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# SAS Oneway Frequency Tabulations and Twoway Contingency

Tables (Crosstabs)
/***********************************************************
This example illustrates:
How to create user-defined formats
How to recode continuous variables into ordinal categories
How to generate oneway and twoway tables and basic tests

## The following tests are illustrated:

Chi-square goodness of fit test
Binomial test of proportion for a two-level variable
Exact Binomial test
Pearson Chi-square test
Fisher’s exact test
Cochran-Armitage test for trend

Procs used:
Proc Format
Proc Means
Proc Freq
Proc Contents

Filename: frequencies.sas
************************************************************/

OPTIONS FORMCHAR="|----|+|---+=|-/\<>*";
OPTIONS NODATE PAGENO=1 FORMDLIM=" ";

PROC FORMAT;
VALUE AGEFMT 1 = "1:19-29"
2 = "2:30-39"
3 = "3:>39";

## VALUE HIAGEFMT 1 = "1:AGE > 39"

2 = "2:AGE <= 39";

2 = "2:<240";

2 = "2:200-239"
3 = "3:>=240";

2 = "2:NO PILL";

2 = "2:120-139"
3 = "3:>=140";

## VALUE HIBMIFMT 1 = "1:BMI>23"

2 = "2:BMI<=23";
RUN;

1
The log from that results from these Proc Format commands is shown below. These formats will be stored in
the Work library, and thus will be temporary. In the document that follows, you will see the formats being
applied within each procedure, by using a format statement. These formats will not be automatically attached to
variables, and have to be specified for each procedure.
4 PROC FORMAT;
5 VALUE AGEFMT 1 = "1: Age 19-29"
6 2 = "2: Age 30-39"
7 3 = "3: Age >39";
NOTE: Format AGEFMT has been output.
8
9 VALUE HIAGEFMT 1 = "1: Age >39"
10 2 = "2: Age <=39";
NOTE: Format HIAGEFMT has been output.
11
12 VALUE HICHOLFMT 1 = "1: Chol >=240"
13 2 = "2: Chol <240";
NOTE: Format HICHOLFMT has been output.
14
15 VALUE CHOLCATFMT 1 = "1: Chol <200"
16 2 = "2: Chol 200-239"
17 3 = "3: Chol >=240";
NOTE: Format CHOLCATFMT has been output.
18
19 VALUE PILLFMT 1 = "1: Pill"
20 2 = "2: No Pill";
NOTE: Format PILLFMT has been output.
21
22 VALUE WTFMT 1 = "1: Wt <120kg"
23 2 = "2: Wt 120-139kg"
24 3 = "3: Wt >=140kg";
NOTE: Format WTFMT has been output.
25
26 VALUE HIBMIFMT 1 = "1: BMI>23"
27 2 = "2: BMI<=23";
NOTE: Format HIBMIFMT has been output.
28 RUN;

## NOTE: PROCEDURE FORMAT used (Total process time):

real time 0.25 seconds
cpu time 0.00 seconds

Now, we create a permanent SAS data set from the raw data file, Werner2.dat. The raw data are read in, then
missing value codes are assigned appropriately, and new variables are created. Note that missing values are
assigned before the new variables are created.
libname b510 "e:\510\";

DATA B510.WERNER;
INFILE "werner2.dat";
INPUT ID 1-4 AGE 5-8 HT 9-12 WT 13-16
PILL 17-20 CHOL 21-24 ALB 25-28
CALC 29-32 URIC 33-36 PAIR 37-39;

IF HT = 999 then HT = .;
IF WT = 999 then WT = .;
IF ALB = 99 then ALB = .;
IF CALC = 99 then CALC = .;
IF URIC = 99 then URIC = .;

WTKG = WT*.39;
HTCM = HT*2.54;

2
BMI = WTKG/(HTCM/100)**2;

## IF BMI > 23 then HIBMI = 1;

IF 0<=BMI<=23 then HIBMI = 2;

## IF AGE NOT=. THEN DO;

IF AGE <= 29 THEN AGEGROUP=1;
IF AGE > 29 AND AGE <= 39 THEN AGEGROUP=2;
IF AGE > 39 THEN AGEGROUP=3;

## IF AGE > 39 THEN HIAGE=1;

IF AGE <= 39 THEN HIAGE=2;
END;

