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i n t e g r a t i n g p e o p l e – p r o c e s s – p l a c e
VOLUME 1, NUMBER 4, 2007 DECEMBER – FEBRUARY
Ofﬁcial magazine of the Facility Management Association of Australia Ltd Print Post Approved 340742 00155 $9.95 inc GST
Education Pathways in FM
Housing Australia’s Population
Real World Buildings, Real World Problems
ties [fe sil et ies] n. pl.
ment [man ij ment] n.
An establishment made up of people collectively charged
to run an organisation’s infrastructure and assets.
We know where Facilities Management starts,
we also understand it doesn’t finish there:
: HVAC, Security & Fire Controls Technicians
: Engineering Manager
: Sustainability Engineer
: Installation & Commissioning Engineer
: Project Manager
: Contract Manager/Team Leader
: Electrical/Mechanical Engineer
: Compliance Manager
: Building Services Engineer
: Facilities Manager
: Building Automation Technician
B R I S B A N E : S Y D N E Y : M E L B O U R N E : P E R T H
For specialist recruitment expertise contact :
Brisbane : Dean Dewhirst on 0405 182 156
or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Sydney : Marc Owen on 0434 989 810
or email email@example.com
: CONSTRUCTION & CIVIL
: FACILITIES MANAGEMENT
: RESOURCES, MINING & POWER
: PROJECT MANAGEMENT & DEVELOPMENT
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 1
IN THIS ISSUE
29 EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
3 Set the lofty task of “ensuring ongoing access to a highly skilled facilities management
workforce recognised by clients as professional and capable of delivering a valuable service”,
the FM Action Agenda Education & Training Working Group ((E&TWG), set about to engage
with the stakeholders to achieve some remarkable outcomes.
3 In 2006 Deakin University developed Australia’s first undergraduate course in facilities
3 AnnMarie Bullard discusses FMA Australia’s plans for a fully integrated and globally recognised,
upgraded professional development accreditation pathway.
4 Editors Comment 6 Fast Facts & News 12 FMA Australia Chairman’s Address
13 FMA Australia CEO’s Address 61 FM Legal 72 New Products
47 ESSENTIAL SAFETY MEASURES Building Update
62 PROJECT SHOWCASE: Watermark – Repositioning the Built Environment
57 MANAGING AN AUSTRALIAN ICON – Interview with the MCG’s Peter Wearne
14 FM AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Housing Australia’s Population – the challenges ahead.
Facility Perspectives’ Melanie Drummond spoke with Macroplan
Australia’s Brian Haratsis about the future of Australian housing.
Private Sector Housing Provision
Community Housing Limited (CHL) recently launched its services to
the NSW market. CHL not only assists in providing low cost housing,
but also develops and manages sustainable housing for people in
19 FM AROUND THE GLOBE
Facilities Management in Dubai
A Macdonald & Company Recruitment Perspective.
24 FM EVENTS
Currie & Brown Celebration
Leading consulting group Currie & Brown held a cocktail function in
Sydney recently to thank their many clients and pay tribute to the
long-standing service of one of their employees.
A.G Coombs and the Carbon Roadmap for Existing
Presented by some of the best speakers in the country including Club
of Rome member Dr Keith Suter, PCA CEO Peter Verwer and MC’ed
by Tracey Curro, the Carbon Roadmap for Existing Buildings amply
delivered on the need to reduce greenhouse emissions for the
41 MAINTENANCE & HVAC
Real World Buildings, Real world Problems – Barriers to
Dr Paul Bannister, MD of Exergy Australia outlines the problems and
the possible solutions associated with ensuring your building is energy
50 ESD & THE ENVIRONMENT
Building a Greener Future
Facility Perspectives’ Melanie Drummond spoke to David Gottfried,
Founder of the US and World Green Building Councils about the
future of Green Buildings and Australia’s position in the global
54 SOFT SERVICES
That Winning Edge in Cleaning
A recent winner of a BSCAA award, Consolidated Property Services’
Operations Manager Ian Barker used some of the bursary to study
cleaning and building services contracting overseas. Ian reports on his
66 ESSENTIAL SAFETY MEASURES
Making sense of Fire Maintenance – It’s your responsibility
Glenn Talbot, Director Verified, reminds us that facility managers need
to have the systems in place to ensure that contractors deliver the
required fire maintenance for your building safety systems.
69 FM WATER WATCH
There is increasing interest in the use of waterless urinals and ultra low
flush urinal systems as a way to save water in large buildings and
public amenities. Wendy Hird from the Every Drop Counts Business
75 FM EVENTS
Green Cities 08, 10-13 February 2008, Sydney Convention
Centre, Darling Harbour
Themed What is Possible Now?, the GBCA and PCA hosted two day
conference and expo will offer the latest green building initiatives and
technologies and presentations from key international and Australian
44 Solutions for HVAC Refurbishment Challenges
Sponsored Industry Proﬁles
3 FMA Australia ideaction 2008 Preview
3 The Next Step in Sustainability: Existing Buildings
3 Your Guide to GreenPower: What the Utilities have to offer
i n t e g r a t i n g p e o p l e – p r o c e s s – p l a c e
ISS FACILITY SERVICES:
A GLOBAL COMPANY WITH A LOCAL ETHOS
ISS Facility Services is one of the world’s largest facility services
companies. It has a global workforce of over 435,000 personnel in
50 countries and annual revenue in excess of AU$15 billion.
The rapid growth of the company over the past 20 years largely
stems from its ability to draw upon its global experience to deliver
high quality services in the many countries where it operates.
More recently, its success has been driven by its ability to provide
integrated facility services that provides its clients with service
solutions that are even more efﬁcient through process and labour
ISS Facility Services entered the Australian market in 2002 through
the acquisition of Flick Pest Control, an Australian-renowned brand
name. Since then, ISS has purchased a broad range of companies
and has extended its capacity to provide a full scope of Facility
Services. In Australia, ISS is a multi-service organisation employing
over 22,000 people in the provision of facility management,
maintenance, cleaning, security, non-clinical support services for the
health industry, grounds maintenance and washroom services. It has
a customer base of more than 100,000 clients and annual revenue
of more than AU$700 million.
ISS is one of a handful of companies globally that offers a wide
range of service solutions that can be combined to meet all
of a customer’s service and support functions into one single
ISS is the largest provider of cleaning services globally and in
Australia. For more than 70 years, ISS has continually raised the
standard for cleaning services throughout the world.
ISS Security is the second largest provider of security services
in Australia. Core Services for the Security division include
general security guarding, emergency response, consulting
services, operational risk management, development and
implementation of safety plans and a focus on service supply to
the Australian Aviation and Maritime Security Sector.
ISS Facilities Management Services is a division which provides
a management structure and operational solutions with a
management team to cater for any facility service requirement
a client might have.
ISS Grounds and Maintenance Services is a growing division
within the company and currently has 160 staff operating in
NSW and Victoria.
As part of Route Based Services, ISS Pest Control enjoys
national coverage and provides preventative and reactionary
services for a large commercial and domestic base.
ISS Washroom Services is one of only two national providers for
this service in Australia. With a business-to-business customer
base of 28,000, ISS is continually looking for a more advanced
product range and now proudly introduces ISS Pure Water.
Water, the foundation of all life
Water is an essential component of
a healthy diet. Doctors recommend
an intake of at least two litres or
6-8 glasses each day. Water provides
the body with valuable minerals
and trace elements, and boosts the
well-being and performance of the
But even though water is the best
way to quench a thirst, sugary soft
drinks or fruit juices often seem to
be the easy choice.
Water, the pure pleasure
As one of the most strictly
controlled foodstuffs, water
needs to be of the highest quality.
What could be more obvious than
to refine our tap water further
by means of the latest filtering
technology and turn it into a
healthy and refreshing pleasurable
Water, the ease of availability
Connected to the drinking water
network, the ISS Pure Water
dispensers are a never-ending
source of fresh, clean drinking
water. At the touch of a button
Chilled and crystal-clear water
Sparkling or still water
For employees, customers or
visitors, a glass of water is now
always easily and quickly available.
It’s that simple
Your choice of water, anywhere
Water, the cost-effective
As the exclusive partner of
Waterlogic in Australia, ISS Pure
Water offers the latest carbon
filter and UV treatment technology
from one of Europe’s largest
manufacturers in this specialist
field with an Australia-wide service
As opposed to bottled water
dispensers an ISS Pure Water
dispenser requires minimal
maintenance, and carry none of the
OH&S issues associated with large
Besides a half-yearly service, carried
out by ISS, there are practically no
other operative or administrative
tasks to undertake
Whether they are considered as a
replacement for bottle-based water
dispenser systems or compared with
mineral water in bottles, ISS Pure
Water dispensers make financial
Your total support services
ISS offers a range of service
solutions, from single services to
full Integrated Facility Services
(IFS) that combine all of our
customers requirements into one
solution that helps our customers
to reduce costs and focus on their
Contact ISS to discuss your existing
service requirements and how
through our approach to IFS, we
can combine people, methods
and management to maximise
Sales and Operations: 13 14 40
4 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
Level 6, 313 La Trobe Street, Melbourne VIC 3000
Tel: (03) 8641 6666 Fax: (03) 9640 0374
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.fma.com.au
Front Cover: MCG Members Area
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Editor-in-Chief: Ric Navarro
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National Sales Manager: Phil Haratsis
430 William Street, Melbourne VIC 3000
Tel: (03) 9274 4201 Fax: (03) 9329 5295
Ofﬁces also in Adelaide, Brisbane and Sydney
Director & Editor: Max Winter
Assistant Editor/National Communications Manager:
WinterComms Sydney Correspondent:
Marie Geissler, Geissler Communications
Tel: (02) 4471 1252 or (03) 8417 6577
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Other MCG images supplied by MCG Management.
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responsible for the accuracy or correctness of the text of
contributions contained in this publication or for the
consequences of any use made of the products, and the
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printer and their staff and agents expressly disclaim all liability of
whatsoever nature for any consequences arising from any errors
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Performance Facilities Management
The WinterComms crew and I have been
privileged to attend a number of leading
industry events lately and I think it would be fair
to say that the subjects of Carbon Footprints,
Training and ongoing Professional
Development are the current buzzwords in the
industry and steadfastly becoming the front
runners in the foreseeable future for facility
Why you might ask?
This year the Senate Standing Committee
on Environment, Communications, Information
Technology and the Arts, have received
submissions from 36 organisations and
individuals, and held a public hearing in
Canberra on Monday, 3 September 2007, in
regard to the National Greenhouse and Energy
Reporting Bill 2007 [Provisions].
The bill gives effect to the decision by the
Council of Australian Governments (COAG) on
13 April 2007.
1 to streamline the greenhouse and energy
emissions reporting obligations of
2 This decision by COAG was the outcome
of information and research provided by a
number of working groups and taskforces
speciﬁcally commissioned to examine the
issue of greenhouse and energy reporting
and emissions trading.
The report makes mention of the ‘onerous’
obligations imposed by the 15 commonwealth,
state, and territory programmes that have
greenhouse and energy reporting
requirements, and the need to streamline them
into the policy framework for the development
of the energy sector established by the
Australian government produced energy white
paper entitled ‘Securing Australia’s Energy
One might be tempted to ask the obvious
question of why there might have been a need
for 15 commonwealth state and territory
programmes (instead of ratifying the Kyoto
protocol), or why the white paper ‘Securing
Australia’s Energy Future’ stated objectives are
prosperity, security and sustainability (I suspect,
in that order), or whether the carbon emission
limits that will set the basis for the Australian
Emissions Trading System are going to be
anywhere near meaningful, but sufﬁce to say
that the question of our Carbon Footprint and
the Built Environment’s contribution toward it, is
about to be placed on the corporate
While a clear majority of facility managers
have already embraced (with a passion) the
concept and practical implications of corporate
social responsibility, it is also comforting to
know that moves by FMA Australia and the
facilities management industry, the sustainability
sector organisations and the VTE and higher
education sectors are working toward providing
the necessary tools and qualiﬁcations for facility
managers to be able to take advantage of the
opportunities that the new era will provide.
What does this mean in the foreseeable
Just as much as performance maintenance
contracts have brought the focus on the
procurement objectives that really count, I see a
future where Performance Facilities
Management will bring the focus on
ecologically sustainable performance
measurement and its resultant impact on
workplace productivity as a method and means
of performance-based remuneration.
Make no mistake, this will not be any easy
path for the many landlords who still see their
building assets as something they should
exploit for minimum maintenance and
maximum rental return, and for a sizable
proportion of the market the whole question of
justifying funds for performance measurement,
let alone performance management, will still be
a vexing one.
Tenants however, are being educated to
the possible, and will move to where the grass
and their building is greener, especially now
that the resultant workplace productivity
improvement facts are in, and the score is on
1 Council of Australian Governments web site, Meeting 13 April 2007,
http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/130407/index.htm#skills, accessed 6 September 2007.
2 Explanatory Memorandum, National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Bill 2007, p. 5.
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6 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FAST FACTS + NEWS
FM Action Agenda’s Year 2
The Facilities Management Action Agenda (FM Action Agenda) has
released its Year 2 Implementation Report, complete with testimonials
from industry leaders, here and aboard, for this unique Australian
initiative which is providing worldclass industry leadership.
“Management is the new black. A well-run building beneﬁts
owners and occupants alike. The Property Council supports the FM
Action Agenda because it aims to improve the management of
buildings and thereby deliver multiple dividends.”
Peter Verwer, CEO, Property Council of Australia
The FM Action Agenda was announced by the Hon Ian Macfarlane,
MP Minister for Industry, Tourism and Resources in January 2004. As
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister, the Hon Warren Entsch MP
presided over our strategic phase and launched the strategic plan and
announced the FM Exemplar Project in April 2005. More recently the FM
Action Agenda has been fortunate to have enjoyed the unswerving
support of the Hon Bob Baldwin MP in the implementation phase which
commenced in August 2005.
This second year’s progress report for 2006-07 has been prepared by
the FM Action Agenda Implementation Board which is chaired by John
McCarthy, who in addition to being a past President of PCA, is also
currently chairman of the CRC for Construction Innovation and AEH
Property, and a member of the ABCB and ASBEC boards.
John McCarthy said “the FM Action Agenda board comprises an
excellent mix of high quality, committed industry leaders, and I have
only praise for the FM Action Agenda implementation team as
acknowledged in the report”.
In line with the 2005 strategic plan ‘FM Action Agenda: Managing
the Built Environment’, the focus continues to be to promote industry
Recognition across the four platforms of Innovation, Education &
Training, Regulatory Reform and Sustainability with reference to the
endorsed 20 point action plan.
Steady progress has been made toward the Facilities Management
industry’s vision of being “… the foremost contributor to a productive
and sustainable Built Environment …”
Highlights during our 2006-07 implementation year have included
increased media coverage and conference presentations, an FM
Innovation Forum in May, Australia’s ﬁrst undergraduate FM degree
program, national regulatory compliance mapping and contribution to
the sustainability movement including the soon to be released ‘ESD
Operations Guide for owners, managers and tenants’. A signiﬁcant
achievement has been the completion, by the CRC for Construction
Innovation’s team, of the award winning FM Exemplar Project: Sydney
Opera House research, publications and showcase series.
This second annual report provides details of the FM Action
Agenda’s signiﬁcant achievements. The report also sets targets for future
developments which will continue to enhance the recognition of Facilities
Management as a business enabler and its contribution to the broader
“The leadership of the Australian FM Action Agenda are to be
commended for their commitment to improve the changing
worldwide built environment through the advancement of facility
management innovation education and research. The FM Action
Agenda’s contributions and sharing have already created exciting
opportunities and unimaginable potential for the future!” Peggy
McCarthy, CFM, IFMA Fellow Chair, IFMA Foundation, USA
For more information contact:
T: (02) 9922 2277
Further information on the FM Action Agenda and FM Exemplar Project
is available from: http://www.fmactionagenda.org
Green Building Council Of
Australia Supports New
Direction For ACT
As the ACT Government considers a proposal to commit to
achieving a Green Star rating for a new building in Civic, the Green
Building Council of Australia has awarded its third 6 Star Green Star
certiﬁcation to a building in Canberra.
The refurbishment of the Australian Ethical Investment ofﬁces
in Fern Hill Park highlights to the ACT Government what is
possible with Green Star.
On a conventional budget, the newly certiﬁed Australian
Ethical Investment Ofﬁces has achieved a 75% reduction in water
use through simple and very cost-effective methods and has
included high levels of recycling and reuse of materials throughout
Australian Ethical Investment Ltd Executive Director, Howard
Pender, encourages other owners, builders and landlords to
“green” the Australian commercial building stock for the beneﬁt of
their pockets, commercial building occupants and the
“The challenge facing the industry is a lot more about a small
amount of additional imaginative design effort up front, rather than
any large construction cost premium,” Mr Pender said.
Howard also thanks architects Collard, Clarke and Jackson,
Cobul Construction and Green Star Accredited Professional Warren
Overton for helping Australian Ethical Investment achieve its 6 Star
Green Star rating.
Green Building Council of Australia Chair, Tony Arnel, believes
that the refurbishment of this existing building, as well as support
from ACT Government, will have a positive impact on the direction
of Canberra’s existing building stock.
There are now four buildings within ACT that have achieved a
Green Star rating, and these include 8 Brindabella Circuit, which
was the ﬁrst building in Australia to achieve Green Star
certiﬁcation, 255 London Circuit and the Australian Research
Council Tenancy at 8 Brindabella Circuit.
Romilly Madew, former ACT Executive Director for the
Property Council of Australia, and now Chief Executive for the
Green Building Council of Australia, supports this indication that
ACT Government is taking sustainability seriously.
“The ACT Government should be congratulated for moving
forward and playing a vital role in encouraging others within ACT
to follow their example and position Canberra as a model for the
rest of Australia and internationally,” said Ms Madew.
The 2006 Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change
identiﬁed that buildings account for 8% of greenhouse gas
emissions, or 20% if upstream emissions associated with electricity
and heat are included. Green Star certiﬁed buildings have reported
savings in energy use of up to 85% and reductions in the release of
emissions equivalent to permanently removing 3250 cars off the
“Government leadership in this area is very important. If
Government can encourage not only the developers of new
buildings, but also the landlords of existing buildings to retroﬁt to a
Green Star standard, the impact would be substantial and
showcase Canberra’s commitment to green buildings,” said Tony
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 7
FAST FACTS + NEWS
Australian FM On The Global
The Australian Facility Management industry took centre stage at the
inaugural National Facility & Asset Management convention held in
Kuala Lumpur on the 13-14 August. Organised at the request of the
Prime Minister of Malaysia, the Public Works Department and Advance
Maintenance Precisions Management (AMPM), the two-day forum was
attended by over 1,200 leading industry, government and academic
representatives. Stephen Ballesty of Rider Levett Bucknall and Immediate
Past Chairman of FMA Australia gave two outstanding presentations,
highlighting the exceptional developments occurring in our industry:
FM Action Agenda: Managing the Built Environment – government
and industry working together – the Australian experience, our strategic
plan for industry recognition, capacity building and sustainability, along
with Year 1 and 2 implementations. FM Exemplar Project: Sydney Opera
House – best practice case study researching digital modelling, services
procurement and performance benchmarking to achieve and integrated
solution and demonstrating ‘FM as a business enabler’. The FM Action
Agenda’s vision of contributing to a more “productive and sustainable
Built Environment” summed up the aspirations of the FM leaders
gathered in Kuala Lumpur. FM industry leaders resolved to act on
improving the management of public assets and facilities, an ethos
strongly supported by Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah
Ahmad Badawi. The Malaysian government announced they will set up
an Asset Management Committee to formulate a “more effective and
efﬁcient procedural framework to improve the management of national
assets and facilities – a plan for action to include clear guidelines and
For more information contact:
Stephen Ballesty T: (02) 9922 2277 E: email@example.com
Further information on the FM Action Agenda is available from:
United Group Reiterates
As reported in The Age on 10 October, United Group Ltd still
expects revenue to nearly double this year, amid ongoing
favourable market conditions for the engineering services provider.
“United Group expects next year’s total revenue to approach
$4 billion,” chief executive Richard Leupen told shareholders at the
company’s annual general meeting.
