etive solutions are re%resented on
t#e te#nial side by an inrease o* t#e %lant e*=ieny by runner
u%grade. and on t#e eono$ial side by an o%ti$al si-ing o* t#e
%lant ao$%anied by t#e de=nition o* o%ti$al $anage$ent
strategies'
>#e %a%er is strutured as *ollows& Setion 2 *ouses on
/u$%ed 5ydro Energy Storage /lants' 6ollowing a brie* introdu+
tion to te#nology advanes and #allenges. t#e latest trends in
t#e de=nition o* o%ti$al o%erating strategies are reviewed&
standard on=gurations as well as innovative #ybrid wind+solar(
%u$%ed #ydro on=gurations are onsidered' Setion 3 deals wit#
s$all #ydro %ower %lants and. a*ter an overview o* t#e $ain
#arateristis o* #ydrauli turbines. reviews advanes and trends
in o%ti$al si-ing and $anage$ent o* t#ese ty%e o* %lants' Setion
4 *ouses on t#e develo%$ent o* t#e o$%utational 9uid+
dyna$is *or turbo$a#inery design and in %artiular on its ;ey
role as an innovative and e**etive design tool in t#e
re#abilitation o* s$all #ydroeletri %lants and in t#e
develo%$ent o* t#e new generation o* %u$%ed+#ydro energy
storage %lants'
2' /u$%ed #ydro energy storage %lants (/5ES)
) #ydro %u$%ed energy storage %lant onverts grid+
interonneted eletriity to #ydrauli %otential energy (so+alled
P#argingQ). by %u$%ing t#e water *ro$ a lower reservoir to an
u%%er one during t#e o**+%ea; %eriods. and t#en onverting it ba;
during t#e %ea; %eriods (Pdis#argingQ) by e:%loiting t#e available
#ydrauli %otential energy between t#e reservoirs li;e a onven+
tional #ydro%ower %lant'
/u$%ed energy storage %lants are generally subdivided in
Plosed+loo%Q (or Po**+strea$Q) %lants. w#en t#e dis#arging %#ase
relies entirely on t#e water %reviously %u$%ed to t#e u%%er
reservoir. and in P%u$%+ba;Q ones. w#en t#e dis#arging %#ase
relies on a o$bination o* %u$%ed water and natural in9ow
(6ig' 3)'
>#ese %lants re<uire very s%ei= site onditions to be *easible
and viable. a$ong w#i# %ro%er ground on*or$ation. di**ere+
ne in elevation between t#e reservoirs and water availability'
6ig' 3' Closed+loo% (a) and %u$%+ba; (b) %u$%ed energy storage %lants'
6or t#ese reasons. t#e earliest /5ES %lants were built in t#e
)l%ine regions o* Swit-erland and )ustria w#ose ground
on*or$ation toget#er wit# t#e %resene o* #ydro resoures
was suitable *or /5ES'
>#e =rst /5ES %lants. owned by state utilities. were built to
su%%ly energy during t#e %ea; %eriods. allowing t#e base+load
%ower %lants to o%erate at #ig# e*=ieny. and to %rovide balan+
ing. *re<ueny stability and bla; starts' >#e %eriod *ro$ t#e
1A60s to t#e late 1A20s was #arateri-ed by a signi=ant
develo%$ent o* t#ese %lants $ainly due to t#e orres%onding
de%loy$ent o* nulear %ower %lants w#ose great inertia was
o$%ensated by t#e /5ES 9e:ibility G24H' 0n t#e 1AA0s t#e
redued growt# o* t#e nulear %lants toget#er wit# t#e
inreasing di*=ult identi=ation o* suitable loations signi=antly
li$ited t#e *urt#er develo%$ent o* new /5ES %lants' 6or t#is
reason. in 2006 t#e average %erentage o* /5ES installed
a%aity was only about 6F o* t#e *ull generation installed
a%aity in t#e $a"ority o* t#e world ountries wit# t#e
e:e%tion o* @u:e$burg (67F) G24H' >#is %erentage was greater
t#an 10F only *or t#ose ountries #ar+ ateri-ed by a
signi=ant availability o* #ydro soures (Croatia) or by a
signi=ant %erentage o* installed nulear %ower a%aity
(@atvia. 3a%an and t#e Slova; Re%ubli)' 1S) and 3a%an still
$aintained t#e world #ig#est installed /5ES a%aity wit#
2021B MJ and 24B7B MJ res%etively. w#ereas in t#e
Euro%ean onte:t t#e largest nu$ber (23) o* /5ES %lants are
onentrated in ,er$any G24H'
2'1' 7ariable+s%eed te#nology
0n reent years. a*ter t#e liberali-ation o* t#e $ar;et. t#e
inreasing interest in renewable energy soures #as again turned
%ubli attention towards t#e /5ES as a $ature and large sale
energy storage te#nology to su%%ort green energy %rodution
and to %rovide grid stability' 0n su# a onte:t. several new
/5ES #ave been %lanned in Euro%e *or a total %ower a%aity
o* 7426 MJ G31H and so$e o* t#e$ will ado%t t#e variable+
s%eed reversible %u$%+turbines brea;t#roug# te#nology. w#ose
%euliarity is to i$%rove t#e %u$%+turbine e*=ieny over a wider
range o* o%erating onditions and to i$%rove t#e a%ability in
grid regulation o* t#e /5ES G32.33H'
1sually. %u$%+turbines are o%ti$i-ed *or a s%ei= s%eed.
dis#arge 9ow rate and #ead' )t t#is =:ed s%eed. only li$ited
deviations o* #ead and dis#arge are allowed sine. at o**+design
o%erating onditions. t#e %u$%+turbine e*=ieny signi=antly
dro%s' )ording to t#e si$ilarity t#eory. at di**erent rotation
veloities. t#e o%erating onditions #arateri-ed by t#e best
e*=ieny are di**erent' >#e basi idea underlying variable+s%eed
te#nology is to $aintain #ig# e*=ieny values in t#e w#ole
wor;ing range o* t#e turbine by $odi*ying t#e rotation veloity o*
t#e $a#ine in order to re$ain near t#e best e*=ieny line.
t#ereby $aintaining o%ti$al or near+to o%ti$al e*=ieny values
in a wide range o* #ead and 9ow rates'
6ig' 4 re%orts a o$%arison o* o%erating ranges in ter$s o* #ead
and dis#arge variation between a =:ed and a variable+s%eed
%u$%+turbine wit# re*erene to t#e %u$%ing $ode' 0t is lear t#at
t#e %ossibility o* varying t#e s%eed also signi=antly inreases t#e
o%erating range o* t#e $a#ine. w#i# was li$ited. on t#e one
#and. by avitation %roble$s (bro;en line on t#e rig#t) and on t#e
ot#er by an instability o%erating area (bro;en line on t#e le*t). a
ty%ial be#aviour o* t#e %u$%+turbine at %art load t#at s#ould be
avoided during t#e %lant o%eration sine it $ay lead to sel*+
e:ited vibrations o* t#e #ydrauli syste$'
6ro$ an eletrial %oint o* view. t#e %ossibility o* s%eed
variation is obtained by $eans o* a %ower onverter
e$%loying %ower eletroni to deou%le $otor(generator *ro$
t#e grid in ter$s o* reative %ower. voltage and *re<ueny. t#at
are %ro%erly set inde%en+ dently on t#e di**erent sides (%ower+grid
and $otor(generator)'
>#e orres%onding i$%rove$ents in t#e design riteria
de$anded by t#e variable+s%eed te#nology do not signi=antly
inrease t#e ost invest$ent o* t#e %ower unit o$%ared wit# a
onventional /5ES %lant G34H'
>wo o* t#e largest /5ES under onstrution in Euro%e t#at are
e<ui%%ed wit# t#is te#nology are Lant de !rane and @int#al.
loated in t#e sout# west and t#e nort# east o* Swit-erland
res%etively' 0n bot# t#ese %ower %lants t#e use o* t#e variable
s%eed te#nology was "usti=ed by t#e wide #ead variation& in t#e
%ower station o* Lant de !rane. e<ui%%ed wit# si: variable s%eed
units wit# a unit out%ut o* 1B7 MJ (rated s%eed R 422'6 r%$D
s%eed range R 7 7F). t#e gross #ead varies between 2B0 and
3A0 $D in t#e %ower station o* @int#al. e<ui%%ed wit# *our variable
s%eed units wit# a unit out%ut o* 2B0 MJ (rated s%eed R B00
r%$D s%eed range R 7 6F). t#e gross #ead varies between B60
and
724 $ (>able 3)' >able 4 re%orts t#e %ro"et *eatures o* anot#er
i$%ortant installation. t#at is t#e /5ES o* ,oldist#al. in ,er$any.
e<ui%%ed wit# two =:ed units and two variable+s%eed units'
0t is interesting to #ig#lig#t t#at in t#ese %lants t#e design
%riority was given to 9e:ibility in %u$%ing $ode. $a:i$i-ing
t#e %u$% o%erating range. w#ereas in ot#er ases. su# as t#e
/5ES o* >e#ri under+onstrution in 0ndia (*our variable+s%eed
units o* 2BB MJD rated s%eed R 230'77 r%$D s%eed range R 7
6F) t#e #ydrauli design was o%ti$i-ed to inrease t#e global
%lant e*=ieny (>able 3)' >#ese di**erent design strategies.
ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing t#e %lant revenue. are due to t#e di**erent
eletriity $ar;et regulations and in %artiular to t#e
e:istene (or not) o* a re$unerative regulation $ar;et. t#at
ould signi=antly a**eted t#e de=nition o* t#e %lant
$anage$ent strategies (Setion 2'2)'
6ig' 4' Co$%arison o* o%erating do$ains between =:ed (a) and variable+s%eed (b) %u$%+turbines (%u$%ing $ode)'
,' )rdi--on et al' ( Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 746–
761
23A
R
>able 3
/ro"et *eatures o* t#e /5ES o* Lant+de+!rane and @int#al'
/ro"et *eatures Lant de !rane 201A @int#al 201B >e#ri 2016
Rotational syn#ronous s%eed 422'6 Gr%$H B00'0 Gr%$H 230'77 Gr%$H
S%eed range 7 7F 7 6F 7 6F
5ead variation 2B0(3A0 G$H B60(724 G$H 230(740 G$H
Lo$inal out%ut %er unit
Ma:i$u$ %u$% dis#arge %er unit
Ma:i$u$ turbine dis#arge %er unit
1B7 GMJH
B6 G$
3
(sH
60 G$
3
(sH
2B0 GMJH 2BB GMJH
,enerator $ode 17B GM7)H 220 GM7)H 272 GM7)H
Motor $ode 172 GMJH 2B0 GMJH
Runner dia$eter 6'00A G$H 4'230 G$H
>able 4
/ro"et *eatures o* t#e /5ES o* ,oldist#al'
/ro"et *eatures ,oldist#al
Rotational syn#ronous s%eed 333 Gr%$H
S%eed range (2 units) C 4F( 10F
5ead variation 27A'2(334'0 G$H
Lo$inal %u$% dis#arge %er unit 20 G$
3
(sH
Lo$inal turbine dis#arge %er unit 103 G$
3
(sH
Lo$inal out%ut %er unit 26B GMJH
Runner dia$eter 4'BA3 G$H
Even i* t#ese %lants re%resent t#e starting %oint o* a new
generation o* /5ES. t#e %ossibility in ter$s o* s%eed variation is
li$ited to about 7 10F due to t#e la; o* *ull variable+s%eed
design
value de%ending on t#e %lant onversion e*=ieny (t#e so+alled
Pround+tri% e*=ienyQ). t#at was assu$ed to be at around 67F by
@u et al' G32H and around 7BF by Castronuovo et al' G3AH'
)s *or t#e anillary $ar;ets. t#e %artii%ation o* t#e /5ES is
de=ned on an #ourly basis and is re$unerated by an #ourly
anillary servie %rie to w#i# an #ourly s%ot %rie is added i*
t#e %lant is alled to generate eletriity G32.40H'
>#e resulting %ro=t o* a /5ES %lant o%erating bot# in t#e day+
a#ead $ar;et and in t#e regulation $ar;et is t#ere*ore re%re+
sented by
R R R
generation
C R
regulation
C
%u$%ing
C
8? M
S1T
w#ere R is t#e %lant %ro=t. R
generation
is t#e energy revenue
reeived *ro$ t#e day+a#ead $ar;et. R
regulation
is t#e regulation
revenue reeived *ro$ t#e anillary $ar;ets. C
%u$%ing
are t#e
riteria. allowing t#e %u$%+turbine to o%erate at a #ig# e*=ieny
%u$%ing osts and C
8? M
are t#e o%eration and $aintenane osts'
in a wide range o* rotation veloities. and to t#e la; o* a *ull
%ower onverter te#nology. enabling a *ull+range variable
s%eed turbining and %u$%ing (>ables 3 and 4)'
0n a deregulated $ar;et wit# %ries varying on a #ourly basis. t#e
%ro=t R
G0.>H
o* a /5ES %lant o%erating over a %eriod o* > #ours
de%ends on t#e #ourly %ries /
gen
(N(MJ#) reeived *or generat+
)s regards t#e %ower onverter te#nology. signi=ant
ing E
gen
(MJ#). on t#e #ourly s%inning reserve %ries /
rs
(N(MJ#)
advanes #ave been $ade in reent years. as *or e:a$%le t#e
100 M7) variable s%eed *re<ueny onverter %rovided by )KK *or
t#e /5ES o* ,ri$sel 2 (Swit-erland). enabling a wider variable
s%eed %u$%ing ( 7 12F) but not turbining' 5owever. to
inrease t#e voltage range and to redue ost. si-e and losses
still re$ain t#e $ain #allenges to *ae in order to develo% a 7
100F %ower
reeived *or generating E
rs
(MJ#) in t#e regulation $ar;et. on t#e
#ourly non+syn#ronous reserve %ries /
rn
(N(MJ#) reeived *or
staying o**+line wit#out %roduing E
rn
(MJ#). on t#e #ourly
%ur#asing %ries /
%u$%
(N(MJ#) %aid *or %u$%ing and on t#e
o%eration and $aintenane osts. assu$ed to be onstant
onverter'
)s regards t#e $e#anial e<ui%$ent. Co$%utational 6luid
!yna$is (C6!) #as allowed signi=ant advanes to t#e under+
standing o* t#e reasons o* t#e unstable be#aviour o* t#e %u$%+
U0D>
t
g
R V E
i R 1
t
%
gen/
gen
trs
SiTC V E
rs
" R 1
/
rs
trn
S"TC V E
rn
; R 1
/
rn
S;T
turbines G3B–37H t#at %revent /5ES *ro$ o%erating at low load
and see$s to be assoiated to t#e develo%$ent o* 9uid+dyna$ial
%#eno$ena due to t#e rotor–stator interation (see Setion 4'1)'
5owever. innovative design riteria allowing eletriity %rodution
in t#e w#ole o%erating range (0–100F o* t#e %ea; %ower) still
#ave to be develo%ed and ertainly re%resents t#e *uture
#allenge *or t#e develo%$ent o* a new generation o* %u$%+
turbine'
2'2' 8%ti$al o%erating strategies *or %u$%ed #ydro energy storage
%lants
0n a liberali-ed eletriity $ar;et. %u$%ed #ydro energy
storage re%resents a $er#ant unit w#ose revenue derives not
only *ro$ t#e eletriity trading in t#e day+a#ead $ar;et. but
also *ro$ regulation servies selling in t#e anillary reserve
$ar;ets'
)s regards eletriity trading. t#e %ro=t o* t#e /5ES is stritly
onneted wit# selling #ydro%ower+generated eletriity at a
#ig# $ar;et learing %rie (M/C) in t#e generation $ode and
wit# %ur#asing it at a low M/C in t#e %u$%ing $ode' 5owever.
sine t#e onversion %roess (eletriity–$e#anial energy–
eletriity) is unavoidably #arateri-ed by energy losses. to
$a;e revenue. t#e %ur#asing %rie s#ould be lower t#an t#e
selling %rie o* a
240 ,' )rdi--on et al' ( Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 746–
761
V E
%u$%
/
%u$%
SlT C
8? M
S2T
l R 1
w#ere t
g
. t
rs
. t
rn
and t
%
are t#e nu$ber o* #ours s%ent by t#e %lant
in generating $ode. in s%inning regulation $ode. in non+
syn#ronous regulation $ode and in %u$%ing $ode res%etively'
Sine t#e %rie volatility o* t#e eletriity $ar;et does not
neessarily *ollow t#e load trend. %ro%er o%eration strategies *or
$a:i$i-ing t#e %lant revenue s#ould be de=ned'
0n su# a onte:t. several studies #ave been arried out to
de=ne t#e o%ti$al bidding strategy *or individual /5ES wit#
re*erene to di**erent ti$e #ori-ons (daily. wee;ly or $ont#ly)'
)ll t#ese algorit#$s were based on an ob"etive *untion to be
$a:i$i-ed. ta;ing into aount so$e te#nial onstraints'
0n 2004. @u et al' G32H *oused t#eir attention on an individual
/5ES wit# a storage a%aity o* $ore t#an 10 # and develo%ed a
$ulti+stage o%ti$i-ation algorit#$ based on a wee;ly #ori-on.
onsidered to be a %ro%er %eriod *or t#e o%ti$al use o* t#e water
storage a%aity' >#eir algorit#$ $a:i$i-es t#e %ro=t o* t#e %lant
by onsidering t#e revenue deriving by bot# t#e day+a#ead
$ar;et and t#e anillary servies $ar;et' )ording to t#eir $odel.
t#e day+ a#ead $ar;et %rie is *oreasted on an #ourly basis in a
wee;ly ti$e %eriod. w#ereas t#e anillary $ar;et %ries (/
rs
and
/
rn
) are su%%osed
R
R

gen

gen

gen
C E


%u$%

%u$%
C E
to be onstant
tg
R R V E / SiTC E / t C E / t
t%
V E / SlT C S2T U0D>
i R 1
gen gen rs rs rs rn rn rn
l R 1
%u$% %u$% 8? M
0n t#e o%ti$i-ation algorit#$. t#e wee;ly *oreasted day+
a#ead $ar;et urve (6ig' Ba) is sorted by asending %ries (6ig'
Bb) and t#e %ro=t o* t#e /5ES %lant is o%ti$i-ed by %rogressively
inreasing t#e %u$%ing ti$e t
%
and #e;ing *or t#e $a:i$u$
%ro=t (E<' (2))'
>#e te#nial onstraint re%resented by t#e $a:i$u$ storable
energy due to t#e u%%er reservoir di$ensions (E
$a:
) is not
onsidered in t#e o%ti$i-ation algorit#$. but it is a%%lied as a
orretive riterion o* t#e o%ti$al solution' 0n t#e li$ited ti$e
intervals o* t#e o%ti$al solution in w#i# t#e onstrain is
violated. t#e unonstrained o%ti$i-ation algorit#$ is %er*or$ed
again until no violations are identi=able in t#e wee;ly ti$e
%eriod (6ig' 6)'
0n 200A. 4a-e$%our et al' G20H %ro%osed a wee;ly+based
o%ti$i-ation algorit#$ still ai$ed at t#e $a:i$i-ation o* t#e
%lant %ro=t' >#is algorit#$ onsiders t#e wee;ly *oreast not only
o* t#e daily+a#ead $ar;et but also o* t#e anillary $ar;ets and
in %artiular o* t#e s%inning and regulation $ar;ets on an
#ourly+ based %rie variation (E<' (2))'
0n 2011. Connolly et al' G40H li$ited t#eir analysis to t#e
day+ a#ead $ar;et and o$%ared di**erent o%eration strategies
ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing t#e %lant revenue deriving *ro$ t#e
eletriity trading in one year o* %lant o%eration (> R 2760 #)
6ig' 6' Su$$ari-ing s#e$e o* t#e o%ti$i-ation strategy %ro%osed by @u et al' G32H'
>#ey de$onstrated t#at in t#e #y%ot#esis o* an aurate %redi+
tion o* t#e day+a#ead #ourly %ries. an o%erating strategy ai$ed
at
=ient
U0D>
t
g
R V E
i R 1
gen/
gen
t
%
SiT V E
l R 1
%u$%/
%u$%
SlT C
8? M
S3T
$a:i$i-ing t#e revenue only o* t#e ne:t+day an be $ore e*
t#an an o%eration strategy ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing t#e revenue o*
t#e entire year'
)lgorit#$s were also %ro%osed to de=ne o%ti$al o%eration
strategies o* o$bined #ybrid wind(%#otovoltai #ydro energy
storage %lants' 0n 2004. Castronuovo et al' G3AH develo%ed an
o%ti$i-ation a%%roa# by $eans o* a %ri$al+dual interior %oint
algorit#$ ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing t#e %lant %ro=t R
G0.>H
on a 2+day
#ori-on %eriod (> R 42 #)
U0D>
t
g
R V E
i R 1
gen/
gen
t
%
SiT V E
l R 1
%u$%/
%u$%
SlT C
stWE
a%
C
E
WE
0
S4T
w#ere C
st
and C
E
are %ro%erly de=ned %enalties *or inreases in
storage a%aity WE
a%
and in t#e initial energy level WE
0
o* t#e
u%%er reservoir'
0n t#is ase. t#e %lant %rodution E
gen
is t#e su$ o* t#e energy
%rodued by t#e #ydro generatorE
#ydro

and o* t#e a$ount o*
energy %rodued by t#e wind generator and delivered to t#e
networ; E
wind

E
gen
R E
wind

#ydro

gen
SBT
w#ereas E
%u$%
is t#e energy %ur#ased *ro$ t#e networ; *or
%u$%ing water t#at. added to t#e %ossible sur%lus o* wind
generation not delivered to t#e networ; E
wind

. de=nes t#e
global a$ount o* energy stored
E
storage
R E
wind

%u$%
S6T
6ig' B' Conveniene li$its *or t#e o%erating $odes o* a /5ES in t#e day+a#ead
$ar;et& (a) wee;ly day+a#ead $ar;et urveD (b) wee;ly day+a#ead $ar;et urve
sorted by asending %ries'
)s regards t#e reservoir a%aity. t#e $odel $a;es it %ossible to