## IF CHOL NOT=. THEN DO;

IF CHOL >= 240 THEN HICHOL=1;
IF CHOL < 240 THEN HICHOL=2;

## IF CHOL < 200 THEN CHOLCAT=1;

IF CHOL >= 200 AND CHOL < 240 THEN CHOLCAT=2;
IF CHOL >= 240 THEN CHOLCAT=3;
END;

## IF WT NOT=. THEN DO;

IF WT < 120 THEN WTCAT=1;
IF WT >= 120 AND WT < 140 THEN WTCAT=2;
IF WT >= 140 THEN WTCAT=3;
END;

## DROP WTKG HTCM;

RUN;

We use two methods for checking the newly created variables. The simplest one is Proc Means. This tells us
most importantly if we have included all cases in our new variables, and if we have avoided adding data where
there should be none! We will carefully examine the sample size for each original variable, and each new
variable that was created, to be sure they match. This simple check should always be done first!
TITLE "DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS";
PROC MEANS;
RUN;

3
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
The MEANS Procedure
Variable N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ID 188 1598.96 1057.09 3.0000000 3519.00
AGE 188 33.8191489 10.1126942 19.0000000 55.0000000
HT 186 64.5107527 2.4850673 57.0000000 71.0000000
WT 186 131.6720430 20.6605767 94.0000000 215.0000000
PILL 188 1.5000000 0.5013351 1.0000000 2.0000000
CHOL 186 236.1505376 42.5555145 155.0000000 390.0000000
ALB 186 4.1112903 0.3579694 3.2000000 5.0000000
CALC 185 9.9621622 0.4795556 8.6000000 11.1000000
URIC 187 4.7705882 1.1572312 2.2000000 9.9000000
PAIR 188 47.5000000 27.2063810 1.0000000 94.0000000
BMI 184 19.0736235 2.6285786 15.2305671 29.6996059
HIBMI 184 1.9021739 0.2978899 1.0000000 2.0000000
AGEGROUP 188 1.9255319 0.8432096 1.0000000 3.0000000
HIAGE 188 1.6808511 0.4673916 1.0000000 2.0000000
HICHOL 186 1.5322581 0.5003051 1.0000000 2.0000000
CHOLCAT 186 2.2634409 0.7783954 1.0000000 3.0000000
WTCAT 186 2.0322581 0.7490767 1.0000000 3.0000000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A second way to check recodes of continuous variables into categories is illustrated below. Basically, you
should check the minimum and maximum value of the original variable in each category of the new categorical
variable to be sure the range of values is specified as you wanted it to be. Do this only after you have checked
the sample sizes by using a simple Proc Means statement, as illustrated above.
TITLE "CHECKING RECODE OF WT INTO WTCAT";
PROC MEANS DATA=B510.WERNER;
CLASS WTCAT;
VAR WT;
FORMAT WTCAT WTFMT.;
RUN;
CHECKING RECODE OF WT INTO WTCAT
The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : WT
N
WTCAT Obs N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Wt <120kg 49 49 109.4489796 7.0209841 94.0000000 119.0000000
2: Wt 120-139kg 82 82 128.6097561 5.9103510 120.0000000 138.0000000
3: Wt >=140kg 55 55 156.0363636 17.2969315 140.0000000 215.0000000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## TITLE "CHECKING RECODE OF AGE INTO AGEGROUP";

PROC MEANS DATA=B510.WERNER;
CLASS AGEGROUP;
VAR AGE;
FORMAT AGEGROUP AGEFMT.;
RUN;

## CHECKING RECODE OF AGE INTO AGEGROUP

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : AGE
N
AGEGROUP Obs N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Age 19-29 74 74 23.8378378 2.7846302 19.0000000 29.0000000
2: Age 30-39 54 54 33.5925926 3.0376165 30.0000000 39.0000000
3: Age >39 60 60 46.3333333 4.6892111 40.0000000 55.0000000

4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## TITLE "CHECKING RECODE OF CHOL INTO HICHOL";

PROC MEANS DATA=B510.WERNER;
CLASS HICHOL;
VAR CHOL;
FORMAT HICHOL HICHOLFMT.;
RUN;