“Our long term goal remains, to increase earnings by between
10 per cent to 15 per cent on a sustainable basis.”
“Organic growth and acquisitions will continue to be the future
United Group in August reported an 18 per cent lift in ﬁscal
2007 net proﬁt to $92.7 million, as revenue grew by 14 per cent to
“We expect 2008 to be another year of growth supported by
favourable market conditions, growth in outsourcing in all major
markets, and increased spending on essential infrastructure,” Mr
He noted that Australia’s state governments are expected to
spend over $40 billion on infrastructure in ﬁscal 2008, a 27 per cent
For the four years up to ﬁscal 2011, infrastructure spending is
estimated to be over $150 billion.
“As you can see, this spending will occur over the next four
years which illustrates that United Group is well placed to play an
important role in this infrastructure boom,” Mr Leupen said.
As well, increased spending in the resources sector will also be
a driver of growth for the group. United Group has an order book
of $4 billion.
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8 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FAST FACTS + NEWS
NSW Government Still
NSW Transport Minister John Watkins says the government still
support the future of public private partnerships (PPPs), despite the
continuing controversy surrounding the Cross City Tunnel in
As reported in The Age on October 10
, Mr Watkins told
attendees at the recent NSW Infrastructure Summit that
government would continue to work with the private sector to
ensure the continuation of future infrastructure developments.
“The Cross City Tunnel probably engendered some talk that
we were off PPPs – well, we’re not. We have to embrace privately
ﬁnanced projects to deliver what we’ve got planned,” Mr Watkins
The 2.1 km underground motorway
which runs east to west
beneath the streets and buildings of the Sydney Central Business
District has been followed by controversy and public criticism since
it opened for motorists on the 28th of August, 2005. Unable to
meet projected motorist ﬁgures, the Cross City Tunnel went into
receivership in December 2006 with debts that amounted to $500
This year on 27 September it was ofﬁcially announced that
ABN AMRO and Leighton Contractors had purchased the Tunnel
for AUD $695 million – well under the $1 billion
it cost for
Leighton Contractors’ General Manager of Infrastructure
Investments Peter Hicks
said the new ownership would bring an
increased focus to management of the Tunnel with the spotlight
ﬁrmly on safety and quality service for motorists. The consortium
also conﬁrmed that the $3.80 toll on Sydney’s only electronic toll
road would remain.
Head of Structured Finance at ABN AMRO John Martin said
the companies believe the toll represents value for money. “CCT
Motorway will undertake a full review of the asset over the next few
months and this will include looking at who our customers are,
their usage patterns, adequacy of signage and opportunities to
maximise the value of the tunnel to motorists.”
Since opening, the progress of CCT Motorway has continued
to be a hot topic in the political arena.
Cairns City Council Builds
Cairns city Council and specialist IT services and solution provider
Dimension Data have announced the successful rollout of the ﬁrst phase
of a three-year uniﬁed communications project.
As a key component of the Council’s ambitious plan to deliver
improved services to its growing constituency and become a world-class
regional city, the Council is deploying a Cisco and Microsoft-based
uniﬁed communications infrastructure to improve both its internal
communications efﬁciency and deliver superior service to its constituents.
The infrastructure will be rolled out over a three-year period to over
1000 users, with a pilot phase involving 30 users currently underway.
Council staff can now contact and collaborate with more ease than ever
before, saving time and boosting productivity. Staff will also beneﬁt from
a uniﬁed inbox, creating a single location for all email and voicemails
received. Exchange 2007 has also enabled ‘play on phone’, which allows
users to access voice messages in their email inbox from a mobile
phone, landline or other number.
Cairns City Council IT Infrastructure Manager, Dennis Littlewood said
Dimension Data has been proactively involved with Cairns City Council
since 2001 – designing, deploying and supporting the Council’s Cisco
“As a result, Dimension Data has become engaged with our
strategic planning and understood the direction we wished to take in
deploying a converged infrastructure.”
The next phase for the Council is the implementation of Cisco
Uniﬁed Contact Centre (IPCC), which will enable IVR (interactive voice
response) functionality and intelligent call routing for the Central
Customer Service Centre, Council’s IT service desk and the Civic
Theatre’s box ofﬁce, (which is run by the Council). It will also enable
advanced functionality including click-to-call and desktop
videoconferencing. The system’s ability to route calls to the right staff
member means call handling can be tailored to different classes of
customers (down to the individual level). Calls can be moved in the
queue and skill groups used to deﬁne which agents have the required
knowledge to deal with a customer’s query quickly and efﬁciently.
The move from legacy equipment to a converged network has
brought a raft of less tangible beneﬁts, like improved fault tolerance, the
ability to federate with other councils if desired, and a range of possible
future upgrades that can quickly and easily be deployed to meet future
needs, including wireless connectivity, and Microsoft Ofﬁce
Communications Server 2007 for instant messaging and presence.
Urban Maintenance Systems (UMS) has recently
ﬁnalised the acquisition of PCI (Paul Cameron
Industries). The contract of Sale was signed by the
Directors of both companies, which ends the sale
process and marks the beginning of a new chapter for
PCI is a niche service provider within the petroleum
industry providing a range of grounds & garden
services to organisations such as Caltex, Woolworths,
Coles, Express, Ofﬁceworks and 7-11. The maintenance
company is Sydney based with additional ofﬁces and
depots in Melbourne & Brisbane.
UMS objectives for the acquisition of PCI are to further consolidate
its Sydney based operations, to add a new service that UMS can offer to
existing or new customers, to deliver a Brisbane ofﬁce, depot and
resources, to strengthen its position in the Petroleum Industry and to
bring a new set of skills and people to UMS.
The Founder and Managing Director of PCI, Mr Paul Cameron, will
continue with the company in the capacity of Business Manager
reporting to Lyndon Urquhart in UMS Petroleum Services.
Sam Furphy, Chief Executive Ofﬁcer of UMS and Mike Hoy, General Manager – UMS Infrastructre Services.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 9
FAST FACTS + NEWS
There are approximately 14 million computer and related peripherals
items in Victorian households alone and of those, over 10 per cent are
not in use or not working.
Tech-savvy households and businesses are now often upgrading
their computer systems every few years, so what can they do to recycle
their IT equipment gathering dust?
Byteback, a computer recycling initiative developed by Sustainability
Victoria and the Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA), is
giving Victorians the opportunity to dispose of unwanted computers and
other IT products in an environmentally responsible way, with up to 97
per cent of materials recovered to be recycled or re-used.
If spring cleaning isn’t enough reason to recycle your old computers
then the environmental advantages of recycling your IT equipment may
encourage a good clean-out.
Not only do screens and monitors contain high lead content, but
hard drives, scanners, keyboards and printed circuit boards can also
contain a gamut of chemicals that are harmful to the environment.
While the materials are not harmful when contained within
equipment, there is a risk that if disposed in landﬁll the chemicals could
eventually leak into nearby waterways and surrounding habitats.
The Byteback service is free to the public and small businesses and
will be rolled out to nine sites around the state, beginning with
Camberwell and Geelong.
Geoff Mabbett, the Chief Executive of Sustainability Victoria said the
2 million dollar program is a Government initiative aimed at providing a
model for industry that can be adopted at a national level.
With the support of the Australian Information Industry Association,
ten major IT brands, including Apple, Canon, Dell, Epson, Fujitsu, Fuji-
Xerox, HP, IBM, Lenovo and Lexmark have joined Sustainability Victoria
to take the Byteback program right around Victoria.
Most of the computers will be recycled in Victoria, and those that
can’t will be sent to overseas plants that will be able to carry out the
“This is just the start, I encourage other brands to come on board
and help make a difference” Mr Mabbett said.
For more information visit: http://www.bytebackaustralia.com.au
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10 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FAST FACTS + NEWS
Coldry Process: An
Avenue Of Opportunity
A patented technology that transforms raw brown
coal into a similar quality product as black coal has been
developed by Victorian company Environmental Clean
Technologies (ECT) and is ready to go to market.
The company’s patented Coldry Process changes the
chemical composition of raw brown coal into a cleaner
alternative which contains less water and has the potential
to reduce brown coal power station carbon emissions by
more than 50 percent. The Coldry Process reduces the
moisture content in brown coal from 60+ per cent to 10-
12 per cent.
The dewatered brown coal pellets formed from the
process provides a perfect high quality feedstock. The
manufacture of Coldry pellets requires signiﬁcantly less
energy compared to the traditional brown coal briquette
and offers a better energy outcome, meaning less
greenhouse gas emissions.
Coldry pellets can be easily handled and bulk transported over long
distances, allowing brown coal to be stored and safely exported for the
ﬁrst time. This means that Coldry pellets can be used both as feedstock
to reduce emissions in existing and future brown coal ﬁred power
generators while, at the same time, opening up the opportunity for
Victorian brown coal to become a signiﬁcant energy export product.
ECT Managing Director Mr Kon Galtos believes enormous
opportunities for national employment and economic growth will be
created through the process.
“The pelletized product opens up an entirely new export industry,
capable of supplying major international markets”.
ECT believes that other known de-watering technologies under
development are limited to being ‘front end’ applications that must
feed product as it is made, directly into the power generation process,
because they do not produce a dried coal product that can be safely
stored or transported.
ECT believes that the scale up and adoption of Coldry represents
the best prospect for Victoria to achieve a more rapid reduction in
emissions from its brown coal ﬁred power generation industry.
Brown coal storage is no longer an issue with Coldry Process
12 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
arlier in the year the new Board welcomed our new CEO, David
Duncan, and I am delighted with the strong relationship that has
developed between David and the Board and our National Ofﬁce.
It is a credit to David’s talents as a very competent CEO providing the
necessary leadership the Association requires at this point in its life.
The Board also set about the preparation of a Strategic Plan for the
association, in collaboration with State branches, which sets the strategic
priorities and direction for the association for the next 3 to 5 years. The
completion and launch of this plan represents a signiﬁcant milestone for
the association, as the plan provides the framework for all our State
branches and national committees to determine the necessary actions
required to support and deliver the plan’s objectives. The challenge for
us all is the implementation oft he plan over the next few years. Please
ensure you take some time to read the plan on our website
(www.fma.com.au), and feel free to provide any feedback to the Board
In May this year many of us gathered in Sydney to take part in
ideaction 2007 “Striving towards a better environment”. Next year I
invite you to join me from the 7–9 May on the magniﬁcent Gold Coast
where we will host our 19th Annual Conference – ideaction 2008
“Enabling Sustainable Communities”. The conference committee and
national staff have now secured fabulous site visits, a highly memorable
social program and as I write this the call for papers is open and the
quality of the early submissions presented so far is outstanding. Mark the
date in your diary, keep an eye on your email for further updates and if
you want your company to be part of the Gold Coast experience visit
www.fma.com.au and ﬁnd out how you can support the program, exhibit
your products or register your attendance.
Don’t forget the ideaction Gala Dinner also features the 2008
Awards for Excellence. Now is your chance to put a colleague, project or
company forward for any of our four categories. To ﬁnd out what is
involved to enter these awards, I again invite you to visit our website at
While it is always good to identify and celebrate some of our major
highlights, it is also important to acknowledge the challenges facing the
3 sustainability in FM and how smart FM can meaningfully contribute
to environmental, social, ﬁnancial and economic sustainability
3 providing greater opportunities for knowledge and skill growth with
a priority focus on addressing the ever increasing skill shortage
3 the impact of our ageing infrastructure
3 the increased need for security in our iconic and commercial
3 and being able to productively contribute to the vibrancy and
function of urban communities into the future through integrated
facility and urban design.
These challenges are being addressed in a variety of ways within
FMA Australia; through the work undertaken by our professional
development team; presentations at ideaction, our national committees
and many of our branch luncheon speakers.
Lately I have had the pleasure of presenting at a number of
conferences. In October I was the opening key note speaker at the
Intelligent Facilities Management Conference – “Looking towards
tomorrow—the future of Facilities Management in Australia: Technology,
sustainability and proﬁt”, during the presentation I highlighted the key
role facility managers are able to play as part of the sustainability agenda.
We are best positioned of all the building related professional disciplines
to have the greatest inﬂuence on the outcome of any sustainability
strategy for facility management. It also presents a great opportunity to
demonstrate how good facility management aligns with sustainability
objectives and that improved business performance can be realised as
part our management approach – we can shift the paradigm that facility
managers are part of the cost base, we are now part of business
performance improvement through efﬁciencies to be found in
sustainable delivery strategie
In November I chaired the two day conference on Sustainable
Facilities Management Asia 2007 in Kuala Lumpur. I also made a
presentation on Assessing the contribution of facilities management to a
sustainable global environment, this enabled me to highlight issues such
as the growing global concerns over how environmental issues have
impacted on the way businesses operate and present a framework for
sustainable facility management encompassing the four pillars of
sustainability – institutional, economic, environmental and social. We also
discussed how facilities management is the integral function in managing
the built environment, why focusing on a sustainable global environment
may be achieved through successful facilities management
implementation within your organisation, and, initiating corporate social
responsibility within facilities management.
These issues, set within a global FM perspective and presented at
events around the world give FMA Australia a host of topics to assist with
furthering our industry as a pre-eminent business enabler and the
opportunity to provide advocacy on issues for the beneﬁt of industry
stakeholders, the national economy and ultimately the world community.
We have had a very exciting year to date at FMA Australia with our
focus on the FM Action Agenda, the work we are undertaking with our
Global FM partners, and our focus on our three year strategic plan. I look
forward to continuing to work with our CEO, fellow directors, our branch
representatives, national ofﬁce staff and all our members to continue to
raise the proﬁle of FMA Australia and achieve many valuable outcomes
for our industry.
I thank you all for your support in 2007 and wish you and your family
a very happy and safe Christmas and New Year.
FMA Australia launched Facility Perspectives, our association’s new
magazine produced by Executive Media at the start of 2007. In this, my
ﬁnal message for 2007, I reﬂect on what has been a very exciting year
both for the association and for me in my ﬁrst year as chairman.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 13
uring the year, much time was spent on developing a strategic
direction for the Association, with particular focus on seven areas
of priority; education and training, information, leadership,
knowledge, communications, advocacy and marketing.
Following endorsement of the Association’s strategic plan, its
implementation is a key priority moving forward.
Our accreditation program which receives many enquiries and
registrations each month, is about to undergo a comprehensive review,
especially the competencies that underpin each level from AFM1 to
AFM3. These competencies contribute to the topics for a portion of our
professional development series. Throughout the year we have focused
on soft and hard skills for training sessions and, following the introduction
of a professional development (PD) industry advisory panel and the
results of the professional development member survey that was
completed earlier this year, we are now ensuring that our PD offerings
are aligned to what the industry requires. For details on accreditation and
our PD programs please visit www.fma.com.au
Communication has been a major focus for me this year, and in
particular, meeting with our branches, and other industry bodies,
establishing strategic alliances and working with our global partners.
Recently, Chairman Andrew McEwan and I attended the IFMA World
Workplace 2007 Conference in New Orleans, where we were joined by
other Global FM members including IFMA (USA), BIFM (Great Britain),
ARSEG (France) and the new and emerging Associations of Bulgaria and
Brazil. During this time we all took part in an informative and productive
workshop that canvassed numerous initiatives, which are extremely
relevant to FM’s in Australia, notably sustainability and education and
Members and others would acknowledge that sustainability is a
major national and international issue.
FMA Australia together with Global FM considers that sustainability
in FM is a key element of the business management framework. It is
incumbent on FM practitioners that they rate sustainability as a necessary
and universal management function and in so doing assist in ensuring
that positive outcomes accrue for shareholders, stakeholders and
consumers in the broader community.
Actions taken today will have consequences for, amongst other
3 pollution levels, including carbon emissions,
3 the depletion of natural resources,
3 social well-being,
3 the impact on biodiversity,
3 water usage, and
3 energy efﬁciency.
Research has indicated that there is a growing trend for organisations
to claim they have good sustainable practices but cannot demonstrate
this as there is no standard reporting framework. Reasons for this trend
include competition, risk management, innovation, emerging markets,
and value of reputation and increasing incidence of mandatory reporting.
However, the lack of a globally understood deﬁnition for sustainable
development limits the ability to measure impacts on the industry and
In the very near future, FMA Australia in conjunction with its Global
FM partners, is proposing to collaborate in a major international member
survey on this important global hot topic.
Regarding membership matters, FMA Australia has spent a
considerable amount of time this year developing its team membership
package and ensuring that it is beneﬁcial for members across the nation.
To assist in this regard, much effort has been put into development of
our new website. Members are now able to search for other members in
the online member directory, register for events and keep up to date
with the latest industry news and issues. Recently we launched the
recruitment and careers section which has been generating a large
number of hits. This section allows members the opportunity to advertise
positions available in their organisation, or to advertise their services to
the FM community. Tower and banner advertisements are also now
available. This site has been designed for our members to communicate
with each other and trial discussion portals are currently being set up for
groups such as innovation and best practice, membership and
Finally, I take this opportunity to thank the board for its unstinting
support. As stated previously, I believe the Association is very fortunate
to have such a knowledgeable, committed and highly skilled group of
board members at this time and under its guidance the Association has
an extremely positive future. I also take this opportunity to acknowledge
and thank the national and branch committees, members and friends of
FMA Australia who have all made my ﬁrst year so welcoming and
enjoyable. And thank you to you for your support of our industry
magazine, Facility Perspectives, which will continue to strive to cover
topics that assist you, your business and careers.
Until next year, I wish you all a very happy and safe festive season.
Chief Executive Ofﬁcer
2007 is drawing to a close and so to my ﬁrst year as CEO of FMA
Australia. It has been a privilege and pleasure to be part of an
Association that is so professional and passionate about the future of the
Global FM meets in New Orleans.
14 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Housing Australia’s population –
the challenges ahead
BY MELANIE DRUMMOND
By 2021, Australia will face the daunting challenge of housing an additional 3.4 million
people. As rental and housing prices continue to skyrocket, and with tens of thousands of
Australians already sitting on waiting lists for public housing that simply isn’t available, the
escalating problem provides some glaring obstacles. Added to this is economists’
predictions that the situation will critically intensify as a group of largely under
superannuated ‘Baby Boomers’ head into retirement, ‘cash out’ of properties and look for
Facility Perspectives’ Melanie Drummond spoke with Macroplan Australia’s Brian Haratsis
about the future of Australian housing and how low-cost solutions such as mobile home
parks may prove to be the best option for an increasing number of Australians who can’t
afford today’s ‘affordable housing’. But will retiring Australians give up dreams of sea
change for a more mobile lifestyle?
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 15
FM AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
he numbers of Australians on waiting lists for public and
community housing nationwide highlights an alarming disparity
between those waiting, and those assisted into affordable
accommodation each year. In Queensland, rapid-population growth and
escalating rental prices are making it increasingly difﬁcult for low income
households to ﬁnd suitable housing in the private housing market.
Unfortunately ﬁnding public housing is proving no easier. During 2005 -
2006, 4623 applicants in Queensland were assisted into public housing
while a staggering 37, 215 remained on waiting lists.1
The ﬁgures are just as noteworthy in other states – during 2005-2006
in South Australia, 2933 applicants were helped into public housing while
27,925 were recorded on waiting lists. In Western Australia during the
same period, 3148 applicants were assisted into public housing while
13,130 waited for placement.
According to a report released by the Council to Homeless Persons’
in 2005, public housing availability has been rapidly decreasing since the
turn of the millennium. The report attributes the decline in availability to
a continual decrease in funds from the Commonwealth government, and
the matching funds decline from State and Territory Government to the
Community State Housing Agreement (SHA). The situation has in turn
forced SHA to tighten allocation and tenancy agreements, contributing
to a reduced intake of revenue and an increase in operational costs.
‘House prices have sky-rocketed, especially in capital cities,
investment in the private rental market has generally been directed
towards higher cost housing and general private rents have continued to
increase as part of this property boom. At least, 100,000 people in
Australia have been recorded as being homeless and the lack of
affordable housing is a key contributor to this.’ (Public Housing in
Australia is In Decline: The Facts Speak for Themselves)
Economist Brian Haratsis from Macroplan Australia (a ﬁrm of leading
Economists, Planners and Property Analysts) believes relying solely on
Government to provide solutions for the housing crisis is likely to prove
an unrealistic and redundant prospect.