evaluate t#e $ini$u$ a$ount o* inre$ental storage a%aity to
*ollow a s%ei=ed %ower de$and urve and t#ereby also o%ti$i-e
t#e storage si-e' )s regards te#nial onstraints. a $a:i$u$
allowed wind %ower e:#ange wit# t#e syste$ was =:ed to
guarantee t#e grid stability' Even t#oug# t#e strategy de=nition
only onsiders t#e day+a#ead $ar;et. t#e o$bined o%ti$i-ation
o* strategy and storage si-ing $ade it %ossible to gain not only in
%lant %ro=t. but also in wind energy %rodution' >#e i$%ortane o*
an o%ti$al si-ing o* a o$bined wind+#ydro storage %lant was
studied in de%t# by 4#atibi and 3a-aeri G41H. t#at %resented
di**erent o%ti$i-ation te#ni<ues (single or $ulti+ob"etive
o%ti$i-ations. %ara$etri studies. sensitivity studies) ai$ed at
$a:i$i-ing t#e wind energy %enetration by o%ti$al %lant design'
>#e %ossibility o* inreasing t#e wind energy %enetration
t#roug# t#e o%ti$al o$bination wit# /5ES was also de$on+
strated by !ursun et al' G42H and by Kueno and Carta G43H t#at
develo%ed a te#no+eono$ial $ulti+stage algorit#$' 8n t#e
basis o* te#nial and eono$i databases o* t#e o$$erial %lant
o$%onents. t#is algorit#$ de=nes an o%ti$u$+si-ed syste$
ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing t#e e:%loitation o* t#e wind energy soure
wit#out %enali-ing t#e grid stability' >#e $odel onsiders not
only invest$ent. o%erating and $aintenane osts. but also t#ose
osts assoiated wit# environ$ental da$age aused by energy
%rodution'
0n 2012. !ing et al' G44H %resented a sto#asti o%ti$i-ation o*
t#e daily o%eration strategy o* a #ybrid wind+#ydro energy %lant
ai$ed at $a:i$i-ing %lant revenue' >o onsider t#e in9uene o*
*oreast unertainties o* t#e ne:t+day wind %ower out%ut on t#e
o%ti$i-ation. t#e $odel was based on #ane onstraints and
senario analyses' Start+u% and s#utdown osts o* t#e /5S/ units
as well as %enalties *or out%ut deviation were onsidered'
Mu# $ore o$%le: algorit#$s #ave been reently %ro%osed
to *or$ulate an e*=ient $anage$ent o%ti$i-ation %roedure o*
large+sale #ydro%ower syste$s. ai$ed at inreasing t#e e:%loita+
tion o* t#e inter$ittent renewable soures and at su%%orting and
inreasing t#e %ower grid stability' 5owever. t#e o%eration o*
t#ese syste$s re%resents a $i:ed. non+linear and non+onve:
%rogra$$ing %roble$ and. u% till now. o%ti$al solutions #ave
only been *ound by a%%ro:i$ation o* t#e original %roble$'
!i**erent $et#ods were ado%ted& dyna$i %rogra$$ing $odels
G4BH. non+linear %rogra$$ing $odels G46H. geneti algorit#$s
G47H. si$ulated annealing G42H. ant olony algorit#$s G4AH. $ulti+
stage o$bined $odels GB0H. and %artile swar$ o%ti$i-ation
$odels GB1–BBH'
>#ese algorit#$s. in o$%arison wit# t#e above $entioned
si$%li=ed ones. #ave ertainly inreased t#e %ossibility o* on+
sidering a o$%le: $odel by inreasing t#e nu$ber o* variables to
o%ti$i-e' 5owever. t#e de=nition o* a $odel %ro%erly onsidering
t#e te#no+eono$ial interation between t#e eletriity $ar;et
and t#e o%erating %lant a%ability still re$ains a ;ey+#allenge not
only *or wor;ing %lants in ter$s o* revenue $a:i$i-ation but also
*or %lanned %lants sine it allows to evaluate t#e invest$ent
%ro=tability on one side. and to de=ne t#e $ost %ro%er design
strategy on t#e basis o* t#e eletriity $ar;et in w#i# t#e %lant
will be re<uired to o%erate on t#e ot#er side (as seen in Setion
2'1)' 6or e:a$%le. as regards t#e eletriity $ar;et. to onsider
only t#e day+a#ead $ar;et or a si$%li=ed $odel o* t#e anillary
$ar;ets ould negatively a**et t#e evaluation o* t#e invest$ent
%ro=tability o* a /5ES sine in t#e ne:t 10 years t#e *oreasted
s%read between t#e $a:i$u$ and $ini$u$ eletriity %rie in
t#e day+a#ead $ar;et will be signi=antly redued due to t#e
9attening o* daily %ower load urve' )s a onse<uene o* t#e
9attening o* t#e eletriity %rie urve. in a long+ter$ view t#e
revenue *or a /5ES will $ainly derive *ro$ t#e anillary servies
and t#e orret evaluation o* t#e %lant %ro=tability annot leave
t#ese revenues out o* onsideration or si$%li*y t#eir deter$ina+
tion' )not#er i$%ortant as%et. *re<uently negleted in t#e $od+
els. is t#e in9uene o* t#e *oreasts unertainties o* t#e
eletriity $ar;ets and o* t#e wind(/7 %ower out%ut on t#e
analysis results'
>o orretly evaluate t#e a%ability o* a /5ES o* interating
wit# t#e eletriity $ar;ets. t#e eono$ial $odel o* t#e $ar;ets
s#ould be %ro%erly o$bined wit# an o%erational $odel o* t#e
%lant t#at onsiders t#e real grid+onnetion a%ability o* t#e
%lant by ta;ing into aount #ead and 9ow rate o%erating range.
variable+s%eed e**ets on t#e o%erating range. %u$%+turbine
stability li$its. storage a%aity. losses. res%onse ti$es *or load
variation in generation and %u$%ing $ode. res%onse ti$es *or
variation o* t#e wor;ing $ode (%u$%ing to %rodution and
%rodution to %u$%ing) and dyna$ial as%ets'
1% till now. none o* t#e studies %ro%osed in literature #ave
onsidered in details all t#e above $entioned eono$ial and
te#nial as%ets and #ene t#e a$bitious goal o* a realisti
si$ulation o* t#e interation between t#e /5ES and t#e eletriity
$ar;et still re$ains a #allenge due to t#e o$%le:ity o* syste$
to $odel and due to t#e signi=ant o$%uting osts'
3' S$all #ydro %ower
5ydro%ower on a s$all sale #as not an international agreed
de=nition and its u%%er li$it an vary between 2'B and 30 MJ.
even t#oug# t#e $ost widely ae%ted value is 10 MJ'
Keing a$ong t#e energy storage te#nologies urrently avail+
able on a s$all sale. it is reogni-ed as one o* t#e $ost ost+
e**etive beause o* its %reditable energy #arateristis. its long
ter$ reliability and its redued environ$ental e**ets GB6.B7H'
1nli;e large sale #ydro%ower. w#ose develo%$ent is assoiated
wit# t#e building o* large da$s. s$all #ydro %ower %lants is
generally Prun+o*+riverQ. wit# a weir rossing t#e river and little or
no water stored'
@i;e %u$%ed+#ydro energy storage %lants. s$all #ydro+%ower
%lants re<uire s%ei= #arateristis o* t#e installation sites to be
*easible. su# as a natural #ead and t#e %ossibility o* water %ower
#arnessing GB2H' !e%ending on site #arateristis. su# as avail+
able #ead and 9ow rate. and on t#e seleted running s%eed o* t#e
generator. di**erent turbine ty%es wit# di**erent o%erating range
and %er*or$ane #arateristis are available and an be divided
into i$%ulse and reation turbines'
0n i$%ulse turbines t#e water re$ains at at$os%#eri %ressure
and t#e energy e:#ange is only based on t#e ;ineti energy
variation. w#ereas reation turbines are #arateri-ed by a runner
*ully i$$ersed in water' Sine reation turbines e:%loit t#e
available #ead in ter$s o* bot# %ressure and ;ineti energy
variation. a dra*t tube is %laed downstrea$ t#e runner not only
to dis#arge t#e 9uid but also to inrease t#e energy e:#ange
owing to a *urt#er %ressure redution indued at t#e runner outlet'
0$%ulse turbines an be divided in /elton. >urgo and ross+9ow
turbines' >#e $ost i$%ortant i$%ulse turbine is undoubtedly t#e
/elton turbine. %atented in 1220 by @ester )llen /elton' 0t is
o$%osed by one or $ore %ensto;s. e<ui%%ed wit# %ro%er
no--les. and by a w#eel. w#ose blades are s%lit bu;ets %ro%erly
distributed around its %eri%#ery (6ig' 7a)' >#e water "et. o$ing
out *ro$ ea# no--le and direted tangentially at t#e w#eel.
#eats t#e bu;ets and is s%lit in #al*. be*ore being de9eted ba;
al$ost
1201' >#e onse<uent $o$ent o* $o$entu$ variation deter$ines
t#e turbine energy e:#ange'
>urgo turbines are si$ilar to /elton turbines. but are #arater+
i-ed by a di**erent blade s#a%e and by a di**erent relative
dis%ositions between runner and %ensto;s (6ig' 7b)' >#e "et
stri;es t#e %lane o* t#e runner at an angle o* about 201 so t#at
t#e water enters t#e runner *ro$ one side and o$es out *ro$ t#e
ot#er. eli$inating t#e interation #a-ard between 9ows dis+
#arged by di**erent bu;ets. a ris; t#at ould a**et t#e /elton
o%erating range instead. t#us li$iting t#e $a:i$u$ 9ow rate'
Cross+9ow turbines are si$%ler and #ea%er t#an t#e ot#er
i$%ulse turbines and were %atented a*ter so$e evolutions in 1A33
by )'S' Mit#ell and 6' 8ssberger (6ig' 7)' >#e "et water enters on
one side o* a dru$+li;e runner and leaves it on t#e o%%osite side
a*ter a double %assage t#roug# t#e runner blades'
Reation turbines an be divided in 6ranis and a:ial turbines'
6ranis turbines. %atented by 3a$es Ki;ens 6ranis at t#e end o*
t#e nineteent# entury. are $i:ed+9ow reation turbines o$+
%osed by s%iral ase. distributor. runner and dra*t tube (6ig' 7d)'
6ig' 7' S#e$e o* di**erent ty%es o* #ydrauli turbines& (a) single+"et /elton turbineD (b) >urgo turbineD () ross+9ow turbineD (d) 6ranis turbineD and (e) 4a%lan turbine'
>#e s%iral ase reeives t#e 9ow and distributes it %eri%#erally to
t#e distributor. re%resented by $obile guide vanes w#ose ai$ is to
ontrol t#e 9ow rate entering into t#e runner and to de=ne t#e
9ow angle at t#e runner inlet'
>#e a:ial 9ow reation turbines inlude 4a%lan and %ro%eller
turbines and are generally o$%osed by guide vanes. a runner and
a dra*t tube' 8ne it entered t#e turbine. t#e water reeived a
swirl o$%onent by t#e guide vanes. t#at is al$ost o$%letely
absorbed by t#e runner. t#us deter$ining t#e energy e:#ange'
>#e water is o*ten direted in t#e dra*t tube wit# a little
residual angular $o$entu$ to %revent boundary layer
deta#$ents' /ro%eller turbines are o*ten #arateri-ed by
ad"ustable guide vanes to vary t#e 9ow rate. w#ereas in 4a%lan
turbines even t#e runner blade an be ad"usted (6ig' 7e)' Even i*
t#e $e#anis$s *or ad"usting runner and guide vanes inrease
t#e $a#ine ost. t#ey bring about a signi=ant i$%rove$ent
o* t#e e*=ieny at %art load. as an be seen in 6ig' 2'
>#e o$%arison in ter$s o* e*=ieny and o%erating range
between turbines #ig#lig#ts t#at /elton. 4a%lan and ross+9ow
turbines retain #ig# e*=ieny values even at %art loadsD instead.