## The MEANS Procedure

Analysis Variable : CHOL
N
HICHOL Obs N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Chol >=240 87 87 272.4712644 29.0159696 240.0000000 390.0000000
2: Chol <240 99 99 204.2323232 21.8985734 155.0000000 238.0000000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## TITLE "CHECKING RECODE OF CHOL INTO CHOLCAT";

PROC MEANS DATA=B510.WERNER;
CLASS CHOLCAT;
VAR CHOL;
FORMAT CHOLCAT CHOLCATFMT.;
RUN;

## CHECKING RECODE OF CHOL INTO CHOLCAT

The MEANS Procedure
Analysis Variable : CHOL
N
CHOLCAT Obs N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Chol <200 38 38 181.7631579 12.9894639 155.0000000 198.0000000
2: Chol 200-239 61 61 218.2295082 12.6601651 200.0000000 238.0000000
3: Chol >=240 87 87 272.4712644 29.0159696 240.0000000 390.0000000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## TITLE "ONEWAY FREQUENCIES";

PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES PILL WTCAT AGEGROUP HIAGE HICHOL;
FORMAT AGEGROUP AGEFMT. HICHOL HICHOLFMT. PILL PILLFMT. WTCAT WTFMT. HIAGE HIAGEFMT.;
RUN;

ONEWAY FREQUENCIES
The FREQ Procedure

Cumulative Cumulative
PILL Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
---------------------------------------------------------------
1: Pill 94 50.00 94 50.00
2: No Pill 94 50.00 188 100.00

Cumulative Cumulative
WTCAT Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
--------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Wt <120kg 49 26.34 49 26.34
2: Wt 120-139kg 82 44.09 131 70.43
3: Wt >=140kg 55 29.57 186 100.00

5
Frequency Missing = 2

Cumulative Cumulative
AGEGROUP Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
-----------------------------------------------------------------
1: Age 19-29 74 39.36 74 39.36
2: Age 30-39 54 28.72 128 68.09
3: Age >39 60 31.91 188 100.00

Cumulative Cumulative
HIAGE Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
----------------------------------------------------------------
1: Age >39 60 31.91 60 31.91
2: Age <=39 128 68.09 188 100.00

Cumulative Cumulative
HICHOL Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Chol >=240 87 46.77 87 46.77
2: Chol <240 99 53.23 186 100.00

Frequency Missing = 2

Cumulative Cumulative
CHOLCAT Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
--------------------------------------------------------------------
1: Chol <200 38 20.43 38 20.43
2: Chol 200-239 61 32.80 99 53.23
3: Chol >=240 87 46.77 186 100.00

Frequency Missing = 2

## One-Sample Tests for Categorical Variables

Binomial Confidence Intervals and Tests for Binary Variables:

If you have a categorical variable with only two levels, you can use the binomial option to request a 95%
confidence interval for the proportion in the first level of the variable, and a test of the null hypothesis:

## H0: proportion in first category of the variable = p

In the option (P= ) you specify the hypothesized proportion in the first category of the tabled variable. By
default, SAS reports both one-sided and two-sided asymptotic p-values.
TITLE "BINOMIAL TEST";
PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES HIBMI / BINOMIAL (P=.20);
FORMAT HIBMI HIBMIFMT.;
RUN;

## The hypotheses that we are testing are shown below:

H0: proportion with high bmi = 0.20
HA: proportion with high bmi ≠ 0.20
BINOMIAL TEST
Cumulative Cumulative
HIBMI Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
--------------------------------------------------------------
1:BMI>23 18 9.78 18 9.78

6
2:BMI<=23 166 90.22 184 100.00
Frequency Missing = 4

Binomial Proportion
for HIBMI = 1:BMI>23
-------------------------------------
Proportion (P) 0.0978
ASE 0.0219
95% Lower Conf Limit 0.0549
95% Upper Conf Limit 0.1408

## Exact Conf Limits

95% Lower Conf Limit 0.0590
95% Upper Conf Limit 0.1502

## Test of H0: Proportion = 0.2

ASE under H0 0.0295
Z -3.4649
One-sided Pr < Z 0.0003
Two-sided Pr > |Z| 0.0005

If you wish to obtain an exact binomial test of the null hypothesis, use the exact statement.

## PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;

TABLES HIBMI / BINOMIAL (P=.20);
exact binomial;
FORMAT HIBMI HIBMIFMT.;
RUN;
This results in an exact test of the null hypothesis, in addition to the default asymptotic test.
Exact Test
One-sided Pr <= P 1.415E-04
Two-sided = 2 * One-sided 2.829E-04

## Chi-square Goodness of Fit Tests for Categorical Variables:

Use the chisq option in the tables statement to get a chi-square goodness of fit test, which can be used for
categorical variables with two or more levels. By default SAS assumes that you wish to test the null hypothesis
that the proportion of cases is equal in all categories.

Use the testp= option to specify the proportions that you wish to test, if you don't want to assume equal
proportions in all categories. The total of all the proportions must be 1.0. You can also use percentages, in
which case, the total must add up to 100%. Give the appropriate proportions in the testp= option, specifying
them in order as they apply to each category.
TITLE "CHISQUARE GOODNESS OF FIT TEST";
PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES CHOLCAT / CHISQ TESTP=(.20 .30 .50);
FORMAT CHOLCAT CHOLCATFMT.;
RUN;

## The null hypothesis that we are testing is:

H0: π1= 0.20, π2 = .30, π3 = .50
CHISQUARE GOODNESS OF FIT TEST
The FREQ Procedure
Test Cumulative Cumulative
CHOLCAT Frequency Percent Percent Frequency Percent
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7
1: Chol <200 38 20.43 20.00 38 20.43
2: Chol 200-239 61 32.80 30.00 99 53.23
3: Chol >=240 87 46.77 50.00 186 100.00

Frequency Missing = 2
Chi-Square Test
for Specified Proportions
-------------------------
Chi-Square 0.8889
DF 2
Pr > ChiSq 0.6412

## Effective Sample Size = 186

Frequency Missing = 2

## Two-Sample Tests for Categorical Variables:

Chi-Square test of Independence
Two by Two Table:

If you wish to examine the relationship between two categorical variables, you can use Proc Freq. Use the
chisq option to obtain the Pearson chi-square test of independence (or of homogeneity), and use the expected
option to get the expected value in each cell. The commands below can be used to get a cross-tabulation. In this
case, we have a 2 by 2 table, because each categorical variable has two levels. We test:

## H0: HIAGE is independent of HICHOL status

HA: HIAGE is not independent of HICHOL status

Note that Fisher’s exact test is produced by default for a 2 x 2 table, when the chisq option is specified. Read
either the one-sided or two-sided p-value for the Fisher’s exact test, which are at the bottom of the respective
panel of output, and shown in bold below.

## TITLE "2x2 TABLE";

PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES HIAGE*HICHOL / CHISQ EXPECTED;
FORMAT HIAGE HIAGEFMT. HICHOL HICHOLFMT.;RUN;

2x2 TABLE
Table of HIAGE by HICHOL

HIAGE HICHOL
Frequency |
Expected |
Percent |
Row Pct |
Col Pct |1: Chol |2: Chol | Total
|>=240 |<240 |
------------+--------+--------+
1: Age >39 | 42 | 18 | 60
| 28.065 | 31.935 |
| 22.58 | 9.68 | 32.26
| 70.00 | 30.00 |
| 48.28 | 18.18 |
------------+--------+--------+
2: Age <=39 | 45 | 81 | 126
| 58.935 | 67.065 |
| 24.19 | 43.55 | 67.74
| 35.71 | 64.29 |
| 51.72 | 81.82 |
------------+--------+--------+
Total 87 99 186

8
46.77 53.23 100.00

Frequency Missing = 2
Statistics for Table of HIAGE by HICHOL

## Statistic DF Value Prob

------------------------------------------------------
Chi-Square 1 19.1914 <.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 1 19.5296 <.0001
Continuity Adj. Chi-Square 1 17.8389 <.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1 19.0882 <.0001
Phi Coefficient 0.3212
Contingency Coefficient 0.3058
Cramer's V 0.3212
Fisher's Exact Test
----------------------------------
Cell (1,1) Frequency (F) 42
Left-sided Pr <= F 1.0000
Right-sided Pr >= F 1.045E-05

## Table Probability (P) 8.118E-06

Two-sided Pr <= P 1.741E-05

## Effective Sample Size = 186

Frequency Missing = 2
Cochran-Armitage test for trend:
R x 2 table, or 2 x C table