“The way public housing works at the moment is through the
Commonwealth State Housing Agreement (CSHA) and the issue with
that is that the Federal Government gives the States money with strings
attached and essentially in the past ten years everybody has been
benchmarked and had to prove their effectiveness and efﬁciency. The
amount of public housing dollars has really gotten to a point where you
can’t spend any less and, in fact, most of the public housing agencies in
Australia would tell you that they are still in an Assets sales-based role
because they still can’t afford to match demand. Even when they ﬁnish
selling their assets, the sale of those assets will be insufﬁcient to upgrade
their existing assets. So the only answer to the need for low-cost housing
is to produce low-cost housing. At the moment the public sector is
walking away from low cost housing solutions, because they can’t see
how low-cost housing can be produced. If they took an interest in and
put some money in to make sure the community facilities were in place,
then there wouldn’t be an issue. Essentially, there needs to be a private
sector solution to low cost housing, not affordable housing, as affordable
housing does not reduce the cost of delivering the product.”
Haratsis elaborates further on factors contributing to the housing
shortage. “What has happened is that all of the people who could
reasonably be in private rental are now in private rental and receiving a
rent subsidy. The numbers of people on basic welfare and in urgent need
will continue to grow with the population. Once you’ve weeded out all
the people who shouldn’t be in public housing out of your system and
you’ve sold down a lot of public housing, then the need for public
housing increases. In Australia now we’ve got to the maximum efﬁciency
in the provision of housing and we’ve got the minimum number of
dwellings, and as the population grows into the future, the base number
of public housing dwellings will have to increase.”
The rapid upturn in the numbers of people aged 55 plus in the near
future will also exacerbate
the situation, as the ratio of
those at working age
compared to those at
retirement age falls from 5
workers per retiree to only 2
workers per retiree2. Haratsis
predicts the changing
demographic will place
enormous pressure on
existing infrastructure unless
the focus is re-positioned on
providing a diverse range of
townships, regional centres
“There is a very
signiﬁcant increase in the 60-
80 year old group coming in
the next 15 years, and the
issue is that there is not enough low-cost public housing stock around in
the public sector to actually be rented, and rent subsidies are insufﬁcient.
If you’re a renter and there is no private housing stock, what do you do?
My hypothesis is that there is probably a new class and a new type of
public housing emerging. You’re beginning to see the emergence of the
public housing co-ops and those sorts of things and they ﬁll a little bit of
a gap but nowhere near the kind of gap that’s going to be created by
the number of people that are unlikely to be able to rent at a price that
allows them to live,” said Haratsis.
According to Haratsis, a large number of the under superannuated
‘Baby Boomers’ heading into retirement are likely to cash out of their
existing dwellings in order to maximise their super, forcing more people
into the market for low-cost housing.
demographic will place
enormous pressure on
unless the focus is re-
positioned on providing
a diverse range of
centres and cities.
16 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
whatsoever. So what you’re really getting is the ‘not in my backyard
syndrome’ from people with money that can afford better. Most of the
discussion surrounding it is relatively uninformed and if there is to be a
class of low cost housing then one would think the public sector ought to
take an interest in it.”
Despite a somewhat patronising view held by many Australians of
the ‘trailer park’ which serves many Americans as home, Haratsis says
convincing Australians about the beneﬁts of low-cost housing is not the
“The problem is that there are actually very few sites available for
developers to have a go at something like this as regulations prevent it. I
would argue with you that if the product was there it would be widely
taken up. In fact, the entire low cost retirement product that’s been made
available to the market in Australia has always been taken up.”
As to whether new mobile-home parks run the risk of simply turning
into retirement villages for baby boomers, Haratsis is adamant low-cost
housing will appeal to a broad cross-section of Australians.
“I’m working on a mobile-home park in NSW at the moment which
is large scale and meets a lot of different criteria, and one of the things
it’s being aimed at is an income. The idea is that it’s not just for retired
people. I think what will happen in this particular case is that there will be
a growing population in the 45 plus bracket who are very interested in
these housing solutions, because it means you can continue to rent. Just
remember, in normal renting situations you’ve got no certainty, whereas
in these kinds of places you can get a 20-year rental agreement – so you
actually own the house and essentially rent the land. That’s the formula it
takes in Australia and the Government actually pays or subsidises the
“What needs to happen is that as we plan our new urban centres, all
of them should have a requirement to have this kind of housing available
close to them. It’s not going to be feasible to have them close to an
“The general public have this concept that ‘baby boomer’ suggests
this group of 50+ Australians are actually doing really well, but in fact,
they’re not doing as well as you might think. The whole term baby
‘boomer’ came from the concept there was actually a boom in the
number of births after the war. Now however with concepts like ‘sea
change’, it’s believed that baby boomers are wealthy, they move to
beach locations, buy expensive houses or large apartments and have a
“What I want to point out is that most baby boomers are not that
well off and one of the reasons is because they’re under superannuated.
For baby boomers heading into retirement with only 15-20 years super
behind them, they are going to need to cash out an existing asset to
retire in the way they would like to. For many of them it will mean selling
their existing dwelling and purchasing something smaller – taking out the
leftover cash to top up their super or to create their super.”
Providing mobile-home parks as low-cost housing alternative is one
option Haratsis believes would provide a viable, long-term investment in
solving the impact of Australia’s ageing population on the housing
“There are some very successful mobile home parks in Sydney and
in Queensland and yes, they’re very well liked. One of the many issues
we face with this sort of development is that there needs to be a bit of
consistency about what a mobile home park is, as the laws vary in each
state. I think we need to be able to get away from that completely and
have relatively small, inexpensive dwellings in park-like settings, where
you can increase your density and get integrated facility provision.”
“There has to be a class of low-cost housing like mobile-home parks
available because as much as the innocent bystander might think that
they don’t like it, there’s a very substantial group of people in the United
States for example, who really do like it. For them it’s signiﬁcantly better
then renting in an apartment block where there’s no sense of community
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 17
FM AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE
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existing urban centre but if you had a look at the number of new urban
centres planned in NSW, Queensland and Victoria alone you’d come up
with 20 to 30 easily.”
Haratsis believes the Government need to take leadership in
addressing Australia’s future accommodation and low-cost
accommodation needs immediately, to avoid the inevitable increase in
the number of people seeking low-cost housing in isolated areas that will
prove difﬁcult to service.
“If the situation isn’t addressed, the amount of rent subsidies will
have to increase, which increases the underlying cost of housing to the
Government, which in turn increases the underlying cost to the public
sector. What we’ll see is more and more people or households moving
to locations they don’t want to move to. People will be looking for the
cheapest possible housing solution so they’ll have to move away from
facilities, which will result in a much more inefﬁcient situation.”
A recent piece by Australian demographer Graham Hugo suggests
that 20 to 30 percent of all ‘Tree Change’ movement (people moving to
country areas) is for people looking to maximise their welfare beneﬁts.
What you’re faced with then is a whole lot of people in dispersed
locations in the wrong type of housing that you can’t service. In the long
term it will mean a very signiﬁcant cost to the community.”
Private Sector Housing Provision
The need for the private sector to also get involved in addressing
Australia’s housing quandary is supported by one non-for-proﬁt group
already playing its part in assisting those in need of affordable housing.
Community Housing Limited (CHL), one of Victoria’s leading affordable
housing providers launched its services to the NSW market in August of
this year. CHL not only assists in providing low cost housing, but also
develops and manages sustainable housing for people in need.
They’ve also shown that providing affordable and low-cost housing
to the public can be a sustainable business proposition. CHL opened its
doors in 1994 with one employee and a $63,000 grant, and now boasts
a team of over 40 with an annual turnover of $12 million. It has also been
inﬂuential and constructive in the Victoria State Government’s recent
state budget announcement that funding to the affordable housing
sector would increase from $60 m for the previous four years to $300m
for the next four years.
Patrick Yeung, Manager of the NSW service, said CHL’s NSW service
will focus on encouraging housing providers to operate at scale, to
leverage government investment and to attract private investment.
“NSW currently has 13,000 affordable community housing
properties. Based on a strategy consultation paper released in April this
year, the Government is committed to increasing total stock to 30,000
affordable housing properties in the next 10 years.”
In surveying the affordable housing landscape in NSW, Mr. Yeung
said he is looking for ‘skill’ gaps and ‘housing services’ gaps, a move he
believes is strategically important at a time when the state government is
still looking to ramp up funding for the sector.
“Skill gaps in the industry at present are related to the lack of
property development capability and the lack of private investment. CHL
see itself as a partner in developing a strategic alliance with a range of
stakeholders for further expansion.”
CHL’s Design and Construction team is unique, as the project
managers and architects have had years of experience in speciﬁcally
developing property for the affordable housing sector.
Managing Director Steve Barrington believes CHL will need to be a
problem solving organisation in NSW to ensure that the community
housing market continues to grow.
“CHL is into the expansion business for affordable housing. The
growth rate will be even greater if private ﬁnance gets involved. The
housing affordability crisis and the growing social awareness of the
importance of quality, affordable housing in the bottom 20 percent of the
market has the makings of a golden era for the community housing
For more information on Macroplan Australia,
For more information on Community Housing Limited, contact
Lee-Anne Walsh, Communications Manager, on (03) 9856 0009.
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potentially worth US $704 billion (AED over 2.5 trillion). The markets
in Saudi Arabia and Qatar will be worth US $96 billion (AED 352
billion) and US $92 billion (AED 337 billion) respectively.
From a recruitment perspective it is essential that the right
employees are engaged to develop an FM model which will ﬁt such a
unique and dynamic market.
Macdonald & Company representatives were present at the
Cityscape Exhibition*, Dubai in October this year where they had the
opportunity to meet representatives from numerous FM companies
who provided valuable information on the current labour market in
Dubai and surrounding areas.
*Cityscape Dubai 2007, now in its 6th year, is the largest
business-to-business real estate investment and development event
in the world, and welcomes more than 45,000 regional and
international investors, property developers, governmental and
development authorities, leading architects, designers, consultants
and all senior professionals from more than 120 countries.
(Editor: apologies for the multiple currencies expressed)
ndeed it is reported that approximately 80% of Dubai’s population
are foreign with experienced professionals from all corners of the
globe arriving to leverage their expertise in developing some of
the world’s largest and most unique developments. Dubai’s goals are
ambitious, with plans to entice a record 15 million tourists by 2012.
With many developments completed and so many more on the way,
the demand for Facilities Management has ﬁnally caught up with the
design and construction activity and a pool of skilled facilities
professionals worldwide are now being drawn to this super city in the
The facilities management market in the Gulf is estimated to
reach a value of US $892 billion (United Arab Emirates Dirham, or
AED over 3 trillion) over the next 25 years, according to the Middle
East Strategy Advisors (MESA). The ﬁgures show that the facilities
management market in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) alone is
Prior to the discovery of oil, Dubai was a small tax free trading port, protected by the
British and hosting a population of just under 10,000. Fishing, pearls and gold smuggling
were the main activities underway before the discovery of oil in 1966. Since then Dubai has
fast become one of the real estate capitals of the world with an estimated 12,000
Australians currently working in this dynamic Emirate at any one time.
Facilities Management In Dubai
A Macdonald & Company Recruitment Perspective
Sheikh Zayed Road in Dubai Image: www.bigstockphoto.com
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 19
20 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
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f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 21
FM AROUND THE GLOBE
One of the main topics of discussion was directed towards the
current structure of the FM market and where it differed to other FM
models used in other international locations. Due to Dubai’s rapid
development, there has been some confusion in distinguishing the
vital differences between asset management, property management,
facilities management and residential estates management.
Providers within the FM industry will need to highlight these
differences, to allow the local market to understand how international
best practice can be localised to meet Dubai’s developing needs.
Australian based candidates looking to relocate will need to
recognise that the model they use in Australia will not necessarily
work in the Middle East, as the market is still very young. The same
also applies for Asian, UK and South African candidates.
It is essential that professionals moving to the Middle East
recognise that part of their role will be to ﬁrst provide education and
guidance to their clients on the FM discipline. Currently clients tend
to know what they want from this service, but it is up to facilities
managers and operations managers to direct these requirements so
that they develop a standard FM model which suits the market, and
their clients needs.
Candidates who are moving into this market in 2007/8 will be at
the forefront of FM development and it is essential that they are
willing to be malleable and innovative. They will also need to ensure
that they are culturally aware and must be highly skilled in their ﬁeld
as the buildings in Dubai are different to any other international
market. In light of the above, salaries must reﬂect the high demands
that will be placed on facilities management candidates.
Research carried out by Macdonald & Company into the FM
market in Dubai has shown that an assistant facility manager’s salary
can range from US$4,000 (AED15,000) to US$5,400 (AED20,000) a
month plus beneﬁts, and that a facility manager can expect between
US$6,800 (AED25,000) and US$8,100 (AED30,000) a month, plus a
package of between US$9,500 (AED35,000) and US$10,800
(AED40,000) a month.
While these ﬁgures may be comparable to the Australian market
they may need to be reassessed if clients want to retain the best staff
the market can offer, bearing in mind the additional requirements of
these people in a foreign land. That said, Dubai obviously has the
signiﬁcant advantage of 0% tax and no superannuation contributions.
This year Macdonald & Company have launched their ﬁrst
complete RICS and Macdonald and Company Salary & Beneﬁts
Survey for the Middle East. It shows some interesting ﬁndings.
Across all property sectors, candidates working in the Middle East
who originate from Australasia are receiving higher average salaries
than any other of their global counterparts. With property prices and
rents in Dubai and the Middle East rising, salaries alone eventually
may not lure the right calibre of candidate, particularly as increasing
living costs take a large proportion of these salaries, particularly in
Dubai and Qatar.
Some facts on Dubai
Although oil prices have tripled in the last 3 years, Dubai
speciﬁcally is running out of this natural resource and the
diversiﬁcation into other areas has been out of necessity. Their
success has been staggering. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) GDP
grew by nearly 12 per cent from £56 billion in 2004 to £63 billion in
2005. The value of the UAE’s trade reached nearly £80 billion in 2004
– higher than its GDP. Around 24 per cent of the world’s tower cranes
are in Dubai. Dubai already has some of the recent construction
wonders of the world including what will be the tallest building – the
Burj Dubai, the largest shopping mall, an indoor ski dome able to
function with summer outside temperatures in excess of 50°C, the
only 7-star hotel – The Burj Al Arab, and, of course, the Three ‘Palms’
and a replica of the ‘World’ – all massive real estate developments
Beach Hotel in Dubai Image: www.bigstockphoto.com
22 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM AROUND THE GLOBE
and south-eastern shores of the Arabian Gulf and part of the western
shores of the Gulf of Oman. The UAE thus occupies a strategic
location along southern approaches to the Straits of Hormuz. The
UAE also has land borders with Oman and Saudi Arabia.
Coastline: prior to construction of the ‘Dubai Palms’ and other
schemes, the coastline of the UAE was approximately 1318
kilometres. Land reclamation projects are extending this ﬁgure so that
the new coastline length is yet to be deﬁned.
Climate: the UAE enjoys a desert climate, warm and sunny in
winter, hot and humid during the summer months. It is generally
cooler in the eastern mountains.
Topography: a low-lying coastal plain merges into the rolling
sand dunes of the Rub al-Khali desert with rugged mountains along
its eastern border with Oman.
Natural resources: the UAE’s most important natural resources
are oil and natural gas, more than 90 per cent of which are located in
The UAE has a vibrant free economy with a signiﬁcant annual
trade surplus. Successful efforts have been made to diversify the
economy away from dependence on oil and gas exports and a solid
industrial base has been created together with a very strong services
sector. The establishment of free zones has been an important feature
of this diversiﬁcation policy. Reform of property laws has given a
major boost to real estate and tourism sectors. Free Trade
Agreements have been negotiated, or are under review, with a
number of key trading partners.
Weekend: Friday and Saturday for government institutions, many
private companies operate a six-day week.
Infrastructure: Billions of dirhams are being poured into
redevelopment of the country’s already sophisticated road network.
Public transport, including monorail systems in Abu Dhabi and Dubai
are also being developed.
Urban areas, tourism projects and industrial districts are being
built on an unprecedented scale and corresponding investment is
taking place in telecommunications, and electricity and water
facilities. The Government has invested heavily in infrastructure
expansion, but it has also opened up its utilities and other
infrastructure to greater private sector involvement
Telecommunications: thriving deregulated market, modern ﬁbre-
optic integrated services; digital network with high use of mobile
Ports: 15 in total, including the following major ports: Mina
Zayed, Jebel Ali, Mina Rashid, Fujairah, Khor Fakkan, Mina Saqr,
Sharjah. Abu Dhabi is building a major new facility with
accompanying industrial zone, Khalifa Port, at Taweelah.
International Airports: six in total with a seventh (Dubai World
Central) under construction. Total investment on airport development
over the coming 20 years will exceed Dh75 billion.
Emiratis are a tolerant, forward-looking people with a strong
sense of tradition. They enjoy a high standard of living, including well-
developed education and health services. Efforts are being made to
develop human resources, effect the empowerment of women and
provide social welfare to the more vulnerable in society.
Population: 4.1 million (census. 2005)
Nationals: 21.9% of total counted population (3.8 million)
Non-nationals: 78.1% of total counted population
About Macdonald & Company
Macdonald & Company is the leading professional recruitment
consultancy to the property industry and built environment. They
have ofﬁces in the United Kingdom, Dubai, Hong Kong, Australia and
South Africa, enabling us to offer global reach with local knowledge.
We act for a diverse range of clients, including developers, investors,
institutions, property companies, funds, banks and consultancies—
indeed any organisation that occupies, owns, develops, ﬁnances or
advises on property and construction.
Our RICS Middle East Salary Survey is now available to download
on our website at www.macdonaldandcompany.com.
Macdonald and Company also undertakes an annual salary and
beneﬁts surveys for Asia/Paciﬁc, Europe and the United Kingdom.
out in the Persian Gulf off the coast of Jumeirah. The success of
Dubai has acted as a catalyst for other countries in the Middle East
such as Bahrain (Bahrain Financial Harbour), Qatar (The Pearl), Oman
(The Wave) and Saudi Arabia (King Abdullah Economic City) to utilise
their natural wealth to develop their infrastructure to new levels.
The majority of rented accommodation in Dubai is unfurnished
(although kitchens may be partly or fully equipped). Many villas and
new apartments have central air-conditioning already installed and a
range of furniture and household equipment.
In order to rent property in the United Arab Emirates, you will
normally have to pay for the entire year of tenancy either in cash or
in cheques. If payment is made by cheques, most landlords will limit
it to 2 to 4 cheque payments. In addition to the tenancy payment, if
the ﬂat/apartment/condo or house/villa was taken through a
property agency, a 5% commission is required to be paid to them.
Most premises will require the payment of a refundable security
deposit of 500 to 5,000 dirham. As utility bills are paid by a tenant, it
is normally required that a refundable deposit of 1,000 to 2,000
dirham be paid to the landlord for usage of water, electricity and
gas. Some premises also require the payment of a 10% municipality
Tenancy contracts in the United Arab Emirates normally last for a
year, with exception to Sharjah which is normally for three years, and
within that time landlords are not permitted to increase the rental
price until it requires renewal. At the time of renewal, a landlord is not
permitted to increase the rent by more than 20% (15% in Dubai as of
12th Nov. 2005). If a dispute happens between a tenant and landlord
on the price increase, the issue should be taken to the city’s
Municipality department to settle.
A number of car hire companies offer car leasing services, which
allow individuals to lease the car for months. Most of the large car
hire ﬁrms are represented at airports and hotels. Some local ﬁrms also
operate car hire services. Rates can vary so it is best to shop around.
Average ﬁgures are around Dhs 100 (Mitsubishi Lancer) to Dhs 600
(Toyota Landcruiser) per week. Prices naturally differ on the type of car
chosen. The leasing amount is ﬁxed and maintenance for the car is
handled by the company. The leasing company can also replace the
vehicle at anytime, and some companies also have options for you to
own the vehicle at the end of the lease.