<ui; 6ranis turbines and =:ed %it# %ro%eller turbines are
#arateri-ed by a ra%id e*=ieny *all below B0F and 20F o* t#e
design 9ow rate res%etively'
3'1' 8%ti$al si-ing
6ig' 2' >urbine e*=ieny #arateristis'
>#e a%aity si-ing o* a s$all #ydro%ower %lant is stritly
onneted wit# 9ow availability and is based on t#e analysis o*
t#e 9ow duration urve (6ig' A)' >#e 9ow duration urve is a
u$u+ lative distribution o* t#e strea$ 9ow rate o* a site on an
annual basis and s#ows t#e %erentage o* ti$e t#at t#e site
water 9ow e<uals or e:eeds a s%ei= value'
>#e available 9ow rate range o* t#e site is inluded between
t#e $a:i$u$ 9ow rate 9owing *or at least 1 day %er year (X
$a:
)
and t#e $ini$u$ 9ow rate 9owing into t#e site (X
$in
)
Sine $ost o* t#e rare #ig#+#ead installation sites #ave
been
already e:%loited. t#e great %otential o* s$all #ydro %ower
is
X
$in
o X o
X
$a:
S7T
re%resented by low+#ead sites. w#ose eono$ial attrativeness
is stritly onneted wit# an o%ti$al design o* t#e eletro+
$e#anial e<ui%$ent. $ainly re%resented by turbine and
generator'
>#is 9ow rate annot be *ully e:%loited. sine it is establis#ed by
law t#at a reserved 9ow (R6). a sort o* environ$ental 9ow. s#ould
be released downstrea$ to ;ee% t#e eosyste$ in t#e onditions
$in
$a:
$in
$a:
T
2g
6ig' A' E:a$%le o* 9ow duration urve'
t#at %revaled be*ore t#e %ower %lant onstrution' >#ere*ore. t#e
9ow rate range e**etively e:%loitable is obtained *ro$ t#e 9ow
duration urve a*ter t#e R6 subtration'
) *urt#er li$it on t#e 9ow rate e:%loitation is re%resented by
t#e turbine #osen sine ea# turbine o%erates wit# ae%table
annual energy %rodution and river water e:%loitation' Liadas
and Ment-elo%oulos G62H *oused t#eir attention on t#e in9uene
o* t#e 9ow duration urve on %lant a%aity si-ing and %resented
a $et#odology *or its %robabilisti treat$ent' >#e in9uene o* t#e
9ow duration urve on %lant si-ing was also #ig#lig#ted by /eYa et
al' G63H w#o develo%ed a %roedure *or esti$ating t#e water 9ow o*
a site on t#e basis o* ti$e series *oreasting $et#ods' !i**erent
te#ni<ues ai$ed at en#aning t#e available #istorial data were
veri=ed and t#e obtained 9ow duration urve was e:%loited *or
deter$ining t#e turbine design 9ow rate on t#e basis o* a =:ed
a%aity *ator' ) di**erent a%%roa# was %ro%osed by Korges and
/into in 2002 G64H. w#o %resented a sto#asti $et#od *or
analysing t#e in9uene o* river in9ow variations and generator
unit availability on t#e %ower %lant availability' >#eir analysis.
starting *ro$ ;nown %lant #arater+ istis (#istorial river 9ow
data. #eig#t. turbine ty%e. turbine #ar+ ateristis. generator
#arateristis). $a;es it %ossible to deter$ine t#e e:%eted value
o* t#e annual %ower %lant generation. t#e 9ow duration urve and
several reliability indies' /ossible generation unit *ailures are also
onsidered in order to de=ne also t#e ris; level assoiated wit#
t#e e:%eted energy %rodution' 0n 2002. Ko;$an et al' G6BH
o$bined t#e o%ti$al si-ing o* a s$all #ydro%ower %lant wit# an
analysis o* t#e in9uene o* t#e unertain eletriity %ries on t#e
%lant revenues and develo%ed a real o%tions+based $odel to =nd
t#e eletriity %rie li$it *or a %ro=table invest$ent'
e*=ieny between a $ini$u$ 9ow rate X
n
and a $a:i$u$ 0n 2011. Santolin et al' G66H onsidered t#e i$%ortane o*
9ow rate X
n
(6ig' A)' >#ere*ore. *or 9ow rates s$aller t#an X
n
signi=ant te#nial as%ets. su# as turbine ty%e. avitation
t#e %lant s#ould be sto%%ed. releasing all t#e available 9ow rates.
be#aviour and turbine di$ensions. in deter$ining t#e a%aity
w#ereas *or 9ow rates greater t#en X
n
t#e %lant is not be able to installation si-e and %ro%osed a $et#od based on te#nial and
e:%loit t#e e:eeding water <uantity released downstrea$
wit#+ out being e:%loited' !e%ending on t#e turbine. t#e
energy %ro+ dution over a ti$e %eriod > an be deter$ined as
eono$i as%ets' Seven design %ara$eters were onsidered& t#e
turbine ty%e. t#e $ain turbine di$ensions. t#e $a:i$u$ installa+
tion #eig#t to avoid avitation ine%tion. t#e annual energy
%rodution. t#e installation osts. t#e Let /resent 7alue (L/7)
O
>
E R /StTdt R
0
O
>
ZgX StT#StT[
#yd
StT[
$e#
[
el
dt
S2T
0
and t#e 0nternal Rate o* Return (0RR) as eono$i indies' Starting
*ro$ t#e 9ow duration urve. t#e %roedure #ig#lig#ted t#e
w#ere /(t) is t#e %ower obtained by t#e turbine. Z is t#e water i$%ortane o* a si$ultaneous analysis o* all t#ese as%ets to a
=nition o* t#e design o%erating onditions ai$ed at
density. X(t) is t#e 9ow rate. #(t) is t#e net #ead. [
#yd
is t#e
#ydrauli e*=ieny (6ig' 2). [
$e#
and [
el
are res%etively t#e
%ro%er de
guaranteeing not only %lant %ro=tability. but also its *easibility'
$e#anial and t#e eletrial e*=ienies' >#e net (also alled
Pe**etiveQ or PavailableQ) #ead #(t) is obtained by t#e gross #ead
#
g
(i'e' t#e di**erene between t#e level o* t#e u%%er reservoir and
t#e level o* t#e tailwater) a*ter subtration o* t#e #ydrauli losses
!ue to t#e last advanes in #ydro te#nology. one i$%ortant
as%et to onsider in t#e analysis o* t#e o%ti$al design in s$all
#ydro a%%liations s#ould be t#e use o* t#e variable s%eed
te#nology in installation sites #arateri-ed by signi=ant #ead
9ow rate variations' >#e %ossible a%%liation o* t#is
#
r
(t) in t#e %i%eline onneting t#e reservoir wit# t#e turbine
and o* t#e ;ineti energy dis#arged by t#e turbine wit#out
being e:%loited
v
2
t
\

and(or
te#nology ould signi=antly inrease t#e %lant %ro=tability by
inreasing t#e #ours o* %rodution. and its i$%le$entation in t#e
o%ti$i-ation algorit#$ will ertainly re%resent a signi=ant
advane in t#e o%ti$al si-ing o* a s$all #ydro %ower %lant'
#StT R #
g
#
r
StTC
outlet
S
SAT
Moreover. sine t#e unertainties in t#e 9ow duration urve and
in t#e *oreast eletriity %ries ould a**et t#e analysis results. a
w#ere v
outlet
is t#e water veloity at t#e dra*t tube outlet'
)ording to E<' (A). t#e dra*t tube is an integral %art o* t#e
turbine'
Several studies *oused t#eir attention on t#e design o* a
s$all #ydro %ower %lant as its *eatures %layed a ;ey role in t#e
de=nition o* t#e %lant %ro=tability' 5osseini et al' GBAH
deter$ined t#e o%ti$al installation a%aity o* a %lant as a
o$%ro$ise between te#nial. eono$i and reliability indies'
5owever. t#e algorit#$ did not enter into t#e details o* t#e
eletro+$e#anial design'
) non+linear %rogra$$ing $et#od was ado%ted by )l$eida et
al' G60H w#o o%ti$i-ed t#e %ro"et on=guration o* a s$all+#ydro
%ower %lant by onsidering te#nial. #ydrologial. o%erational.
eono$i and =nanial as%ets' >#e $odel onsidered di**erent
%ossible #ydrologial and eletriity $ar;et senarios. t#at
signi=antly a**eted t#e o%ti$al %ro"et on=guration' 0n 2007.
)nagnosto%oulos and /a%antonis G61H arried out a $ulti+ob"etive
o%ti$i-ation study to deter$ine t#e best o$%ro$ise between t#e
eono$i bene=ts o* t#e invest$ent and t#e #ydrauli %otential
e:%loitation in ter$s o*
ris; analysis related to t#ese as%et ould re%resent a *uture
#allenge to add to standard o%ti$i-ation strategy'
3'2' 8%ti$al o%eration strategy *or s$all #ydro %ower
>#e #oie o* %ro%er design o%erating onditions is undoubt+
edly a *unda$ental goal *or $a:i$i-ing bot# invest$ent %ro=t+
ability and t#e e:%loitation o* t#e #ydrauli %otential o* water
resoures' 5owever. one t#e %lant goes into o%eration. to $ain+
tain t#e unit e*=ieny and to $a:i$i-e t#e %lant revenue.
t#e eletro+$e#anial o$%onent %er*or$ane s#ould be
%reserved and t#e o%erating strategy s#ould be o%ti$i-ed in
relation to in9ow variations and $ar;et 9utuations'
0n 2003. @iu et al' G67H develo%ed a $et#od o* $onitoring and
veri*ying t#e eono$i %er*or$ane o* an o%erating #ydro%ower
%lant by using new %er*or$ane indies based on t#e rea#able
e*=ieny and t#e o%erating e*=ieny assoiated wit# t#e $ain+
tenane level and wit# t#e o%eration $anage$ent level o* t#e
%lant res%etively' >#ese new one%ts %rovide deision $a;ing
su%%ort tools. bot# *or %lanning re*urbis#$ent and $aintenane
ativities and *or suggesting new o%eration strategies'
>o analyse t#e %lant %er*or$ane under s%ei=ed o%erating
onditions. ,arrido et al' G62H develo%ed a si$ulation tool based
on an ob"et oriented $odelling language. t#at allowed to $odel
di**erent on=gurations o* #ydro%ower stations wit# t#e %ossibi+
lity o* #oosing di**erent nu$bers o* turbines and s%illway gates'
>#e tool $ade it %ossible on=gure %lant %ara$eters and to
si$ulate t#e %lant be#aviour at di**erent o%erating onditions
and t#ereby obtain use*ul in*or$ation on t#e %lant be#aviour.
su# as reservoir level. water 9ows. turbine e*=ieny and so on'
5owever. si$ulation tools li;e t#ose %ro%osed by @iu et al' G67H are
#ig#ly user de%endent sine t#ey are based on t#e %lant %ara+
$eters $anually ad"usted by t#e o%erator and do not guarantee
t#e de=nition o* an o%ti$al o%erating strategy. su# as t#at
obtained by a%%lying a %ro%erly de=ned o%ti$i-ation %roedure'
6leten and 4risto**ersen G6AH develo%ed a $ulti+stage
$i:ed+ integer linear sto#asti %rogra$ to de=ne an o%ti$i-ed
s#ort+ter$ %rodution %lan o$%lying wit# t#e day+a#ead
o$$it$ents o* t#e %revious day' Starting *ro$ a %rodution
%lan s#eduled in ti$e by t#e results o* t#e day+a#ead aution.
t#e %roedure sets out to identi*y t#e e:%eted %rodution
between t#e various %arts o* t#e %lant in order to a#ieve
e**etive and e*=ient o%eration' >#e unertainties o* t#e day+
a#ead $ar;et %ries and o* t#e reservoir in9ows due to t#e
variable $ar;et onditions and to t#e un%redit+ able weat#er
situations are ta;en into onsideration in t#e %lanning by t#e
sto#asti %rogra$$ing *ra$ewor;' >#e %roedure was
originally %ro%osed *or s$all #ydro %ower %lants. but ould
be i$%le$ented in $ore o$%le: large #ydro%ower
syste$s t#an;s to t#e $i:ed+integer linear %rogra$$ing
a%%roa# t#at $a;es it %ossible to $odel start+u% osts and
disrete #ydro unit+ o$$it$ent onstraints'
) *urt#er i$%rove$ent in t#e de=nition o* an o%ti$i-ed s#ort+
ter$ %rodution %lan was %ro%osed by Catalao et al' G70H. w#ose
evaluation was based on a $i:ed+integer non+linear %rogra$$ing
a%%roa# onsidering t#e non+linear de%endene between %ower
generation. water dis#arge and #ead' Even t#oug# t#is a%%roa#
was s#own to inrease t#e o$%utational osts o* t#e analysis. it
was %ossible to de=ne #ydroeletri o%erating onditions wit#
greater auray and. in %artiular. to ta;e into aount t#e #ead
de%endeny o* a s#ort+ter$ %rodution %lan'
Even t#oug# t#ese algorit#$s re%resent a signi=ant advane
in t#e de=nition o* t#e o%ti$al $anage$ent strategies o* a s$all
#ydro %ower %lant. t#ey re<uire to be *urt#er i$%roved by t#e
i$%le$entation o* $odels onsidering series(%arallels o* large(
s$all #ydro %ower %lant in w#i# t#e $anage$ent strategy o*
one %lant is a**eted by t#e $anage$ent o* t#e ot#ers' )n
e:a$%le is re%resented by one o* t#e $ost interesting %ossible
a%%liation o* t#e variable+s%eed te#nology in t#e s$all #ydro
=eld. t#at is t#e e:%loitation o* t#e reserved 9ow o* a large #ydro
%ower %lant G71H' >#e $odelling o* t#e #ead de%endeny o*
t#e s$all #ydro %rodution %lan *ro$ t#e $anage$ent
strategy o* t#e large one (t#at ould be a /5ES) is undoubtedly
an e:tre$ely o$%le: ai$ and is one o* t#e $ost interesting
#allenge in t#is resear# =eld'
4' C6! as a tool *or i$%roving #ydrauli turbine and %u$%+
turbine %er*or$ane
>#e %euliarity o* Co$%utational 6luid !yna$is (C6!) is its
a%aity to alulate t#e 9ow =eld around an arbitrary obstale or
t#roug# a #annel o* an arbitrary s#a%e via t#e nu$erial solution
o* t#e e<uations t#at desribe t#e 9ow develo%$ent (Lavier–
Sto;es e<uations. energy e<uation. global and %artial ontinuity
e<uations. et')'
8ver t#e years. due to t#e li$its in alulation a%aity and
s%eed. not every ty%e o* 9ow =eld (unsteady. t#ree di$ensional.
