Human Resource Mana g ement Review 24 (2014) 17 – 30 Contents lists available at ScienceDire c t Human Resource Management Review ou r nal !ome"age# www$ el sevi er $ com% l ocat e% !um r e s &''ects o' sta'' bonus s(stems on sa'et( be!aviors ☆ ) ☆☆ M$ Mattson ⁎) *$ +orbi,rn) -$ Hellgren De"artment o' .s(c!olog() Stoc/!olm 0niversit() S&1102 31 Stoc/!olm) Swe4en a r t i c l e i n ' o a b s t r a c t 5e(wor4s# 6 onus .a( s(stem *ncentive Motivation 7uclear "ower "lant Sa'et( 1$ *ntro4uction 6onus s(stems are a common means in tr(ing to motivate em"lo(ees to "er'orm well$ However) t!ere is still 4isagreement regar4ing t!e e''ects o' bonus s(stems$ Some t!eories even suggest t!at suc! s(stems coul4 cause an increase in ris/1be!avior$ +!is ma/es 'urt!er researc! regar4ing bonus s(stems warrante4) es"eciall( w!en a""lie4 in !ig!1ris/ organi8ations$ +!is stu4( aims to e9"lore "otential e''ects on sa'et(1relate4 be!avior associate4 wit! bonus s(stems currentl( use4 at Swe4is! nuclear "ower "lants$ :i'teen semi1 structure4 interviews wit! em"lo(ees were "er'orme4 base4 on an eclecticall( com"ose4 'ramewor/ 'rom motivational an4 organi8ational t!eories$ Results 4o not in4icate an( negative e''ects on sa'et(1relate4 be!aviors) but rat!er t!at sa'et( be!aviors ma( be "romote4 inso'ar as bonus rewar4s are lin/e4 to "er'ormance goals concerning sa'et($ Di''erences in bonus s(stem 4esign a""eare4 to a''ect be!avioral outcomes$ +!e com"arative an4 ;ualitative a""roac! o' t!is stu4( contributes valuable in'ormation b( !ig!lig!ting t!e t("es o' 'actors t!at ma( serve to stimulate greater incentive 'or em"lo(ees to engage in sa'e be!avior$ < 2013 &lsevier *nc$ =ll rig!ts reserve4$ = large "ro"ortion o' com"anies aroun4 t!e worl4 are "resentl( ma/ing use o' monetar( incentives in t!e 'orm o' so1calle4 bonus s(stems in or4er to motivate em"lo(ees to "er'orm better (.atton) 1372)$ However) t!ere are still 4isagreements regar4ing t!e real e''ect o' bonuses on motivation an4 "er'ormance (.'e''er) 1337)$ >!ile a 'ew stu4ies !ave 'oun4 in4ications o' increase4 motivation an4 im"rove4 "er'ormance 4ue to monetar( incentives suc! as bonuses un4er some con4itions (e$g$ &ngellan4t ? Ri"!a!n) 2011@ 5a!n ? S!erer) 1330)) t!ere are also stu4ies s!owing no or even negative e''ects o' incentive s(stems$ >or/"lace acci4ents are increasingl( common an4 one o' t!e biggest issues 'acing em"lo(ers to4a( is t!e sa'et( o' t!eir em"lo(ees$ Argani8ational "ractices t!at "romote sa'et( are vital 'or organi8ations in general an4 !ig!1ris/ organi8ations in "articular$ =s a conse;uence) man( !ig!1ris/ organi8ations use bonus s(stems t!at are more or less 4irecte4 towar4s ac!ieving sa'et( t!roug! im"rove4 sa'et(1relate4 "er'ormance among its em"lo(ees$ However) em"irical researc! is scant regar4ing t!e e''ects o' t!ese s(stems an4 t!e results 'rom t!e little researc! t!at !as been con4ucte4 are mi9e4 as well$ Some evi4ence suggests t!at bonus s(stems t!at rewar4 sa'et( be!avior coul4 result in a 4ecrease4 acci4ent 're;uenc( (Boo4rum ? Bangwar) 2004)$ However) ot!er researc! suggests t!at bonus s(stems 4esigne4 to rewar4 em"lo(ees 'or wor/ing inur(1'ree over a set "erio4 o' time coul4 be 4etrimental 4ue to un4erre"orting o' acci4ents as a result o' 'ear among t!e wor/'orce o' losing t!eir ☆ +!e aut!ors o' t!e article want to es"eciall( e9"ress t!eir gratitu4e to Dr$ .er1Alo' San4Cn an4 Dr$ =nne &4lan4 at t!e Swe4is! Ra4iation =ut!orit( 'or ma/ing t!is stu4( "ossible an4 to t!e em"lo(ees at t!e nuclear "ower "lants w!o "artici"ate4 in t!e stu4( b( s!aring t!eir t!oug!ts) /nowle4ge) an4 o"inions wit! us$ +!e aut!ors also wis! to t!an/ .ro'essor Magnus Sver/e 'or !is valuable comments on a "revious version o' t!is manuscri"t$ ☆☆ +!is researc! was con4ucte4 at t!e De"artment o' .s(c!olog( at Stoc/!olm 0niversit( wit! t!e Dnancial su""ort o' t!e Swe4is! Ra4iation Sa'et( =ut!orit( (StrElsF/er!etsm(n4ig!eten)$ However) t!e 4eDnition o' t!e stu4( 4esign) t!e collection) anal(sis an4 inter"retation o' 4ata as well as t!e writing o' t!e manuscri"t !ave all been con4ucte4 in4e"en4entl( b( t!e aut!ors$ ⁎ Corres"on4ing aut!or$ +el$# G 42 H 123H0I@ 'a9# G 42 H 1I3342$ &1mail a44resses# malin$ m attsonJ"s(c!olog($su$se (M$ Mattson)) itnJ"s(c!olog($su$se (*$ +orbi,rn)) !nJ"s(c!olog($su $ se (-$ Hellgren)$ 10I314H22%K – see 'ront matter < 2013 &lsevier *nc$ =ll rig!ts reserve4$ !tt"#%%49$4oi$org% 1 0$1012%$!rmr$2013$0H$012 1H M$ Mattson et al$ % Human Resource Management Review 24 (2014) 17L30 bonus$ +!is coul4 result in continuing "roblems an4 ris/s t!at ma( ot!erwise !ave been atten4e4 to (Coo"er) 2001@ Mio88a ? >(l4) 2002)$ Biven t!e ambiguous em"irical evi4ence o' t!e e''ects o' bonus s(stems) organi8ations ma/ing use o' t!ese /in4s o' s(stems ta/e an imminent ris/ o' obtaining uninten4e4) an4 even un4esirable) e''ects$ +!is coul4 be es"eciall( !arm'ul to certain /in4s o' organi8ations) suc! as t!ose 4ealing wit! o"erations involving !ig! ris/s$ Several reviews in4icate t!at bonuses coul4 be "articularl( 4etrimental to "er'ormance w!en t!e tas/ is intrinsicall( interesting enoug! an4 w!en t!e tas/ is com"le9 enoug! t!at 'le9ible t!in/ing is nee4e4 (e$g$ McBraw) 137H)$ Consi4ering t!e com"le9it( an4 !ig! tec!nolog( c!aracteri8ing t!e environment in man( !ig! reliabilit( organi8ations (HRAMs)) t!ese 'in4ings im"licate t!at bonus s(stems coul4 "otentiall( "ose a t!reat to sa'et($ +!is ma( be es"eciall( relevant w!en con'ronte4 wit! an acci4ent situation w!ere com"le9it( an4 ambiguit( are "articularl( evi4ent$ More researc! is t!ere'ore warrante4 regar4ing w!ic! 'actors involve4 in bonus s(stems t!at are "erceive4 as motivating b( t!e em"lo(ees an4 in e9tension) t!at "romote sa'et(1relate4 be!aviors$ +!e aim o' t!e "resent 'iel4 stu4( was to 'in4 out w!et!er bonus s(stems coul4 com"romise sa'et( in nuclear "ower "lants an4 ot!er !ig!1ris/ organi8ations$ +!e main ;uestion concerne4 t!e "otential e''ects on motivation an4 sa'et(1relate4 be!avior t!at coul4 be associate4 wit! t!e use o' bonus s(stems b( i4enti'(ing 'actors t!at coul4 "ossibl( a''ect sa'et( via c!anges in be!avior$ +!e 4ata use4 in t!e stu4( comes 'rom in14e"t! interviews wit! em"lo(ees at t!ree Swe4is! nuclear "ower "lants w!ere em"lo(ee bonus s(stems are currentl( a""lie4$ +!e s(stems a""lie4 at t!e t!ree "lants !ave consi4erable 4i''erences in 4esign) w!ic! enable4 a tentative com"arative anal(sis o' t!e "erceive4 motivational e''ects 4ue to t!ese 4i''erences$ +!e stu4( also innovates b( a4o"ting a ;ualitative a""roac! using a t!eoretical anal(sis an4 in14e"t! interviews in investigating "otential be!avioral e''ects$ +o 4ate) ;ualitative a""roac!es suc! as in t!e "resent stu4( are unusual w!en it comes to e9amination o' monetar( rewar4s an4 sa'et($ +!e more 're;uentl( use4 ;uantitative stu4ies in t!e 'iel4 o''er valuable in'ormation about relations between 4i''erent 'actors) suc! as between t!e a""lication o' bonus s(stems an4 "articular sa'et( outcomes) but t!e( 4o not "rovi4e us wit! an( 4ee"er un4erstan4ing o' t!e un4erl(ing causes o' t!ose relations$ +!e ;ualitative an4 com"arative nature o' t!is stu4( coul4 contribute b( re4ucing t!e ga" between researc! an4 "ractice in t!e a""lication o' bonus s(stems in !ig!1ris/ organi8ations$ +!is coul4 be ac!ieve4 t!roug! t!e o''ering o' valuable in'ormation in t!is regar4 b( !ig!lig!ting t!e t("es o' 'actors an4 goals t!at ma( serve to stimulate greater incentive 'or em"lo(ees to avoi4 ris/ an4 engage in sa'e be!avior$ 1$1$ 6onus s(stems =lmost all organi8ations "a( t!eir em"lo(ee 'or t!e wor/ t!at t!e( 4o) but t!ere are consi4erable 4i''erences in t!e e9tent to w!ic! t!e "a( s(stem is relate4 to "er'ormance$ Man( organi8ations ma/e use o' 4i''erent t("es o' "er'ormance1relate4 "a( s(stems) base4 on t!e general i4ea t!at em"lo(ees s!oul4 be motivate4 to wor/ !ar4er because t!e( see t!e connection between ob "er'ormance an4 rewar4$ 7evert!eless) t!e 4esign o' suc! s(stems can 4i''er in terms o' w!o is inclu4e4 (on w!ic! levels)) !ow "er'ormance is measure4 an4 w!ic! incentives are use4 (mone() s!ares etc$)$ Man( 4i''erent names are use4 to in4icate t!e t("e o' "er'ormance1relate4 "a( s(stem) but t!e 4istinctions are not alwa(s clear1cut$ = s(stem w!ere em"lo(ees receive a guarantee4 wee/l( or mont!l( wage) "lus a bonus base4 on t!eir "er'ormance is o'ten calle4 a bonus s(stem$ .ro4uctivit( measures coul4 be base4 on eit!er t!e "er'ormance o' t!e in4ivi4ual) a grou" (e$g$ team or 4e"artment) or t!e w!ole organi8ation (:urn!am) 200H)$ =ccor4ing to agenc( t!eor( t!e relations!i" between t!e "rinci"al an4 t!e agent is crucial 'or t!e in4ivi4ualMs be!avior an4 "er'ormances an4 t!e 'ocus o' t!e t!eor( is to 4etermine t!e most e''icient contract governing t!is relations!i") o'ten assuming t!at "eo"le are 4riven b( sel'1interest) boun4e4 rationalit() an4 ris/ aversion (&isen!ar4t) 13H3)$ +!e ;uestion is) i' a be!avior oriente4 relations!i" or contract 'ocuse4 on bonuses 'or “rig!t” be!avior is t!e most e''icient wa( o' com"ensating t!e em"lo(ees$ &conomic t!eor( o'ten assumes t!at monetar( incentives 4rive or even im"rove in4ivi4ualsM "er'ormances w!ile 'or e9am"le man( "s(c!ologists argue 'or a reverse scenario (Bnee8( ? Rustic!ini) 2000)$ *n a 're;uentl( cite4 meta1anal(sis Deci) 5oestner) an4 R(an (1333) conclu4e4 t!at tangible rewar4s in general !a4 a negative im"act on in4ivi4ualsM intrinsic motivation$ *t !as also been argue4 'or t!at im"lementation o' rewar4 s(stems in organi8ations o'ten are accom"anie4 b( increasing surveillance an4 evaluation as well as increase4 com"etition w!ic! !ave also been 'oun4 to !ave a negative im"act on intrinsic motivation (Deci ? R(an) 13HI@ Ne""er ? Breen) 137I)$ However) in a comment an4 re1run o' t!e Deci et al$ (1333) meta1anal(sis) &isenberger) .ierce) an4 Cameron (1333) 'oun4 t!e results "resente4 b( Deci et al$ ;uestionable an4 argue4 t!at rewar4s in 'act increase4 autonom() 4ecrease4 negative im"act on intrinsic motivation an4 t!at t!e e''ects o' rewar4s on motivation were 4e"en4ent on t!e motivation measure use4$ *n a series o' controlle4 e9"eriments Bnee8( an4 Rustic!ini (2000) conclu4e4 t!at subects t!at were o''ere4 monetar( rewar4s "er'orme4 more "oorl( as com"are4 to subects t!at were o''ere4 no monetar( incentives$ +!e aut!ors also conclu4e4 t!at) i' a monetar( incentive was o''ere4 t!e "er'ormance o' t!e subects was 4e"en4ent o' t!e amount) a !ig!er amount o' mone( generate4 a !ig!er "er'ormance$ Oet) anot!er meta1anal(sis 'oun4 t!at t!e t("e o' tas/ t!at was to be "er'orme4 mo4erate4 t!e relations!i" between "a( 'or "er'ormance an4 actual "er'ormance) w!ere "a( 'or "er'ormance !a4 a strong "ositive relations!i" wit! "er'ormance i' t!e tas/ was classi'ie4 as non1interesting$ *' t!e tas/ !owever) was "erceive4 as interesting t!e relations!i" between "a( 'or "er'ormance an4 actual "er'ormance ten4e4 to be negative (>eibel) Rost) ? Asterlo!) 