Generally speaking the quality of international schools available in
Dubai and throughout the UAE is high, and the best and most
popular primary and secondary schools and tertiary colleges all have
long waiting lists.
If you’re going to live in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Fujairah, Sharjah or Al
Ain for example, you should consider researching your options on the
internet and applying online to get your children into your preferred
school before you actually relocate to the UAE.
In Dubai speciﬁcally, the number of international schools is
increasing all the time as the population of the emirate expands
rapidly and demand for quality education establishments grows. The
Dubai English Speaking School, for example, has expanded to its
limits and opened a brand new secondary school in 2006 to cater for
ever increasing student numbers. Typically primary level education
fees range from 10,000 AED upwards per term per person.
Some companies offer paid education for children, but again
these are becoming less and less as people are prepared to sacriﬁce
more just to come to Dubai and enjoy life as an expatriate.
Visas are required to work in all locations in the Middle East, but
these are justiﬁed where there is an identiﬁable need for external
talent, and the constant growth of the Property/ Real Estate market in
the Middle East necessitates the importing of foreign talent. In some
countries it is difﬁcult to move on (within the same country) before 12
months of employment has occurred and it is advisable to research
the speciﬁc laws of the individual countries.
Situated towards the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula, the
UAE is a roughly triangular landmass whose coastlines form the south
The only RICS
Level 31, ABN AMRO Tower, 88 Phillip Street, Sydney 2000 T: (02) 61 8211 0529
E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.macdonaldandcompany.com.au
with a difference
24 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
property and infrastructure business needs.
Currie & Brown advises clients on the integration of a range of
activities within the built environment that serve to provide quality
working environments and support services to meet the client’s business
and operational objectives at best cost. These activities include:
3 Facilities Operations that provide management expertise designed
for the operation and maintenance of both property (such as
building services and energy management) and the workplace (such
as cleaning, telecoms and security) in a professional and cost-
3 Technical Services that use tools and processes to establish and
document a maintenance strategy and planned preventative
maintenance program that is in-line with business critical needs.
Compiling an agreement that is then managed and performance
monitored by qualiﬁed engineering services personnel
3 Workplace Consultancy that creates complete workplace solutions
based on an in-depth understanding of the organisation’s business
requirements, and that support its business direction.
3 Sourcing & Procurement that deﬁnes the business case and strategic
brief for procurement and the capability to review current and
desired services delivery such as systems, procedures, measures, and
documentation. Reviewing and recommending appropriate sourcing
structures aligned to a client’s management structures. Determining
an operations strategy and operations model that forms the basis for
procurement and implementation policies and procedures.
3 Management that establishes project services procedures, and
ensures the application of client guidelines and standards to project
eld at The Mint Auditorium & Bar, 10 Macquarie Street Sydney,
the fresh evening rain provided the ideal circumstance for the
guests of Currie & Brown to enjoy a lively and engaging social
prelude in the glassed foyer leading to the auditorium.
Once ushered inside, Mike O’Shea thanked the management and
staff of the leading industry corporations that Currie & Brown count as
clients for their attendance, and outlined some of the project and
consultancy service highlights provided by Currie & Brown Property and
Facilities Management Consulting Services.
Euan McEwan, Group CEO of the Currie & Brown Group had the
honour of acknowledging the many years of dedicated service that the
former resident of Wick in Scotland, namely Currie & Brown Associate
Jim Sinclair, had brought to the Group, and entertained those gathered
with some engaging insights into the beneﬁts of Sydney living compared
to the climatic shortcoming of the aforementioned Wick.
The evening was an opportunity for Currie & Brown to thank their
many clients for their support, to celebrate the achievements of Currie &
Brown Property and Facilities Management Consulting Services, and as
the images will testify, to provide an enjoyable evening for all gathered.
About Currie & Brown Property and Facilities Management
Currie & Brown is a successful, forward thinking consulting group
providing constructive solutions to the business community. The group’s
success derives from maintaining a focused and disciplined approach,
underpinned by traditional values, and extraordinary staff loyalty and
No stranger to the strategic and operational imperatives that
accompany change, Currie & Brown have successfully supported their
clients as they seek and implement improvements across a wide focus of
Leading consulting group Currie & Brown held a cocktail function in Sydney recently to
thank their many clients and pay tribute to the long-standing service of one of their
employees. Facility Perspectives’ Max Winter reports.
A Currie & Brown Celebration
BY MAX WINTER
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 25
services. Preparation of conforming progress reports,
communications plans, implementation plans and handover reports
3 Scheduling that provides for the monitoring of costs and resources
levels to verify forecast at completion, and a monitoring schedule to
verify reported status, progress and forecasted time against
3 Cost Control, Progress and Forecasting to maintain accurate records
of costs associated with the project against approved budget.
Review and amend invoices, progress claims and variations and
overview scope changes, trends and change notices. Review tender
packages and submissions, tender analysis, post-tender
correspondence and project recommendations. Closely monitor
progress to ensure deliverables, productivity, expended hours,
forecasts and resources employed. Prepare cost performance
reports, change alert and variation registers and reports
3 Document Control to set up and maintain a document control
register, drawing register and tracking system
Developing an effective strategy for a property portfolio to turn a
‘cost to business’ into a ‘contributor to business’. Currie & Brown work
with our preferred property management specialist “Property Beyond”
to advise clients on property and portfolio processes and strategies. The
key focus is based on determining optimum tenure and cost structures
that provide appropriate levels of risk management and corporate agility.
Particular types of services include:
3 Portfolio and Property Strategy - Determining future property needs
in support of operating strategies and translating these into practical
3 Lease Management Processes - Reviewing existing arrangements
and systems related to lease management, and the implementation
of required actions to support overall lease portfolio strategies
3 Property Management Accounting - Reviewing accounting processes
to make and receive payments related to properties and leases
including transfer pricing to support robust user-pays portfolio
3 Lease Procurement and Transaction Management - Reviewing
processes and strategies to maintain competitive negotiations and
secure new leased premises at on optimum lease terms
3 Needs Analysis and Workplace Strategies - Reviewing processes to
determine changing unit business needs and workplace strategies to
determine the optimum use of accommodation
Value Management is a powerful approach to ensuring value for
money is achieved at any stage of a project whether it is operationally or
strategically focused, construction and/or design related. In
understanding and meeting clients’ objectives, Currie & Brown ensures
that the focus is not primarily on facilitating cost-reduction solutions but
rather in seeking balance between performance outcome likelihood
options and cost.
Value in Decision Frameworks & Strategy
A strategy can often be hampered by its relationship to
preconceived solutions. Viewing the constituent parts of a strategy in
performance terms, facilitates creativity and innovation in the process,
and unlocks value for the stakeholders. In forming decision frameworks
for reviewing models, Currie & Brown facilitates discussion and
agreement of a number of key factors such as identifying and agreeing
on the options, establishing the performance criteria, and establishing
the minimum requirements, or “givens”.
Cost, Accuracy and Risk
Currie & Brown provide state of the art cost, accuracy and risk
assessment utilizing probability analysis developed through a risk analysis
model. Based on Monte Carlo simulation and @Risk software, Currie &
Brown provides a suitable framework for a systematic and disciplined
assessment of project risks that creates more robust and reliable cost
The results of the risk identiﬁcation and risk assessment are captured
in a risk register enabling insight into the overall project risk proﬁle and a
risk/cost proﬁle of a project. When combined with key frameworks of
cost and risk, the value of any option for achieving project outcome can
be thoroughly assessed.
Training & Facilitation
Currie & Brown has expertise in providing training in the areas of
leadership, procurement, contract management and operations. They
also employ a facilitative process that rapidly accelerates the ability of
teams to perform, integrating brainstorming and rapid prototyping,
scripting fast and durable results whilst teams build. Since Currie &
Brown’s experience demonstrates that expertise resides within the
organisation, their process facilitates a supportive environment conducive
to achieving results.
Team Building and Development
Currie & Brown have the experience and skills required to garner the
experience, knowledge and expertise of people within organisations, and
cultivate the great teams that achieve corporate objectives. Enabling
people to redesign critical aspects of their own work, Currie & Brown
encourage the embracement of a progressive team charter and provide
assistance with time, resources and environment support.
26 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
Conference to understand how they can address the critical issue of
reducing carbon emissions and improve building performance from
existing building stock.
Ably introduced by Master of Ceremonies, journalist and
Sustainability Victoria Communications Manager Tracey Curro, A.G.
Coombs Managing Director Russell Telford warmly welcomed the invited
guests and introduced the following stellar line-up of speakers and topics:
3 Member of the Club of Rome, social commentator, strategic planner,
writer and broadcaster Dr Keith Suter; Climate Change Mitigation,
the Role That Buildings Must Play
3 Property Council of Australia CEO Peter Verwer; Revolution not
Evolution – Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Australia’s Buildings
3 Exergy Australia Managing Director Dr Paul Bannister; Real World
Buildings Real World Problems, Barriers to Energy Efﬁciency
3 Head of Corporate Responsibility, GPT Group, Dr Caroline Noller;
ommenting on the outstanding success of the event, Managing
Director of Conference host A. G. Coombs , Russell Telford said
that the commercial and environmental realities of today’s
property industry have ensured the Carbon Roadmap Conference had
attracted a signiﬁcant number of Australia’s senior property ﬁgures.
“There will be a continued and growing focus on the need to reduce
greenhouse emissions for the property industry as we move further into a
carbon constrained world,” Mr Telford said. “Buildings are contributors to
emissions and energy efﬁciency for existing buildings provides a tangible,
realistic and effective way to reduce net carbon emissions for Victoria and
Australia,” he said. “It is possible to achieve both emission reductions and
an economically beneﬁcial ‘green dividend’ through a targeted carbon
reduction roadmap, which was the main theme of this Conference,” he
Property owners, portfolio and asset managers, major tenants and
major stakeholders in the building improvement process attended the
Leading building services provider the A.G Coombs Group held an exemplary event at the
Arts Centre ANZ Pavilion in Melbourne recently when they presented The Carbon
Roadmap for Existing Buildings Conference.
Presented by some of the best speakers in the country including Club of Rome member Dr
Keith Suter, PCA CEO Peter Verwer and MC’ed by Tracey Curro, the packed invitation-only
event amply delivered an engaging and provocative foray into the need to reduce
greenhouse emissions for the property industry.
A.G Coombs And The Carbon
Roadmap For Existing Buildings
BY FACILITY PERSPECTIVES’ MAX WINTER
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 27
A.G Coombs Managing Director Russell Telford Sustainability Victoria Communications Manager,
Member of the Club of Rome, social commentator,
strategic planner, writer and broadcaster Dr Keith
Dr Paul Bannister, MD Exergy Australia Head of Corporate Responsibility, GPT Group, Dr
Property Council of Australia CEO, Peter Verwer
Investa Environment Manager, Shaun Condon A.G Coombs Director, Bryon Price Master of Ceremonies, journalist and Sustainability
Victoria Communications Manager Tracey Curro
3 Investa Environment Manager, Shaun Condon; Integrating
Sustainability and Stakeholders, and
3 A.G Coombs Director, Bryon Price; The Carbon Roadmap for Star
This was followed by an insightful panel session moderated by the
extremely sharp, perceptive and at times, controversial Peter Verwer,
who kept the audiences’ thinking processes ﬁnely honed to the issues at
hand, and to the stakeholders agendas involved.
Lunch followed and was succeeded by an optional back of house
tour of Melbourne City Council’s CH2 building; itself a bold example of
cutting edge technology combined with the appropriate corporate
culture to achieve Green Building Council six star certiﬁcation
Key to the practical initiatives provided to the property industry
leaders present however, was the A.G Coombs guide to the process
required to transform existing buildings for improved energy efﬁciency
and the ongoing achievement of Star ratings.
From involvement in the design and construction of a range of
green buildings, numerous roles as Green Star Independent
Commissioning Agent, and the successful operational tuning and
maintenance of buildings to reduce energy consumption, A.G.Coombs
has developed leading expertise in the area of energy efﬁciency in
buildings. With this experience, A.G.Coombs have formulated a Carbon
RoadmapTM process that provides a clear and warranted ‘end to end’
pathway for reducing energy consumption, and delivering ongoing Star
In closing Russell Telford said, “The Carbon Roadmap Conference is
an example of industry taking the lead on this crucial issue. However,
government at all levels has a major role to play in setting standards
through appropriate regulation, providing leadership through its market
power as a major tenant and through its policy and ﬁnancial levers”.
“The industry stands ready to work with government and the private
sector to develop and implement best practice methods and standards
in the building improvement space because we cannot afford to wait”
Mr Telford said.
“The time to act is now—the Conference is a call to action for the
property industry and government to take up this critical issue and
embark on an upgrade path for the economic and environmental
beneﬁt of the whole community,” he said.
We hope to publish some of the adaptations of the presentations
given at the event.
For more information call the A. G. Coombs Group Pty Ltd,
on (03) 9248-2700 or visit www.agcoombs.com.au
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 29
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
30 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
he Facilities Management (FM) Action Agenda was established by
the Department of Industry, Tourism & Resources and produced its
strategic plan entitled ‘Managing the Built Environment’ in 2005.
The plan set out a 20 point action plan to improve the recognition of FM
as a contributor to a more productive and sustainable Built Environment
through improved innovation, education and regulatory reform. This is
being championed across four Recognition Working Groups; Innovation,
Education & Training, Regulatory Reform and Sustainability.
The three year implementation phase is well underway and has
made signiﬁcant progress across a wide range of initiatives. This article
provides an insight into the activities of the Recognition Working Group
for Education & Training under the leadership of Richard Mayes and
Naomi Neilsen, together Craig Langston and Alison Theobald.
In the case of the Education & Training Working Group, they have
been set the task of ensuring ongoing access to a highly skilled facilities
management workforce recognised by clients as professional and
capable of delivering a valuable service.
The Education & Training Working Group (E&TWG) has engaged
with FMA Australia and the Construction & Property Services Industry
Skills Council (CPSISC) as part of a broader campaign to raise the proﬁle
of facilities management across the educational spectrum to create
clearer FM career paths. Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for the
facilities management industry has been investigated and good progress
has also been made with Australian universities in increasing the
availability of facilities management courses at the undergraduate level.
The E&TWG has established an indicative but comprehensive FM
Education & Training framework intended to encourage greater
collaboration between the Higher Education and VTE sectors. An
innovative project to encourage greater collaboration between the VTE
and higher education sectors was also proposed, along with an
awareness campaign to increase recognition of facilities management as
a career of choice by school leavers.
To date the outstanding success has been the establishment of
Australia’s ﬁrst undergraduate FM degree program from March 2007 at
Deakin University, along with both Bond University and Holmesglen
Institute of TAFE introducing FM majors into property / built environment
courses by September 2007 and March 2008 respectively (subject to
Discussions are also progressing with other educational providers,
including the prospect of an online degree program.
FM ACTION AGENDA
Compiled by Stephen Ballesty, FMA Australia’s Immediate Past Chairman; FM Action
Agenda’s Deputy Chairman; and Rider Levett Bucknall with input from the FM Action
Agenda’s Recognition Working Group for Education & Training members Richard Mayes
(chair), Reserve Bank; Naomi Nielsen (vice-chair), Campus Living; Craig Langston, Deakin
University and Alison Theobald, Wallage Executive. Thanks also to David McGee and Bernie
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 31
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
The FM Action Agenda’s Education & Training WG has been
investigating how the industry can support the development and
provision of Vocational Educational and Training (VTE) sector
qualiﬁcations through identifying changing industry needs, and will
develop strategies to achieve the objectives of this action in the
longer term. Action 7 requires working closely with the Construction
and Property Services Industry Skills Council (CPSISC) to align the VTE
package with FM industry needs
The CPSISC was formed in late 2004 as a result of signiﬁcant
changes in the Commonwealth Government’ s advisory arrangements
for the VTE sector. CPSISC is one of ten national industry skills councils
and has coverage of the construction and property services sectors,
including the facility management industry.
CPSISC’s role is to articulate and advocate the training, skill and
workforce development needs of the construction and property
services industries and provide high quality advice, research and
One very important aspect of CPSISC’s role is the development
and review of national industry competency standards and
qualiﬁcations for the VTE sector. The competency standards and
qualiﬁcations are used as the basis of training and assessment by
Registered Training Organisations (RTOs).
The ﬁrst national industry competency standards, qualiﬁcations
and assessment guidelines for the facility management industry were
endorsed in 2004 as part of the Property Development and
Management Training Package. FMA Australia participated fully in this
process. The qualiﬁcations in the Training package are nationally
recognized. During 2006 this Training Package was reviewed and in
August this year the industry competency standards and qualiﬁcations
were re-endorsed by the National Quality Council as part of the
Property Services Training Package. The qualiﬁcations now available
3 CPP30307 Certiﬁcate III in Property Services (Operations)
3 CPP40607 Certiﬁcate IV in Property Services (Operations)
3 CPP50507 Diploma of Property Services (Asset and Facility
3 CPP60207 Advanced Diploma of Property Services (Asset and
The qualiﬁcations are being placed on the national register
(National Training Information Service) and will be available for
Registered Training Organisations (RTOs), both public and private, to
offer to prospective students.
The major change arising out of the review process was to make
the qualiﬁcations more ﬂexible so that there was a greater choice of
the units that could be selected as part of the qualiﬁcations. This will
allow people undertaking the qualiﬁcations to select units of
competency that assist them in the current work or in meeting their
long-term career goals. Another signiﬁcant change includes the
embedding of employability skills into all the units of competency.
One of the opportunities arising from recent changes in
Commonwealth Government policy with regard to Australian
Apprenticeships and the new qualiﬁcations is the possibility of
introducing of Australian Apprenticeships (also known as traineeships
in some States and Territories) into the industry. Australian
Apprenticeships provide an employment and training pathway for
people entering the industry and in some circumstances are open to
existing employees. This allows people to work and undertake
vocational training relevant to their workplace. Employers are
frequently eligible for ﬁnancial incentives from the Commonwealth
Government and the training may be paid for by State/Territory
governments. The introduction of Australian Apprenticeships within
the industry has the potential to make the industry more attractive to
school leaves and help address the industry’s skill demands in the
National competency standards were ﬁrst endorsed for the
property operations and development sector of the property services
industry in mid 2004. The sector encompasses a range of occupations
that are focused on the creation and utilisation of property assets
within the broader economy. The key occupational areas in the sector
3 (commercial) property managers – day-to-day management of a
single property, or multiple properties either for, or on behalf of,
private investor/s or public sector owners
3 (property) development managers – management of a real estate
development or redevelopment opportunity either for, or on
behalf of, private investor/s or public sector owners, for either
proﬁt or non-proﬁt situations
3 (real estate) asset managers – structuring of single or multiple
investment opportunities for the acquisition of existing or new
property/ies, and the management of the investment opportunity
over the period of ownership
3 community and strata managers – management of day-to-day
operations of real property on behalf of an owners corporation or
body corporate under relevant community and/or strata schemes
3 facility managers – managing the integration of people and the
business process of the organisation with the physical
infrastructure to enhance corporate performance.
The new Property Development, Sales and Management sector
will replace the Real Estate, Stock and Station Agency, Business
Broking and Property Operations and Development sectors’ units and
qualiﬁcations in PRD01 Property Development and Management
Training Package. Each State and Territory Training Authority will
guide an implementation process in their respective jurisdiction. This
process includes transition arrangements between the original and
new Training Packages. Department of Education, Science and
Training (DEST) is well underway to having the new Training Package
available on the National Training Information Service (NTIS) database
on educational and vocational training in Australia at www.ntis.gov.au
ACTION 7: Work with the
Construction and Property Services
Industry Skills Council (CPSISC) to
support the provision of vocational
education and training for the
facilities management industry –
The E&TWG has sought to support,
with the assistance of the CPSISC, the
provision and development of VTE for the
facilities management industry in the
following key areas:
3 Providing accurate industry intelligence to the VTE sector about
current and future skill needs and training requirements, and
3 Supporting the development, implementation and continuous
improvement of quality nationally recognised training products and
services, including Training Packages.
