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Now lets further assume that is a conservative force eld; that is, we can write

. In physics, the potential energy of an object at the point is dened as

, so we have . Then by Theorem 2 we have

Comparing this equation with Equation 16, we see that

which says that if an object moves from one point to another point under the inuence

of a conservative force eld, then the sum of its potential energy and its kinetic energy

remains constant. This is called the Law of Conservation of Energy and it is the reason

the vector eld is called conservative.

B A

PA KA PB KB

PA PB Prb Pra W

y

C

F dr

y

C

P dr

F P Px, y, z f x, y, z

x, y, z F f

F

C

C

SECTION 17.3 THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM FOR LINE INTEGRALS | | | | 1089

5.

6.

8.

9.

10.

The gure shows the vector eld and

three curves that start at (1, 2) and end at (3, 2).

(a) Explain why has the same value for all three

curves.

(b) What is this common value?

y

x 0

3

3

2

1

2 1

x

C

F dr

Fx, y 2xy, x

2

11.

Fx, y xy cosh xy sinh xy i x

2

cosh xy

j

Fx, y ln y 2xy

3

i 3x

2

y

2

xy j

Fx, y xy cos xy sin xy i x

2

cos xy

j

Fx, y ye

x

sin y i e

x

x cos y j 7.

Fx, y 3x

2

2y

2

i 4xy 3 j

Fx, y e

x

sin y i e

x

cos y j 1. The gure shows a curve and a contour map of a function

whose gradient is continuous. Find .

2. A table of values of a function with continuous gradient is

given. Find , where has parametric equations

310 Determine whether or not is a conservative vector eld.

If it is, nd a function such that .

3.

4. Fx, y e

x

cos y i e

x

sin y j

Fx, y 2x 3y i 3x 4y 8 j

F f f

F

1

3

8

6

5

2

4

7

9

x

y

0

1

2

0 1 2

x t

2

1 y t

3

t 0 t 1

C x

C

f dr

f

y

x 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

C

x

C

f dr

f C

EXERCI SES 17.3

26. Let , where . Find curves

and that are not closed and satisfy the equation.

(a) (b)

Show that if the vector eld is conser-

vative and , , have continuous rst-order partial deriva-

tives, then

28. Use Exercise 27 to show that the line integral

is not independent of path.

2932 Determine whether or not the given set is (a) open,

(b) connected, and (c) simply-connected.

30

31.

32.

Let .

(a) Show that .

(b) Show that is not independent of path.

[Hint: Compute and , where

and are the upper and lower halves of the circle

from to .] Does this contradict

Theorem 6?

34. (a) Suppose that is an inverse square force eld, that is,

for some constant , where . Find the

work done by in moving an object from a point

along a path to a point in terms of the distances and

from these points to the origin.

(b) An example of an inverse square eld is the gravita-

tional eld discussed in Example 4

in Section 17.1. Use part (a) to nd the work done by

the gravitational eld when the earth moves from aph-

elion (at a maximum distance of km from

the sun) to perihelion (at a minimum distance of

km). (Use the values kg,

kg, and

(c) Another example of an inverse square eld is the electric

force eld discussed in Example 5 in

Section 17.1. Suppose that an electron with a charge of

C is located at the origin. A positive unit

charge is positioned a distance m from the electron

and moves to a position half that distance from the elec-

tron. Use part (a) to nd the work done by the electric

force eld. (Use the value .) 8.985 10

9

10

12

1.6 10

19

F qQr

3

Nm

2

kg

2

. G 6.67 10

11

M 1.99 10

30

m 5.97 10

24

1.47 10

8

1.52 10

8

F mMGr

3

d2

d1 P2

P1 F

r x i y j z k c

Fr

cr

3

F

1, 0 1, 0 x

2

y

2

1

C2

C1 x

C2

F dr x

C1

F dr

x

C

F dr

Py Qx

Fx, y

y i x j

x

2

y

2

33.

x, y

x

2

y

2

1 or 4 x

2

y

2

9

x, y

1 x

2

y

2

4

x, y

x 0 x, y

x 0, y 0 29.

x

C

y dx x dy xyz dz

Q

z

R

y

P

z

R

x

P

y

Q

x

R Q P

F P i Q j R k 27.

y

C2

F dr 1

y

C1

F dr 0

C2

C1 f x, y sinx 2y F f 1218 (a) Find a function such that and (b) use

part (a) to evaluate along the given curve .

12. ,

is the arc of the parabola from to

13. ,

: ,

14. ,

: ,

,

is the line segment from to

16. ,

: , , ,

17. ,

: ,

18. ,

: ,

1920 Show that the line integral is independent of path and

evaluate the integral.

19. ,

is any path from to

20. ,

is any path from to

2122 Find the work done by the force eld in moving an

object from to .

21. ; ,

22. ; ,

2324 Is the vector eld shown in the gure conservative?

Explain.

24.

25. If , use a plot to guess

whether is conservative. Then determine whether your

guess is correct.

F

Fx, y sin y i 1 x cos y j CAS

y

x

y

x

23.

Q2, 0 P0, 1 Fx, y e

y

i xe

y

j

Q2, 4 P1, 1 Fx, y 2y

32

i 3xsy

j

Q P

F

1, 2 0, 1 C

x

C

1 ye

x

dx e

x

dy

2, 4 1, 0 C

x

C

tan y dx x sec

2

y

dy

0 t 1 rt t i t

2

j t

3

k C

Fx, y, z e

y

i xe

y

j z 1e

z

k

0 t rt t

2

i sin t j t k C

Fx, y, z y

2

cos z i 2xy cos z j xy

2

sin z

k

0 t 1 z 2t 1 y t 1 x t

2

C

Fx, y, z 2xz y

2

i 2xy

j x

2

3z

2

k

4, 6, 3 1, 0, 2 C

Fx, y, z yz i xz j xy 2z k 15.

0 t 1 rt t

2

i 2t j C

Fx, y

y

2

1 x

2

i 2y arctan x

j

0 t 1 rt t sin

1

2

t, t cos

1

2

t C

Fx, y xy

2

i x

2

y

j

2, 8 1, 2 y 2x

2

C

Fx, y x

2

i y

2

j

C x

C

F dr

F f f

1090 | | | | CHAPTER 17 VECTOR CALCULUS

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