2003)$ +!e "!enomenon t!at "rovision o' e9trinsic rewar4s can un4ermine intrinsic interest an4 motivation to "er'orm tas/ activities is /nown among economists an4 is 4iscusse4 in terms o' motivation crow4ing or crow4ing out e''ects (e$g$ :re( ? -egen) 2001)$ Still) a t!oroug! meta1anal(sis b( Cameron an4 .ierce (1334) inclu4ing 101 e9"erimental stu4ies between 1371 an4 1331 contra4icts t!e assum"tion t!at suc! a "!enomenon ma( !ol4 general relevance e9ce"t 'or in e9tremel( circumscribe4 con4itions$ :urt!er) t!ese 'in4ings are in4irectl( su""orte4 b( anot!er meta1anal(sis b( -en/ins) Bu"ta) Mitra) an4 S!aw (133H) in M$ Mattson et al$ % Human Resource Management Review 24 (2014) 17L30 13 w!ic! 33 em"irical stu4ies 'rom 137I to 1332 were anal(8e4 regar4ing !ow in4ivi4ual level 'inancial incentives relate4 to "er'ormance$ +!eir results su""ort t!e generali8abilit( o' a "ositive relations!i" between incentives an4 ;uantitative "er'ormance (i$e$ 4oing more)) t!is regar4less o' t!e t("e o' tas/ to be "er'orme4 (intrinsic%e9trinsic)$ :or t!e "ur"ose o' our stu4() 4ealing wit! sa'et( be!aviors t!at are mostl( about ;ualitative as"ects o' "er'ormance) it is relevant to note t!at t!is meta1anal(sis 'oun4 no signi'icant e''ect regar4ing ;ualitative be!aviors (i$e$ rig!t%wrong) across t!e 'ew stu4ies in t!eir material t!at use4 ;ualitative criteria$ *t !as also been argue4 t!at bonus s(stems o'ten onl( rewar4 observable goals) neglecting t!ose w!ic! are more creative an4 constructive in t!e long run (5err) 137I) an4 t!at in4ivi4uall( base4 rewar4s can re4uce t!e incentive to coo"erate (Na8ear) 13H3) an4 ten4 to create internal organi8ational con'lict (Babor) 1330)$ &ven muc! o' t!e tra4itional economical literature claiming to e9amine t!e e''ects o' incentives is 4ubious 4ue to t!e 'ailure to control 'or a number o' !ig!l( "lausible alternative inter"retations o' t!e results$ Ane "roblem seems to be t!e 4istinction between incentive e''ects) w!ic! are assume4 to 'ollow 'rom increase4 motivation) an4 in'ormational e''ects$ At!er t!an to motivate e''ort) bonus s(stems o'ten tell "eo"le w!at is value4) e9"ecte4 an4 im"ortant in t!e "articular setting (.'e''er) 1337)$ *n a44ition t!e( can "rovi4e t!e em"lo(ees wit! im"ortant 'ee4bac/ on t!eir "er'ormance an4 "ro4uctivit() w!ic! in turn can lea4 to increase4 motivation an4 be!avioral e''ects (Hac/man ? Al4!am) 1372)$ Des"ite t!is /nowle4ge) virtuall( no stu4ies !ave attem"te4 to em"iricall( e9amine t!e e''ects o' bonuses wit! regar4 to t!ese 4istinctions (.'e''er) 1337)$ =not!er 4istinction t!at can be ma4e is to w!at 4egree t!e goals an4 rewar4s are in4ivi4ual or collective$ Man( researc!ers !ave 'ocuse4 on bonuses base4 on in4ivi4ual "er'ormance (>elbourne ? Cable) 133I)$ However) some stu4ies !ave also a44resse4 t!e e''ects o' grou" or organi8ational incentives on in4ivi4ual be!avior an4 attitu4es$ :or e9am"le) >ageman an4 6a/er (1337) re"orte4 t!at tas/ an4 rewar4 inter4e"en4ence !a4 an interactive in'luence on grou" "er'ormances) ot!er stu4ies suggest t!at team base4 rewar4s ma( !ave "ositive e''ects on team membersM motivation) "er'ormances) "a( satis'action an4 communication (Hertel) 5onra4t) ? Arli/ows/i) 2004@ Rac/) &llwart) Hertel) ? 5onra4t) 2011)$ =lso grou" or team base4 rewar4 s(stems !ave been 'oun4 to !ave a number o' 4rawbac/s (see R(nes) Ber!art) ? .ar/s) 200I) 'or a review)$ Ane reason 'or t!is coul4 be t!at t!e main 'ocus !as o'ten been on bonus s(stems 4irecte4 towar4s to" management teams or C&AMs (e$g$ -ensen ? Mur"!() 1330@ 5a!n ? S!erer) 1330@ .atton) 1372)$ More stu4ies about s(stems involving also regular em"lo(ees are necessar( in or4er to gain a better un4erstan4ing o' !ow bonuses coul4 a''ect attitu4es an4 be!aviors at all levels wit!in an organi8ation$ 1$2$ .er'ormance1relate4 "a( s(stems an4 sa'et( >!en it comes to w!ic! be!aviors are a''ecte4 b( monetar( rewar4s an4 !ow) several meta1anal(ses 4emonstrate4 "ositive e''ects in a number o' areas) suc! as sa'et( be!aviors (Ber!art ? R(nes) 2003)$ At!er meta1anal(ses) or reviews) in4icate t!at monetar( rewar4s correlate "ositivel( wit! be!avioral as"ects t!at are ;uantitative (suc! as "er'orming more an4 'aster) but not wit! t!ose t!at are ;ualitative (c'$ -en/ins et al$) 133H)) an4 t!at suc! rewar4s a''ect "er'ormance in “4ull” tas/s t!at re;uire t!e a""lication o' rules but not in “interesting” tas/s an4 "roblem1solving tas/s t!at re;uire a more 'le9ible wa( o' t!in/ing (BagnC ? :orest) 200H@ McBraw) 137H)$ Consi4ering t!e "otential nee4 'or 'le9ible t!in/ing an4 "roblem1solving ca"abilities in an emergenc( situation in HRAMs) a bonus s(stem mig!t accor4ing to t!ese views) i' not "ose a 4anger to t!e o"erations) at least be ine''ective in a''ecting t!ese be!aviors "ositivel($ .atton (1372) claims t!at bonus s(stems 'or managers o'ten 'ail because o' 4i''iculties in measuring t!e be!aviors 'airl($ >!en t!e 4ivision o' bonuses is une;ual between em"lo(ees) es"eciall( among in4ivi4uals w!o are similar in some wa() env( can easil( arise$ &nv( coul4) in turn) lea4 to a 4esire to restore e;uit( b( !urting t!ose w!o !ave more t!an t!e( seem to 4eserve (&lster) 13H3@ :ran/) 13HH)$ .erceive4 un'airness an4 env( coul4 also lea4 to counter1"ro4uctive be!avior among em"lo(ees (Co!en1C!aras! ? Mueller) 2007)) w!ic! coul4 "otentiall( com"romise sa'et($ Researc! suggests t!at bonus s(stems t!at rewar4 sa'et( be!avior coul4 result in a 4ecrease4 acci4ent 're;uenc( (Boo4rum ? Bangwar) 2004)$ At!ers) !owever) claim t!at sa'et(1'ocuse4 bonus s(stems t!at rewar4 em"lo(ees 'or wor/ing inur(1'ree over a set "erio4 o' time coul4 4iscourage wor/ers 'rom re"orting inuries an4 illnesses$ +!us) t!e a""arent "ositive results 'rom t!ese s(stems coul4 be !i4ing a constant or even !ig!er rate o' acci4ents (Coo"er) 2001@ Howe) 2000@ Nawrence ? :lan4ers) 2000@ Mio88a ? >(l4) 2002)$ =ccor4ing to Howe (2000)) t!is /in4 o' s(stems ac!ieves lower acci4ent rates onl( b( 4riving t!e "roblems un4ergroun4 an4 b( ma/ing t!em invisible) ensuring t!at t!e( will go uncorrecte4$ *nstea4) it is suggeste4 t!at sa'et( bonus s(stems s!oul4 not 'ocus on outcome) suc! as acci4ent rates) but rat!er on t!e be!aviors re;uire4 to ac!ieve t!ose outcomes$ +!e sa'er be!aviors o' t!e em"lo(ees 4o t!en lea4 to a real ac!ievement o' 4esire4 sa'et( outcomes (Coo"er) 2001)$ &9am"les o' be!aviors t!at coul4 be rewar4e4 are "artici"ating in sa'et(1relate4 activities suc! as sa'et(1training sessions) activel( i4enti'(ing ris/s) re"orting near misses) an4 ma/ing "otentiall( viable suggestions about !ow to "revent ris/$ S(stems 4esigne4 to rewar4 sa'e be!aviors in t!is wa( !ave "roven to be more e''ective also b( contributing to an increase4 interest in an4 awareness o' sa'et( (Nawrence ? :lan4ers) 2000)$ Somet!ing t!at most researc!ers seem to agree on is t!at a success'ul sa'et(1'ocuse4 bonus s(stem !as to be "art o' a more overall sa'et( strateg( 'rom t!e management) w!ic! woul4 t("icall( also inclu4e measures suc! as sa'et(1relate4 e4ucation "rograms) monitoring an4 communication$ = sa'et( "rogram t!at targets one area) wit!out a44ressing t!e ot!ers) is less li/el( to succee4 (Blen4inning) 2001@ Mio88a ? >(l4) 2002)$ *n a44ition) it is vital t!at 4i''erent elements in t!e strateg( 4o not inclu4e con'licting goals (McNain ? -arell) 2007)$ *' sa'et( bonus goals come into con'lict wit! "ro4uction bonus goals t!ere is a ris/ t!at rewar4s associate4 wit! "ro4uction ma( overri4e rewar4s associate4 wit! sa'e "er'ormance$ +!is is "articularl( relevant in 20 M$ Mattson et al$ % Human Resource Management Review 24 (2014) 17L30 organi8ations wit! a less 4evelo"e4 sa'et( climate) w!ere lea4ers o'ten "rioriti8e "ro4uction goals over sa'et( goals) t!ereb( M$ Mattson et al$ % Human Resource Management Review 24 (2014) 17L30 21 ma/ing some outcomes more 4esirable t!an ot!ers$ *n 'act) 'in4ings s!ow t!at a lea4ers!i" st(le using contingent rewar4s !as been associate4 wit! re4uce4 minor inur( rates onl( w!en me4iate4 b( a general sa'et( climate in t!e organi8ation (Po!ar) 2002)$ *n organi8ations wit! a "rominent sa'et( culture) sa'et( is consi4ere4 a !ig! "riorit( b( t!e management$ Conse;uentl() even su"ervisors view sa'et( as a legitimate "er'ormance goal$ +!e "ur"ose o' t!is stu4( is to e9"lore into "otential e''ects on motivation 'or sa'et( be!aviors associate4 wit! t!e bonus s(stems at use in t!e t!ree Swe4is! nuclear "lants$ 2$ Met!o4s 2$1$ &laboration o' a t!eoretical 'ramewor/ =s "art o' t!e 4esign o' our stu4() one aim was to 'irst establis! w!ic! role monetar( rewar4s in general mig!t "la( accor4ing to a broa4er s"ectrum o' t!eories$ Hence) an elaboration o' t!eories on motivation) organi8ational "ers"ectives an4 "revious researc! regar4ing sa'et(1relate4 bonus s(stems was "er'orme4$ +!e intent wit! suc! an eclectic a""roac! was to "ro4uce a t!eoretical 'rame o' re'erence t!roug! t!e generation o' 4i''erent t!emes t!at were consi4ere4 to be relevant 'or t!e 'unctioning o' bonus s(stems an4) more s"eci'icall() sa'et( be!aviors$ +!e t!eoretical mo4els selecte4 to "rovi4e t!e t!emes 'or t!e stu4( were t!ose t!at coul4 in some wa( be relate4 to t!e e''ects 'rom monetar( rewar4s) an4 none o' t!em were t!ere'ore given overall "rece4ence$ +!e emerging t!emes were t!en use4 as a "lat'orm) bot! 