o$%ressible. turbulent. reating. et') ould be alulated and t#e
governing e<uations were si$%li=ed in order to desribe wit#
$ore or less auray t#e 9ow =eld to be analysed'
>#e #istory o* o$%utational 9uid dyna$is started at t#e
beginning o* t#e last entury w#en t#e redued (=rst #u$an and
t#en nu$erial) o$%utation a%aity li$ited t#e analyses on
two+di$ensional 9ow =elds. w#ose governing e<uations were
si$%li=ed by t#e lineari-ed %otential e<uations solved by on+
*or$al $a%%ing or singularity $et#od G72.73H' 0t was only in t#e
1A70s t#at t#e =rst 3! $odels were nu$erially analysed by
a%%liation. in t#e 9uid+dyna$is =eld. o* t#e =nite di**erene
$et#od (6!M) and t#e =nite ele$ent $et#od (6EM). #istorially
originating *ro$ t#e =eld o* strutural $e#anis and aerody+
na$is G74.7BH' >#ese odes de$onstrated t#e %ossibility o*
nu$erially solving wit# good auray bot# 2! and 3! %otential
9ow %roble$s and t#e %ossibility o* analysing o$%le: geo$etries
t#an;s to t#e 6EM way o* $odelling by triangular and retangular
2+node %araboli ele$ents'
)s regards 6EM a%%liations in t#e turbo$a#inery =eld. 9uid+
dyna$ial analyses o* stationary and rotating rows were initially
arried out by $eans o* <uasi+3! a%%roa#es in w#i# t#e 9ow
was a%%ro:i$ately reonstruted by a o$bination o* t#e nu$er+
ial $eridional and blade+to+blade 9ow =elds G76.77H' 0n s%ite o*
t#e li$itations o* su# an a%%roa#. w#ose results were reason+
ably aurate only *or strongly aelerated 9ows and lose to t#e
best e*=ieny %oint. so$e use*ul in*or$ation ould be already
derived *or turbo$a#ine designers'
5owever. even t#oug# i$%rove$ents to t#e <uasi+3! invisid
a%%roa# were suessively obtained by adding 3!+boundary layer
alulations. t#e si$ulation o* t#e 9ow =elds in radial runners
was still not aurate enoug# sine t#e $a"ority o* t#e 3!+
e**ets develo%ing in t#e$ was driven by vortiity rat#er
t#an by visosity' 6or t#ese reasons. in t#e 1AA0s. t#e need to
orretly $odel t#e vortiity+driven seondary 9ows resolutely
addressed towards a *ully invisid 3! Euler ode. as t#e
o$%utational a%aity and t#e $et#od auray were not still
ri%e *or diretly ste%%ing into Lavier–Sto;es si$ulations G72H'
>#ese odes $ade it %ossible to analyse wit# a #ig# degree o*
auray t#e runner %er*or$ane at design and o**+design
o%erating onditions. as long as t#e real 9ow was not do$inated
by visous e**ets. and t#is a%ability $ade it %ossible to in*er
t#e real %ossibility o* trans+ *or$ing t#e nu$erial analysis *ro$
a resear# tool to a %ratial and e:tre$ely use*ul design tool'
5owever. in t#is %eriod t#e #ydrauli industry was *aing
i$%ortant #allenges due to t#e e$ergene o* a #uge de$and
*or re#abilitation and u%grading o* old #ydro%ower %lants'
Relying only on %revious e:%eriene by saling %revious
turbine designs was beo$ing a #a-ardous strategy owing to
t#e nu$erous onstrains i$%osed by t#e e:isting %lants and
t#e unertainties onneted to t#e attain$ent o* t#e inrease in
de$and o* %ower' 6urt#er$ore. resorting to $odel tests was
also too e:%ensive beause t#e ost o* a $ediu$ si-e runner
$odel was nearly t#e sa$e as t#e *ull+sale %rototy%e' So. to *ae
t#e inreased de$and *or very #ig#+%er*or$ane #ydro%ower
%lants. new C6!+based design a%%roa#es were %ro%osed. in
w#i# t#e new runners were su%%osed to be analysed and
o$%ared wit# t#e old ones by C6!. greatly li$iting t#e
su%%ort o* $odel tests' >#is revolutionary design strategy %ro+
$oted t#e introdution o* Lavier–Sto;es odes *or t#e o$%uta+
tion o* bot# turbulent and visous e**ets' 0n ontrast to Euler
e<uations. Lavier–Sto;es e<uations allowed t#e detetion o* t#e
boundary layer se%aration in all turbine o$%onents as well as t#e
loss analysis bot# at design and o**+design o%erating onditions'
Ky 2000. t#e solution o* t#e steady Reynolds averaged Lavier–
Sto;es (R)LS) e<uations. based on t#e =nite volu$e $odelling
$et#ods. was de$onstrated to be t#e only tool *or realistially
analysing t#e onset o* %u$%+turbine instabilities as well as o*
visosity+based seondary 9ows and #ene bea$e t#e state+o*+
art in t#e $a"or re*urbis#$ent %ro"ets G72H'
4'1' 0nter*ae $odel between rotating and stationary o$%onents
>#e o$%arison between nu$erial and e:%eri$ental results
are strongly in9uened by boundary onditions. w#i# are not at
all easy to set w#en di**erent o$%onents. rotating and stationary.
are 9uid+dyna$ially ou%led to ea# ot#er'
>est data o* a 6ranis turbine G7AH #ave de$onstrated t#at t#e
%ronouned low %ressure %ea; at runner inlet annot be revealed
by C6! analyses w#en. as in t#e ase o* boundary onditions at t#e
runner inlet. t#e e:%eri$ental inlet veloity %ro=les (iru$*er+
entially averaged) are ado%ted' 0nstead. a good ad#erene
between nu$erial and e:%eri$ental tests $ay be observed
w#en a sta;ing te#ni<ue between stationary u%strea$
guide vanes and t#e rotor is onsidered (6ig' 10) and nowadays
t#is te#ni<ue re%resents a well+onsolidated a%%roa# *or
nu$erial studies on avitating 9ows in 6ranis turbines G20H'
!uring t#e $id+20s t#e develo%$ent o* inter*ae $odels
between rotating and stationary do$ains $ade it %ossible to
a%%raise t#e interation between ad"aent turbo$a#inery o$+
%onents. o%ening t#e era o* C6! si$ulations o* entire turbines'
>#is interation was $odelled by $ore or less so%#istiated
$at#e$atial algorit#$s. w#ose o$$on %euliarity was to
redue t#e ti$e+de%endent interation between rotating and
stationary o$%onents to a steady+state %roble$' >#ese algo+
rit#$s $odelled in a di**erent way t#e trans%ortation o* t#e
stator(rotor blade wa;es aross t#e inter*ae. resulting in an
inter*ae re%resented by a iru$*erential $i:ing %lane or by a
loally non+uni*or$ 9ow =eld. de%ending on t#e algorit#$'
5owever. unli;e t#e transient inter*ae a%%roa#. blade wa;es
driven by t#e 9ow t#roug# a stator+rotor inter*ae ould not be
deteted ade<uately w#en a steady *ro-en+rotor inter*ae algo+
rit#$ was ado%ted. owing to t#e %ossible ourrene o* over+
esti$ations o* t#e wa;e disturbane e**ets G21H'
>#e ability and a%ability o* $odelling t#e 9ow t#roug# t#e
entire $a#ine in a single C6! si$ulation *urt#er boosted t#e use
o* t#e C6! analysis. *avouring its evolution *ro$ a design tool into
a #ig#+level analysis tool. as it is today. to be used in all stages o*
t#e re*urbis#$ent. *ro$ t#e *easibility study to t#e design and
o%ti$i-ation %#ase'
0n s%ite o* t#ese signi=ant advanes. t#e need o* investigating
t#e unstable be#aviour o* turbine and %u$%+turbine to enlarge
t#eir o%erating range will re<uire *urt#er i$%rove$ents in C6! in
order to $odel turbulent 9ow and %er*or$ane at a wider range
o* dis#arge rates $ore aurately and *aster'
4'2' /elton C6!