The review of Training Packages has now progressed and therefore
discussions have been initiated with FMA Australia to commence the
process of formal review to ensure a closer ﬁt with the wider FM
Education and Training framework.
The E&TWG is investigating how the industry can support the
development and provision of VTE sector qualiﬁcations through
identifying changing industry needs and will develop strategies to
achieve the objectives of this action in the longer term. The ultimate
objective is to more closely align the training package with industry
needs through full engagement and collaboration with CPSISC.
In addition the E&TWG is working with the TAFE and VTE sector to
identify how the awareness of the VTE sector can be raised within the
In order for this to continue the E&TWG’s ﬁndings, deliverables and
recommendations will be provided to FMA Australia and the CPSISC at
the conclusion of the FM Action Agenda implementation phase in July
Update on CPSISC & PODS by David McGee
32 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
ACTION 8: Work with Australian
universities to increase the
availability of facilities management
courses at the undergraduate level
– Craig Langston
The E&TWG has made good
progress with Australian universities in
increasing the availability of facilities
management courses at the
undergraduate level. To date the
following has been achieved within the
life of the FM Action Agenda, with
educational providers contributions to the availability of undergraduate
degrees in facilities management in Australia;
Deakin University: Bachelor of Construction Management/Bachelor
of Facilities Management combined degree* (5 year program) with early
exit option leading to Bachelor of Facilities Management (after three
years), offered from March 2007. A Bachelor of Facilities Management
(Honours)* is also available from March 2008. Students undertaking
Deakin’s Bachelor of Management and Bachelor of Commerce degrees
will be able to undertake a major in FM in their ﬁnal year from March
2007. Courses marked (*) are accredited by the RICS.
Bond University: Bachelor of Property and Sustainable Development
(2 year program) with an optional major in Asset and Facility
Management available from September 2007 (subject to minimum
Holmesglen Institute of TAFE: Bachelor of Built Environment (1 year
program following 2 year Bachelor of Applied Science (Built
Environment) with an optional major in Facilities Management available
from March 2008 (subject to minimum enrolments).
The E&TWG are continuing discussions with regard to Macquarie
University’s Bachelor of Business Administration to develop a new
The Department of Education, Science & Training’s glossary
deﬁnes VET or Vocational Education and Training as post-compulsory
education and training, excluding degree and higher level programs
delivered by higher education institutions, which provides people with
occupational or work-related knowledge and skills. VET also includes
programs which provide the basis for subsequent vocational
programs. Alternative terms used internationally include technical and
vocational education and training (TVTE), vocational and technical
education and training (VTET), technical and vocational education
(TVE), vocational and technical education (VTE), and further education
and training (FET) VTE – vocational and technical education; effective
November 2005 VTE is the preferred term in Australia, also see
vocational education and training.
A host of information has been written, disseminated and
discussed over the past few years on the development and
implementation of VET qualiﬁcations to meet industry demands, and
to fulﬁll the industry’s obligations in recognising and strengthening
opportunities for those people employed or wanting to be employed
in facility management and related sectors. However, little is
understood by most employers of the VET sector and the
opportunities on offer could probably ﬁt on a postage stamp!
As part of the FM Action Agenda, the industry identiﬁed that
education and training was essential to creating a facilities
management workforce that is recognised by clients as professional
and capable of delivering valuable service. To this end it was
proposed that they work with both the VET sector and university
sector to increase the availability of facilities management courses in
FM qualiﬁcations in the VET sector have been in existence for
some time and are incorporated in the nationally recognised
(Australian Government and industry endorsed) Training Package
which utilise nationally agreed competency standards for the industry
known as the Property Operations and Development Sector of the
Property Services or commonly referred to as “PODS”, which is now
referred to as the Property Services Training Package – CPP07.
In 2004 FMA Australia contributed extensively the PODS
formulation, however these standards are different to FMA Australia’s
competencies and accreditation system.
According to the “PODS” training package this sector provides
for the investment, creation and utilisation of property assets within
the broader economy and comprises the following broad, key
3 Facility Management – concerned with the practice of integrating
the management of people and the business processes of the
organisation with the physical infrastructure to enhance corporate
3 (Commercial) Property Managers – concerned with the day-to-day
management of a single property, or multiple properties either for,
or on behalf of, private investor/s or public sector owners.
3 (Property) Development Managers – concerned with the
management of a real estate development or redevelopment
opportunity either for, or on behalf of, private investor/s or public
sector owners, for either proﬁt or non-proﬁt situations.
3 (Real Estate) Asset Management – concerned with the structuring
of single or multiple investment opportunities for the acquisition
of existing or new property/ies, and the management of the
investment opportunity over the ownership period of the
3 Community and Strata Management – concerned with the day-to-
day operations and management of real property on behalf of an
owners corporation or body corporate under relevant community
and/or strata schemes legislation.
3 Property Operations and Development Sector competency
standards were originally developed as part of the draft Property
Development and Management Training Package and were due
for endorsement in 1999.
A Phase 1 review of the Property Operations and Development
competency standards was undertaken in June 2002 that included a
functional analysis being conducted on all sectors of the industry. That
review included recommendations for a qualiﬁcation structure for the
Property Operations and Development Sector consisting of four
qualiﬁcations ranging from Certiﬁcate III through to Advanced
Phase 2 of the project involved the redevelopment of the Property
Operations and Development competency standards in line with both
the recommendations from Phase 1. This process included extensive
consultation with key representatives from the industry.
National qualiﬁcations and competency standards were ﬁrst
endorsed for the PODS area of the property services industry in mid
The qualiﬁcations cover entry level through to strategic
management level and are contained in four disparate qualiﬁcations:
3 Certiﬁcate III in Property Services (Operations)
3 Certiﬁcate IV in Property Services (Operations)
3 Diploma of Property Services (Asset and Facilities Management),
3 Advanced Diploma of Property Services (Asset and Facilities
This pathway of qualiﬁcations offers an opportunity for those at
the trades, operative level to progress through to supervisory and
managerial level within the FM and allied industries.
As such they presently offer an alternate qualiﬁcations pathway for
those wanting to be employed or are currently employed in the
industry; that do not have formal FM qualiﬁcations; and cannot afford
the time or cost of an undergraduate degree.
Opportunities also exist for the qualiﬁcations to be utilised in the
school sector in the future, which allows more ﬂexible pathways for
those school leavers that are in a quandary as to which career path to
The FM industry is in a unique position to adopt, promote, offer
and foster a range of recognition options through the nationally
endorsed VET sector qualiﬁcations and onto undergraduate and post
Bernie Galletti – VTE
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 33
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
specialisation in Facilities Management (current specialisations include
Event Management, Hospitality Management, Property Services
Management, International Tourism, and Retail Services Management).
The University of New South Wales has included some FM subjects
within its new Bachelor of Construction Management and Property
The prospect of an online degree program will be investigated with
a view to ensuring national coverage. Deakin University and registered
training organisation fmedge have agreed to collaborate on the
development of an online/off campus pathway leading to a Bachelor of
Facilities Management, and another possible provider could be the
Open University Australia.
ACTION 9: Develop an innovative
project that will encourage greater
collaboration between the VTE and
higher education sectors in the
provision of facilities management
education – Naomi Nielsen
The E&TWG has drawn on a wealth
of industry and academic experience to
establish an indicative but comprehensive
FM Education & Training framework
intended to encourage greater
collaboration between the Higher
Education and VTE sectors. The working sub-group has established the
innovation project scope as piloting one identiﬁed functional area within
the framework through the development of a series of work-based
learning activities tailored to one or more trial employer groups.
Based on the E&TWG’s industry consultation to date, the preferred
competencies and enabling skills for the pilot will be identiﬁed from one
of the following functional areas within the framework:
3 Asset Management function: Environment, ESD, Energy and Utilities
3 Business Alignment function: Change enablement and
3 Service Delivery function: Risk Management including OH&S and
A draft project plan structure has been developed based on using
existing industry, VTE and Higher Education courses and modules as well
as relevant competencies as deﬁned by PODS.
The innovation shall lie with the delivery strategy and the adoption
of a problem-based approach that will provide authentic and relevant
learning experiences with a view to delivering targeted professional
development courses for the FM industry in Australia.
Currently the E&TWG is ﬁnalising the Project Plan, including working
with the selected employer to design the pilot project and delivery of
training. The key deliverable will be to offer comprehensive information
on career paths and opportunities within the industry at all points of
entry into the industry by participants.
ACTION 10: Undertake an
awareness campaign directed at
those who inﬂuence career choice
including school counsellors, career
advisers, educators, parents and
students – to increase
understanding of facilities
management as a career – Alison
Historically people have typically
come into FM via a wide range of
pathways - frequently from a trades background, but more and more
these days from other traditional disciplines including architecture,
engineering, surveying, construction, and property and project
management. It would be safe to say that FM as a speciﬁc career choice
for school leavers is generally not well understood. Indeed until recently,
there have been very few tertiary education courses speciﬁcally
designated as FM.
In order for FM to gain recognition as a profession at the secondary
school level, career advisors need to see clear education pathways and
topic requirements, and to recommend the relevant electives required
for a career in the FM. The profession therefore, also requires an
increased proﬁle within both the Higher Education and VTE sectors
where institutions need to understand what FM is and to appreciate the
demand for FM related topics. FM draws on a wide range of existing
curricula, and wherever possible these should be arranged into a more
relevant FM branded formats to represent the various FM industry roles
with which a student can identify.
Speciﬁcally targeted promotion is most likely to deliver the increased
level of understanding, public awareness, demand for FM industry
education, we are seeking As this demand grows over time due to a
maturing industry deﬁnition and recognition, the supply of FM branded
courses and content will naturally follow.
The E&TWG has spent time exploring the existing avenues available
for students when looking for career options and guidance, including a
number of career planning publications such as “Careers Outline”, the
“TAFE Handbook” and the “University Handbook”. Also, events such as
Careers Expos and University / TAFE Open Days have been identiﬁed,
along with careers information session that government and
independent school systems run either at the individual school level, or
on a regional basis.
In conjunction with the FMA Australia’s marketing team, we are
currently developing a “brochure” that aims to answer the question “FM
– What is it? and where can it take you?” Suitable for print or electronic
applications, this tool will underpin a number of our other initiatives and
will focus on answering students’ fundamental questions – What subjects
should I select? What are the different “jobs” I could do within the
profession? What are the opportunities for career progression? What can
I earn, and what are the other non-ﬁnancial beneﬁts of a career in FM?
We are also working on a number of initiatives that will offer a direct
beneﬁt to schools, whilst simultaneously enabling us to build awareness
of FM as a career. These include setting up opportunities for employers
to offer FM-related work experience placements to Year 10 students,
establishing a series of school-based “sustainability” projects, and
developing a network of FM professionals who are willing to present at
career information sessions.
The next few months will continue to build on the relationships
established and the release of FM Education & Training framework will
encourage greater collaboration between the Higher Education and VTE
sectors. Speciﬁcally, the innovation project will be piloting one identiﬁed
functional area within the framework by developing a series of work-
based learning activities tailored to one or more trial employer groups.
We will monitor the progress of new undergraduate FM degree
programs and investigate the scope with other educational providers,
course recognition and the prospect of an online degree program. We
will continue to campaign for FM educational needs and career path
opportunities awareness and formulate recommendations for a future
industry education integration plan, and an FM industry careers
These actions will attract talent to FM and in turn ensure structured
education and training options that enhance the quality and quantity of
FM resources in the future. This recognition and rigor will add focus to
issues impacting on the ‘Managing the Built Environment’ for the beneﬁt
of industry stakeholders, the national economy and ultimately the
More information on these initiatives and other FM Action Agenda
activities is available from www.fmactionagenda.org or
34 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
We’re always looking at better
ways to service our clients and
we’re also looking at better ways
to help the environment. To see
the whole picture, have a look at:
1300 666 234
ALL DAY ALL NIGHT ALL OVER AUSTRALIA
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 35
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
local students to mix with international students; the latter expected
to take the early FM exit point.
Conversations overseas indicated that there was signiﬁcant
potential in both Singapore and Hong Kong, and therefore revenue
projections were based on 30 international students per year. The
new proposal had the immediate blessing of the Pro-Vice Chancellor.
The proposal was again formally put to the University, but
unfortunately again failed to succeed. This time, rather than demand,
the problem was course length. Although all the necessary units
could be completed in four years of full-time study, the University
alluded to a forthcoming new policy that would require double
degrees to be at least one year greater than the longest of their base
As FM was theoretically three years, and CM four years, the
double degree had to be at least ﬁve years duration. Suddenly the
course was likely to be less attractive to local students and unlikely
that many international students could afford the full program. But
with no other option, the course team accepted the ruling and the
proposal was eventually approved.
The new double degree (which Deakin refers to as a combined
degree) had a ﬁfth year added, which was 50% research training and
50% industry-based learning. All the academic units could be
completed in the previous four years. Students could leave after three
years with a Bachelor of Facilities Management, or leave after four
years with a Bachelor of Construction Management (with or without
FM units as electives), but would get both qualiﬁcations if they
ﬁnished all ﬁve years. One of the degrees would be awarded with
honours based on the choice of topic that was made for the research.
The combined program was acceptable to the Royal Institution of
Chartered Surveyors (RICS) not only for CM, which was already
recognised, but for FM as well. The mix of disciplines also gave rise
to building surveyor (BS) recognition. Thus graduates could become
a Chartered Surveyor in the construction (including quantity
surveying), facilities management or building surveying faculties of
RICS. This was a signiﬁcant marketing advantage, both locally and
internationally. RICS also accredited the Bachelor of Facilities
Management (Honours) degree, should students take the early three-
year exit and then return to undertake FM-related research.
Unfortunately FMA Australia was in a process of re-evaluation of
the competencies and was unable to make any decisions about
alternative pathways and accreditation processes. While FMA
Australia accreditation remains a goal as an integral part of its
Strategic Plan, the process of recasting its core competencies with a
view to completely revamping its accreditation scheme means that
the course may need to adjust in the future when this information is
A new brochure was developed and 10,000 copies were printed
and distributed. The front cover included the RICS logo but otherwise
made no mention about FMA Australia. The brochure was designed
to suggest that the double degree was more than the sum of its parts
(CM+FM), and for the ﬁrst time enabled graduates to move
seamlessly between new project developments and management of
existing facilities, including rehabilitation and renovation work.
This message was well received; particularly as the construction
industry in Australia is known for cyclical variations where work (and
salaries) can ﬂuctuate between prosperous and lean periods.
The double degree was badged as ‘infrastructure logistics’ – a
unique term held to represent this new and interesting career as a
peak client advisor. Graduates may expect to work in a project
he idea to develop Australia’s ﬁrst
undergraduate course in facilities
management (FM) at Deakin
University had its origins in 2004. It
came from a number of academic staff
who had expertise in the ﬁeld and a
common vision for what could be
Anecdotal evidence from industry
suggested that FM graduates would be
in demand, and after some initial
conversations with the Faculty
executive, reserved support for the idea was given, and work began
to map out the course structure.
In 2004 some minor course changes were made to the four-year
Bachelor of Construction Management (CM) degree. As part of this
change process, two new elective slots were created, making a total
of six unspeciﬁed electives. The plan was to introduce six new FM
units, matched to the six competencies for AFM1 promoted by the
Facility Management Association of Australia (FMA Australia) so that
students could still complete the CM degree in four years and having
opted for all six FM units as their electives, enter the FM profession
upon graduation and be accredited at AFM1 by FMA Australia.
Adding further impetus, the FM Action Agenda’s strategic plan
in 2005, Managing the Built Environment, set Education & Training as
a key industry platform, speciﬁcally in Action 8 called for the
increased availability of undergraduate FM courses. It was decided
to push ahead with a course proposal to the University.
This proposal was expressed as a new three-year degree
comprising eight new units (six of which matched AFM1
competencies), twelve existing CM units and four free electives. An
invited honours (research) year was also proposed and was identical
to that of the CM degree. So the proposal was for a 3+1
undergraduate degree pathway leading to a Bachelor of Facilities
Management, or Bachelor of Facilities Management (Honours). As
there was considerable overlap between the FM and CM programs, a
double degree (without honours) was also proposed and was of four
The Pro-Vice Chancellor (Development), who oversaw the
Marketing Division at Deakin was instantly opposed to the idea, and
it failed at its ﬁrst ofﬁcial hearing. While the University believed that
there was potential for international student demand, which was a
high priority for the University, they were of the view that local
demand would be poor.
Interestingly this conclusion was based on very scant market
research. Unofﬁcially it was suggested to the course team that the
FM degree be offered to international students only. This was not
what the course team wanted to do, so the proposal was held in
abeyance for the best part of six months while new arguments were
At a watershed meeting with the Pro-Vice Chancellor
(Development), the proposal was recast as a double degree between
CM and FM, with an FM exit point after three years.
The change meant that demand was more assured, given that it
was possible that all existing CM applicants would just be attracted
over to the new program instead of the base degree, with the added
possibility of attracting new applicants. While no new revenue would
ﬂow from this, given that the double degree was the same duration
as the CM base degree (just without elective choice), it would permit
In 2006 Deakin University developed Australia’s ﬁrst undergraduate course in facilities
management. Deakin University’s Professor Craig Langston takes us through the long,
sometimes arduous but ultimately fruitful journey.
Deakin University’s New
Undergraduate FM Course
36 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
management role to deliver new infrastructure, or as a portfolio
manager for completed infrastructure. The word ‘logistics’ was used
in the context of problem solving and supply chain management.
Essentially both CM and FM were conceptualised as instances of
supply chain management to the built environment industry.
However, this industry is not necessarily limited to residential,
industrial and commercial buildings, but could apply to any physical
The use of this term gave Deakin a different image to promote.
No other course of its type exists in Australia, or it would appear
elsewhere, so this gave some element of innovation to the course
that was in keeping with Deakin University’s mission and core values.
Agreement was reached with the Faculty of Business and Law at
Deakin to introduce an FM major in both the Bachelor of
Management and Bachelor of Commerce degrees. The major
comprised six selected FM units being undertaken as a series of
electives by business students. This was approved quickly, and along
with the new double degree and its exit options, was introduced in
2006 for commencement in 2007.
School leavers who were inﬂuenced about the opportunities of
FM had to apply for the double degree in infrastructure logistics, with
the understanding that they could exit after three years with an FM
qualiﬁcation. In the same way, business students would have an FM
qualiﬁcation (perhaps in the future recognised by FMA Australia) after
Articulation agreements were also conﬁrmed with a number of
onshore and offshore courses. In particular, the agreement to
articulate with registered training provider FMedge’s ﬂexible learning
diploma in FM essentially enables graduates from FMedge with
credit level results and ﬁve years relevant industry experience to enter
Deakin’s double degree in the third year.
Year 3 is where the core FM units reside, and so these students
have the option of exiting after one year of university study with an
FM degree, or continuing on for two further years towards a dual
qualiﬁcation. A number of FM diplomas in Singapore and Hong
Kong were identiﬁed that would enable entry (again given credit level
results, plus requisite English language evidence) into the third year
of the double degree. A large portion of the infrastructure logistics
brochures was directed to offshore markets and potential feeder
Four scholarships valued at A$3000 cash each were established
to encourage high quality applicants from selected offshore
institutions in Singapore and Hong Kong. These were funded from
the School but are likely not to be an annual event.
Plans are underway to set-up internships with industry for the ﬁnal
year of the double degree. Deakin is keen to form strategic
collaborations with other organisations, both in Australia and
internationally, to enable ﬁnal year students to receive relevant
industry experience before graduation. Furthermore, they would like
student research to be embedded in industry by developing projects
that are responsive to organisational need. For this reason they have
created an innovative opportunity for ﬁnal year students to work and
study off-campus, thus enabling industry experience and research
training to be aligned.
Even more progressive, this arrangement is not limited to
Melbourne, but with the use of modern technologies students can be
supported and supervised by academic staff at any location
worldwide. This involves students working full-time in an organisation
over a nine-month period where at least half of that time is devoted
to their research activities. The employer commitment entails an R&D
payment of A$25,000 per student to Deakin, of which 80% is
returned to the student as a ‘tax free’ scholarship and the residual
used discretionally to support supervision, and in the case of overseas
placement, travel and insurance costs.