'or t!e interviews wit! t!e em"lo(ees at t!e "ower "lants an4 'or t!e subse;uent inter"retation o' t!e 4ata obtaine4 'rom t!e interviews an4 'rom t!e ma""ing o' t!e bonus s(stems (see :ig$ 1)$ 2$2$ =n eclectic 'ramewor/ 'or e9"loring "otential e''ects o' bonus s(stems Qarious t("es o' t!eories on t!e assume4 e''ects o' rewar4s on motivation) "er'ormance an4 sa'et( !ave been broug!t toget!er wit! t!e "ur"ose o' 'orming a broa4 an4 eclectic t!eoretical 'ramewor/ 'or t!e "resent stu4($ +able 1 s!ows a variet( o' as"ects o' "ossible relevance 'or t!e e''ects o' bonus s(stems as suc! as"ects are 4erive4 'rom t!eories or em"irical evi4ence$ =s t!e various motivational an4 organi8ational t!eories re'erre4 to in t!e table are basic an4 well /nown t!e( are not 4escribe4 in t!e te9t but sam"les o' general re'erences are given in +able 1$ 6ase4 on t!e as"ects liste4 in +able 1) seven maor /e( t!emes were i4enti'ie4 an4 use4 as a "lat'orm an4 gui4e 'or bot! t!e interviews an4 t!e anal(sis o' 4ata$ +able 2 s!ows t!e overri4ing t!emes an4 t!e t("es o' t!eories 'rom w!ic! t!e( were e9tracte4$ 2$3$ Setting +!e stu4( was carrie4 out at all t!ree "resentl( active Swe4is! nuclear "ower "lants$ =ll t!ree "lants !a4 a""ro9imatel( 1000–1I00 em"lo(ees eac! an4 were about t!e same "!(sical si8e (3–4 reactors eac!)$ +!e( !a4 similar !ierarc!ical structures in w!ic! t!e service an4 su""ort sta''s wor/e4 4irectl( un4er t!e C&AMs$ &ac! reactor encom"asse4 a 4iscrete "ro4uction unit t!at was com"rise4 o' several subgrou"s (e$g$) o"erator s!i't teams) maintenance teams)$ +o4a() t!e "lants are all incor"orate4 com"anies$ Literature review on incentive pay systems, motivation and safety Formation of broad framework and selection of themes to guide interviews Study of the bonus system’s design at respective plant Field study of employee perceptions of the systems Interpretation of the field study results according to theoretical themes and design of bonus systems :ig$ 1$ =im an4 "roce4ure o' t!e stu4($ +!eories%em"irical evi4ence &9am"le re'erences 5e( as"ects o' t!eories 5e(wor4s o' as"ects 7ee4 t!eories Her8berg (1322) =l4er'er (1323) Hac/man an4 Al4!am (1372) R(an an4 Deci (2000) 1 *ntrinsic rewar4s su"erior to e9trinsic$ 1 Rewar4s in accor4ance wit! nee4s o' in4ivi4ual$ 1 =iming at commitment an4 satis'action t!roug! "artici"ation an4 'ee4bac/$ *ntrinsic%e9trinsic Meaning'ulness Satis'action .artici"ation :ee4bac/ &;uit( t!eories =4ams (132I) 5orman (1370) Ramaswami an4 Sing! (2003) 1 Si8e o' bonus in relation to t!e rewar4e4 tas/$ 1 Si8e o' bonus com"are4 to signi'icant ot!ers$ 1 .erceive4 'airness in its 4esign) criteria an4 "otential -ustice an4 'airness *nterrelations 1 *ts relations!i" to ot!er goals) rewar4s an4 organi8ational activities$ Qalue an4 e9"ectanc( t!eories Qroom (1324) .orter an4 Nawler (132H) Noc/e an4 Nat!am (2002) 1 Distinctiveness in t!e relation between wor/ – result – rewar4s$ 1 *n'ormation%'ee4bac/ about results$ 1 .erceive4 value o' t!e rewar4$ Clarit( *n'ormation :ee4bac/ *ntrinsic%e9trinsic Rein'orcement t!eories S/inner (133H) 1 Distinctiveness in t!e relation between be!avior an4 rewar4%"unis!ment$ 1 0nambiguous an4 imme4iate 'ee4bac/$ .erceive4 e''ects on "er'ormance Clarit( 'ee4bac/ Rationalist t!eories -ensen an4 Mec/ling (1372) 1 Si8e o' bonus$ 1 .ro"ortion 'i9e4 vs$ 'le9ible "arts o' t!e bonus$ 1 .ower relations) aut!orit() in'luence) legitimac() an4 con'licting interests$ *ntrinsic%e9trinsic Clarit( :ee4bac/ *nterrelations S(stems t!eories 5at8 an4 5a!n (137H) 1 Co!erence between t!e s(stem an4 ot!er strategies wit!in *nterrelations Researc!%t!eories 5err (137I)) 1 6alance between 4eman4s o' sta/e!ol4ers$ 1 5in4 o' be!avior rewar4e4$ *ntrinsic%e9trinsic on bonus s(stems Deci an4 R(an (13HI)) 1 Rewar4ing 4esire4 be!aviors instea4 o' results$ Satis'action :ran/ (13HH)) 1 :air 4esign) measurement an4 4istribution o' rewar4s$ Meaning'ulness &lster (13H3)) 1 Nevel o' goals (in4ivi4ual1collective) .erceive4 e''ect on :re( an4 -egen (2001)) 1 .artici"ation in t!e 4esign o' t!e s(stem$ "er'ormance Po!ar (2002)) 1 Clarit( o' 'ee4bac/ on "er'ormance$ -ustice an4 'airness Hertel et al$ (2004)) 1 Con'i4ence in managements concerns about sa'et($ *nterrelations Co!en1C!aras! an4 1 Co!erence between goals$ .artici"ation Mueller (2007)) 1 .art o' overall sa'et( strateg( McNain an4 -arell (2007) +able 1 5e( as"ects o' "ossible relevance 'or t!e e''ects o' bonus s(stems accor4ing to t!eories an4 em"irical evi4ence in t!e t!eoretical 'ramewor/$ an4 actual rewar4$ t!e organi8ation$ 1 Co!erence between goals$ 1 Coo"eration an4 4e"en4encies between 4e"artments%'unctions$ +able 3 s!ows t!e "ercentages o' ma9imum bonus 'or "lants =–C contingent u"on economic vs$ ;ualit( goals) cor"orate vs$ "lant goals) an4 grou" vs$ in4ivi4ual goals$ 6onus goals relate4 to "ro4uction an4 economic results varie4 between 2I an4 I0R among t!e "lants$ +!e remaining "ortions o' ma9imum bonuses were base4 on ;ualit( goals$ +!e nature o' t!ese goals 4i''ere4 to some e9tent among t!e t!ree s(stems but mainl( 'ocuse4 on com"etence an4 "rocess 4evelo"ment as well as sa'et(1 relate4 issues$ =ll o' t!e t!ree bonus s(stems a""lie4 to all "ermanentl( em"lo(e4 sta'' members (e9ce"t t!e "lant managing 4irector an4 vice "resi4ent)$ =n( bonus was "ai4 retros"ectivel( on a (earl( basis$ =t "lants = an4 6) t!e "otential bonus was limite4 to a ma9imum amount o' 20)000 Swe4is! crowns (S&5) annuall( "er "erson$ =t "lant C) t!e ;ualit( goals also inclu4e4 certain in4ivi4ual goals$ +!ese goals were se"arate 'rom t!ose concerning regular wor/ tas/s an4 o'ten 'ocuse4 on be!aviors regar4ing sa'et( awareness$ +!e ma9imum "otential bonus at "lant C was limite4 to a certain "ercentage (10–30R) o' t!e in4ivi4ualMs (earl( salar() w!ic! 4i''ere4 among sta'' categories (wit! !ig!er "ercentages a""l(ing to !ig!er "ositions)$ +!e goals to be use4 in t!e s(stems were 4eci4e4 b( t!e managing 4irector a'ter consultation wit! e9ecutives an4 o"erational managers$ Benerall() ot!er em"lo(ees were not able to in'luence t!e selection o' goals) e9ce"t "ossibl( t!roug! t!e unions$ However) at "lant C) in4ivi4ual goals were set) an4 even evaluate4) t!roug! a collaboration o' t!e in4ivi4ual an4 !is or !er imme4iate su"ervisor$ *n t!is case) t!e in4ivi4ual "art o' t!e bonus was base4 on t!e managerMs 'inal evaluation o' w!et!er t!e criteria were 'ul'ille4) on a scale between 0–110R$ At!erwise) t!e goals) criteria) an4 estimate4 rewar4s o' t!e bonus s(stem were communicate4 continuousl() 'or e9am"le) t!roug! t!e internal website$ *n some cases a met!o4 using balance4 scorecar4s was use4 in t!e s(stem$ Scorecar4s o' t!is /in4 generall( a""l( to strategic an4 measurable goals t!at can be eit!er o' a 'inancial or o' a ;ualitative (e$g$ learning in t!e organi8ation) c!aracter$ +!e bonus s(stem !a4 !a4 t!ese 4esigns 'or about two to 'our (ears at t!e time o' t!e "resent investigation$ +!e s"eci'ic goals o' t!e s(stems are) !owever) revise4 (earl( an4 t!e si8e o' t!e bonuses o'ten varies 'rom one (ear to anot!er$ &m"lo(ees usuall( en4 u" earning some bonus) but t!e( rarel( receive t!eir 'ull "otential bonus$ +able 2 Maor interview t!emes re'lecting relevant 'eatures o' bonus s(stems an4 t!e t!eories 'rom w!ic! t!e( were 4erive4$ +!emes +!eories%em"irical evi4ence Beneral satis'action an4 meaning'ulness o' t!e s(stems 7ee4 t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems *ntrinsic an4 e9trinsic motivation 7ee4 t!eories Qalue an4 e9"ectanc( t!eories Rationalist t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems .erceive4 e''ects on "er'ormance Rein'orcement t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems &m"lo(ee "artici"ation an4 in'luence on t!e s(stems 7ee4 t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems -ustice an4 'airness 6alance t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems Clarit() in'ormation an4 'ee4bac/ 7ee4 t!eories Qalue an4 e9"ectanc( t!eories Rein'orcement t!eories Rationalist t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems *nterrelations between goals an4 between 'unctions 6alance t!eories Rationalist t!eories S(stems t!eories Researc!%t!eories on bonus s(stems =s can be seen in +able 3) t!e t!ree s(stems 4i''ere4 in t!e e9tent to w!ic! t!e( em"!asi8e4 goal ac!ievement at t!e cor"orate) "lant) an4 in4ivi4ual levels$ =t "lant =) all o' t!e goals were set at t!e cor"orate an4 "lant levels an4 were t!us t!e same 'or all em"lo(ees$ +!e s(stem at "lant 6 !ol4s) besi4es a maor s!are o' bonuses relate4 to "lant level results) also a s!are (1IR) set at a lower) grou" level$ =t "lant C) as muc! as 40R o' t!e ma9imum bonus was relate4 to in4ivi4ual goals) but not!ing to goals 4e'ine4 at grou" level$ *n +able 3) eac! bonus s(stem !as been given a 4enotation or /e(wor4 in4icating to w!at 4egree t!e( em"!asi8e collective or in4ivi4ual goals$ +!e /e(wor4 4oes not mention t!e s(stemsM 4esign on t!e economic1;ualit( goal 4imension) but is onl( inten4e4 to 'acilitate t!e 'urt!er rea4ing b( o''ering a s!ort 4enotation o' one o' t!e main c!aracteristics o' eac! s(stem$ 2$4$ Sam"le :ive em"lo(ees 'rom eac! o' t!e t!ree nuclear "ower "lants (=) 6) an4 C) were selecte4 to "artici"ate in t!e stu4($ +o obtain t!is sam"le) one o' t!e interviewees at eac! "lant was 'irst selecte4 as a contact "erson 'or t!e stu4() base4 on a4vice 'rom t!e Swe4is! Ra4iation Sa'et( =ut!orit() t!e "ublic aut!orit( in c!arge o' controlling t!e nuclear "lants$ +!e contact "ersons in turn "ro"ose4 'our a44itional em"lo(ees at t!eir "lant 'or "artici"ation$ +!e contact "ersons !a4 been "rom"te4 to select em"lo(ees w!o coul4 !ave varie4 views an4 e9"eriences o' t!e s(stems an4 w!o re"resente4 4i''erent 'unctions an4 "ositions in t!e organi8ation$ :our o' t!e "artici"ants were mi44le level managers) 'our were lower level managers (o"erational) an4 seven were wor/ers$ A' t!e wor/ers) 'ive wor/e4 in "ro4uction s!i't teams (e$g$ control room "ersonnel) an4 two wor/e4 wit! maintenance$ 7one o' t!e "artici"ants were to"1level managers) suc! as C&A or vice "resi4ent$ +!e 'inal sam"le consiste4 o' two women an4 t!irteen men) w!ic! corres"on4s 'airl( well to t!e general "ro"ortion wit!in t!e "lants$ +!e age range o' t!e "artici"ants was 32–23 (ears$ +able 3 .ercent o' ma9imum bonus 'or "lants =–C contingent u"on economic vs$ ;ualit( goals) cor"orate vs$ "lant goals) an4 grou" vs$ in4ivi4ual goals) an4 in a44ition a /e(wor4 'or eac! o' t!e s(stems$ .lant%s(stem (/e(wor4) = (“collective s(stem”) 6 (“grou" s(stem”) C (“in4ivi4ual s(stem”) &conomic goals Cor"orate level 1IR 40R 20R .lant level 10R 10R 20R Sualit( goals .lant level 