The Cochran-Armitage test for trend is appropriate when either the row or column variable is binary (has two
levels) and the other variable is ordinal. It tests whether there is a linear trend in the proportion of subjects
having the binary characteristic. The Mantel-Haenszel test statistic tests for a linear by linear association and
can be used when both row and column variables are ordinal; it always has 1 degree of freedom. In the table
below, both the row and column variables could be considered to be ordinal, because a binary variable can be
thought of as a very simple case of an ordinal variable.
TITLE1 "3X2 TABLE";
TITLE2 "THE ROW VARIABLE IS ORDINAL";
PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES AGEGROUP*HICHOL / CHISQ TREND NOCOL NOPERCENT;
FORMAT AGEGROUP AGEFMT. HICHOL HICHOLFMT. ;
RUN;

## For the Cochran-Armitage test, we are testing the null hypothesis:

H0: There is a linear trend in the proportion of women with high cholesterol, with increasing age

We are not testing whether the trend is in a positive or negative direction. To see that, simply examine the
proportions of participants with high cholesterol in each age group.
3X2 TABLE
THE ROW VARIABLE IS ORDINAL
The FREQ Procedure
Table of AGEGROUP by HICHOL

AGEGROUP HICHOL
Frequency |
Row Pct |1: Chol |2: Chol | Total
|>=240 |<240 |
-------------+--------+--------+
1: Age 19-29 | 25 | 47 | 72
| 34.72 | 65.28 |
-------------+--------+--------+
2: Age 30-39 | 20 | 34 | 54

9
| 37.04 | 62.96 |
-------------+--------+--------+
3: Age >39 | 42 | 18 | 60
| 70.00 | 30.00 |
-------------+--------+--------+
Total 87 99 186
Frequency Missing = 2

## Statistics for Table of AGEGROUP by HICHOL

Statistic DF Value Prob
------------------------------------------------------
Chi-Square 2 19.2578 <.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 2 19.6016 <.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1 15.5677 <.0001
Phi Coefficient 0.3218
Contingency Coefficient 0.3063
Cramer's V 0.3218

## Cochran-Armitage Trend Test

--------------------------
Statistic (Z) 3.9562
One-sided Pr > Z <.0001
Two-sided Pr > |Z| <.0001

## Effective Sample Size = 186

Frequency Missing = 2

Mantel-Haenszel test for a linear association between two ordinal categorical variables:
R x C table, both row and column variables are ordinal
In the next table, both the row and column variable are ordinal. In this case the Mantel-Haenszel test is
appropriate to test for a linear by linear association between the ordinal row variable and the ordinal column
variable. The Pearson Chi-square test is appropriate for testing general association (H0: the row variable is
independent of the column variable) whether there is ordering of the row and/or column variable or not. In a
table like this, which does have ordering of both row and column variables, the Pearson Chi-square test ignores
the ordering of the variables.
TITLE "3X3 TABLE BOTH ORDINAL VARIABLES";
PROC FREQ DATA=B510.WERNER ORDER=INTERNAL;
TABLES AGEGROUP*WTCAT / CHISQ nocol nopercent;
FORMAT AGEGROUP AGEFMT. WTCAT WTFMT.;
RUN;

## 3X3 TABLE BOTH ORDINAL VARIABLES

Table of AGEGROUP by WTCAT
AGEGROUP WTCAT
Frequency |
Row Pct |1: Wt <1|2: Wt 12|3: Wt >=| Total
|20kg |0-139kg |140kg |
-------------+--------+--------+--------+
1: Age 19-29 | 24 | 34 | 16 | 74
| 32.43 | 45.95 | 21.62 |
-------------+--------+--------+--------+
2: Age 30-39 | 15 | 26 | 12 | 53
| 28.30 | 49.06 | 22.64 |
-------------+--------+--------+--------+
3: Age >39 | 10 | 22 | 27 | 59
| 16.95 | 37.29 | 45.76 |
-------------+--------+--------+--------+
Total 49 82 55 186

Frequency Missing = 2

10
Statistics for Table of AGEGROUP by WTCAT
Statistic DF Value Prob
------------------------------------------------------
Chi-Square 4 11.7418 0.0194
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 4 11.4638 0.0218
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1 8.7820 0.0030
Phi Coefficient 0.2513
Contingency Coefficient 0.2437
Cramer's V 0.1777