The double degree was allocated 20 full-time places for local
students, which came from the existing CM allocation of 50. In its ﬁrst
year of operation, the course performed exceptionally well. Local
applications (preferences 1-4) were 60 (without eroding CM’s
performance) and Deakin identiﬁed the new course as one of its
most successful 2007 initiatives. While this was encouraging, the
calibre of applicants at this stage was unknown, and it was important
for RICS accreditation purposes that the median ENTER score for the
program remained above 80.
In January 2007, Deakin made 25 offers with a view to ﬁlling 20
places to local applicants. Some of these were from the VET sector
and would be exempted from either ﬁrst or second year, but a good
number went into ﬁrst year. The cut-off ENTER score for the double
degree was 78 and the 20 places were ﬁlled. The CM ENTER score
also rose from 2006.
Transitional plans were formulated for current students from the
CM base degree to transfer to the double degree if they wished.
Usually such transfers require credit level performance in past studies,
but in order to populate the ﬁrst three years of the course, this
requirement was waived (provided the transfers were done before
ﬁrst semester 2007). The offer was communicated as a one-off event.
It appears that about 40% of the intending second year of CM
has now transferred to the double degree, and for most of them it is
expected that this adds an extra year to their time at Deakin,
although it also adds a second qualiﬁcation. About 10% of the
intending third year of CM transferred, and six past graduates of CM
also returned to Deakin to complete one additional year of FM-
related study. As units in ﬁrst and second year are shared with CM
and with architecture, from next year it is conﬁdently anticipated that
at least 20 students per year will be undertaking FM study at Deakin
and graduating from 2009 onwards. A few might take the early FM
exit option, but most are expected to stay for the full ﬁve years.
The academic staff teaching the new FM units have had a
considerable workload in developing the lecture material, design
assessment and tutorial activities, and in coordinating their units with
their colleagues. One additional FM academic was recruited. A major
project involving an innovative collaboration between Deakin and
FMedge, was undertaken in the latter stages of 2006 to prepare an
authentic learning resource for the new FM units to adopt. The
resource was a case study of an international hotel in Melbourne
(hypothetically known as Skygarden Hotels), and comprised a public
website and a private intranet containing lots of resources for
students to use.
Each of their assignments is about this project, and their
submissions intended to reﬂect professional reports that would be
prepared in industry. Further development to extend this resource is
also planned. Both Deakin and FMedge can use it in their courses,
and this collaboration will strengthen future articulation between both
Reﬂections of the Process at Deakin
The long time and considerable effort it took for Deakin to
eventually offer Australia’s ﬁrst undergraduate degree in FM was
disappointing. But now, with good entry performance in its ﬁrst year
of operation and encouraging feedback from students, the course
has a reasonable chance to be sustainable. RICS assisted enormously
in this process by providing accreditation, prizes and other support.
Locally, FMA Australia support would have been much appreciated,
and all efforts to secure this are underway.
Deakin’s initial resistance to the new program was countered by
evidence that came through the FM Action Agenda process that
there was industry demand for skilled FM graduates. The
employment prospects for graduates are useful, but most universities
these days base course development on student demand, not
There is often a misalignment between these two, but courses
that might be perceived as important or contributing to Australia’s
competitive advantage are unlikely to survive unless potential
students are excited by them and apply accordingly.
Popularity is therefore the modern-day driver, and promotion to
the marketplace is the main vehicle for ensuring success. This
requires a strong partnership between the education providers and
industry organisations.. FM education will struggle unless the relevant
professional associations are active in the marketplace and the
perception of the career is well understood.
Another conclusion is that course teams must have considerable
determination to succeed. When there are many calls on academics
to teach, research and engage with industry, course development is
often an undervalued activity.
Therefore, likely destinations for new FM courses will be where a
champion is already located, and where the champion has some
collegiate support for developing innovative ideas in a climate
typically characterised by low funding levels and higher thresholds for
the assessment of course success. It is also helpful if the owning
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 37
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
to offshore markets, particularly in Hong Kong and Singapore. It
commences in ﬁrst semester 2008.
It is hoped that this factual account of Deakin University’s
experience in setting up an FM undergraduate course will assist
others that choose to follow. Already both Holmesglen Institute of
TAFE and Bond University are committed to launching FM programs
shortly. It is clear that the issues for undergraduate courses are
different to postgraduate, as they comprise Commonwealth-
supported places that are highly contested by other disciplines. A
new FM provider in Sydney is still a priority for the FM Action
Appendix: Deakin Course Design
The following graphic outlines the strategy Deakin University
eventually adopted for introduction of its FM program. This remains
the current strategy, and in hindsight is superior to earlier proposals
for a standalone FM degree. It is generally accepted that double
degrees are more popular in the marketplace, and have the added
advantage of providing data on student demand for the established
discipline. While Deakin used CM as its partner course, other
institutions might pursue different combinations, such as business,
tourism/hospitality, architectural engineering, interior design or
property. Such diversiﬁcation might provide better choice for
Further information about this report can be sought from its author,
Professor Craig Langston, at Deakin University (email:
faculty or department has weakening enrolment numbers in other
courses under its stewardship, and is looking for new ‘products’.
To convince a university hierarchy about the introduction of
undergraduate study in FM, robust student demand data is critical.
Deakin got around the lack of data (and perhaps lack of demand) by
linking FM with an established discipline – in this case CM.
In the future it may be possible to enable school leavers to apply
directly to a three-year FM degree, but until data is available it will
remain only as an early exit option at Deakin. It is suggested that
other institutions might like to consider adopting a similar strategy.
The introduction of FM at Deakin has had some unexpected
beneﬁts. In less than a three-month period, approval has been
received to start a new 3+1 undergraduate degree in property and
real estate. This new program, to commence in ﬁrst semester 2008,
will include a choice of major from business management, marketing
or facilities management. It is expected that many of the students will
be persuaded to study FM, as although they may have poor
knowledge of it when joining the program, after two years of study
they will be more informed about the profession and the
opportunities it holds. This program has been allocated 40 additional
full-time places per year, and was approved without dissent because
clear student demand data was available.
A ﬂexible education pathway has also been established to enable
students outside of Geelong to obtain an FM degree from Deakin
University. This has resulted from the relationship formed between
registered training provider FMedge and Deakin and will enable
Deakin to provide its FM year in a ﬂexible (off-campus) format. This
pathway involves an innovative collaboration and is being expanded
fact sheet 3
infrastructure logistics pathways
students who complete year 3 can exit early
with a Bachelor of Facilities Management
students who complete year 4 can exit early
with a Bachelor of Construction Management
students who complete year 5 are eligible to
receive both degrees, one with honours
advanced standing can be provided into
year 3 of the program for applicants with 5
years relevant experience and/or an approved
diploma with credit level (or better) results
Australian or international students can
complete all requirements for the Bachelor of
Facilities Managament (including honours) in
the first two years off-campus are granted upon
completion of the Diploma in Property, Asset
and Facility Management offered online by
year 5 comprises industry placement and
applied research (scholarships are available to
support off-campus study)
* fmedge Facility Management Training is a registered training organisation working in collaboration with Deakin University
graduates who achieve credit level (or better) results and have 5 years relevant experience will be guaranteed entry into year 3
more information is available from www.fmedge.com.au
1 2 4
At Deakin University, ‘infrastructure logistics’ is defined as the blend of construction project
management and facilities management. This unique double degree enables our graduates
to move seamlessly between new project developments and refurbishment or facilities
planning work as career opportunities arise.
BCM + BFM (Hons) or
BCM (Hons) + BFM
srt153 building materials science
srm181 project management 1
srm165 information systems in construction
srt141 building safety
srt151 construction and structures 1
sre170 construction finance
srt257 building environmental studies 1
srt159 technology projects 1
srt251 construction and structures 2
sre272 measurement and estimating 1
srm161 contract administration 1
srm281 project management 2
srt351 construction and structures 3
sre372 measurement and estimating 2
srm261 contract administration 2
srt259 technology projects 2
srf311 service delivery management
srf312 facilities procurement and sourcing
srf313 improving facilities performance
sre270 building economics
srf321 managing complex projects
srf322 managing operational risk
srf323 strategic facilities management
srm310 project planning and scheduling
srt358 building environmental services
sre373 measurement and estimating 3
srm461 contract administration 3
srm489 professional practice
srv599 built environment integrated project
srq462 building cost planning
srt359 technology projects 3
sre464 building project evaluation
srr401 honours thesis a
srr481 research methods seminar
srm448 industry placement a (2 credit points)
srr402 honours thesis b (2 credit points)
srm449 industry placement b (2 credit points)
* construction management (honours) early exit
requires some rearrangement of units and
sequencing in years 3 and 4
Deakin University C
38 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
consult widely with large and small FM employers, recruitment
companies, and educational and training providers, to come up with
the one best set of competencies for the FM industry in Australia. We
will be reviewing not just the competencies, but also the titles of the
designations. We have some feedback that suggests that the AFM1, 2
and 3 titles are not necessarily very meaningful and so they may be
changed. If we make these changes we will need to look at what this
means for people with the existing designations – and we currently
don’t have the answer to that.
We plan to review the competencies in association with CIPSIC to
ensure that the competencies will be included in the National Training
Package and therefore accredited. This will mean that those achieving
accreditation through FMA Australia in the future will also achieve a
full or partial qualiﬁcation within the Australian educational system. For
example someone that achieves the AFM1 designation may also
receive a Certiﬁcate IV in Facility Management, someone who
achieves AFM2 might receive a Diploma in Facility Management and
someone who achieves AFM3 might receive a Graduate Certiﬁcate in
Facility Management. If people don’t receive the full qualiﬁcation they
should receive at least a partial qualiﬁcation – that is a skill set in that
To enable this to happen the candidate’s competencies will need
to be assessed by qualiﬁed AFM3 workplace training assessors, in an
arrangement with a Registered Training Organisation.
People who achieve these qualiﬁcations or some of the
competencies within them through training and assessment in the
competency-based education system would then need to just have
their assessment reviewed through the FMA Australia process and be
able to achieve accreditation through FMA Australia. The process
therefore would work both ways. .
We will use the revised competencies as a basis for courses in the
Facility Perspectives: What is happening with the accreditation
system for individuals?
AMB: With the accreditation of individuals we have recently
completed the mentoring training so that we now have approximately
30 mentors and assessors internally within FMA Australia, which
means we can handle larger numbers of candidates wishing to be
assessed for accreditation. We have begun the buddying process for
the new mentors so that they are learning in association with an
In the future we will be providing an educational pathway for
accreditation as well as the work experience pathway. For candidates
who have an undergraduate degree for example, they would work for
two years in the industry and keep a logbook that details the
competencies that they are performing in their role. They would then
sit a panel interview and if they are successful both in terms of the
logbook content and the panel interview, they would achieve
accreditation. So basically it means the candidates do not have to
prepare a lengthy detailed portfolio.
We will also be implementing CPD requirements, probably as
soon as the review of the competencies is completed, so people will
need to complete continuing professional development to achieve a
certain number of points to maintain their accreditation.
Facility Perspectives: Are you going to endorse facility
management courses provided by educational institutions?
Facility Perspectives: Can you tell the readers about FMA
Australia’s plans for professional development in the near future?
AMB: FMA Australia conducted a professional development
survey of the members to identify what topics they wished to have
presented and to ﬁnd out how and when they want to learn.
Currently we are running more generic programs; programs like
Excelling in Strategic Project Management, Managing Contracts
Successfully, the 7 Steps to Create Outstanding Teams, and so forth.
Our intention in the near future, is to start running a lot more technical
Facility Management speciﬁc programs.
To assist us in identifying the sorts of programs required, we have
established a Professional Development Advisory Group who will
review the results of the Professional Development Survey, and
provide recommendations on the speciﬁc FM programs we need to
run, and the presenters we should be using.
These programs will start running from February next year. We will
also be running an Expression of Interest process for the supply of
some of the professional development programs, particularly the ones
that would be more frequent and ongoing, and we suggest that
educational and training providers should watch out for the
announcement of the expression of interest process when it is
FMA Australia is also interested in hearing from people who
believe they have appropriate knowledge to offer and who are
interested in presenting a short seminar or program that they think
would be of value to members. We would be very happy for them to
contact us regarding this.
At the moment the programs are running primarily in Melbourne
and Sydney, because that is where we are getting sufﬁcient numbers
to justify the expenditure involved. We are exploring e-learning
technologies for the delivery of some of the programs so that we can
run them in every State. FMA Australia intends to publish a
professional development calendar every six months for the coming
periods and we would like to be running a program in each State
In the future some of the programs will be based on the FMA
Australia competencies, after these competencies have been
Facility Perspectives: In terms of the competencies themselves,
what is planned?
AMB: The competencies have not been reviewed since they were
developed in 2000, and there have been developments in the FM
industry since this. For example areas such as sustainability are not
represented in the FMA Australia competencies at all, and the
competencies therefore, need to be updated.
In addition to this, the existing competencies are not linked to the
accredited competencies in the Construction and Property Services
Industry Skills Council (CPSISC) National Training Package, and this
means that people that achieve our competencies don’t get any
recognition for this in the Australian educational system. Our existing
competency sets are also not related to the competency sets of our
global FM partners, namely organisations such as BIFM and IFMA.
We therefore plan to review our existing competencies, review the
National Training Package, review what other associations have,
In the last issue Facility Perspectives examined what the tertiary sector had to offer in the
way of training for Facility Managers, and in this issue, Facility Perspectives Max Winter
speaks to Facility Management Association of Australia’s Manager of Professional
Development, Ann Maree Bullard, about FMA Australia’s plans for professional
development and accreditation.
at FMA Australia
INTERVIEW WITH FMA AUSTRALIA MANAGER OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT, ANN MAREE
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 39
FM ACTION AGENDA
EDUCATION + TRAINING
AMB: We will endorse appropriate facility management courses,
however we are waiting to complete the review of the competencies
and designations before we begin this process. We want to be able to
say that a particular course is appropriate for a particular level of
facility management and in order to do this we need to know what
competencies are required for each level of facility management. We
also need to establish the quality criteria and the process for reviewing
courses so they can be endorsed. It is really important that we only
promote appropriate, high quality education in facility management.
Facility Perspectives: You have a lot of initiatives planned – how
long do you think it will all take?
AMB: We expect that the time frame for the bulk of these
initiatives will be about a year. When we are ﬁnished however, FMA
Australia will have developed a world-class accreditation and
professional development system to better serve our members, and
the FM industry generally.
Call Ann Maree Bullard on 03 8641 6612 or email
email@example.com to register your interest in presenting
a professional development seminar or program.
he workshops were organised by Ann Maree Bullard,
who is the FMA Australia Professional Development
Manager, and delivered by Peter Kavan, Director of
Facilitechture P/L. According to Ann Maree, ‘we were
very pleased to attract ten new AFM3 accredited
members of the Association to participate in the
induction program, and the results were outstanding’.
Mentoring is rewarding for both parties, but it takes
time and you have to be an organised and highly
motivated person, Ann Maree said.
‘Peter put the attendees through their paces,
which included being videoed in role play sessions,
and then receiving feedback from other participants.
We were impressed with the calibre of the participants’.
The new Mentors will assist candidates for accreditation
initially with the help of an existing FMAS Mentor. After
two years, they will be eligible to apply to be FMAS
Assessors if they so choose. There are currently 19 active
Mentors and Assessors in the FMAS. ‘Our new FMAS
Mentors will signiﬁcantly boost the Association’s capacity
to offer accreditation’ Ann Maree said.
If you are considering becoming accredited
as a Facility Manager, and would like
more information, you can contact
Ann Maree Bullard on (03) 8641 6612.
The practice of mentoring is an ancient art. Its roots purportedly lay in classical
Greece where it was customary for older, wiser and highly trusted individuals to offer
counsel to the less experienced. These days the lines are a bit more blurred, and
anyone who is highly competent at what they do can be a successful professional
mentor, provided they follow some basic principles. These principles were explored
recently at two workshops held in Melbourne and Sydney for budding Facility
Management Accreditation System (FMAS) Mentors.
The Graduate Certiﬁcate of Air
Conditioning (Code Compliance)
offered by the Australian Institute of
Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and
Heating (AIRAH) is helping facility
managers both get ahead in their
industry and select the best qualiﬁed
people to work on their buildings.
“The graduate certiﬁcate
program is ideal for
anyone looking to stand
out from the crowd or
accelerate their career
development,” says Phil
the best in their ﬁeld,”
he continues. “The
course also offers a
fantastic career pathway for those in the facility
management industry who are, or want to become
more, technically aware about the systems in their
“AIRAH has also negotiated with the University of
Sydney to ensure that graduates can progress to
the Master of Design Science program, where
exemptions may be credited towards the Master of
Building Science in Building Services or Master of
Facility Management degrees.”
Professionals who graduate have demonstrated an
in-depth knowledge of:
• The Building Code of Australia
• Applying ﬁre and smoke control regulations
to building projects
• Ensuring indoor air quality meets Australian
• Applying microbial control regulations to
prevent the spread of Legionella
Air conditioning qualiﬁcation opening doors for FM
For more information or to enrol in the course,
visit www.airah.org.au or contact AIRAH on (03) 8623 3000.
AIRAH technical manager
40 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 41
MAINTENANCE & HVAC
Real World Buildings –
Real World Problems,
Barriers To Energy Efﬁciency
BY EXERGY AUSTRALIA MANAGING DIRECTOR DR PAUL BANNISTER
One of the speakers presenting at the A.G Coombs
Group The Carbon Roadmap for Existing Buildings
Conference held recently was Dr Paul Bannister, MD of
Exergy Australia. Dr Bannister outlined the problems
and the possible solutions associated with ensuring your
building is energy efﬁcient, and following is the article
(abridged) that the presentation was based on.
For the full article please go to
42 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
MAINTENANCE & HVAC
beneﬁt of all parties.
What Can We Do About It?
Most of the issues listed above can be remedied. To achieve this, the
following key principles need to be considered.
3 Robust Efﬁciency. It is essential that the efﬁciency of a building is
robust to the impact of common failure modes, and these include:
3 Avoidance of reheats, particularly hot water reheats
3 Simple, sensible zoning (thereby reducing or avoiding the need for
3 One component, one function. Much inefﬁciency is caused by
trying to get individual items of plant to perform multiple functions.
The most common example in this respect is dehumidiﬁcation. By
integrating this with the general cooling function, the scope for
incorrect operation in general cooling is greatly increased.
3 Good control. The need to establish controls that maximise
efﬁciency, particularly at part load, cannot be over-emphasised. This
is particularly applicable to VAV systems which are highly reliant on
control quality to achieve efﬁciency, since a VAV system with poor
control is just a constant-volume system – and highly inefﬁcient. One
of the beneﬁts of chilled beams by comparison is that they provide a
much more forgiving control environment with respect to efﬁciency,
particularly at the point of delivery in the occupied space.
3 Good commissioning and build quality. Getting these two factors
right is essential. Improving build quality requires an expansion of
the parameters considered under commissioning to include items
such as pressure testing of the building envelope to ensure
inﬁltration is minimised.
3 Gross leasing, or other equivalents. If the costs and beneﬁts of
poor maintenance are relayed to an organisation that has the
motivation and skills to invest and reap returns, then it is more likely
that the building will be operated efﬁciently for longer. This can be
achieved through a gross lease or via performance based
3 Good equipment. It is very simple to specify high efﬁciency
equipment. Where plant is speciﬁed but may be substituted, an
efﬁciency performance requirement should be used to ensure that
substitutes do not degrade efﬁciency.
3 Careful sizing. Careful speciﬁcation of sizing is required to ensure
that plant can be controlled efﬁciently to achieve comfortable
conditions. This requires placing limits on items such as tenant
equipment load, and also the removal of allowances for “growth”
which may or may not occur. Where additional reserve capacity is
essential, the design should provide this in the form of modular plant
or equipment that is fully idle when not required, rather than by
operating larger plant at part load.
3 Reporting on the BMS. Careful consideration of common failure
modes for plant and systems can lead to a radical revision of the
BMS interface. Consideration of what problems are most likely to
require management is essential in the design of BMS screens.