7IR 3IR 20R Brou" level 1IR *n4ivi4ual level 40R +otal 100R 100R 100R 2$I$ Data collection = semi1structure4 interview gui4e was t!e main tool 'or 4ata collection$ =ll "artici"ants receive4 a letter wit! in'ormation about t!e aim o' t!e stu4($ +!e interviews were carrie4 out 4uring t!e in'ormantsM "ai4 wor/ing 4a( an4 laste4 between 2I an4 30 min$ +!e interviews wit! t!e contact "ersons also inclu4e4 ;uestions about t!e construction o' t!eir bonus s(stem$ +!ese interviews were "er'orme4 ointl( b( two o' t!e aut!ors) w!ile t!e ot!er "artici"ants were interviewe4 in4ivi4uall( b( eit!er o' t!e aut!ors$ =ll t!e interviews were carrie4 out in 7ovember 200H$ +!e 4escri"tive in'ormation regar4ing t!e organi8ational structure an4 t!e 4esigns o' t!e bonus s(stems was obtaine4 t!roug! 4ocuments ma4e available to us an4 t!roug! interviews wit! our contact "ersons at t!e "lants$ +!e interview gui4e regar4ing t!e e9"eriences o' t!e s(stems was re'lecting t!e t!emes in t!e t!eoretical 'ramewor/$ Most o' t!e ;uestions were o"en en4e4 in or4er to "rom"t t!e "artici"ant to e9"ress t!eir views an4 e9"eriences as o"enl( as "ossible (e$g$ >!at 4oes it mean to (ou "ersonall( to receive a bonusT Do (ou t!in/ t!at t!e s(stem !as a''ecte4 t!e level o' stress in wor/T *' (es# !owT >!at is (our general o"inion about t!e managementMs wa(s o' !an4ling sa'et( issuesT >!at mainl( motivates (ou to "er'orm well at wor/T)$ &ven t!oug! t!e ;uestions were 'ormulate4 in a4vance) t!ere was still 'le9ibilit( in t!e interviews) w!ic! allowe4 'or c!anges in t!e or4er o' t!e ;uestions an4 'or a""ro"riate 'ollow1u" ;uestions w!en interesting an4 sometimes new to"ics a""eare4 in t!e interviews$ =ccor4ing to 5vale (1332)) t!is wa( o' a4a"ting to eac! interview is necessar( to ac!ieve a 'ruit'ul interc!ange between t!e interviewer an4 t!e interviewee an4 to maintain t!e 'low o' communication$ +!e interviews were au4io recor4e4 an4 !el4 in an un4isturbe4 environment) eit!er at t!e em"lo(eesM wor/"lace or in es"eciall( assigne4 con'erence rooms locate4 near t!e "lants$ =t t!e start o' t!e interviews) t!e "artici"ants were in'orme4 about t!e "ur"ose o' t!e stu4( an4 !ow t!e material was to be use4$ +!e( were also in'orme4 about t!e con'i4entialit( o' t!e stu4() an4 t!eir consent to recor4 t!e interview was re;ueste4$ 2$2$ =nal(ses +!e recor4ings 'rom t!e interviews were transcribe4 in 'ull te9t$ = t!eor(1le4 t!ematic anal(sis was use4 accor4ing to Ha(es (2000)$ = t!oroug! review o' t!e literature wit!in t!e 'iel4 be'ore t!e anal(sis !as t!e a4vantage o' sensiti8ing t!e researc!er to more subtle 'eatures o' t!e 4ata at !an4 (+uc/ett) 200I)$ *n an initial stage o' t!e anal(sis) eac! transcri"t was rea4 t!roug! several times in or4er to i4enti'( all o' t!e statements w!ic! relate4 to eac! o' t!e seven t!emes establis!e4 in t!e t!eoretical 'ramewor/$ +!e statements wit!in eac! t!eme were t!en anal(8e4 in terms o' t!eir actual meanings an4 im"lications$ = "attern eventuall( emerge4 wit!in eac! t!eoretical t!eme) w!ic! s!e4 lig!t on t!e most relevant as"ects o' t!at s"eci'ic t!eme) as e9"erience4 b( t!e "artici"ants$ +!e resulting as"ects were summari8e4 un4er eac! t!eme along wit! selecte4 4ata e9cer"ts t!at constitute4 illustrative e9am"les o' t!ese as"ects) consistent wit! convention as outline4 in 6raun an4 Clar/e (2002)$ *nvestigator triangulation) as 4escribe4 b( Den8in (137H)) was use4 in t!at bot! t!e structuring an4 t!e anal(sis o' t!e material were carrie4 out b( two o' t!e aut!ors in4e"en4entl( 'rom one anot!er wit! concor4ant results$ *nvestigator triangulation is consi4ere4 to guar4 against t!e ris/ o' bias associate4 wit! t!e "oint o' view o' onl( one anal(st (:it8"atric/ ? >allace) 2012@ .atton) 1333)$ 3$ Results 3$1$ Beneral satis'action an4 meaning'ulness o' t!e s(stems *n general) t!e res"on4ents at all t!ree "lants e9"resse4 eit!er rat!er content or neutral attitu4es towar4s t!e s(stems$ Brate'ulness over t!e "ossibilit( o' receiving a bonus was e9"resse4) but at t!e same time t!e interviewees a4mitte4 t!at t!e( ta/e it more or less 'or grante4$ +!is attitu4e !a4) !owever) wea/ene4 in "lants w!ere bonuses were onl( receive4 on occasional (ears$ Still) in general) t!e bonuses were at best consi4ere4 to be a welcome economic contribution an4 a to/en o' a""reciation$ Most o' t!e "artici"ants claime4 t!at t!e( 4i4 not e9"ect muc! o' it# “.ersonall( * am ;uite in4i''erent towar4 t!e s(stem”) “it is not all wrong”) “nice) but not!ing (ou "ersonall( e9"ect”) “t!e "resent s(stem is acce"table) but *M4 rat!er !ave a !ig!er salar(”$ >it! regar4 to t!e 4esigns o' t!e s(stems) similar o"inions were re"orte4 'rom em"lo(ees wor/ing un4er t!e same t("e o' bonus s(stem$ =t "lant = (collective s(stem)) a general in4i''erence about t!e s(stem was e9"resse4) w!ile t!ose at "lant 6 (grou" s(stem) "erceive4 t!at t!eir s(stem !a4 im"rove4 signi'icantl( 4uring recent (ears because o' more realistic an4 better s"eci'ie4 criteria 'or goal ac!ievement$ +!e bonus was "erceive4 as more meaning'ul w!en it was clearl( relate4 to s"eci'ic goals 4enote4 b( scorecar4s$ =s one res"on4ent "ut it# 7ow it Ut!e s(stemV !as more meaning$ 7ow it is more realistic — in recent (ears$ U…V *t stimulates t!e 4evelo"ment) an4 t!is is a small s"ur$ &ver(t!ing t!at (ou 'ollow u" t!is wa( is easier to get results on U…V an4 i' (ou !ave no suc! goal) w!ic! is not 'ollowe4 u" an4 no carrot) t!en (ou 4onMt ta/e so !ar4 on it$ An t!e ot!er !an4 one o"inion was t!at t!e goals on t!e scorecar4s were too man(# “* 4onMt even remember all t!e goals) t!e( were too man() an4 so it ma/es (ou lose a little o'… itMs not t!at goo4$” =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) a 'ew o' t!e su"ervisors "erceive4 t!e "roce4ure o' coming u" wit! a""ro"riate an4 measurable goals to be so com"licate4 t!at t!e w!ole "ur"ose o' t!e s(stem was ;uestione4# “*M4 rat!er see t!at we 4i4 not !ave a bonus s(stem) at least not at t!e in4ivi4ual level$ * mean) * 4onMt min4 receiving a little e9tra mone() but sometimes it 'eels li/e it is sim"l( too muc! trouble$” 3$2$ *ntrinsic an4 e9trinsic motivation +!e results 4i4 not in4icate an( maor 4i''erences between t!e t!ree s(stems regar4ing t!e em"lo(eeMs motivation$ +!e mone( "otentiall( obtaine4 t!roug! t!e bonus s(stems was not consi4ere4 a 4riving 'orce in itsel'$ Several comments in4icate4 t!at t!e amount was consi4ere4 insigni'icant# “*tMs ust a ;uestion o' wor/ing overtime a cou"le o' 4a(s an4 (ou get basicall( t!e same amount$” Some o' t!e interviewees claime4 t!at t!e bonuses woul4 !ave a greater im"act on motivation i' t!ere was a "ossibilit( o' obtaining a larger amount an4 i' t!ere was greater o""ortunit( to in'luence t!e amount receive4 4e"en4ing on oneMs "er'ormance$ Still) anot!er o"inion was t!at t!e si8e o' t!e amount was unim"ortant since t!e( believe4 t!at it 4i4 not a''ect "er'ormance in an( case$ = cou"le o' t!e "artici"ants re'erre4 to earlier em"lo(ers w!ere t!e( !a4 receive4 !ig!er bonuses$ =s one o' t!em "ut it# *t was ver( muc! lucrative bac/ t!en$ *t reall( was$ =t least at Uearlier em"lo(erV$ >e receive4 s!ares in Ua big grou"V$ So it was a lot o' mone($ >e o'ten receive4 about 20)000–30)000 (S&5)$ 6ut we 4i4 not wor/ !ar4er because o' t!e !ig!er amounts$ >e 4eDnitel( 4i4 not$ *nstea4) motivation was mainl( !el4 to come 'rom ot!er) more intrinsic) as"ects$ Some e9am"les are#“M( own inner 'eeling o' !aving 4one a goo4 ob”) “+!e "ri4e in wor/ing wit! somet!ing t!at is im"ortant 'or ot!er "eo"le an4 'or societ(”) “.ri4e in 4oing a goo4 ob”) “+o be able to !an4le a !eav( res"onsibilit(”) “+o 4evelo" m( own com"etence”) “+o alwa(s learn somet!ing new”) “Satis'action wit! co1wor/ers”) “=""reciation 'rom colleagues an4 managers”) “Hel"ing ot!ers to grow”) “.artici"ation in an im"ortant activit(” an4 “:ellows!i" in a goo4 s!i't team”$ Receiving bonuses an4 mone( in general was largel( consi4ere4 motivational in t!at it re'lecte4 t!e em"lo(erMs a""reciation$ Some criticism concerne4 t!e 'act t!at) in some cases) bonuses were being given 'or goo4 "er'ormance t!at !a4 occurre4 'ar bac/ in time) w!ic! was believe4 to un4ermine t!e "otential motivating e''ect o' t!e s(stem$ 3$3$ .erceive4 e''ects on "er'ormance *n all o' t!e "lants) t!e bonus s(stems were !ar4l( consi4ere4 to "rovi4e incentive) seeing as t!e em"lo(ees neit!er t!oug!t about it in connection wit! t!eir ever(4a( wor/ nor 4iscusse4 it muc! wit! colleagues$ * !ave no 'eeling t!at "eo"le t!in/ about t!e bonus w!en t!e( wor/$ *t is not li/e it is eas( to inWuence in ever(4a( wor/$ 6ut it is more o' a statement a'terwar4s# “o/) so t!is was !ow t!is (ear turne4 out”$ +!e general view was t!at t!ere were "lent( o' t!ings in t!e 4ail( o"erations w!ic! were more im"ortant t!an t!e "ossibilit( o' obtaining a bonus$ :or e9am"le) t!e moral obligation to alwa(s /ee" sa'et( in min4 was consi4ere4 'ar more im"ortant t!an t!e bonus# “>or/ing at a nuclear "ower "lant is rule 4riven”) “>e are strictl( raise4 !ere”) “>!en somet!ing une9"ecte4 !a""ens t!e sa'et( values ta/e c!arge”) an4 “Here !uman beings are t!e most im"ortant barrier Uagainst acci4entsV”$ Common sentiments inclu4e4 t!at i' (ou wor/ in a "ro"er an4 sa'e manner) it will "a( o'' in t!e long run an4 t!at t!ere are no s!ortcuts$ +!e interviewees 4i4 not consi4er sa'et( to be negativel( a''ecte4 b( t!e bonus s(stems an4 several o' t!em gave e9am"les o' situations in w!ic! 4ecisions !a4 been ma4e 4es"ite t!e awareness o' its negative e''ects on t!eir bonus rewar4s$ =s we sat in some meeting) t!ere was someone w!o was well rea4 on t!e content o' t!e in4e9 w!o sai4 “=re (ou aware o' w!en (ou ma/e a 4ecision about t!is t!at it will a''ect our bonus negativel(T”$ “=ll rig!t) but now t!is is actuall( our conviction on t!is matter”$ So * t!in/ t!ere is a ver( !ig! morale w!en it comes to t!is$ +!e bonus s(stems were consi4ere4 to a''ect t!e wor/ situation b( encouraging em"lo(ees to "artici"ate in an4 also s!are in t!e res"onsibilities relate4 to com"an( activities$ +!e s(stems also a""eare4 to a''ect em"lo(ee attitu4es towar4s wor/ since t!e rewar4s receive4 'rom t!e s(stems were o'ten seen as a sign o' a""reciation 'rom t!e em"lo(er an4 create4 a 'eeling o' being "art o' somet!ing im"ortant in t!e wi4er societ($ =ccor4ing to some res"on4ents) t!e