## We now look at some examples using a different data set.

We first use Proc Contents to learn what variables are in the data set, and the types of all the variables.

title;
proc contents data=b510.cars;
run;

## Data Set Name B510.CARS Observations 406

Member Type DATA Variables 8
Engine V9 Indexes 0
Created Monday, August 21, 2006 09:41:24 PM Observation Length 64
Protection Compressed NO
Data Set Type Sorted NO
Label
Data Representation WINDOWS_32
Encoding wlatin1 Western (Windows)

## 5 ACCEL Num 8 4. Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec)

8 CYLINDER Num 8 1. Number of Cylinders
2 ENGINE Num 8 5. Engine Displacement (cu. inches)
3 HORSE Num 8 5. Horsepower
1 MPG Num 8 4. Miles per Gallon
7 ORIGIN Num 8 1. Country of Origin
4 WEIGHT Num 8 4. Vehicle Weight (lbs.)
6 YEAR Num 8 2. Model Year (modulo 100)

proc format;
value originfmt 1="USA"
2="Europe"
3="Japan";
run;

Output from the SAS log is shown below. Because this format had already been defined in the current run of
SAS, there is a note in the log stating that it is already on the library. If this format were to be resubmitted with
new values, the new values would over-write the old values.
142 proc format;
143 value originfmt 1="USA"
144 2="Europe"
145 3="Japan";
NOTE: Format ORIGINFMT is already on the library.
NOTE: Format ORIGINFMT has been output.
146 run;

11
We now get simple descriptive statistics for each level of the variable ORIGIN, using a class statement.

## proc means data=b510.cars;

class origin;
format origin originfmt.;
run;

## /*To get less output use options nolabel;*/

options nolabel;
proc means data=b510.cars;
class origin;
format origin originfmt.;
run;
The MEANS Procedure

Country
of N
Origin Obs Variable Label N Mean
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USA 253 MPG Miles per Gallon 248 20.1282258
ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 253 247.7134387
HORSE Horsepower 249 119.6064257
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 253 3367.33
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 253 14.9284585
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 253 75.5217391
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 253 6.2766798

## Europe 73 MPG Miles per Gallon 70 27.8914286

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 73 109.4657534
HORSE Horsepower 71 81.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 73 2431.49
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 73 16.8219178
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 73 75.7397260
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 73 4.1506849

## Japan 79 MPG Miles per Gallon 79 30.4506329

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 79 102.7088608
HORSE Horsepower 79 79.8354430
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 79 2221.23
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 79 16.1721519
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 79 77.4430380
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 79 4.1012658
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Country
of N
Origin Obs Variable Label Std Dev Minimum
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USA 253 MPG Miles per Gallon 6.3768059 10.0000000
ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 98.7799678 85.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 39.7991647 52.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 788.6117392 1800.00
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 2.8011159 8.0000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 3.7145843 70.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 1.6626528 4.0000000

## Europe 73 MPG Miles per Gallon 6.7239296 16.2000000

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 22.3719083 68.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 20.8134572 46.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 490.8836172 1825.00
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 3.0109175 12.2000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 3.5630332 70.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 0.4907826 4.0000000

## Japan 79 MPG Miles per Gallon 6.0900481 18.0000000

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 23.1401260 70.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 17.8191991 52.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 320.4972479 1613.00

12
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 1.9549370 11.4000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 3.6505947 70.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 0.5904135 3.0000000
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Country
of N
Origin Obs Variable Label Maximum
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USA 253 MPG Miles per Gallon 39.0000000
ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 455.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 230.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 5140.00
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 22.2000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 82.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 8.0000000

## Europe 73 MPG Miles per Gallon 44.3000000

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 183.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 133.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 3820.00
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 24.8000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 82.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 6.0000000

## Japan 79 MPG Miles per Gallon 46.6000000

ENGINE Engine Displacement (cu. inches) 168.0000000
HORSE Horsepower 132.0000000
WEIGHT Vehicle Weight (lbs.) 2930.00
ACCEL Time to Accelerate from 0 to 60 mph (sec) 21.0000000
YEAR Model Year (modulo 100) 82.0000000
CYLINDER Number of Cylinders 6.0000000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We now take a look at a 3 by 5 table (the row variable has 3 levels and the column variable has 5 levels) to see
if there is any association between Country of Origin, and Number of Cylinders. The Pearson chi-square test is
perhaps appropriate here…but let’s see.