0n reent years. signi=ant develo%$ents in C6! testi=ed by t#e
aurate results o* t#e nu$erial analysis on 6ranis and 4a%lan
turbines. and %aved t#e way *or t#e e:%loitation o* C6! even to
t#e $ore o$%le: /elton turbines'
1nli;e t#e 6ranis and 4a%lan turbines. w#ose design
%roedures are well+onsolidated also t#an;s to C6!. /elton
turbines are still #arateri-ed by se$i+e$%irial design riteria
beause o* t#e di*=+ ulty in investigating (bot# e:%eri$entally
and nu$erially) t#e o$%le: 9uid+dyna$ial interation
between t#e water "et and t#e rotating bu;ets. w#i# greatly
a**ets turbine %er*or$ane'
Jit# t#e last i$%rove$ents in o$%utational auray and
e*=ieny. t#e e:%eri$ental investigations were suess*ully o$+
bined wit# nu$erial analyses to gain new insig#ts in su#
o$%le: %#eno$ena'
6ollowing so$e atte$%ts at studying a $oving /elton turbine
bu;et. it was only in 2006 t#at /errig et al' G22H sueeded in
%er*or$ing a nu$erial analysis o* t#e utting %roess o* a:ial+
sy$$etri "ets on t#e bu;et ut+out. w#ereas Santolin et al' G23H
analysed t#e e**ets o* a real "et on t#e utting %roess o* a
o$%lete single+in"etor and rotating /elton turbine. inluding
bot# t#e %ensto; and asing' 6ig' 11 G23H s#ows details o* t#e
o$%utational grid o* t#e nu$erially analysed single+"et /elton
turbine and o* t#e seondary 9ows develo%ing in t#e real "et
outside t#e gate. generated by t#e *ores indued by t#e %ensto;
and t#e gate itsel*' >#e onse<uent de*or$ed "et s#a%e was s#own
to $odi*y t#e "et–bu;et interation in o$%arison wit# an ideal
a:ial+sy$$etri "et. t#us ausing a low+e*=ient energy e:#ange
(#ydrauli e*=ieny redution o* about 2F)'
Even t#oug# t#is analysis was able to si$ulate an entire
wor;ing yle o* t#e bu;et wit# a good tor<ue %redition. t#e
Eulerian a%%roa#. on w#i# it was based. did not $a;e it %ossible
to analyse $ore in de%t# t#e o$%le: evolution o* t#e *ree+
sur*ae 9ow %attern and. t#ere*ore. a%%reiate t#e in9uene o* t#e
bu;et geo$etry on t#e turbine %er*or$ane' >o overo$e t#is
s#ort+ o$ing. nu$erial si$ulations based on *ully @agrangian
$es#less a%%roa#es were arried out and atte$%ts to si$ulate
t#e 9ow inside /elton bu;ets were also $ade by ado%ting t#e
S$oot#ed
6ig' 10' Co$%arison between nu$erial results obtained ado%ting a *ro-en rotor inter*ae $odel (a). a stage inter*ae $odel (b) and iru$*erentially averaged veloity
%ro=les ()'
6ig' 11' C6! analysis o* a single+"et /elton turbine G23H'
6ig' 12' Results o* t#e #ybrid Eulerian–@agrangian a%%roa#& ontributions o* t#e di**erent bu;et dis#arging areas to t#e total bu;et tor<ue G27H'
/artile 5ydrodyna$is (S/5) $et#od G24.2BH and t#e #ybrid
S/5–)@E $et#od G26H. based on t#e o$bination o* t#e S/5
$et#od and an )rbitrary @agrange Euler ()@E) one' 5owever. even
t#oug# t#ese $es#less a%%roa#es #ave s#own t#eir good a%+
ability *or %rediting o$%le: *ree sur*ae 9ow =elds. t#eir
auray still re$ains not satis*atory and *urt#er i$%rove$ents
are re<uired. as de$onstrated by t#e la; o* a%%liation e:a$%les'
)n alternative and aurate $et#od *or analysing t#e *ree
sur*ae 9ow in a /elton bu;et on t#e basis o* a o$bined
Eulerian–@agrangian a%%roa# was develo%ed by Rossetti et al'
G27H' ) traditional $es#+based Eulerian a%%roa# is ado%ted to
si$ulate t#e 9ow =eld in t#e runner bu;et in order to e:%loit
t#e a;nowledged auray and stability o* t#e $es#+based
$et#ods' Subse<uently. to overo$e t#e above $entioned
analysis li$its o* t#is $et#od. t#e nu$erial results were
%ro%erly %roessed on t#e basis o* a @agrangian a%%roa# to
deter$ine t#e %artile tra"e+ tories in t#e runner bu;et as
well as t#e variations o* all t#e energy <uantities along t#ese
tra"etories' >#is #ybrid Eulerian– @agrangian analysis $et#od
$ade it %ossible e:a$ine t#e devia+ tion a%ability o* t#e
di**erent bu;et areas and to deter$ine t#e in9uene o* t#e
bu;et geo$etry on turbine %er*or$ane during t#e "et–bu;et
interation (6ig' 12) and t#ereby suggest %ossible solutions *or
o%ti$i-ing bu;et design'
>#e signi=ant advanes o* t#e reent years in t#e analysis o*
t#e o$%le: *ree sur*ae 9ow o* /elton turbines #ave *avored t#e
develo%$ent o* innovative but undevelo%ed design %roedure
G71.27H' 5owever. to de=ne standardi-ed and onsolidated design
riteria. as t#ose develo%ed *or ot#er #ydrauli turbines. $ore
aurate and *aster analyses o* t#e o$%le: *ree sur*ae 9ow o*
/elton turbines are needed and a *urt#er develo%$ent o* t#e S/5
$et#od ertainly re%resents one o* t#e $ost interesting #allenge'
4'3' C6!+based runner design a%%roa#es *or t#e re#abilitation
o* old s$all #ydro %ower %lants
0n t#e %ast. t#e design o* new turbines was usually based on
%revious well %roven. tried and tested designs and(or %ro%er
$odel tests in order to guarantee #ig# e*=ieny %ower onver+
sion' 0n t#e last years. t#e restritive environ$ental re<uire$ents
#ave signi=antly li$ited t#e develo%$ent o* new %lants. wit# a
onse<uent #uge de$and *or t#e re#abilitation and re%owering o*
old s$all and $iro+#ydro %lants to satis*y t#e orres%onding
inrease in t#e de$and o* renewable eletriity %rodution'
5owever. in t#e re#abilitation and u%grading o* e:istent old
%lants. a new #allenge #ad to be *aed as t#e design o* new
runners #ad to $at# t#e already e:isting stationary %arts'
Keause o* t#e nu$erous onstrains i$%osed by t#e e:isting
o$%onents and t#e unertainties onneted to t#e attain$ent
o* t#e de$and in %ower inrease. t#e onsolidated. at t#e ti$e.
e:%eriene+based design $et#ods were abandoned and new C6!+
based design a%%roa#es started to develo%' >#ese a%%roa#es
swi*tly de$onstrated t#eir ability in analysing di**erent and also
o$%le: design on=gurations. $a;ing way *or signi=ant
i$%rove$ents in turbine design' 5owever. in s%ite o* t#e
%
C
10
S T
r
1
inreased understanding o* turbine inner 9uid+dyna$is. t#e la;
o* in*or$ation on #ow to $odi*y t#e runner blade *or i$%roving
turbine %er*or$ane *ored t#e designers towards ti$e+
onsu$ing trial and error a%%roa#es. w#ose o%erating =eld was
li$ited wit#in t#e bounds o* t#e %revious suess*ul design
solutions'
) signi=ant i$%rove$ent in t#e runner design was a#ieved
by t#e develo%$ent o* t#e 3! inverse design $et#ods. w#ose
$ain %euliarity is to use #ydrodyna$i %ara$eters. su# as t#e
blade loading G22H. to deter$ine t#e blade s#a%e'
Krie9y. t#e blade loading. seleted as t#e $ain design %ara+
$eter. is =:ed by i$%osing t#e distribution o* t#e derivative
](r7
u
)(]$ along t#e $ean $eridional blade setion. t#at ould be
assoiated to t#e %ressure di**erene aross t#e blade by t#e
*ollowing e:%ression&
B' Conlusions
8ne o* t#e $ain goal o* t#e Cli$ate and Energy /oliy o* t#e
Euro%ean 1nion is to a#ieve a 20F s#are o* renewable energies in
t#e overall E1 energy onsu$%tion by 2020. and t#e %ossibility o*
inreasing t#is s#are u% to 100F by 20B0 is under onsideration o*
t#e Euro%ean Renewable Energy Counil (EREC)'
0n su# a onte:t. #ydro%ower %lays a ;ey role not only as a
renewable and sustainable energy soure. w#ose %otential is
esti$ated to be still very large. but also as a large+sale energy
storage te#nology. o$$only reogni-ed as being one o* $ost
ost+e*=ient a$ong t#ose te#nologies urrently available' )s a
result. a renewed interest in %u$%ed #ydro energy storage %lants
and a #uge de$and *or t#e re#abilitation and re%owering o* old
$ini and $iro+#ydro %lants are e$erging globally'
)s regards %u$%ed #ydro energy storage %lants. t#e need *or
2^
% R Z
-
7
$
] S r7
u
T
]$
S T
integrating a signi=ant s#are o* inter$ittent renewable energy
w#ere %
C
and %

re%resent t#e stati %ressure on t#e blade
%ressure and sution side res%etively. - is t#e nu$ber o* blades. Z
is t#e density. 7
$
and 7
u
t#e %it#+wise averaged $eridional and
tangential veloity res%etively'
8ne 7
u
#as been evaluated by t#e *ollowing relation&
1
O
] S r7
u
T
soures in t#e grid #as turned t#e attention o* resear# towards
t#e develo%$ent o* /5ES %lants w#i# are as 9e:ible as %ossible
in order to %rovide *re<ueny regulation' >o ta;le t#is #allenge.
several studies #ave been arried out on innovative design solu+
tions and advanes in te#nology #ave been obtained wit# t#e
develo%$ent and a%%liation o* variable+s%eed %u$%+turbine
units. w#ose unstable be#aviours in bot# t#e o%erating $odes
are still under study' Moreover. as a onse<uene o* t#e new role
7
u
R
r
d$ 11
]$
o* /5ES in t#e grid. o%ti$al o%erating strategies. based on bot#
t#e average relative 9ow angle
_ tan
1
7
$
R
1 7
u
and t#e $ean+line blade angle
_ tan
1
7
$
b
R
1 7
u
S1
s
`1T1
S12T
S13T
si$%le algorit#$s and $ore o$%le: o%ti$i-ation t#eories. #ave
been develo%ed to $a:i$i-e t#e %lant %ro=tability in t#e deregu+
lated energy $ar;et'
>#e inreasing need *or a better and wider e:%loitation o* t#e
#ydro%ower soure #as also turned t#e attention o* t#e resear#
o$$unity towards t#e develo%$ent o* $ore or less o$%le:
algorit#$s *or an o%ti$al %reli$inary si-ing o* t#e %lant a%aity.
on t#e basis o* eono$i. te#nial or te#no+eono$i %ara+
$eters' Moreover. to inrease t#e eono$i a%%eal o* s$all+#ydro
an be deter$ined along t#e onsidered blade setion. w#ere 1
s
(1
is t#e di$ensionless sli% veloity *ator'
6inally. *or a given radial distane *ro$ t#e runner(rotor a:is.
t#e angular oordinate ϑ o* t#e blade is obtained by
O
r
d$
a R
r tan _
S14T
w#ere r
1
is t#e radial distane o* t#e leading edge'
Kesides t#e blade loading distribution at two or $ore s%anwise
setions. t#is $et#od re<uires in%ut design %ara$eters& $eridio+
nal #annel s#a%e. nu$ber o* blades. inlet 9ow onditions in
ter$s o* total %ressure and veloity o$%onents. inlet and e:it r7
u
distribution. sta;ing ondition (t#e blade leading edge is not
aligned along t#e a:ial diretion at t#e rotor inlet)' >#ese in%ut
%ara$eters %er*etly o$%ly wit# t#e design onstraints
i$%osed by t#e e:isting stationary %arts in t#e re#abilitation and
u%grading o* old %lants' >#is %euliarity. s#ared by all 3!
inverse design $et#ods. #as signi=antly i$%roved t#e
e**etiveness o* C6!+ based design $et#ods. t#ereby reduing
t#e e$%irial as%ets o* t#e *or$er trial and error $et#ods
and inreasing t#e runner design s%ae'
>#e a%%liation o* t#ese $et#ods in t#e runner design #as
already deter$ined i$%ortant design brea;t#roug#s su# as t#e
i$%rove$ents o* avitation %er*or$ane and #ydrauli e*=ieny
G22–A0H o* %u$%+turbine and 6ranis turbines. swi*tly de$on+
strating to be a %ro%er and revolutionary design strategy in t#e
re#abilitation o* s$all #ydroeletri %lants' 5owever. *urt#er
i$%rove$ents in runner design riteria are still re<uired in order
to rea# #ig# e*=ieny values and to $at# innovative design
solutions. su# as variable+s%eed runners. wit# t#e e:isting
stationary %arts o* t#e %lant'
%ower %lants. and #ene to *avour t#eir *urt#er de%loy$ent.
innovative $anage$ent strategies #ave been %ro%osed to inrease
%lant li*e ti$e and o%erating range. and *or $a:i$i-ing t#e
%ro=tability w#en signi=ant in9ow and $ar;et 9utuations
our' ) signi=ant redution in invest$ent osts also resulted
*ro$ t#e re#abilitation and u%grading o* e:istent old %lants' >o
*ae t#e nu$erous onstrains i$%osed by e:isting %lants. innova+
tive design a%%roa#es. based on o$%utational 9uid dyna$is.
were %ro%osed over t#e last *ew deades. and #ig#ly advaned
design solutions were obtained in ter$s o* o%erating range
e:tension and #ydrauli e*=ieny'
5ydro%ower #as all t#e *eatures needed *or being a sustainable.