bonus s(stems were !el4 to !ave in4irect e''ects on wor/ be!aviors in so 'ar as t!e( gave clear in4ications o' w!at was "rioriti8e4 b( management$ +!is ma( !ave increase4 ;ualit( in areas t!at woul4 ot!erwise !ave been neglecte4$ +!e bonus goals lai4 out b( t!e management o'ten 'ocus on areas w!ic! are not wor/ing "ro"erl( an4 nee4 attention$ So t!e( mig!t ca"ture issues suc! as !ouse1/ee"ing an4 or4erliness$ =s a result t!ere mig!t be a little ;ualit( increase$ .er!a"s (ou woul4 !ave 4one it an(wa() but t!is becomes an a44itional trigger$ = trigger w!ic! mig!t ma/e (ou c!ange (our be!avior a little$ Most o' t!e res"on4ents) es"eciall( at "lant = (collective s(stem) an4 "lant 6 (grou" s(stem)) state4 t!at t!eir level o' stress !a4 4ecrease4 as a result o' t!e ;ualit( goals em"!asi8e4 in t!e s(stems$ =s one "artici"ant 4escribe4 it# *t !as become clearer in recent (ears) t!at t!e ones w!o or4er t!e o"erations sa(# “+a/e all t!e time (ou nee4 to 4o a goo4 ob”$ U…V +!at is somet!ing we !ave never !ear4 be'ore$ =n4 t!e( "reac! it at ever( Morning .ra(er) as we call it) t!e au4it meeting) t!at# “Do a goo4 ob$ DonMt !aste it$ +a/e all t!e time (ou nee4 in or4er to ensure sa'et(”$ Similarl() anot!er "artici"ant sai4# “*t is not t!e same stress an( more) but now (ou "ull t!e brea/s$ U…V Oou 4onMt t!in/ as muc! about /ee"ing t!e "lant in constant o"eration as (ou 4i4 be'ore$ 6ut… it ma( ta/e t!e time it re;uires”$ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) !owever) one res"on4ent suggeste4 t!at t!e bonus s(stem coul4 at times bring on more stress b( ma/ing em"lo(ees 'eel li/e t!e( nee4e4 to wor/ e9tra an4) also) b( 4riving t!em to "ut asi4e regular wor/ tas/s in or4er to !ave time to 'ul'ill in4ivi4ual bonus criteria$ Some managers also e9"resse4 t!at t!e "roce4ure o' 'ormulating a4e;uate in4ivi4ual goals was somew!at 4eman4ing an4 stress'ul$ *nterviewer# How 4o (ou 'eel t!en) w!en (ou Dn4 (oursel' in suc! a situation Uw!en ot!er) more im"ortant tas/s !ave a""eare4 so t!at t!e "artici"ant !asnMt !a4 time to 'ulDll t!e bonus obectivesVT .artici"ant# StressX .anic$ &s"eciall( i' (ou !ave been assigne4 to a grou" goal) w!en a w!ole grou" s!oul4 accom"lis! somet!ing$ *# +!at (ou woul4 a''ect t!e bonus 'or ot!er "eo"le negativel(T .# Oes$ &9actl($ So t!ere'ore it becomes bot! an in4ivi4ual stress "lus a… (es) a "ressure is "ut on (ou 'rom outsi4e as well$ 3$4$ &m"lo(ee "artici"ation an4 inWuence on t!e s(stems Re"orte4 "artici"ation in t!e 'ormation o' t!e bonus s(stems an4 t!e "ossibilities o' in'luencing t!e amount o' t!e bonus rewar4s varie4 wi4el( wit!in t!e organi8ations$ >!ile t!e managers) HR "ro'essionals) an4 sta'' w!o were involve4 in t!e 4esign o' t!e bonus s(stems naturall( 'elt t!e( !a4 an in'luence on it) lower level em"lo(ees sai4 t!at t!e( !a4 ver( limite4 or no in'luence at all on its 4evelo"ment an4) es"eciall() t!e "otential rewar4s$ +!e s(stems were) above all) seen as s(stems 'or "ro'it s!aring an4 t!eir goals were consi4ere4 4i''icult to 'ul'ill in t!e course o' ever(4a( wor/$ .erceive4 "artici"ation 4i4) !owever) also seem to 4i''er even between in4ivi4uals at similar levels$ Some o' t!e res"on4ents re"orte4 a !ig! 4egree o' "artici"ation 4es"ite being at a low !ierarc!ical level@ t!e( consi4ere4 t!emselves to be im"ortant “cogs in t!e mac!iner(” an4 believe4 t!e( coul4 in4irectl( a''ect t!e amount o' bonus t!e( receive4 b( alwa(s "er'orming at a !ig! stan4ar4$ Re"orte4 "artici"ation an4 t!e "ossibilit( o' in'luencing t!e bonus s(stem an4 its rewar4s also to some 4egree varie4 at t!e "lant level$ =t "lant =) w!ere t!e s(stem was base4 on "lant1level collective goals) "artici"ation was ver( low$ Some o' t!e interviewees e9"resse4 a wis! t!at more o' t!e bonus criteria s!oul4 be aime4 at in4ivi4uals# “+!e scorecar4s s!oul4 be 'ormulate4 so t!at (ou as an in4ivi4ual can in'luence t!e 'ul'illment o' t!e goals$” +!e interviewees at "lant 6 (grou" s(stem) state4 t!at t!e sense o' involvement !a4 im"rove4 since t!e goals !a4 been c!ange4 an4 been ma4e more realistic com"are4 to earlier goals# &arlier w!en t!e goals were more unrealistic) e$g$ goals relate4 to cas!1Wow) t!en (ou were t!in/ing# “A! well) t!ere is no wa( we coul4 inWuence t!e outcome an(wa($ >e can ust as well sto" tr(ing”$ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) t!ose wit! in4ivi4ual goals "erceive4 t!emselves to be relativel( !ig!l( involve4 in t!e setting an4 'ul'illment o' t!ese goals$ However) criticism was e9"resse4 at t!is "lant regar4ing 4i''iculties to reac! t!e to" level o' goal 'ul'illment (wit!in 100–110R)) as t!e( were unsure about w!at was e9"ecte4 o' t!em# “+!e goals are ;uite ambiguous… it is more o' a lotter($” 3$I$ -ustice an4 'airness +!e general view at all t!ree "lants was t!at t!e s(stems were 'air on t!e w!ole) but t!e interviews in4icate4 certain 4i''erences between "lants$ +!e "lant at w!ic! t!e s(stem was "erceive4 to be most 'air was "lant = (collective s(stem)) w!ere collective ;ualit( goals were "rioriti8e4 an4 w!ere ever(bo4( receive4 an e;ual bonus amount$ +!e s(stem was consi4ere4 'air since it gave a sense o' belonging to a com"an( run t!roug! coo"erative e''ort$ .reviousl() one unit coul4 receive !ig!er bonus t!an anot!er$ =n4 t!en it coul4 be a little 'riction between t!em) since t!e goal 'ulDllment was not!ing (ou coul4 inWuence at all on t!e low level$ *t 'elt ver( un'air$ So * t!in/ t!e s(stem !as become muc! better now t!at it is collective$ *t stri/es at ever(one$ *t is more e;ual$ =t "lants 6 (grou" s(stem) an4 C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) on t!e ot!er !an4) w!ere t!e 4esign o' t!e s(stems o'ten resulte4 in 4i''erent bonus rewar4s 'or 4i''erent grou"s an4 in4ivi4uals) t!e notion o' inustice was mentione4 more o'ten$ Muc! o' t!e un'airness "erceive4 at t!ese "lants was mainl( associate4 wit! t!e inconsistencies in !ow t!e su"ervisors evaluate4 t!e 'ul'illment o' in4ivi4ual1 an4 grou"1base4 goals$ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) w!ere t!e 0–110 "er cent scale was use4) some o' t!e su"ervisors treate4 ‘110R’ as i' it were w!at woul4 be consi4ere4 100R on a 0–100 "er cent regular wor/ scale) w!ile ot!ers saw 110R as re"resenting t!at e9tra 10R be(on4 normal wor/ e9"ectations$ Ane res"on4ent "ut it t!is wa(# “*t is ver( unclear w!at t!e( actuall( value… so * t!in/ it is ver( ambiguous@ it is ba4l( 4e'ine4 an4 above all it is un'air$” .erce"tions o' un'airness mostl( arose in situations w!ere members o' 4i''erent grou"s com"are4 t!eir bonus earnings wit! eac! ot!er$ *n suc! a situation) some su"ervisors "erceive t!eir own situation to be un'air) as t!e( tr( to 'ollow t!e rules o' t!e s(stem but still receive reactions o' 4isa""ointment 'rom subor4inates w!o !ave com"are4 t!eir results wit! t!ose w!o wor/ 'or more “generous” su"ervisors$ =t "lant 6 (grou" s(stem)) it was consi4ere4 4i''icult to com"are ac!ievements between grou"s) since t!e 4egree o' ambition 4i''ere4 in res"ect to setting goals$ Certain grou"s were more ambitious t!an ot!ers an4 set goals !ig!er) w!ic! o'ten resulte4 in lower bonus earnings$ +!is is illustrate4 b( t!e 'ollowing comment# “+!ere are ;uite big 4i''erences in levels at w!ic! 4e"artments c!oose to set t!eir bars$ Some want to s!ow t!eir wort!… an4 ot!ers ust /in4 o' sli4e along$” +!is "roblem a""eare4 to "ro4uce negative reactions against t!is s(stem$ =not!er situation re"orte4 to "ro4uce un'air bonus rewar4s concerne4 t!e maintenance sta'' at "lants 6 (grou" s(stem) an4 C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)$ >!en "ro4uction was low 4ue to tec!nical "roblems) lesser bonus amounts were earne4 4es"ite t!e 'act t!at t!e( wor/e4 !ar4er t!an usual 4uring suc! "erio4s# “>!en t!ere !ave been roug! (ears an4 we ma/e a lot o' e''orts) t!en t!e "ro4uction is usuall( low$ =t t!ese times it stri/es bac/ at (ou”$ +!is coul4 give rise to 'eelings o' bitterness towar4s t!e com"an($ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) t!e 'act t!at t!e bonus goals were base4 on t!e 'ul'illment o' e9tra tas/s t!at were not re;uisite 'or or4inar( o"erations was also seen as un'air@ t!e( 'elt li/e t!e( were being “"unis!e4” in a wa( i' t!e( 4e4icate4 t!eir e''orts to com"leting or4inar( tas/s rat!er t!an "rioriti8ing t!e bonus goals$ =not!er con4ition re"orte4 as un'air at "lant C concerne4 t!e 'act t!at t!ose in !ig!er "ositions (an4 !ence wit! alrea4( !ig!er salaries) receive4 bonuses t!at were base4 on !ig!er "ercentages o' t!eir salaries# >!( 4oes a senior manager merit a !ig!er bonus t!an a cleaner or w!ateverT S!e !as been wor/ing ust as !ar4 as t!e manager$ So t!atMs somet!ing * 4onMt Dn4 'air) t!at (ou get 4i''erent "ercentages o' (our salar($ 3$2$ Clarit() in'ormation an4 'ee4bac/ A"inions about t!e a4e;uac( o' t!e in'ormation receive4 about t!e bonus s(stems 4i''ere4 wi4el( wit!in an4 between t!e organi8ations$ Most o' t!e res"on4ents at t!e t!ree "lants seeme4 to !ave little /nowle4ge about t!e goals an4 criteria o' t!e s(stems$ Benerall() /nowle4ge about t!e s(stems was better among t!e interviewees w!o were in !ig!er "ositions an4 w!ose s(stem utili8e4 more in4ivi4ual goals$ +!e lac/ o' /nowle4ge was most evi4ent at "lant = (collective s(stem)) w!ere no in4ivi4ual goals were use4$ Here man( o' t!e res"on4ents were un4er t!e 'alse im"ression t!at t!e bonuses were almost e9clusivel( base4 on economic results at t!e cor"orate or "lant level$ +!e 'ollowing comment illustrates t!is# “Certain (ears (ou coul4 un4erstan4 t!at i' several "ro4uction units are tem"oraril( s!ut 4own… t!en (ou coul4 e9"ect to get a lower bonus$ At!erwise * 4onMt /now$ >e ust receive in'ormation about t!e amount we will obtain$” =t "lant 6 (grou" s(stem)) t!e res"on4ents seeme4 better in'orme4 about t!e grou"1base4 goals t!an about t!e "lant an4 cor"orate goals$ 5nowle4ge o' t!e bonus criteria an4 o' t!e t!res!ol4 values (i$e$) t!e values t!at nee4 to be reac!e4 in or4er to meet a goal) was) !owever) ver( limite4$ Man( claime4 t!at in'ormation was available 'or t!ose intereste4# “*' (ou want in'ormation) it is available… but w!at (ou 4o wit! it is w!at varies$” +!is low interest was t!oug!t to be 4ue to t!e 'act t!at t!e "otential bonus rewar4s were small an4 t!at em"lo(ees !a4 little o""ortunit( to in'luence !ow muc! t!e( earne4$ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) t!ere seeme4 to be a relativel( goo4 /nowle4ge o' t!e content o' t!e in4ivi4ual goals$ However) as mentione4 earlier) clarit( was lac/ing regar4ing w!at was re;uire4 'or in4ivi4ual goal ac!ievement (110R)$ Moreover) t!e 4istribution o' bonuses was rarel( accom"anie4 wit! an e9"lanation o' w!