## title “Row variable is nominal, column variable is ordinal”

proc freq data = b510.cars;
tables origin*cylinder / chisq expected;
format origin originfmt.;
run;

13
Row variable is nominal, column variable is ordinal
Table of ORIGIN by CYLINDER

## ORIGIN(Country of Origin) CYLINDER(Number of Cylinders)

Frequency|
Expected |
Percent |
Row Pct |
Col Pct | 3| 4| 5| 6| 8| Total
---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
USA | 0| 72 | 0| 74 | 107 | 253
| 2.4988 | 129.31 | 1.8741 | 52.474 | 66.842 |
| 0.00 | 17.78 | 0.00 | 18.27 | 26.42 | 62.47
| 0.00 | 28.46 | 0.00 | 29.25 | 42.29 |
| 0.00 | 34.78 | 0.00 | 88.10 | 100.00 |
---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Europe | 0| 66 | 3| 4| 0| 73
| 0.721 | 37.311 | 0.5407 | 15.141 | 19.286 |
| 0.00 | 16.30 | 0.74 | 0.99 | 0.00 | 18.02
| 0.00 | 90.41 | 4.11 | 5.48 | 0.00 |
| 0.00 | 31.88 | 100.00 | 4.76 | 0.00 |
---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Japan | 4| 69 | 0| 6| 0| 79
| 0.7802 | 40.378 | 0.5852 | 16.385 | 20.872 |
| 0.99 | 17.04 | 0.00 | 1.48 | 0.00 | 19.51
| 5.06 | 87.34 | 0.00 | 7.59 | 0.00 |
| 100.00 | 33.33 | 0.00 | 7.14 | 0.00 |
---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+--------+
Total 4 207 3 84 107 405
0.99 51.11 0.74 20.74 26.42 100.00

Frequency Missing = 1

## Statistics for Table of ORIGIN by CYLINDER

Statistic DF Value Prob
------------------------------------------------------
Chi-Square 8 185.7937 <.0001
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 8 217.1249 <.0001
Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1 129.7702 <.0001
Phi Coefficient 0.6773
Contingency Coefficient 0.5608
Cramer's V 0.4789

## WARNING: 40% of the cells have expected counts less

than 5. Chi-Square may not be a valid test.

## Effective Sample Size = 405

Frequency Missing = 1

Because the table contains a high proportion of small expected values (less than 5), SAS gives a warning
message in the output. In this case, we can use a Fisher’s exact test. Here are the commands we first try to use:

## title "Row variable is nominal, column variable is ordinal";

proc freq data = b510.cars;
tables origin*cylinder / chisq expected;
exact fisher;
format origin originfmt.;run;
The following message in the SAS log warns us that this may take a long time. We interrupted processing by
clicking on the “break” key, which looks like a circle around an exclamation point (!).
160 proc freq data = b510.cars;
161 tables origin*cylinder / chisq;
162 exact fisher;
163 format origin originfmt.;
164 run;

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WARNING: Computing exact p-values for this problem may require much time and memory. Press the
system interrupt key to terminate exact computations.
NOTE: There were 406 observations read from the data set B510.CARS.
NOTE: PROCEDURE FREQ used (Total process time):
real time 31.02 seconds
cpu time 23.54 seconds

We now resubmit the commands, using instead the Monte Carlo option in SAS (mc). This will give us a quite
good approximation to the Fisher’s exact test p-value, but based on 10,000 strategically chosen tables.

## title "Row variable is nominal, column variable is ordinal";

title2 "Try Fisher's Exact test";
proc freq data = b510.cars;
tables origin*cylinder / chisq expected;
exact fisher / mc;
format origin originfmt.;
run;

The output for these tests are shown below. The appropriate p-value is the portion labeled Pr <= P. When
reporting a p-value that is displayed as 0.0000, please use p< 0.0001.

## Fisher's Exact Test

----------------------------------
Table Probability (P) 3.582E-49

## Monte Carlo Estimate for the Exact Test

Pr <= P 0.0000
99% Lower Conf Limit 0.0000
99% Upper Conf Limit 4.604E-04

## Number of Samples 10000

Initial Seed 210470001

15