seure and o$%etitive energy and *or su%%orting a signi=ant
%enetration o* ot#er i$%ortant renewable energy soures. su# as
wind and %#otovoltai' 5owever. even t#oug# its *uture not only
in Euro%e but all around t#e world ould be brig#t. t#ere is a lot
to do to $a;e t#e te#nology $ore e*=ient. redue its
environ+ $ental i$%at. $oderni-e old %lants. integrate s$aller
%lants into t#e grid and o%ti$i-e si-ing and $anage$ent' >#is
%a%er gives a %iture o* t#e issues and #allenges *aing t#e
#ydro te#nology setor and assesses t#e %riorities *or *uture
resear# and develo%+ $ent wit# a %artiular *ous on %u$%ed+
#ydro energy storage %lants and s$all #ydro %ower %lants'
Re*erenes
G1H 0'E')' 4ey Jorld Energy Statistis b 8EC!(0E)D 2012'
G2H 0'E')' >e#nology Road$a%& 5ydro%ower b 8EC!(0E)D 2012'
G3H Euro%ean Co$$ission' >e#nology $a% o* t#e Euro%ean strategi energy
te#nology %lan (SE>+/lan) – /art 0& >e#nology desri%tions. 3RC+SE>0S wor;
grou%. E1R 24A7AELD 2011'
242
242
,' )rdi--on et al' ( Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 31 (2014) 746–
761
G4H La-ari ME. )rde#ali LM. 3a*ari S' /u$%ed+sto rage unit o$$it$ent wit#
onsiderations *or energy de$and. eono$is. and envi ron$ental onstraints'
Energy 2 0 1 0D3B&40A 2 – 1 0 1 '
GBH 6 rano ). Sal-a /' /ers%eti v es *or t#e long+ter$ %enetration o* new ren e w+
ables in o$%l e : energy sys te$s& t#e 0talian senario' Envi ron. !ev Sustainab
2 0 1 1D 1 3&30A –30 '
G6H /urvins ). /a%aioannou 0>. 8leini;o v a 0. >-i$as E' E**ets o* v ariable ren e w+
able %o w er on a ountry+sale eletriity sys te$& 5ig# %enetration o* # ydro
%o w er %lants and wind *ar$s in eletriity gene ration' Energy 2 0 1 2D43
(1)&22B–36 '
G7H Euro%ean >rans$ission Syste$ 8%erators' Euro%ean Jind 0ntegration Study
(EJ0S) >owards a Suess*ul 0ntegration o* @arge Sale Jind /ower into
Euro%ean Eletriity ,rids' 6inal Re%ort. b EL>S8+ED 2010'
G2H Scder @. )bildgaard 5. Estan < uiero ). 5a$on C. 5olttinen 5. @anno y e E. et al'
E:%eriene and #allenges wit# s#ort+ter$ balaning in Euro%ean sys te$s
wit# large s#are o* wind %o w er' 0EEE > rans Sustainable Energy 2 01 2D3&
2B3– 6 1 '
GAH Eletri /ower Resear# 0nstitute (E/R0+!8E)' Eletri energy storage te#nol+
ogy o%tions& a w#ite %a%er %ri$er on a%%liations. osts and bene=ts. /alo
)lto. C). 1020676D 2010'
G10H J eisser !. ,aria RS' 0nstantaneous wind energy %enetration in isolated
eletriity grids& one%ts and revi e w' R enew Energy 2 0 0BD30(2)& 1 2A A –302 '
G11H /ad ron S. Medina 36. R odrigue- )' )nal y sis o* a %u$%ed sto rage sys te$ to
inrease t#e %enetration level o* ren e wable energy in isolated %o w er sys te$s'
,ran Canaria& a ase study' Energy 2 0 1 1D36&67B 3 –62 '
G12H )nagnosto%oulos 3S. /a%anto n is !E' S tudy o* %u$%ed sto ra g e s#e$es to
su%%ort #ig# RES %enetration in t#e eletri %o w er sys te$ in ,reee' Energy
2 0 1 2D4B& 4 1 6–23 '
G13H >uo # y ). 8
0
Malley M' /u$%ed sto rage in sys te$s wit# very #ig# wind
%enetration' Energy /oliy 2 0 1 1D3A& 1 A6B– 7 4 '
G14H !ursun K. )lbo y ai K' >#e ontribution o* wind+ # ydro %u$%ed sto rage
sys te$s in $eeting > u r; e y
0
s eletri energy de$and' R e new Sustainan
Energy R ev 2 0 1 0D 1 4& 1 A 7 A –22 '
G1BH Kenite- @E. Kenite- /C. Cornelis v an 4 oo ten ,' >#e eono$is o* wind %o w er
wit# energy sto rage' Energy Eon 2 0 02D30& 1 A 7 3–2A '
G16H S te**en K' /ros%ets *or %u$%ed+ # ydro sto rage in ,er$a n y' Energy /oliy
2 0 1 2D4B&42 0 –A '
G17H d ang C+3. 3a;son RK' 8%%ortunities and barriers to %u$%ed+ # ydro energy
sto rage in t#e 1 nited S tates' R enew Sustainable Energy Rev 2 0 1 1D 1 B&23 A – 4 4 '
G12H 4a%sali M. 4aldellis 34' Co$bining # ydro and v ariable wind %o w er gene ration
by $eans o* %u$%ed+sto r age under eono$ially viable te r $s' )%%l Energy
2 0 1 0D2 7 &3 4 7B–2B '
G1AH 0bra#i$ 5. 0lina ). /erron 3' Energy sto rage sys te$s – #ara teristis and
o$%arisons' R enew Sustainable Energy Rev 2 0 02D 1 2& 1 2 2 1–B0 '
G20H 4a-e$%our S3. Mog#adda$ M/. 5ag#i*a$ MR. d ouse = ,R' Eletri energy
sto rage sys te$s in a $ar;et+based eono $ y& o$%arison o* e$erging and
traditional te#nologies' R enew Energy 2 0 0AD34( 1 2)&263 0 –A '
G21H @o%es 6er reira 5. ,arde R. 6ulli ,. 4ling J. /eas @o%es 3' C#ara terisation o*
eletrial energy sto rage te#nologies' Energy 2 0 1 3DB3(1)&22 2 –A2 '
G22H @oisel R' /o w er sys te$ 9 e:ibility wit# eletriity storage te#nologies& a
te#nial+eono$i assess$ent o* a large+sale sto rage *aility' 0nt 3 Eletr
/o w er 2 01 2D42(1)&B42–B2 '
G23H Rangoni K' ) ontribution on eletriity sto rage& t#e ase o* # ydro+%u$%ed
sto rage a%%raisal and o$$issioning in 0taly and S%ain' 1til' /oliy
2 0 1 2D23& 3 1–A '
G24H !eane 3/. 8' ,alla#oir K/. M 4 eog# E3' > e#no+eono$i revi e w o* e : isting
and new %u$%ed # ydro energy sto rage %lant' R enew Sustainable Energy R e v
2 0 1 0D 1 4& 1 2A3–302 '
G2BH E;$an C4. 3ensen S5' /ros%ets *or large sale eletriity sto rage in !en$ar;'
Energy Con v ers Manag 2 0 1 0D B 1& 1 1 40–7 '
G26H 4aldellis 34. Oa=ra;is !. 4 a v adias 4' > e#no+eono$i o$%arison o* energy
sto rage sys te$s *or island autono$ous eletrial netwo r; s ' Re n ew Sustain+
able Energy Rev 2 0 0AD 1 3& 3 72–A2 '
G27H !ai$ >1. @i e. 4i$ 3. Si$$s S' E v aluation o* energy sto rage te#nologies *or
integ ration wit# ren e w able eletriity& Xuanti*ying e :%ert o%inions' Envi ron
0nnov So > ransit 2 0 1 2D3&2 A –4 A '
G22H Connolly !. Ma@aug#lin S. @ea # y M' !evelo%$ent o* a o$%uter %rog ra$ to
loate %o tential sites *or %u$%ed # ydroeletri energy sto rage' Energy
2 0 1 0D3B& 3 7B–21 '
G2AH /i;a rd J6' >#e #istor y . %resent state. and *uture %ros%ets o* unde r+
ground %u$%ed # ydro *or $assi v e energy sto rage' /ro 0EEE 2 0 1 1D 1 0 0
(2)& 4 7 3–23 '
G30H 1ddin L' ,eo te#nial issues in t#e reation o* underground reser v oirs *or
$assive energy sto rage' /ro 0EEE 2 0 1 2D 1 0 0(2)& 4 24–A2 '
G31H Euro%ean Co$$ission' Euro%ean energy %o;et boo;D 200A' )vailable *ro$&
〈 #tt%&((e'euro%a'eu(energy(%ubliations(statistis(statistisfen'#t $ 〉 '
G32H Cioan ,!. > eller 8. C-erwins;i 6' 7ariable S%eed /u$% +> u rbines > e#nology'
1/K Sient Kull. Ser !& Me# Eng 2 0 1 2D 7 4(1)&3 3 –42 '
G33H Suul. 3). 1#len. 4. 1ndeland. >' Jind /ower 0ntegration in 0solated ,rids
enabled by 7ariable S%eed /u$%ed Storage 5ydro%ower /lant' 2002 0EEE 0nt
Con* Sust Energ >e#nologies. 0CSE>. 2002D %%' 3AA–404'
G34H S#oenung. SM. 5assen-a#l. J7' @ong + vs' S#ort+>er$ Energy Storage
>e#nologies. )nalysis' Sandia Re%ort. S)L!2003+2723 D 2003'
G3BH ,enter. C#. Sallaberger. M. Jid$er. C#. Kraun. 8. Staubli. >' )nalysis o*
unstable o%eration o* %u$% turbines and #ow to avoid it' 5ydro. 2A–31
8tober. Kilbao. S%ainD 2012'
G36H / a vesi ,. C av a--ini ,. )rdi--on ,' >i$e+*re < ueny #ara teri-ation o* t#e
unsteady %#eno$ena in a entri*ugal %u$%' 0nt 3 5eat 6luid 6low
2 0 02D2A& 1 B 2 7–40 '
G37H C a v a--ini ,. / a vesi ,. )rdi--on ,' /ress u re instabilities in a v aned entri*ugal
%u$%' /ro 0nst Me# Eng ) 3 /o w er 2 0 1 1D22B&A3 0 –A '
G32H @u L. C#ow 35. !esro #ers ))' /u$%ed+sto r age # ydro+turbine bidding
stra tegies in a o$%etiti v e eletriity $ar;et' 0EEE > rans /o w er Syst
2 0 04D 1 A(2)&234– 4 1 '
G3AH Castronu o vo E!. /egas @o%es 3)' 8%ti$al o%eration and # ydro sto rage si-ing
o* a wind– # ydro %o w er %lant' 0nt 3 Ele /o w er 2 0 0 4D26&7 7 1–2 '
G40H Connolly !. @und 5. 6inn /. Mat#iesen K 7. @ea # y M' /ratial o%era tion
stra tegies *or %u$%ed # ydroeletri energy sto rage (/5ES) utilising eletriity
%rie arbitra g e' Energy /oliy 2 0 1 1D3A& 4 1 2A–A6 '
G41H 4#atibi M. 3a-aeri M' )n anal y sis *or inreasing t#e %enetration o* ren e w able
energies b y o%ti$al si-ing o* %u$%ed+st o rage %o w er %lants' 0EEE Eletr /o w er
Energy Con* – Energy 0nnov 2 0 0 2 D 8tober&1–B' ()rtile Lo' 4763324)'
G42H !ursun K. )lbo y ai K. ,o;ol C' 8%ti$al wind+ # ydro solution *or t#e Mar$ara
region o* >u r;ey to $eet eletriity de$and' Energy 2 0 1 1D36&2 6 4– 7 2 '
G43H Kueno C. Carta 3)' Jind %o w ered %u$%ed # ydro sto rage sys te$s. a $eans o*
inreasing t#e %enetration o* ren e wable energy in t#e Canary 0slands' Re n ew
Sustainable Energ Rev 2 0 06 D 1 0& 3 1 2–40 '
G44H !ing 5. 5u O. Song d' S to#asti o%ti$i-ation o* t#e daily o%eration o* wind
*ar$ and %u$%ed+ # ydr o +stor a ge %lant' Re n ew Energy 2 0 1 2D42 & B7 1–2 '
G4BH C#eng C+t. @iao S+0. > ang O +>. O#ao M+y' Co$%arison o* %artile s w ar$
o%ti$i-ation and dyna$i %rogr a $$ing *or large sale # ydro unit load
dis%at#' Energy Con v ers Manag 2 0 0ADB0&3 0 0 7 – 1 4 '
G46H Catalao 3/S. /ousin#o 5M0. Mendes 7M6' 5ydro energy sys te$s $anage$ent
in /ortugal& %r o = t+based evaluation o* a $i:ed+integer nonlinear a%%roa#'
Energy 2 0 1 1D36&B 0 0–7 '
G47H d in e +@ . d an g d ' S o lv in g e ono$ ia l o %e rat io n % ro b le $ o * bas in as ad e
% la n ts ba s e d o n bi+le v e l ou%l in g g enet i a lg orit#$ ' )%% l Me # Ma te r
2 0 1 3D 3 B 7 –
3 6 0 &2 A 2 1 – 4 '
G42H R a "an )' 5ydro+t#er$al unit o$$it$ent %roble$ using si$ulated annealing
e$bedded evolutionary %ro g ra$$ing a%% roa#' 0nt 3 Ele /o w er 2 0 1 1D33&
A3A–46 '
G4AH )*s#ar M5. Moeini R' /a rtially and *ully onstrained ant algorit#$s *or t#e
o%ti$al solution o* large sale reser v oir o%eration %roble$s' J ater R esour
Manag 2 0 02D22( 1 2)& 1 23 B – B 7 '
GB0H J a n g 3. @i u S ' X uar te r+# o url y o%e ratio n o * # yd ro % o w e r re s e rv o irs w it#
% u $% e d s to ra g e % lants ' 3 J a te r R e sou r / la n Ma n a g – ) S C E 2 0 1 1 D1 3 2 (1 )&1 3 –
2 3 '
GB1H C#eng C. @iao S. > ang O. O#ao M' Co$%arison o* %artile s w ar$ o%ti$i-at ion
and dyna$i %rog ra$$ing *or large sale # ydro unit load dis%at#' Energy
Con v ers Manag 2 0 0ADB0&3 0 0 7 – 1 4 '
GB2H 4ang. X. Jang. 3). Ju. X' ) 5euristi Sto#asti !yna$i /rogra$$ing
Met#od *or !isrete /artile Swar$ 8%ti$i-er Syste$' 0EEE 0nt C Letw Sens.