( t!e( receive4 t!e given amount$ >!en suc! e9"lanations 4i4 turn u") accor4ing to one res"on4ent) it was eit!er too late or too unclear to learn an(t!ing 'rom — an4 was t!ere'ore o' little use 'or im"roving t!eir 'uture "er'ormance an4 "ossibilities 'or earning a larger bonus$ Several managers also e9"resse4 criticism over t!e lac/ o' clarit( in 4e'ining t!e goals) es"eciall( in terms o' t!eir measurabilit() relevance) an4 time 'rames$ +!e 'ollowing comment is one suc! e9am"le# “>!en t!e( Ut!e managementV tell us about new 4irectives an4 goals) t!e( also !ave to tell us !ow to measure t!em$ *t !as been 4one "oorl( in t!is case”$ :urt!ermore) 4iscontent was e9"resse4 over receiving 4ela(e4 in'ormation 'rom management about t!e 4irectives regar4ing t!e ne9t (earMs in4ivi4ual goals$ Nast minute c!anges ma4e b( to" management sometimes le4 to unnecessar( e9tra wor/ 'or su"ervisors w!o !a4 alrea4( set u" t!eir goals 'or t!e coming (ear$ 3$7$ *nterrelations between goals an4 between 'unctions &m"lo(ees at all o' t!e "lants re"orte4 t!at t!ere was a goo4 balance between sa'et(1 an4 "ro4uction1relate4 goals$ +!ese two t("es o' goals were seen as interconnecte4 an4 su""ortive o' eac! ot!er in t!e long run$ Sa'et( was seen as an in!erent "art o' "ro4uction) an4 sa'et( concerns too/ "rece4ence over concerns relate4 to business com"etition$ =ll o' t!e interviewees re"orte4 !aving a great 4eal o' con'i4ence in t!e managementMs met!o4s o' !an4ling sa'et( issues an4 sai4 t!at im"rovement !a4 been seen in t!is area in recent (ears# “Sa'et( !as alwa(s been im"ortant) but now t!ere are 'ewer 4oubts about it * t!in/$ Management gives t!e im"ression t!at sa'et( is w!atMs most im"ortant) t!at it is reall( number one$ *t 4oesnMt 'eel li/e li" service$” +!e managementMs interest in sa'et( issues an4) in "articular) its 4ecision to inclu4e more bonus goals regar4ing sa'et( t!an regar4ing "ro4uction was consi4ere4 to clearl( re'lect t!is "rioriti8ation$ =t "lant = (collective s(stem)) w!ere mainl( ;ualit( goals were use4) t!e goals were rat!er seen as rein'orcers o' sa'et( values) as evi4ence4 b( t!e 'act t!at em"lo(ees coul4 receive 'ull bonuses even w!en t!eir "ro4uction unit was not in o"eration$ *t Uearlier s(stemV was more relate4 to availabilit( an4 o"erations$ >!ile to4a( it is more im"ortant "er!a"s to 4o t!e "!(sical wor/) t!at is) o"erations ma( not be as im"ortant as t!e real sa'et( u"4ates t!at (ou are 4oing to4a($ +!e sa'et( s(stem (ou /now$ So even i' all t!ree reactors are tem"oraril( s!ut 4own) (ou can still receive t!e bonus$ 6e'ore it was actuall( t!e o""osite$ =t "lant 6 (grou" s(stem)) "revious bonus s(stems !a4 resulte4 in con'licts t!at stemme4 'rom t!e use o' 4i''ering sets o' evaluation criteria as well as 'rom t!e wor/ o' one grou" negativel( a''ecting t!e bonuses o' anot!er grou"# “*' maintenance carrie4 out wor/ w!ic! resulte4 in t!e tem"orar( close14own o' a "ro4uction unit) t!at unit 4i4 not receive a bonus) w!ile t!e maintenance sta'') on t!e ot!er !an4) w!o !a4 4one a "oor ob receive4 a bonus$” However) accor4ing to t!e res"on4ents) c!anges in t!e 4esign o' t!e s(stem !a4 resulte4 in 'ewer con'licts$ +!e main reasons 'or t!is seeme4 to be im"rove4 goal1setting an4 more collectivel( base4 goals$ +!e em"lo(ees !ere saw t!emselves as being more 4e"en4ent on eac! ot!erMs "er'ormances t!an "rior to t!ese c!anges an4 t!eir sense o' being a team !a4 become stronger$ Ane "erson state4 to t!is e''ect# “>e are 4e"en4ing on t!e coo"eration o' man($ >e 'eel somew!at li/e a big 'amil($” +!ere was no sense t!at t!e "ossibilit( o' receiving 4i''ering bonus sums was giving rise to com"etition or con'lict between t!e grou"s$ =t "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) t!e criteria o' in4ivi4ual bonus goals were inten4e4 to be su""lementar( so t!at “t!e( in no wa( "ose a ris/ to sa'et(” (accor4ing to 4ocuments regar4ing t!e s(stem) b( in'luencing wor/ers to neglect t!eir regular tas/s$ However) some res"on4ents were o' t!e o"inion t!at t!is con'lict was "resent an4 t!at t!e in4ivi4ual goals s!oul4 rat!er be integrate4 into t!e regular wor/ in or4er to avoi4 t!is ris/ to sa'et(# “So in or4er to be able to 'ocus on t!e in4ivi4ual "art o' m( bonus goals * ma( !ave to s/i" somet!ing * usuall( woul4 !ave 4one”$ 4$ Discussion =ccor4ing to value an4 e9"ectanc( t!eories (Noc/e ? Nat!am) 2002@ Qroom) 1324)) agenc( t!eor( (&isen!ar4t) 13H3@ -ensen ? Mec/ling) 1372)) an4 em"irical researc! (=rnol4) Coo"er) ? Robertson) 133H@ Coo"er) 2001) t!e motivational e''ect s!oul4 be 'airl( low in t!e s(stems) 4ue to t!e intervieweesM low e9"ectations o' t!e s(stems) t!e small si8e o' t!e rewar4s relative to t!eir salaries) an4 t!e "erceive4 limitations in t!eir "ossibilities o' in'luencing t!e structure an4 rewar4s o' t!e s(stems$ +!is suggests t!at all t!ree s(stems !ave low incentive intensit( (R(nes et al$) 200I@ Penger ? Mars!all) 2000) an4 t!at t!e e''ects o' t!e s(stems on be!avior in general are small$ +!is line o' reasoning is also su""orte4 b( our results$ 4$1$ Relative im"act o' 4i''erent 4esigns on motivation +!e results 'rom t!e "resent stu4( seem to suggest t!at t!e e''ect a bonus s(stem ma( !ave on be!avior is 4e"en4ent on t!e assum"tions on w!ic! it is base4 an4 !ow t!e s(stem is 4esigne4 base4 on t!ese assum"tions$ +!is becomes evi4ent 'rom !ow t!e 'un4amentall( 4i''erent bonus s(stems at t!e t!ree nuclear "ower "lants were "erceive4 4i''erentl( b( t!e "artici"ating em"lo(ees$ =lt!oug! all t!e s(stems were generall( 'oun4 to "rovi4e limite4 incentive) t!e( coul4 be consi4ere4 to a''ect motivation to a var(ing 4egree an4 in 4i''erent res"ects$ +!e various circumstances surroun4ing t!is at t!e 4i''erent "lants are outline4 in +able 4) w!ere t!eir strengt!s an4 wea/nesses are s!own in relation to t!e t!eoretical t!emes o' t!e stu4($ :rom a rein'orcement "ers"ective) t!e s(stem at "lant = (collective s(stem) woul4 be e9"ecte4 to !ave t!e lowest incentive intensit( o' t!e t!ree s(stems) 4ue to t!e wea/ an4 unclear lin/s between "er'ormance an4 rewar4$ +!e incentive intensit( coul4 also be consi4ere4 ver( low 4ue to t!e em"lo(eeMs lac/ o' "ossibilities to "artici"ate in goal setting an4 to in'luence t!e s(stem$ +!is is also su""orte4 b( t!e interviews) w!ic! in4icate a more or less in4i''erent attitu4e towar4s t!e s(stem as suc! (even i' t!e "ossibilit( o' receiving a bonus was a""reciate4)$ =lt!oug! t!e em"lo(ees 4i4 not "erceive an( e''ects o' t!e s(stem on t!eir own be!avior) t!e collective 4esign !a4 t!e a4vantage o' being "erceive4 as 'air an4 t!e goals su""orting eac! ot!er rat!er t!an being in con'lict$ .ossible e''ects on be!avior in s(stems 4esigne4 in t!is wa() involves t!e management signaling t!eir "riorities or in4irectl( b( giving t!e em"lo(ees a general sense o' being a""reciate4$ Still) in or4er 'or t!e 'ormer to !ave e''ect) in'ormation about t!e content o' t!e goals nee4s to be clearer t!an in t!e "resent case$ +!e summar( in +able 4 mig!t in4icate t!at t!e s(stem wit! grou" goals an4 !al' o' t!e goals being ;ualit( goals ("lant 6) woul4 be t!e most success'ul in "romoting motivation an4 sa'et($ &m"lo(ees at "lant 6 were t!e onl( ones "erceiving t!at t!e s(stem !a4 an( e''ect on t!eir be!avior 4ue to a clear lin/ between be!avior an4 rewar4 o' t!e grou" goals$ +!e em"lo(ees also !a4 a rat!er goo4 /nowle4ge o' t!e goals$ +!e s(stem coul4 !ence be consi4ere4 to !ave relativel( goo4 incentive intensit($ +!e e9tent o' t!is) !owever) woul4 4e"en4 on t!e 4egree to w!ic! t!e goals an4 t!eir evaluation criteria are "erceive4 as relevant) unambiguous) clear) realistic) an4 'air b( t!e em"lo(ees (-ensen ? Mec/ling) 1372@ Noc/e ? Nat!am) 2002@ Ramaswami ? Sing!) 2003)$ +!e s(stem at "lant 6 (grou" s(stem) 4i4 in 'act !ave certain "roblems wit! t!e setting an4 evaluation o' bonus criteria at t!e grou" level$ *t also seeme4 to su''er 'rom a time lag regar4ing t!e bonus 'ee4bac/$ +!is mig!t re4uce motivation 4ue to a wea/ connection between "er'ormance an4 rewar4s (Nogan ? >agner) 1322)$ &ven i' t!is reasoning was su""orte4 b( most o' t!e "artici"ants claiming t!at t!e "ossibilit( o' obtaining a bonus 4i4 not in'luence t!eir "er'ormance) man( 4i4 consi4er t!e goals or scorecar4s to !ave somew!at o' an im"act since t!e( !ig!lig!te4 w!at t!e com"an( "rioriti8e4$ +!is clari'(ing 'unction o' t!e +able 4 +!e most 4istinguis!ing "ros an4 cons o' eac! s(stem ("lants =) 6 an4 C) in relation to t!e t!emes in t!e t!eoretical 'ramewor/$ = "lus sign in4icates a strengt! o' a s(stem) a minus sign in4icates a wea/ness an4 t!e absence o' a sign in4icates neutral views or lac/ o' su''icient agreement among res"on4ents$ .lant = (collective goals) 6 (grou" goals) C (in4ivi4ual goals) Beneral satis'action an4 meaning'ulness o' t!e s(stems *ntrinsic an4 e9trinsic motivation G Y .erceive4 e''ects on "er'ormance &m"lo(ee "artici"ation an4 in'luence on t!e s(stems Y G Y G -ustice an4 'airness Clarit() in'ormation an4 'ee4bac/ *nterrelations between goals an4 between 'unctions G Y G Y G G Y Y Y scorecar4s coul4 re"resent a wa( in w!ic! a bonus s(stem can !ave 4irect "ositive e''ects on motivation an4 be!avior (Hac/man ? Al4!am) 1372)$ +!e absence o' "erceive4 con'licts between grou"s an4 goals is also an asset 'or t!is s(stem$ +!e s(stem at "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem) woul4 also seem to !ave relativel( strong incentive intensit() consi4ering t!e clear lin/ between be!avior an4 rewar4 o' t!e in4ivi4ual goals$ However) t!is s(stem is t!e one receiving most criticism 'rom t!e res"on4ents$ +!e s(stem loses muc! o' its "otential e''ectiveness 4ue to con'licting goals an4 "erceive4 un'airness (c'$ Ramaswami ? Sing!) 2003)$ +!e main "roblem wit! t!e in4ivi4ual goals was t!at t!e( concerne4 tas/s t!at were su""lementar( to t!e regular tas/s$ +!eoreticall() suc! goals ma( target “Argani8ational Citi8ens!i" 6e!avior” (AC6)) sometimes 4e'ine4 as e9tra