3 Submetering and monitoring. There is no substitute for measuring
and recording what is happening and being able to review this, as
and when required. All BMS points should be logged and the
ith the realisation that climate change is not going to be
resolved by inaction or unrealised promises, the issue of actual
building performance has become focal in today’s commercial
buildings sector. With this has come the genuinely problematic issue of
delivering and operating buildings at levels of efﬁciency higher than have
been achieved before.
While some argue that good design is all, those involved in
operating buildings are generally aware that the issues of delivering and
operating high efﬁciency buildings are somewhat more complex. A
building that has a good theoretical performance may not perform well
in practice, while many lesser buildings may be easier to operate and
In the establishment of the Australian Building Greenhouse Rating
scheme it was recognised that buildings perform across a wide range of
efﬁciency; indeed the energy consumption of ofﬁce buildings that are
superﬁcially comparable ranges over a factor of four. When examined in
more detail, there appears to be little correlation between the
immediately recognisable components of good design and good
While it is tempting to argue that the scale (i.e. the ABGR scale) is
wrong and that well-designed buildings perform poorly on the scale
because they are unlucky rather than inefﬁcient, this claim appears to lack
substance. It is a repeated experience that buildings with poor ratings
have clear efﬁciency issues, to the extent that a poor rating is a better
indicator of inefﬁciency than many energy audits. So a well designed
building that performs poorly (typically through using signiﬁcantly more
energy than other comparator buildings in the market) can be properly
considered to be inefﬁcient.
So what causes buildings to under-perform, and how can this be
avoided in design and/or operation to improve building efﬁciency?
We will conﬁne our discussion to base buildings, that is, the air-
conditioning and other landlord services in tenant buildings. Base
building operation is driven largely by technological issues and thus can
be dealt with relatively easily. This is in contrast to tenancies where,
although a similar range of technological issues applies, there are strong
behavioural and organisational issues involved in the determination of
total energy performance.
For the purpose of argument, let us consider a “good” building to
be a building that simulates at a high ABGR rating. This would most
frequently be any modern well-designed VAV building, both new and
existing. Such buildings typically simulate in the 4.5-5 star region and yet
there are very few buildings of this type actually performing at this level.
As the market is demanding that such buildings are built and successfully
operated at 4.5 stars, there is clearly a major challenge approaching for
Drawing on experience in new and existing buildings, it is possible
to single out a range of potential culprits, as listed in Table 1 below. The
identiﬁed issues fall under the responsibility of different players
throughout the chain of design, construction and operation, with no one
group being either wholly responsible or wholly absolved from
responsibility. This is critical to the understanding of the delivery and
operation of efﬁcient buildings generally, as any approach that attempts
to draw ﬁrm lines of responsibility and denies the “cross-border”
interactions is likely to suffer from problems at some point.
However, it is also apparent that many of the problems are relatively
easily addressable, meaning that these issues can be managed to the
Figure 1: Break up of Energy Usage.
Figure 2: Commissioning Issues. Efﬁciency is dependent upon good control,
and the problem is ﬁrstly that simulation models present ideal control scenarios
while few control systems are able to provide this, and secondly, little
knowledge exists about how to deliver this.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 43
MAINTENANCE & HVAC
design tools. Once this is done, we will begin to “close the loop” to stop
good buildings from going bad. At present however, the feedback loop
is still weak. As a result, the desired outcomes are not always being
achieved. Development of better guidelines in this area will ease the
fears of many in the market regarding the uncertainty of performance
delivery while also providing a critical new layer of information and
understanding on this issue.
About Exergy Australia
Exergy Australia is devoted to creating a more sustainable world while
working within the constraints of modern corporate life. After all,
inefﬁciency is about waste and waste costs money. In most sectors,
energy savings of at least 25% are feasible with a rate of return that
you would kill for on the stock market. The problem is, people just
don’t know how. That’s where Exergy Australia come in.
Exergy have a well established reputation for thorough, insightful and
accurate assessment of energy efﬁciency opportunities that sets us
apart from our competitors. Energy efﬁciency is our core business, and
we pride ourselves on constantly deﬁning and redeﬁning the cutting
edge of practice in our ﬁeld.
Based in Canberra, Exergy provide consulting services throughout
Australia, New Zealand and beyond. Contact Exergy on 02 6257 7066
or visit http://www.xgl.com.au for more details.
associated history should be able to be accessed seamlessly from
the BMS interface. Submeters should be in place on major plant
groupings and the data from these held on a system that can quickly
show trends and issues.
3 Documentation. O&M manuals should include comprehensive as-
built drawings, a detailed and fully updated description of the
controls operation and clear documentation of how the building and
its services are intended to operate.
3 Monitoring and energy management. All of the above items are
brought together when there is an overarching energy management
plan for the building that ensures that it is commissioned, operated,
maintained and monitored adequately to ensure that the efﬁciency
goals are met.
What is the impact for tools and ratings?
The increasing use of ABGR in tenant-landlord and developer-
contractor agreements means that the achievement of actual
performance is a focal issue for the market. However, the systematic
understanding of the parameters discussed – which are essential to
delivering such performance – is still poor. There is a need therefore to
look ahead to how information of this nature can become inculcated as
recognised parameters of “good design”.
Unfortunately, the training and dissemination channels in the industry
are generally quite weak. Presently, there is strong reliance by the design
industry on tools such as GreenStar and the BCA to provide this type of
design guidance. However, if these tools are going to drive the
construction of buildings that genuinely achieve the levels of efﬁciency
required, it is going to become essential to formalise some of the issues
and lessons presented in this paper and reference these in the various
HVAC controls programmed
inefﬁciently or incorrectly
Most commonly caused by:
Original control speciﬁcation weak or incorrect
Lack of understanding of efﬁciency issues in controls speciﬁcation and implementation
Application of ﬂawed industry standard solutions
Lack of commissioning
Lack of continuity between consultant design intent, controls programmer and facilities manager
Inappropriate ad-hoc reprogramming of setpoints and control strategies by facilities staff in response to tenant complaints
This issue is complicated by the fact that the impact of controls can be remarkably severe but there is rarely capacity or intent to
explore this via simulation, which is the only way that the true importance of controls changes can be assessed. Furthermore,
most models have weaknesses with respect to the representation of controls.
Commissioning issues The lack of commissioning even on new “green” projects remains a major concern. Buildings are still being delivered with major
commissioning ﬂaws such as air handlers that never turn off and incorrect equipment installations.
Loss of design intent Particularly under D&C contracts, there can be a signiﬁcant gap between what was originally intended for a building and what is
delivered in the actual design.
Complexity The more complex a building becomes, the more easy it is for something to go wrong
Poor build quality Although to some extent a commissioning issue, stories abound in the industry of signiﬁcant ﬂaws in construction.
Net Leases There is reasonable evidence that buildings that are net leased with respect to energy are generally less efﬁcient than buildings
where the landlord grosses such costs at a ﬁxed rate into the lease cost and thereby can invest in efﬁciency and gain a return.
As poorer quality equipment fails, it often causes energy consumption to rise by corrupting intended control regimes.
Poor Maintenance Poor maintenance can play a strong role in the failure of building performance. However, for maintenance to occur, it must ﬁrstly
be designed to be maintainable.
Poor Operations Building operators are often the ultimate arbiters of building efﬁciency. However, factors such as unnecessary complexity, poor
documentation of the building and its the intended operating modes and other building-speciﬁc training are also critical.
Invisible Problems Conventional BMS interface conﬁguration does nothing to assist in excessive reheat operation, overnight running of plant and
poor air volume control, since reviewing the operation of a single air-handler to diagnose such faults can often take hours because
of the poor accessibility and layout of the information.
“Bad” tenants The fear among building designers and operators that tenants may drive building performance downwards is both justiﬁed and
unjustiﬁed. Studies of the impact of tenant loads on base building performance suggest that the interaction has minimal impact
on base building performance.
Table 1. (Abridged: see website at http://www.fma.com.au/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1124 for full table) Common factors affecting the
operational efﬁciency of otherwise well designed buildings. These factors tend to be the product of a range of stakeholders.
Notwithstanding the above, there are some buildings that are doomed from day one to perform poorly. In some cases this is because the basic design is poor,
but the problem can also affect buildings that have apparently reasonable design and construction, at least at the macro level. In such cases, the buildings may
simulate well, but real-life problems swamp the performance to the extent that the theoretical performance has little chance of ever being achieved.
Table 2 (see website at http://www.fma.com.au/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1124 ) lists some key issues that are essentially within the
control of the design and construction team that can have a fundamental impact on building performance, in some cases without affecting theoretical performance
These are notably all issues that lie within the scope of the design/construct team to identify and resolve.
Solutions for HVAC
In recent years, much has been said about
commercial building HVAC energy efficiency and
new designs aimed at achieving green star
building ratings. It is often overlooked that some
98% of all building stock in Australia are existing
buildings, many of which have their own HVAC
performance and/or energy efficiency problems.
Sustainable buildings extend not only to new green star
building projects but must include existing building stock
occupied by equally environmental sustainability aware
tenants. Solving efficiency problems is relatively easy in new
green ﬁeld building designs but proves far more challenging
for existing buildings with systems limitations designed for an
entirely different era in building use and energy efficiency.
Dadanco, inventers of the Starline multi-lobe induction nozzle,
have been refurbishing and replacing commercial HVAC
systems for 12 years as well as designing and manufacturing
new high efficiency Active Chilled Beams for the new
Here we examine the most common HVAC refurbishment
challenges and how they are overcome using the same
technology and concepts employed in modern Active Chilled
Induction Unit Buildings – Many buildings dating from the
1960’s and 70’s used a popular HVAC system design known as
an induction system. These buildings, through their original
design, impose limitations on available A/C infrastructure and
riser space making it all but impossible to replace the older
induction units with any other system type. Many of these
systems are well beyond their ‘use-by’ dates, suffering not only
performance problems due to changes in the way building
spaces are used today; but also tend to be noisy, relatively
energy inefficient and aged beyond practical repair.
Dadanco, using the Starline multi-lobe nozzle, have developed
capabilities to refurbish some makes of induction units or
alternatively replace older induction units with new more
efficient terminal devices capable of ﬁtting within the tight
spatial limitations and operating on the same system
parameters as the older induction units. Using Dadanco’s
technology, numerous refurbishment solutions have been able
q Reduce system operating pressures by up to 200 Pascals
q Reduce on-ﬂoor air noise by up to 16 dB(A)
q Increase air circulation in the conditioned space
q Increase delivered cooling capacity at existing system
q Relocate terminal units into the ceiling space, recovering
valuable ﬂoor area used by older under-sill induction
Buildings have been partially refurbished ﬂoor by ﬂoor or in
many cases completely remodelled around new terminal units
in which the whole HVAC system has been modernised,
extending the life expectancy of the on-ﬂoor units by 15-20
Other HVAC Challenges – Later building designs favoured
chilled water HVAC constant volume and VAV systems, many
of which impose spatial constraints that cannot accommodate
larger air systems needed to satisfy modern requirements and
increased cooling capacities brought about by higher
occupancies, computer equipment and modern needs of
For these challenges, Dadanco have developed product
solutions that enable design engineers to deliver increased
cooling capacity through colder supply air temperatures using
the induction technology to safely deliver cold air by entraining
air locally, increasing air distribution rates in the conditioned
space without increasing the air processed by the air handlers
or increasing the size of on-ﬂoor ductwork.
For more information about DADANCO or its solutions
delivery technology, phone Dan Cole on (08) 8346 3588.
Or visit www.dadanco.com.au
ABOVE: An old induction unit.
INSET: Ceiling supply air grille.
44 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
Breathing Life Into Your Building
46 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
In the event of:
• Breakdowns • Planned Maintenance
• Additional Capacity • Seasonal Requirements
We can supply:
• Spot Coolers • Package Units • Fans • Fume
Extraction • Chillers • Generators & Accessories
To locations such as:
• Offices • Data Centres • Computer/Comms
Rooms • Commercial/Industrial
Air Conditioning & Heating
Portable & Temporary
1800 626 996
WIDE 24 HRS
A R B S
2 0 0 8
Melbourne Exhibition & Convention Centre
See more details at www.arbs.com.au
I S C O M I N G
Air conditioning, Refrigeration and Building Services trade exhibition
Going Green Is Mainstream Business At ARBS 2008
Exhibitors at the Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Building
Services exhibition (ARBS 2008) will feature a number of products and
services that support green building practices.
Responding to the growing push to sustainable building in
Australia, many exhibitors will show the anticipated 10,000 visitors how
to signiﬁcantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of development
on the environment.
Exhibition manager Sue Falcke said that the seminar series which
will run alongside ARBS will also discuss the compelling economic
beneﬁts of building green.
“A recent report commissioned by the Department of the
Environment and Water Resources and Refrigerants Australia found that
the refrigeration and air conditioning industry contributed as much as
seven per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions in Australia in 2006.
“It’s an enormous concern for all. ARBS is the only exhibition in
Australia where industry professionals can bring themselves quickly up
to speed with the latest technologies and products, and engage with
some of the country’s best authorities on the issue,” she said.
The exhibition is being held at the Melbourne Exhibition and
Convention Centre from 21–23 April 2008.
For further information visit www.arbs.com.au
or contact Sue Falcke on (03) 8623 3014.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 47
3 the required frequency if inspections;
3 minor tenancy works that affect the whole building, thus causing a
rise in maintenance costs for the whole building;
3 to see if an agreed performance basis can be reached for certain
essential safety measures thus reducing costs; and
3 that you have all the essential safety measures listed accurately.
If the builder has a 12-month warranty period make sure an
independent inspection/ audit of the essential safety measures is made
prior to making the last payment. Signiﬁcant items can be overlooked in
the ﬁrst 12 months requiring rectiﬁcation works after the builder has bee
paid out, especially when the builder has commissioned maintenance
and inspection contractors within this period.
Australia Wide: Securing Fire Stairs
Facility managers and occupiers of multi storey buildings are often
breaching the egress provisions of the Building Code of Australia in their
attempts to improve security in the ﬁre stairs. Doors in ﬁre stairs can be
locked from the inside in buildings that have an effective height of less
than 25 metres. Once the building exceeds 25 metres in effective height,
however, ﬁre stair re-entry onto an occupied ﬂoor is required throughout
the whole stairway. This means that locking doors from within the stairs is
prohibited. Other options are available, however, to improve security that
complies with the BCA. These are:
3 Option 1 – The doors of the ﬁre stair, other than those on every
fourth ﬂoor, can be locked, but the locked doors must automatically
unlock via a fail safe device on a ﬁre alarm.
3 Option 2 – An intercommunication system operated from within the
stairwell is located at each door in addition to the automatic
unlocking features noted in option 1.
3 Option 3 – An audible alarm system or a visual alarm system
operated from within the stairwell and located at each door can be
provided instead of the intercommunication system; however, the
doors must again automatically unlock as noted in option one. Signs
must explain the purpose and operation of each system and at
which level re-entry is available. Also, for all options, the exit door
that opens to the street or open space at the discharge level from
the building must not be locked from within. The relevant authority
will need to approve the detail and operation of the options noted.
Australia Wide: Signing Statements Lately?
Facility managers and property managers can be obligated annually
to ensure that they verify on behalf of the building owner that the
essential safety measures (inspections, testing and maintenance) comply
with their states statutory requirements by signing an annual statement,
3 VIC – Annual Essential Safety Measures Report;
3 NSW – Annual Fire Safety Statement;
3 QLD – Certiﬁcate of Maintenance;
3 TAS – Annual Maintenance Statement; and
3 SA – Certiﬁcate of Compliance with Maintenance Procedures for ESP
Signing statutory documents is one aspect, but you must also ensure
processes are in place to back up your signature. If something goes
wrong the building owner is always accountable.
Australia Wide: Swimming Pool Safety
Facility managers who have swimming pools in a building may wish
to check the ‘child’ safety barriers with the new ‘AS 1926.2 – 2007:
Swimming pool safety – Location of safety barriers for swimming pools’.
Relying on old approvals where barriers and gates now don’t comply
with the new Standard may not provide the building owner with enough
protection in the event of a tragedy.
Australia Wide: Occupiers = Danger
It is apparent that a signiﬁcant number of occupiers (tenants) of
premises who store and handle dangerous goods are not aware (or
choose to ignore) the governing ‘Dangerous Goods – Storage and
Handling’ legislation that exists in their state. Facilities managers should
be concerned as non-compliance may affect occupant safety and
business risk management issues such as the payout of an insurance
claim in the event of the building being damaged because of ﬁre
attributed to dangerous goods being incorrectly stored.
Some occupiers compound the owner’s problems by performing
illegal building works to accommodate storage needs, while others
increase the amount of hazardous material beyond established limits,
thus changing the occupancy under the BCA, and causing the building’s
ﬁre safety measures to be upgraded.
Australia Wide: Oversights Can Cost
Property owners and manages usually become aware of essential
safety measures when they are nominated on a statutory document
requiring the owner (and tenant in some states) to ensure the essential
safety measures are inspected, tested and maintained to a nominated
level, especially where tenants have altered a building.
Managers should be careful to ensure that the authorities (building
surveyor) essential safety measures schedule is accurate and current. You
may need to check for:
3 the correct Australian Standard being nominated;
About the Hendry Group
Derek Hendry is the Managing Director of the
Hendry Group (03 8417 6500) of consultancy
companies, including Essential Property
Services. Derek pioneered the ‘private
certiﬁcation’ system of building approvals in
Australia , and his nationally based
consultancy ofﬁces assist clients in all facets of building control and
essential safety measure audits. The Hendry Group publish an e-
newsletter entitled ‘essential matters’, available online at
www.emau.com.au, and their new service, BCA Illustrated (at
www.bcai.com.au), offers 3000 illustrations explaining and interpreting
the BCA as it applies to your building.
Regulatory Advice from the Hendy Group
Me l b o u r n e S y d n e y C a n b e r r a A d e l a i d e P e r t h B r i s b a n e H o b a r t
ABGR + Green Star reporting
CO2 emission reports
Benchmarking + Forecasting
Monitor Energy + Water + Gas
BAS + BMS connectivity
Thin client web access
Scalable from small buildings
to the enterprise level
Deep historical archive
Unlimited user access
Flexible user authentication
For more information visit
48 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
ESD & THE ENVIRONMENT
David, widely respected as one of the green building industry’s
leading international experts, was also another member of the Mt Eliza
Sustainable Building Pathways group, and joined the Green Building
Council Australia to launch the new initiative in September.
Green Star Business Partnership signatory and launch sponsors,
Stockland, believe this new initiative is a true reﬂection of the company’s
“For Stockland, the Green Star Business Partnership is a natural ﬁt
with our commitment to corporate responsibility and sustainability – a
commitment to the right thing, and not only in terms of addressing our
environmental impacts,” said Greg Johnson, National Manager for
Sustainability at Stockland.
“We’re facing up to the risks, we’ve made the investment to stay
ahead of regulation and we’re demonstrating leadership. This is a true
market mechanism. Our industry has never been better positioned to
make informed decisions when we create new workplaces.”
The Green Star Business Partnership is a commitment from the
highest levels from an organisation and the Green Building Council once
again recognises the ten organisations that have shown true leadership.
It is now up to the other owners and developers to take up the
challenge, make a commitment, adopt Green Star, and truly transform
the working environment for all staff within Australia.
About Green Star
Green Star was developed by the Green Building Council of
Australia and was launched in 2003. This comprehensive, holistic and
voluntary environmental rating scheme recognises and rewards the
environmental performance of the different phases of a building,
including design, construction and ﬁt-out of new and existing buildings.
Projects are evaluated against eight environmental categories plus
innovation, and these include management, water, energy, transport,
indoor environment quality, emissions, materials and land use & ecology.
A suite of tools are currently available for commercial ofﬁce,
shopping centres, healthcare facilities, schools and universities. Green
Star rating tools are currently being developed for multi unit residential,
industrial and public buildings, including libraries and convention centres.