8;aya$a. 3a%on. Mar#. 26–2AD 200A'
GB3H )*s#ar M5' @arge sale reser v oir o%era tion b y onstrained %artile s w ar$
o%ti$i-ation algorit# $ s' 3 5ydro +envir o n Res 2 0 1 2D6&7B –27 '
GB4H Ma#or ). Rangne;ar S' S#ort ter$ gene ration s#eduling o* asaded # ydro
eletri sys te$ using no v el sel* ada%t ive inertia weig#t /S8' 0nt 3 Ele /ow e r
2 0 1 2D34& 1 –A '
GBBH O#ang R. O#ou 3. 8u y ang S. J ang e. O#ang 5' 8%ti$al o%eration o* $ulti+
reser v oir sys te$ by $ulti+elite guide %artile s w ar$ o%ti$i-ation' 0nt 3 Ele
/o w er 2 0 1 3D42 & B2–6 2 '
GB6H 8;ot !4' R eview o* s$all # ydro% o wer te#nology' Re n ew Sustainable Energy
R ev 2 0 1 3D26& B 1 B–20 '
GB7H Mis#ra S. Singal S4. 4#atod !4' ) revi e w on eletro$e#anial e < ui%$ent
a%%liable to s$all # ydro% o wer %lants' 0nt 3 Energy Res 2 01 2D36(B)&BB3– 7 1 '
GB2H di C+S. @ee 3+5. S#i$ M+/' Site loation anal y sis *or s$all # ydro% o wer using
geo+s%atial in*or$ation sys te$' R e new Energy 2 0 1 0D3B(4)&2B2– 6 1 '
GBAH 5osseini S. 6o rou-ba;#s# 6. Ra#i$%oor M' !eter$ination o* t#e o%ti$al
installation a%aity o* s$all # ydro+% o wer %lants t#roug# t#e use o* te#nial.
eono$i and reliability indies' Energy /oliy 2 0 0BD33& 1 A4 2 –B6 '
G60H de )l$eida @o%es 3//,. @e"eune5enri ) ,. Sa Mar < ues 3)). Cun#a MC' 8 / )5 a
$odel *or o%ti$al design o* $ulti%ur%ose s$all # ydro% o wer %lants' )dv Eng
So * tw 2 0 06 D 3 7(4)&23 6 – 4 7 '
G61H )nagnosto%oulos 3S. /a%an tonis !E' 8%ti$al si-ing o* a run+o* river s$all
# ydro% o wer %lant' Energy Con v ers Manag 2 0 07D42( 1 0)&2 6 63–7 0 '
G62H Liadas 0). Ment-elo%oulos /' /robabilisti 9 ow duration urves *or s$all
# ydro %lant design and %er*or$ane e v aluation' J ater R esour Manag
2 0 02D22&B0 A –23 '
G63H / e Y a R. Medina ). )na y a+@ara 8. M!onald 3' Ca%aity esti$ation o* a
$ini # ydro %lant based on ti$e series *oreasting' R enew Energy 2 0 0AD34&
1 20 4 –A '
G64H Korges C @ >. /into R3' S$all # ydro %o w er %lants energy av ailability $odeling
*or gene r ation reliability e v aluation' 0EEE > rans /o w er Syst 2 0 02D23
(3)& 1 1 2B– 3 B '
G6BH Ko;$an >. 6leten S+E. 3uliussen E. @ang#a$$er 53. R evdal 0' 0n v est$ent
ti$ing and o%ti$al a%aity #oie *or s$all # ydro% o wer %ro"ets' Eur 3 8%er
R es 2 0 02D 1 A0&2B B –6 7 '
G66H Santolin ). C a v a--ini ,. / a vesi ,. )rdi--on ,. R ossetti )' > e#no+eono$ial
$et#od *or t#e a%aity si-ing o* a s$all # ydro% o wer %lant' Energy Con v ers
Manag 2 0 1 1DB2&2B3 3 – 4 1 '
G67H @iu d. d e @. Kenoit 0. @iu e. C#eng d. Morel ,. et al' Eono$i %er*or$ane
e v aluation $et#od *or # ydroeletri gene rating units' Energy Con v ers Manag
2 0 03D 4 4(6)&7 A 7–202 '
G62H ,arrido 3. Oa*ra h. 7i- < ue- 6' 8b"et oriented $odelling and si$ulation o*
# ydr o %o w er %lants wit# run+o*+ri v er s#e$e& a new si$ulation tool' Si$ul
Model /r a t >#eor 2 0 0AD 1 7( 1 0)& 1 7 4 2 –6 7 '
G6AH 6leten SE. 4risto**ersen >4' S#ort+ter$ # ydro% o wer %rodution %lanning by
sto#asti %rog ra$$ing' Co$%ut 8%er R es 2 0 02D3B(2)&26B6– 7 1 '
G70H Catalao 3/S. /ousin#o 5M0. Mendes 7M6' 8%ti$al # ydro s#eduling and
o**ering stra tegies onsidering %rie unertainty and ris; $anage$ent'
Energy 2 01 2D 3 7 &2 3 7– 4 4 '
G71H Santolin. ). /avesi. ,. Cava--ini. ,. )rdi--on. ,' 7ariable+s%eed /elton turbine
*or an e*=ient e:%loitation o* t#e reserved 9ow& an 0talian ase study' 0nt 3
5ydro%ower !a$s' /ro$oting t#e 7ersatile Role o* 5ydro. 0nnsbru;. )ustriaD
7–A 8tober 2013& %%' 1–13'
G72H Jislienus ,6' 6luid $e#anis o* turbo$a#inery' Koo; Co$%a n y @i$ited'
@ondon. 14& M,r a w+5illD 1 A 4 7 '
G73H 5orlo ; 35' ):ial 9ow o$%ressors& 9 uid $e#anis and t#er$odyna$is'
@ondon. 14& Kutter w ort#s Sienti= /ubliationsD 1AB2'
G74H 5o**$ann. 4). C#iang. S>' Co$%utational 9uid dyna$is *or engineers'
Engineering Eduation Syste$. Ji#ita. 4ansas. 672A2+1072. 1S)D 1AA3'
G7BH Oien;iewi- 8C' >#e = nite ele$ent $et#od' 3rd ed' @ondon. 14& M,raw+5ill
Koo; Co$%a n y @i$itedD 1 A 77D 1 A7 7 '
G76H Ju. C5' ) ,eneral >#eory o* >#ree+di$ensional 6low in Subsoni >urbo$a+
#ines o* Radial+):ial+ and Mi:ed 6low >y%es' L)C) >L+! 2604D 1AB2'
G77H )rdi--on ,. / a vesi ,' 0n9 uene o* t#e blade sta;ing on t#e 9ow t#roug# an
a:ial 9 ow runner and %reditions o* t#ree+di$ensional and <uasi t#ree+
di$ensional nu$erial odes' /r o 0nst Me# Eng 1 AA0D204 & 32A– A 7 '
G72H )nsys C6e. Release 14'0. )nsys. 0n'. Canonsbury. /)'
G7AH ,cde. E' (1A2A) ) Sta;ing te#ni<ue *or $ultistage 3! 9ow o$%utation in
#ydrauli turbo$a#inery' ,)MM Jor;s#o%. @ausanneD 1A2A'
G20H O#ang 5. O#ang @' L u$erial si$ulation o* a vitating turbulent 9 ow in a #ig#
#ead 6 ranis turbine at %art load o%eration wit# 8%en6 8 )M' /roedia Eng
2 0 1 2D 3 1& 1 B6–6B '
G21H 4 e; 5. Si; M' >#irty y ears o* nu$erial 9ow si$ulation in # ydr a uli
turbo$a#ines' )ta Me# 2 0 02D2 0 1& 2 1 1–2A '
G22H /errig ). ) vellan 6. 4 ue n y 3@. 6 ar#at M. /a r;inson E' 6low in a /elton turbine
bu;e t& nu$erial and e :%eri$ental in v estigations' 3 6luid Eng – > )SME
2 0 06D 1 22(4)&3B0–2 '
G23H Santolin ). C a v a--ini ,. )rdi--on ,. / a vesi ,' L u$erial 0n v estigation o* t#e
0nte ration between 3et and Ku;ets in a /elton > u rbine' /ro 0nst Me# Eng )
3 /o w er 2 0 0AD223(6)&7 2 1–2 '
G24H ,o$e-+,estei ra M. R ogers K!. !alry$%le R). Cres%o )3C' S tate+o*+t#e+art o*
lassial S/5 *or *ree+sur*ae 9 ows' 3 5ydraul Res 2010D42&6–27'
G2BH Marongiu 3+C. @eboeu* 6. /a r;inson E' L u$erial si$ulation o* t#e 9 ow in a
/elton turbine using t#e $es#less $et#od s$oot#ed %artile # ydr o dyna$is&
a new si$%le solid boundary treat$ent' /ro 0nst Me# Eng ) 3 /o w er
2 0 07D2 2 1&24 A –B6 '
G26H Marongiu 3+C#. @eboeu* 6. Caro 3. /a r;inson E' 6 ree sur*ae 9o w s si$ulations in
/elton turbines using an # ybrid S/5–)@E $et#od' 3 5ydraul R es 2 0 1 0D42
(S1)&40 – A '
G27H Rossetti ). /avesi ,. Cava--ini ,. Santolin ). )rdi--on ,' 0n9uene o* t#e
bu;et geo$etry on t#e /elton %er*or$ane' /ro 0nst Me# Eng ) 3 /ower
#tt%&((d:'doi'org( 1 0 '1 1 77(0A B 7 6B0 A 1 3B06B2A . in %ress'
G22H d ang J. eiao R' Multiob"eti v e o%ti$i-ation design o* a %u$ % – turbine
i$%eller based on an in v erse design using a o$bination o%ti$i-at ion
stra tegy' 3 6luid Eng – > )SME 2 0 1 4D 1 36(1)&1–A '
G2AH !anes#;a#. 4. Oangene#. M' /ara$etri design o* a 6ranis turbine runner by
$eans o* a t#ree+di$ensional inverse design $et#od' 0n& /roeedings o* t#e
ee7 0)5R Sy$% on 5ydrauli Ma# SystD 2010'
GA0H C#oi 5+3. Oulla# M). R o# 5 +J. 5a / +S. 8# S +d. @ee d +5' C6! v alidation o*
%er*or$ane i$%r o ve$ent o* a B 0 0 ;J 6ranis turbine' Renew Energy
2 0 1 3DB4& 1 1 1–23 '