role be!avior (Ne.ine) &re8) ? -o!nson) 2002)$ =s t!e in4ivi4ual goals are 'ormali8e4) registere4) an4 evaluate4 between t!e in4ivi4ual an4 !is or !er su"erior) goal1relate4 "er'ormance essentiall( becomes a "art o' regular wor/$ +!ere'ore) t!e use o' bonus goals concerning e9tra tas/s ma( sen4 contra4ictor( signals t!at ma( "ro4uce "erceive4 goal con'licts between regular wor/ an4 in4ivi4ual bonus goals$ =s t!e latter are in4ivi4ual) suc! con'licts s!oul4 be relevant on a "ersonal level an4 also create a 4ilemma 'or t!e su"erior in c!arge o' u4ging an4 giving 'ee4bac/ accor4ing to an evaluation scale en4ing at 110R$ 6esi4es "roblems regar4ing obectivit() com"arabilit() an4 ustice) w!ic! t!ese /in4s o' goals can lea4 to) t!e use o' suc! a scale also contributes to ambiguit( an4 "erceive4 un"re4ictabilit( o' t!e s(stem 'or bot! em"lo(ees an4 managers$ +!ese "roblems are li/el( to wea/en t!e rein'orcing e''ects o' t!e s(stem) or "ut in ot!er wor4s) t!e s(stem ma( create an agenc( "roblem an4 t!us inter'ere wit! t!e e9isting "rinci"al agenc( relations!i" (&isen!ar4t) 13H3)$ 4$2$ Relative im"act o' 4i''erent 4esigns on sa'et( be!avior +!e 'ailure o' t!e s(stem at "lant = (collective goals) to "ro4uce incentive an4 t!e in4i''erent attitu4es t!e em"lo(ees !a4 towar4s it suggest t!at it "ose4 no t!reat to sa'et($ =t "lant 6 (grou" goals) as well) not!ing in t!e 4esign or in t!e interviews suggests t!at t!ere were an( "otential 4angers associate4 wit! t!eir s(stem$ Rat!er) t!e s(stem coul4 be consi4ere4 to be u"!ol4ing an4 !el"ing to rein'orce a general concern about sa'et( wit!in t!e organi8ations b( em"!asi8ing sa'et( as"ects on t!e scorecar4s$ +!e result in4icating t!at t!e res"on4ents at "lant 6 (grou" goals) 4i4 !ar4l( "erceive an( con'licts an4 were t!e most satis'ie4 wit! t!eir s(stem coul4 su""ort ot!er stu4ies claiming t!at team base4 rewar4s ma( !ave "ositive e''ects on team membersM motivation) "er'ormances) "a( satis'action an4 communication (Hertel et al$) 2004@ Rac/ et al$) 2011)$ +!ese "ositive emotions an4 be!aviors among t!e em"lo(ees can be "resume4 to also im"rove coo"erative be!aviors an4 s!oul4 t!eoreticall( lea4 to sa'er be!aviors$ +!e results 'rom "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem)) on t!e ot!er !an4) suggest t!at "erceive4 un'airness an4 goal con'licts regar4ing t!e in4ivi4ual goals coul4 t!eoreticall( constitute a sa'et( concern$ =ccor4ing to "revious stu4ies) in4ivi4uall( base4 rewar4s run a !ig!er ris/ o' creating internal organi8ational con'licts) "erceive4 un'airness) an4 re4uce t!e motivation to coo"erate (Babor) 1330@ Na8ear) 13H3)$ +!e results 'rom t!e "resent stu4( su""ort t!e notion t!at an in4ivi4uall( base4 s(stem coul4 lea4 to tensions) 'rustration an4 4iscontentment 4ue to 'eelings o' inustice$ &nv( 4ue to "erceive4 un'airness in t!e 4istribution o' rewar4s coul4 lea4 to counter1"ro4uctive be!avior among em"lo(ees (Co!en1C!aras! ? Mueller) 2007)) w!ic! in turn coul4 "ose a t!reat to sa'et($ However) consi4ering t!e 'act t!at t!e in4ivi4ual goals mainl( concerne4 sa'et( issues) t!at t!e si8e o' t!e rewar4 was regar4e4 as small) an4 t!at t!e s(stem itsel' a""eare4 to "la( a marginal role in ever(4a( wor/) an( "otential ris/ s!oul4 "resumabl( be small in t!e "resent case$ *t is notable in +able 4 t!at no "articular 4i''erences a""eare4 between "lants regar4ing intrinsic%e9trinsic motivation$ *n 'act) as seen in t!e overall results o' our stu4() ver( little concerne4 t!e "ossible e''ects o' bonus s(stems on t!e relation between e9trinsic an4 intrinsic motivation$ Benerall( seen t!is ma( onl( re'lect t!e small si8e o' bonuses) t!e 4ominance o' grou" base4 bonuses an4 t!e 'act t!at t!e( were "ai4 out on a (earl( basis$ +!us) t!e actual bonuses ma( !ave been "erceive4 as onl( marginal or e9tras$ *n "articular) not!ing in t!e results in4icates t!at e9trinsic rewar4s) suc! as a "otential bonus) woul4 en4 u" re"lacing intrinsic motives 'or sa'et() as woul4 be e9"ecte4 accor4ing to nee4 t!eories suc! as sel'14etermination t!eor( (R(an ? Deci) 2000)) or crow4ing t!eor( (:re( ? -egen) 2001)$ So 'ar our results are in line wit! t!e em"irical 'in4ings re"orte4 in t!e meta1anal(ses b( Cameron an4 .ierce (1334) an4 -en/ins et al$ (133H) an4 in4icating t!at out1crow4ing ma( not be a generall( relevant "!enomenon regar4ing t!e relation between "a( an4 "er'ormance$ :rom a "s(c!ological "oint o' view) bonus s(stems suc! as t!e ones investigate4 ma( rat!er su""ort t!e internali8ation o' sa'et( norms b( t!e sta''$ =lso) accor4ing to organi8ational t!eor() bonus s(stems em"!asi8ing sa'et( coul4 'acilitate t!e institutionali8ation o' suc! norms into t!e organi8ationsM sa'et( cultures (Scott) 133I@ Sel8nic/) 13I7)$ +!e 4evelo"ment o' suc! internal motives is t!us li/el( to bene'it sa'et(1relate4 be!avior as “controlle4 motivation” (R(an ? Deci) 2000)$ =s long as t!e internal motives remain in accor4ance wit! t!e be!aviors rewar4e4 b( t!e s(stem) an4 t!e in4ivi4ual s!ares t!e organi8ationMs goals an4 values) t!e e''ects o' t!ese /in4s o' s(stems coul4 be e9"ecte4 to increase$ However) in or4er to ac!ieve t!is) it is essential t!at t!e s(stem is "erceive4 as 'air (=4ams) 132I) an4 t!at t!e sta'' is given t!e o""ortunit( to "artici"ate to some e9tent in t!e 4esign o' t!e s(stem an4 in t!e setting o' its goals$ *n sum) base4 on our results) none o' t!e s(stems ma( be ta/en to "ose a signi'icant t!reat to sa'et($ Rat!er) as all t!ree s(stems mainl( target sa'et( goals) t!e( ma( serve to su""ort an4 e9"an4 t!e sa'et( attitu4es t!at are alrea4( to some e9tent in "lace at t!e "lants$ Still) it s!oul4 be o' interest 'or a s(stem li/e t!e one at "lant C (in4ivi4ual s(stem) to im"rove clarit( an4 to ma/e sure t!at goal con'licts are not "resent wit!in t!e s(stem) in or4er to avoi4 'eelings o' 'rustration) un'airness an4 env($ 6( 4oing t!is) "otential 4anger associate4 wit! t!e s(stem woul4 be avoi4e4 an4 instea4 t!e in4ivi4ual ;ualit( goals coul4 not onl( be !armless but actuall( lea4 to en!ance4 sa'et( be!avior$ &ven t!oug! all t!ree "lants use4 bot! economic an4 ;ualit( goals in t!eir s(stem) onl( t!e ;ualit( goals seem to !ave !a4 an( e''ect on motivation or be!avior in t!e given "lants$ +!e result in4icates t!at t!e economic goals were "erceive4 as too 4istant an4 !ar4 to a''ect on an in4ivi4ual level 'or most em"lo(ees$ 4$3$ Met!o4ological consi4erations +!e 'act t!at relativel( 'ew em"lo(ees were interviewe4 in t!e stu4( an4 t!at t!e geogra"!ical area o' stu4( was limite4 to Swe4en) 4oes o' course restrict generali8abilit( o' t!e results$ However) e9tensive generali8abilit( was not t!e main "ur"ose o' t!e stu4() but rat!er to gain insig!ts an4 a 4ee"er un4erstan4ing o' t!e 'actors t!at ma( un4erlie c!anges in be!avioral sa'et($ +!e ;ualitative an4 e9"lorative a""roac! o' t!e stu4( enable4 an investigation o' t!e em"lo(eesM reactions to t!eir bonus s(stems) w!ic! were t!en consi4ere4 in terms o' a broa4 'ramewor/ base4 on several "rominent t!eories o' motivation$ *n a44ition) similarities in t!e organi8ational structures) 'unctions) an4 o"erations o' t!e t!ree "lants allowe4 t!e various 4esigns o' t!e bonus s(stems to be ta/en un4er consi4eration w!en evaluating t!e 4i''erent "atterns o' reactions e9!ibite4 b( t!e res"ective sta''s$ Aur results bear witness to t!e subtle but nonet!eless concrete results t!at can be gaine4 'rom utili8ing a ;ualitative a""roac! to evaluate suc! s(stems$ >!en it comes to t!e vali4it( o' t!e results) a "otential concern is w!et!er our interviews ma( !ave "ro4uce4 biase4 answers$ Since t!e interviewees a""eare4 to a""reciate t!e "ossibilit( o' obtaining a bonus) accor4ing to t!e nature o' t!ings) t!eir res"onses ma( 4own"la( t!e "otential negative e''ects o' t!e bonus s(stems on "er'ormance$ >!ile t!e "ossibilit( o' t!is !aving a''ecte4 t!e results s!oul4 be ac/nowle4ge4) t!e aut!orsM main im"ression is t!at t!e interviewees answere4 most ;uestions ver( o"enl( an4 !onestl($ +!e 'act t!at man( e9am"les 'rom ever(4a( wor/ a""eare4 along wit! critical views also in4icates t!at a bias o' t!is /in4 ma( !ave !a4 limite4 negative e''ects$ I$ Conclusions Drawing on general t!eories o' motivation) our stu4( "resents a use'ul 'ramewor/ 'or e9amining t!e "ossible e''ects t!at bonus s(stems ma( !ave on em"lo(ee motivation an4 sa'et( be!avior$ =""l(ing t!is a""roac! as re'lecte4 in our interview gui4e an4 in t!e 4ata obtaine4) not!ing was 'oun4 to in4icate t!at t!e s(stems un4er stu4( s!oul4 negativel( a''ect sa'et( be!aviors) 'or e9am"le) in terms o' increase4 ris/ ta/ing or un4erre"orting$ =ll t!ree s(stems seeme4 to !ave "roblems ac!ieving an( signi'icant e''ects on be!aviors$ +!e( all lac/e4 in incentive intensit( an4 motivational e''ects 4ue to 4i''erent "roblems wit!in t!eir 4esign$ +o t!e 4egree t!at t!e s(stems at all in'luence4 sa'et( be!aviors) t!e e''ects a""ear to be "ositive an4 4irectl( me4iate4 b( t!e bonus goals being relate4 to sa'et( issues an4 also in4irectl( me4iate4 b( t!e "ronounce4 sa'et( concerns 'raming t!e s(stems$ =ll t!ree s(stems also a""eare4 to !ave some "ositive e''ects on t!e res"on4entsM general wor/ motivation) 4ue to t!e s(stemMs role in clari'(ing "riorities) creating a sense o' "artici"ation) an4 bringing about a""reciation an4 recognition 'or t!ose involve4$ +!e results in4icate t!at grou" or team base4 goals seem to be a goo4 mi44le wa( o' avoi4ing unsa'e com"etition an4 'eelings o' un'airness but still creating a clear lin/ between be!avior an4 rewar4$ However) in or4er to ac!ieve "ositive e''ects) t!e results im"l( t!at it is essential to set goals aime4 at realistic ;ualit( im"rovements (suc! as sa'et( issues) instea4 o' economic ac!ievements an4 to create 'eelings o' "artici"ation among t!e em"lo(ees$ Clear in'ormation an4 'ee4bac/) a 4esign t!at is "erceive4 as 'air an4 t!e avoi4ance o' goal con'licts also seems to be o' great im"ortance in or4er to create incentives 'or sa'e be!aviors$ +!e results o' t!e "resent stu4( can !ave "ractical im"lications in a number o' wa(s$ 6onus s(stems o' 4i''erent /in4s are to4a( a "o"ular means o' tr(ing to ac!ieve cor"orate goals$ +!e "ossible negative im"act t!at a ba4l( 4esigne4 s(stem coul4 !ave on 'actors suc! as sa'et( s!oul4 be o' critical interest not onl( 'or "ower "lants) but also 'or HRAMs in general$ =lt!oug! t!e results 'rom t!e "resent stu4( 4o not in4icate t!at t!e s(stems "ose4 an( signi'icant ris/s to sa'et() it cannot be "resume4 t!at suc! bonus s(stems ma( not 4o so in ot!er HRAMs$ Suc! a ris/ coul4 arise even i' man( o' t!e bonus goals were to relate 4irectl( to sa'et( concerns) as was t!e case at t!e stu4ie4 "lants$ Still) t!e results in4icating t!at t!e t!ree s(stems an4 t!eir motivational e''ects were "erceive4 in clearl( 4istinct wa(s b( t!e em"lo(ees at t!e t!ree nuclear "ower "lants 4ue to t!eir 4i''erences) un4erline t!e im"ortance o' s(stem 4esign in "reventing negative e''ects on sa'et($ Re'erences =4ams) -$ (132I)$ *ne;uit( in social e9c!ange$ *n N$ 6er/owit8 (&4$)) =4vances in e9"erimental social "s(c!olog() 2 (""$ 22 7 – 233)$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# =ca4emic .ress$ =l4er'er) C$ .$ (1323)$ =n em"irical test o' a new t!eor( o' !uman nee4s$ Argani8ational 6e!avior an4 Human .er'ormanc e ) 4) 142 – 17I$ =rnol4) -$) Coo"er) C$ N$) ? Robertson) *$ +$ (133H)$ > o r/ " s( c ! o lo g ( $ 0 n 4 e rs ta n 4 in g ! u m a n b e ! a v io ur in t! e w o r/ " la c e $ H a rlo w ) & n g la n 4 # : in a n c ia l + im es . re n tice H a ll$ 6raun) Q$) ? Clar/e) Q$ (2002)$ 0sing t! ematic anal(sis in "s(c!olog($ Sualitative Researc! in .s(c!olog ( ) 3 ) 77 – 101$ Cameron) -$) ? .ierce) >$ D$ (1334)$ Rein'orcement) rewar4) an4 intrinsic motivation# = meta1anal(sis$ Review o' &4ucational Researc!) 2 4 ) 32 3 – 423$ Co!en1C!aras!) O$) ? Mueller) -$ S$ (2007)$ Does "erceive4 un'airness e9acerb a te or mitigate inter"erson a l c o unter"ro4uctive wor/ be!aviors relate4 to env(T -ournal o' =""lie4 .s(c!o l og ( ) 32) 222 – 2H0$ Coo"er) D$ (2001)$ +reating sa'et( as a value$ .ro'essional Sa'et ( ) 4 2 (2)) 17 – 21$ Deci) &$ N$) 5oestner) R$) ? R(an) R$ M$ (1333)$ = meta1anal(tic review o' e9"eriments e9amining t!e e''ects o' e9trinsic rewar4s on intrinsic motivation$ .s(c!ological 6ulleti n ) 2 ) 227 – 22H$ Deci) &$ N$) ? R(an) R$ M$ (13HI)$ *ntrinsic motivation an4 sel'14etermi n ation in !uman be!avior$ 7ew Oor/# .lenum$ Den8in) 7$ 5$ (137H)$ +!e researc! act# = t!eoretical intro4uction to sociological met!o4s (2n4 e4$)7 e w Oor/) 7O# McBraw1Hill$ &isenberger) R$) .ierce) >$ D$) ? Cameron) -$ (1333)$ &''ects o' rewar4 on intrinsic motivation — 7egative) neutral) an4 "ositive# Comment on Deci) 5oestne r ) an4 R(an (1333)$ .s(c!ological 6ulletin) 2) 27 7 – 231$ &isen!ar4t) 5$ M$ (13H3)$ =genc( t!eor(# =n assessment an4 rev i ew$ =ca4em( o' Management Revie w ) 1) I7 – 74$ &lster) -$ (13H3)$ +!e cement o' societ(# = stu4( o' social or4er$ Cambri4ge# Cambri4ge 0niversit( .ress$ &ngellan4t) =$) ? Ri"!a!n) R$ +$ (2011)$ &vi4ence on incentive e''ects o' subective "er'ormance evaluations$ *n4ustrial ? Nabor Relations Revie w ) 24) 241 – 2I7$ :it8"atric/) -$ -$) ? >allace) M$ (2012)$ &nc(clo"e4ia o' nursing researc!$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# S"ringer .ublis!ing Com"an($ :ran/) R$ H$ (13HH)$ .assions wit!in reason# +!e strategic role o' e m otions$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# 7orton$ :re() 6$ S$) ? -egen) R$ (2001)$ Motivation crow4ing t!eor(# = surve( o' em"irical evi4enc e $ -ournal o' &conomic Surve(s) 1I) IH3 – 211$ :urn!am) =$ (200H)$ +!e "s(c!olog( o' be!aviour at wor/$ +!e in4ivi4ual in t!e organi8ation (2n4 e4$)Hove an4 7ew Oor/) 7O# .s(c!olog( .ress$ Babor) =$ (1330)$ +!e man w!o 4iscovere4 ;ualit($ 7ew Oor/) 7O# +ime boo/s$ BagnC) M$) ? :orest) -$ (200H)$ +!e st u 4( o' com"ensation s(stems t!roug! t!e lens o' sel'14etermination t!eor(# Reconciling 3I (ears o' 4ebate$ Cana4ian .s(c!olog ( ) 4 3 ) 22 I – 232$ Ber!art) 6$) ? R(nes) S$ (2003)$ Com"ensa t ion# +!eor() evi4ence an4 strategic im"lic a tions$ +!ousan4 Aa/s) C=# Sage$ Blen4inning) .$ M$ (2001)$ &m"lo(ee sa'et( incentives# = best "ractice surve( o' !uman resources "ractitioners$ Sa'et( Managemen t ) 42(2)) 22 – 24$ Bnee8() 0$) ? Rustic!ini) =$ (2000)$ .a( enoug! or 4onMt "a( at all$ Suarterl( -ournal o' &conomic s ) 3) 73 1 – H10$ Boo4rum) .$ M$) ? Bangwar) M$ (2004)$ Sa'et( incentives$ = stu4( o' t!eir e''ectiveness in construction$ .ro'essio n al Sa'et() 43(7)) 24 – 34$ Hac/man) -$) ? Al4!am) B$ (1372)$ Motivation t!roug! t!e 4esign o' wor/# +est o' a t!eor($ Argani8ational 6e!aviour an4 Human .er'ormanc e ) 12) 2I 0 – 273$ Ha(es) 7$ (2000)$ Doing "s(c!ological researc!$ 6uc/ing!am# A"en 0niversit( .ress$ Hertel) B$) 5onra4t) 0$) ? Arli/ows/i) 6$ (2004)$ Managing 4istance b( inter4e"en4ence# Boal setting) tas/ inter4e"en4e n ce) an4 team1base4 rewar4s in virtual teams$ &uro"ean -o u rnal o' >or/ an4 Argani8ational .s(c!olog() 13) 1 – 2H$ Her8berg) :$ (1322)$ >or/ an4 t!e nature o' man$ Clevelan4) AH# >orl4 .ublis!ing$ Howe) -$ (2000)$ Sa'et( culture an4 e''ective sa'et( man a gement$ = union "ers"ective on be!avior1base4 sa'et($ C!icago) *ll# 7SC .ress$ -en/ins) B$ D$) Bu"ta) 7$) Mitra) =$) ? S!aw) -$ D$ (133H)$ =re 'inancial incentives relate4 to "er'ormanceT = meta1anal(tic review o' em"irical researc!$ -ournal o' =""lie4 .s(c!olog ( ) H 3 ) 77 7 – 7H7$ -ensen) M$) ? Mec/ling) >$ (1372)$ +!eor( o' t!e 'irm# Managerial be!avior) agenc( costs) an4 owners!i" structure$ -ournal o' :inancial &conomic s ) 3) 30I – 320$ -ensen) M$ C$) ? Mur"!() 5$ -$ (1330)$ .er'ormance "a( an4 to"1management ince n tives$ -ournal o' .olitical &conom ( ) 3H) 22I – 224$ 5a!n) N$ M$) ? S!erer) .$ D$ (1330)$ Contingent "a( an4 managerial "er'ormance$ *n4ustrial ? Nabor Relat i ons Revie w ) 43) 10 7 – 120$ 5at8) D$) ? 5a!n) R$ (137H)$ +!e social "s(c!olog( o' organi 8 ations$ 7ew Oor/# >ile($ 5err) S$ (137I)$ An t!e 'oll( o' rewar4ing =) w!ile !o"ing 'or 6$ =ca4em( o' Management -ournal) 1H) 723 – 7H3$ 5orman) =$ (1370)$ +owar4s a !("ot!esis o' wor/ be!avior$ -ournal o' =""lie4 .s(c!olog ( ) I4) 31 – 41$ 5vale) S$ (1332)$ *nterQiews# =n intro4ucti o n to Sualitative Researc! *nterviewin g $ +!ousan4 Aa/s) C=# S=B&$ Nawrence) +$ >$) ? :lan4ers) M$ &$ (2000)$ Sa'et( culture an4 e''ective sa'et( management) incentives 'or sa'et($ C!icago) *N# 7SC .ress$ Na8ear) &$ .$ (13H3)$ .a( e;ualit( an4 in4ustrial "olitics$ -ournal o' .olitical &conom ( ) H 7 ) 122 1 – 12H4$ Ne.ine) -$ =$) &re8) =$) ? -o!nson) D$ &$ (2002)$ +!e nature an4 4imension a lit( o' organi8ational citi8ens!i" be!avior# = critical review an4 meta1anal(sis$ -ournal o' =""lie4 .s(c!olog ( ) H 7 ) I2 – 2I$ Ne""er) M$ R$) ? Breen) D$ (137I)$ +urning "la( into wor/# &''ects o' a4ult surveillance an4 e9trinsic rewar4s on c!il4renMs intrinsic motivation$ -ournal o' .ersonalit( an4 Social .s(c!olog ( ) 3 1 ) 47 3 – 4H2$ Noc/e) &$) ? Nat!am) B$ (2002)$ >!at s!oul4 we 4o abo u t motivation t!eor(T Si9 recommen4ations 'or t!e twent(1'irst centur($ =ca4em( o' Management Revie w ) 23) 3HH – 403$ Nogan) =$) ? >agner) =$ R$ (1322)$ Rewar4 an4 "unis!ment$ 6oston# =ll(n ? 6acon$ McBraw) 5$ A$ (137H)$ +!e 4etri m ental e''ects o' rewar4 on "er'ormance# = literature review an4 a "re4iction mo4el$ *n M$ R$ Ne""er) ? D$ Breene (&4s$)) +!e !i44en costs o' rewar4# 7ew "ers"ectives o' !uman be!avior (""$ 33 – 20)$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# Nawrence &rlbaum$ McNain) D$) ? -arell) 5$ (2007)$ +!e "erceive4 com"atibilit( o' sa'et( an4 "ro4u c tion e9"ectations in !a8ar4ous occu"ations$ -ournal o' Sa'et( Researc!) 3H) 23 3 – 303$ Mio88a) M$ N$) ? >(l4) D$ C$ (2002)$ +!e carrot or t!e so't stic/T +!e "ers"ective o' =merican sa'et( "ro'essionals on be ! aviour an4 incentive1base4 "rotection "rogrammes$ Management Researc! 7ew s ) 2 I (11)) 23 – 41$ .atton) =$ (1372)$ >!( incentive "lans 'ail$ Harvar4 6usiness Revie w ) I0(3)) IH – 22$ .atton) M$ S$ (1333)$ &n!ancing t!e ;ualit( an4 cre4ibilit( o' ;ualitative anal(sis$ Healt! Service Researc!) 34) 11H 3 – 120H$ .'e''er) -$ (1337)$ 7ew 4irections 'or organi8at i on t!eor($ 7ew Oor/) 7O# A9'or4 0niv e rsit( .ress$ .orter) N$) ? Nawler) &$ (132H)$ Managerial attitu4es an4 "er'ormance$ Homewoo4) *N# Dorse($ Rac/) A$) &llwart) +$) Hertel) B$) ? 5onra4t) 0$ (2011)$ +eam 1 base4 rewar4s in com"uter1me4iate4 grou"s$ -ournal o' Mana g erial .s(c!olog ( ) I) 413 – 43H$ Ramaswami) S$ 7$) ? Sing!) -$ (2003)$ =ntece4ents an4 conse;uences o' merit "a( 'airne s s 'or in4ustrial sales"eo"le$ -ournal o' Mar/etin g ) 27) 42 – 22$ R(an) R$) ? Deci) &$ (2000)$ S e l'14 e te rm in a tio n t! e o r( a n 4 t!e 'a c ilita tio n o' in trin s ic m o tiv a tio n ) s o c ia l 4 e v e lo " m e n t a n 4 w e ll1b e in g $ = m e ric an . s( c ! o lo g ist) I I ) 2 H – 7 H $ R(nes) S$ N$) Ber!art) 6$) ? .ar/s) N$ (200I)$ .ersonnel "s(c!olog(# .er'ormance evaluation an4 "a( 'or "er'ormance$ =nnual Review o' .s(c!olog ( ) I2) I71 – 200$ Scott) R$ (133I)$ *nstitutions an4 organi8ations$ Non4on# Sage$ Sel8nic/) .$ (13I7)$ Nea4ers!i" in a4ministration$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# Har"er ? Row$ S/inner) 6$ :$ (133H)$ +!e be!avior o' organism s # =n e9"erimental anal(sis$ A9'or4) &nglan4# =""leton1Centur($ +uc/ett) =$ B$ (200I)$ =""l(ing t!ematic anal(sis t!eor( to "ractice# = researc!erMs e9"erience$ Contem"orar( 7urse) 1 3 ) 7I – H7$ Qroom) Q$ (1324)$ >or/ an4 motivation$ 7ew Oor/) 7O# >ile($ >ageman) R$) ? 6a/er) B$ (1337)$ *n c e n tiv es a n 4 c o o " e ra tio n # + ! e o in t e ''e c ts o' ta s / a n 4 re w a r4 in te r4 e " e n 4 e n c e on g ro u" " e r'o rm a n c e $ -o u rn a l o' A rg a n i8 a tio n a l 6 e ! a v io r) 1 H ) 1 3 3 – 1 I H$ >eibel) =$) Rost) 5$) ? Asterlo!) M$ (2003)$ .a( 'or "er'ormance in t!e "ublic sector — 6ene'i t s an4 (!i44en) costs$ -ournal o' .ublic =4ministration Researc! an4 +!eor() 2) 3H7 – 412$ >elbourne) +$ M$) ? Cable) D$ M$ (133I)$ Brou" incentives an4 "a( satis'action# 0n4erstan4ing t!e relations!i" t!roug! an i4entit( t!eor( "ers"ective$ Human Relation s ) 4H) 71 1 – 722$ Penger) +$) ? Mars!all) C$ (2000)$ Determinants o' ince n tive intensit( in grou" base4 rewar4s$ =ca4em( o' Management -ournal) 43(2)) 143 – 123$ Po!ar) D$ (2002)$ + ! e e '' e ct s o' le a 4 e r s ! i" 4 im e n s io n s ) s a ' e t( c lim a te ) a n 4 a s s ig n e4 " r io r ities o n m in o r in u r ies in w o r/ g r o u " s $ -o u r n a l o' A rg a n i8 a tio n al 6 e ! a v io r ) 2 3 ) 7 I – 3 2 $
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