For more information visit www.gbcaus.org
he Green Star Business Partnership was developed in early 2006 as
part of the Sustainable Building Pathways project. Some 50 senior
executives from the building industry and three levels of
Government came together at a Workshop to put together the
Sustainable Building Pathway at Mt Eliza. Green Building Council
Australia’s Chief Executive Romilly Madew and Executive Director David
Craven were part of the workshop that identiﬁed the need for a CEO-
level commitment, which led to the development of this initiative.
The Green Star Business Partnership will bring together organisations
who want to commit to achieving a minimum Green Star certiﬁed rating
for all new ofﬁce accommodation they own or occupy. For existing
buildings, signatories will commit to a timeframe for raising their
environmental performance to a Green Star rating.
“Green Star Business Partners are leading the way for the property
industry in Australia by committing to designing, retroﬁtting, and
refurbishing to a Green Star standard,” says Romilly Madew, Chief
Executive of the Green Building Council of Australia.
“This is yet another example of the Australian property leaders
voluntarily setting the green building standard in Australia, with no
Government incentives,” she continued.
The ﬁrst ten signatories of this initiative include Colonial First State
Global Asset Management, DB RREEF, Investa, ISPT, Lend Lease,
Multiplex, Stockland , Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority, and the
Sydney Olympic Park Authority, who own or occupy billions of dollars of
property in Australia between them.
Tony Arnel, Chair of the Green Building Council of Australia, believes
this initiative is another important step on the journey to transform the
industry and to continue in delivering the Green Building Council’s
mission to drive the uptake of green building practices within Australia.
“The Green Star Business Partnership was created as a vision that
moves beyond the environmental inﬂuences for embracing Green Star,
towards the social and economic factors involved in building green,” says
“The challenge has now been set for other industry CEOs to follow
this new direction and continue to drive the momentum of the property
market, and position Australia as a world leader in sustainable design
and construction,” he continued.
This was reinforced by US and World Green Building founder, David
Gottfried, who will be taking the idea back to the US Green Building
The Green Building Council of Australia has set the property industry a new challenge with
the introduction of a world ﬁrst initiative: the Green Star Business Partnership. Ten of
Australia’s leading owners, investors and developers have already become the ﬁrst to sign
up, pledging to adopt Green Star for all new buildings they own or occupy.
Industry & Government Sign Up
To World First Initiative
PRINTED COURTESY OF THE GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
Signatories of the Green Star Business
Partnership with Romilly Madew, Chief
Executive of the Green Building Council
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f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 49
50 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM LEAD STORY
Building A Greener Future
David Gottfried, Founder of the US and World Green Building Councils, recently visited
Australia to help launch the Green Star Business Partnership. After his visit, Facility
Perspectives’ Melanie Drummond spoke to David about the future of Green Buildings and
where Australia is positioned in the global movement to reduce the built environment’s
impact on climate change.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 51
FM LEAD STORY
Facility Perspectives: What are your thoughts on the recent launch
of the Green Star Business Partnership?
DG: I think it’s great, there were about 10 ﬁrms at the launch that are
going to use Green Star across their whole portfolios and I think that is
the right approach. I hope that every company that is a leader joins, and
I hope those that are not leaders ultimately see the light.
Facility Perspectives: Tell us about your involvement with the US
Green Building Council and the World Green Building Council.
DG: I started working on the US Green Building Council in October
of 1992 and we launched in April of 93. For the World Green Building
Council, I got the idea on Earth Day in April of 1998 when I was at the
founding of the Japan Green Building Council – the second Country
Council in the World. At that time I could see where it might go but it
took a number of years to get other countries around the table.
Facility Perspectives: What precipitated the need for the US and
World Green Building Council?
DG: There was great environmental need then but nobody was
really aware of it. Focus on energy efﬁciency was already there to some
degree because of the energy crisis we had in California in the early 70s.
We had an oil embargo then and the rates went crazy like they are now.
In fact, today we surpassed the oil rate record, inﬂation adjusted from
1981. At the time there would be lines of people at the gas pumps
because they were afraid they wouldn’t even be able to get fuel. We also
had a water crisis in Los Angeles in the 70s similar to what it’s been like in
In the 80s, as a result of energy efﬁciency we tightened up our
buildings so the windows didn’t open, we limited the fresh air supply and
we created what we call sick building syndrome. So at the time there was
some awareness of energy efﬁciency and air quality, but nobody was
actually demanding it then. No tenants and certainly very few landlords
were embracing the topics, and Green Buildings didn’t exist because
there was no deﬁnition yet.
Facility Perspectives: Did you face challenges trying to win support
for the councils when you started out?
DG: We were fortunate for the US Green Building Council that we
had 40 to 50 members in our ﬁrst year and some of the bigger
corporations paid their dues plus an initiation fee, which was a $15,000
donation that allowed us to capitalise the organization. We raised about
US$125,000 in our ﬁrst three months. So we did gain support but it took
years to keep growing and establish a real infrastructure.
Facility Perspectives: For some companies that joined, was the
driver exploring energy efﬁciency cost beneﬁts?
DG: Energy is always the lowest hanging fruit, but the people who
joined in the early years were visionaries and could see the ecological
impact of buildings on the world, climate change and the ozone layer.
Facility Perspectives: Have the objectives of the US and World
Green Building Council changed since inception?
DG: 15 years later and I think the objectives are still the same which
is pretty amazing. For the US Council the goal is to transform the US
building industry and the mission of the World Council is to serve as a
union or as a United Nations for the Green Building councils from
different countries. The US has grown so much that now about 30-40
countries are using the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) Green Building rating system.
Facility Perspectives: Could you please explain what the LEED
rating system is?
DG: It’s the precursor to your Green Star Rating system. When Green
Star formed they looked at the BREEAM (BRE Environmental Assessment
Method) rating system in the UK which was the ﬁrst one in the world and
then LEED. LEED was developed from about 1996-2000 and the pilot
was rolled out in 2000. LEED has become absolutely enormous, the
growth has been spectacular. We have over 13,000 projects that have
registered (representing over 300 million square meters of space),
thousands that have certiﬁed, and about 6 or 7 different types of LEED
rating systems, whether it’s for new construction, existing buildings,
commercial building interiors or homes.
Facility Perspectives: Has the US not signing the Kyoto Protocol
affected whether Americans take climate change seriously?
DG: I think we’re aware it’s important overall. Not signing it hasn’t
slowed many cities or states down. I think about 800 cities have signed
the Kyoto Protocol goals, independent of the country.
Facility Perspectives: How have the attitudes of property owners
and developers towards climate change developed in the recent years?
DG: There’s been an enormous change. In the early years they didn’t
want to listen to us, because it screamed of added cost, risk and
schedule delays. Now anybody who is building a new commercial
building is looking at LEED because, whether they like it or not, it is part
of mainstream; anything less is “negligence”.
Facility Perspectives: Do you think people are taking a more long-
term approach to energy usage?
DG: All users of buildings are, certainly any buildings for Universities,
Government and large public companies are. Those groups are all
embracing it, but the area which is still a little tricky is speculative
commercial buildings because they perceive the cost and aren’t sure the
In the 80s, as a result of energy efﬁciency we
tightened up our buildings so the windows
didn’t open, we limited the fresh air supply
and we created what we call sick building
syndrome. So at the time there was some
awareness of energy efﬁciency and air quality,
but nobody was actually demanding it then.
No tenants and certainly very few landlords
were embracing the topics, and Green
Buildings didn’t exist because there was no
52 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM LEAD STORY
certiﬁcation is worth the money. The leaders in that group are embracing
LEED GreenStar and BREEAM, but the laggards are still questioning. You
also have the existing buildings which really pose the next frontier to be
Facility Perspectives: What developments are underway for
greening existing building stock?
DG: We do have the rating tool called LEED for Existing Buildings,
but it hasn’t been as widely adopted as the new design rating system.
We’re still working at that, reﬁning the tool, and getting the owners in
the game. The important thing is that they don’t just do one building,
they need to green all their buildings. We’re looking at extending it into
a portfolio tool and running it as a portfolio management and
Facility Perspectives: How prevalent is the issue of greenwashing in
DG: It always exists, and there are those who don’t want to embrace
it fully and don’t want to pay for the building to be third party certiﬁed.
They might say instead, for example, that they’re ‘LEED-like’. There’s a lot
of veriﬁcation, sweat and pain that occurs when going through
certiﬁcation so if you don’t do it, how do you really know you’ve
achieved it? It also demonstrates a higher level of commitment.
Facility Perspectives: Do you think the public are becoming more
discerning about what is ‘green’ and what isn’t?
DG: I think they’re becoming more aware and they’re starting to ask
the right questions, but it’s still confusing and getting environmental
claims in an objective format to compare is still tricky; especially for green
Facility Perspectives: What do you see as the main deterrent from
people not ‘going green’?
DG: I think they’re still afraid it will cost more and they won’t get
their money back, but you can do quite a bit without any extra cost. Just
in your basic design you can design a better envelope for the building
with better insulation, a light colored roof and better quality windows for
example. All the manufacturers are also making basic green products
that are just everyday things. I think a lot of fear in it is unfounded and it’s
because they’re not educated. The project budget can remain the same,
but “green” should recieve a higher prioritization in how the capital is
Facility Perspectives: What do you think will happen to businesses
that don’t embrace sustainable practises?
DG: I hope they’ll go out of business and I hope their market price
and “value” will reﬂect their carbon and ecological footprint. If you’re a
legacy company you’ll have to have a deep green approach as part of
your corporate strategy.
Facility Perspectives: Is a main function of the US Green Building
Council to educate people on the need to green their buildings?
DG: Absolutely that is a huge role of ours. Next week is our
conference in Chicago called Green Built and we’ll have 25,000 people
attend. Bill Clinton will be our keynote speaker and we’ll have 850
vendor booths in our trade show. Beyond that we have the lead
accredited professional exam and a reference guide, and we have about
35,000 people who have passed.
Facility Perspectives: How do you think Australia’s commitment to
greening the built environment compares globally?
DG: The Green Building Council of Australia (GBCAUS) formed in
2003, and we started in 93 so we’re almost ten years ahead which means
our adoption of the LEED standard is more robust than Green Star at the
moment - only because we started earlier. I do think GBCAUS is on the
same rapid growth path already. Certainly I think there are great global
examples of green buildings in Australia like the CH2 building in
Melbourne, and Lend Lease’s 30 The Bond and The Gauge and there
are very good, capable people involved.
Facility Perspectives: What do you foresee happening for green
buildings in the next 5-10 years?
DG: I really think the World Green Building Council will grow
exponentially, we already have about a dozen members (countries with
councils) and about another 30 forming councils. So I think in about 5
years we’ll have about 150 countries and as we build that we’ll be able to
share best practises, be more collaborative and make it more of a global
contribution. At the same time, all manufacturers will be conscious and in
the game, and hopefully all owners as well. Then we’ll get banks offering
green loans, insurance products and the publicly listed exchanges will
value green companies and green real estate portfolios higher than non
Facility Perspectives: Do you think the human race will ultimately
reduce its impact on the environment?
DG: Certainly we can reduce our impact but I think what we’re doing
today is a tiny start of where we need to go. We need to make quantum
leaps soon. We can reduce energy 20 or 30 percent, but really that’s just
‘less bad’, carbon neutral or restorative is even better, and regenerative is
really where we need to go. We can green our buildings and sit in hybrid
cars, but ultimately we have to green our lives and how we relate to each
other, as we become more humane.
For more information visit:
David Gottfried Bio
David Gottfried is the Senior Vice President-
Sustainable Development for Thomas
Properties Group and is responsible for the
ﬁrm’s new High-Performance Green Fund and
its green consulting services division. Mr.
Gottfried has 25 years of multidisciplinary real
estate, consulting and non-proﬁt experience in the building industry: as
a investment fund manager, real estate developer, construction
manager, green management consultant, founder of the U.S. and World
Green Building Councils, keynote speaker and author. Mr. Gottfried was
previously President of WorldBuild Technologies, Inc., from its start in
1995 until its acquisition by Thomas Properties Group in 2007.
TPG/WorldBuild Consulting has served as the sustainable development
consultant for many of the leading and award winning sustainable
organizations and projects in the U.S. Mr. Gottfried received his degree
in Engineering and Resource Management from Stanford University. He
is the author of Greed to Green.
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54 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM SOFT SERVICES NEWS
That Winning Edge
Consolidated Property Services’ Regional Manager Ian Barker was a 2006 winner of the
National Building Services Contractors Association of Australia (BSCAA) inaugural Neil
Jackson Young Manager Award. The award carried a $15,000 bursary that Ian will use to
further his education in the Property Services Industry, and to fund some practical research
involving the operational practices of leading property service companies in Europe and
Asia. Ian will also be studying property and facilities management to strengthen his
knowledge of the property service industry. Having completed a study tour of leading
property service providers in London, Scotland, Ireland, Denmark, France, Italy, Switzerland
and Singapore, Facility Perspectives Max Winter caught up with Ian to discuss some of his
Mitie Managers at Big Ben
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 55
FM SOFT SERVICES NEWS
Facility Perspectives: Which property service companies formed the
basis for your fact-ﬁnding trip?
Barker: My research involved a six week study trip that covered
Europe, Asia and the USA.
I visited 14 cities and studied the operations, procedures and
processes of 12 companies including OCS, Strand and MITIE in the UK;
Noonan’s Property Services in Ireland; ISS Copenhagen (the world’s
largest cleaning company and property service company); the Paris-
based Sin & Stes; Zurich-based Railclean (who clean all of Zurich’s railway
stations and trains); Geneva-based Dosim, (Switzerland’s second largest
Building Services Contractor) and Singapore based Campaign, who
operate in Korea, China, Malaysia, Singapore and Japan.
Facility Perspectives: Do any of the cleaning practices here differ
from those overseas?
Barker: Currently in Australia, I’d say at least 90 percent of our
cleaning is done after hours where the client doesn’t see any cleaning at
all, whereas in Europe the tide is turning towards cleaning in the daytime,
however the jury is still out on this concept. It doesn’t necessarily have to
be nine-to-ﬁve cleaning services; it could be 5am to 1pm. So you still get
a component of night cleaning but you also roll into the 8.30am onwards
This seems to make good sense in terms of risk minimisation for
example, because if there was a slip hazard, the cleaner could get to it
straight away. So, if there were issues in toilet areas or public areas,
cleaners could get to that area immediately to sort them out. Currently in
Australia in a 20 storey building for example, contractors may have just
one day cleaner operating four hours per day. In addition to this, there is
also signiﬁcant energy savings by eliminating night cleaning.
Secondly, it makes good ﬁnancial sense because under the
Australian award system companies pay 15 to 20% more for a night
cleaner than they would for day time cleaning. Theoretically therefore,
you would receive more hours coverage for the same dollar value,
allowing the cleaners to be classiﬁed as full time and their position
considered as a career.
Facility Perspectives: Were there any advances in products or
systems that you noted?
Barker: In Zurich Railclean had a special department redesigning
auto scrubbers to increase their sweeping width from 60cm to 120 cm.
They utilised the time saved in performing the task for detailing,
checking and auditing.
In Singapore an interesting concept called biometrics is employed. It
is basically a ﬁngerprinting sign-on/sign-off. The system is cheap, cost-
effective and the client likes it because it is able to see how many people
were signing off and how many people were signing on. On this hours-
based contract the hours employed process is completely transparent,
and since it is connected directly to payroll, it is effectively a real-time
Facility Perspectives: What sort of innovations did you see in service
levels and marketing?
Barker: MITIE in the UK selected their top 10 or 11 clients, and
called them the ‘Connect Club”, so that once you went up a level from
base customer, the client would receive extra beneﬁts, such as linen
towels in the bathrooms instead of paper towels. Working much like a
loyalty program, the more money the client spent with the company the
more superior service the client received and the more of a ‘partnering’
the approach the relationship became.
In terms of marketing, one thing I did notice overseas, notably in
London companies, is that marketing departments employed cold
calling. They had maybe seven or eight people who were targeting
speciﬁc market sectors identiﬁed as potential clients of choice.
Once a tendering opportunity was established with a prospective
client, the company would fully research the client and present their
tender in terms of the client’s culture. For example, if it was a school, the
picture on their front cover would show all their staff that were going to
be employed for that school if they won the contract. What they were
communicating to the client is that they had already had their reference
checking done for the school educational area; the police checks were
done; and everything was ready to go as though they had been
Lourve window cleaner close up.
accepted, even before they started.
While ‘cleaning’ was a core service for European companies most of
them offered more services than just cleaning. For OCS at Heathrow
Airport for example, it does the cleaning, baggage handling, cabin
cleaning of the planes, and the catering. So, anything that involves
labour, OCS (which stands for One Complete Solution) can do. And as I
travelled through Europe and Asia it was the common denominator
amongst all the companies.
Most companies, through their expertise in managing people, were
able to provide staff for task-speciﬁc extra services like lawn mowing,
hygiene services, baggage handling, cabin cleaning, catering, security,
installing water coolers, and managing desk relocations in between
buildings such as internal transfers from level 26 to level 18, packaging
their workplace items using a computerised system to minimise human
Professionalism and presentation were paramount in these
organisations with smart uniforms, and numerous awards were given to
excite and motivate staff members, such as ‘the ABCD Award – the
Above and Beyond the Call of Duty Award’. These ﬁrms were constantly
thinking of new initiatives to encourage their people.
Facility Perspectives: How do the International BSC benchmark
Barker: Electronic auditing systems was completed by the cleaning
managers and sent to the client on a monthly basis. The company’s also
included minor building maintenance into the audit that assisted the
FM’s and increased tenant satisfaction.
Facility Perspectives: What was the standout lesson for you?
Barker: The fact that while it is about ‘cleaning’, it is more
importantly about managing, motivating and exciting your people. The
industry experience teaches you all about managing people, and you
can take those skills and apply them to any industry.
Facility Perspectives: We wish Ian all success in applying his ﬁndings
here in Australia.
56 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM SOFT SERVICES NEWS
ABOVE: Cleaners Housekeepers silve service. BELOW RIGHT: Hako machine side arms close up. BOTTOM RIGHT: Toilet check with timer Mitie
basis prior to the launch of The Commonwealth Games in 2006. One of
the biggest challenges he faced was working with the multitude of
contractors required to deliver a stadium ﬁt for a prestigious world
sporting event that would be televised to millions around the globe.
“One issue we had right up until the Commonwealth Games was
that it was still a construction zone. We also had to deal with the
Melbourne 2006 Commonwealth Games Corporation (M2006) and the
multitude of contractors we had on site installing overhead lights, cables
etc, plus the people organising all the infrastructure – power, data,
communications to name a few,” Peter said.
The ﬁgures involved in preparing for the opening ceremony of the
Games highlight the enormity of what was required:
3 The stage covered an area in excess of 7300sqm and the aerial
ﬂying system when fully loaded weighed 30 tonnes.
3 The ceremonies lighting department used over 150km of cable to
power over 3000 lighting ﬁxtures
3 M2006 created a second stand-alone telephone system for the
entire ground independent of the existing ground system
acility Management of this proliﬁc sporting ground is undertaken
by the Melbourne Cricket Club, a position it has held for more than
150 years. The MCC is also a prestigious private club, with
approximately 99,500 members and more than 175,000 people on the
waiting list with a wait of between 12 to 15 years for membership. It is
one of the largest and oldest sporting clubs in the world.
At the helm of facilities, ensuring the club continues to deliver world-
class sporting events to its members, resident clubs and visitors alike, is
Melbourne Cricket Club’s General Manager of Facilities, Peter Wearne.
His position is not one to be taken lightly. Total capacity of the
sporting ground is 100,000 which comprises of 95,000 seats and 5000
standing room. The arena itself has a total of approximately 20,290
square metres in area and measures 174 by 149 metres in length from
fence to fence. Visitor attendance is also continually rising - at AFL
matches alone in 2007 ﬁgures surpassed the 2.5 million mark, with an
average attendance per match of over 50,000 people.
With a background largely in senior management in the
hospitality/service sector, Peter came to work at the MCG on a contract
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 57
Managing an Australian icon
AN INTERVIEW WITH PETER WEARNE
BY MELANIE DRUMMOND
The Melbourne Cricket Ground is entrenched in the
sporting and cultural history of Australia. Not only is it a
national icon, but every year thousands of tourists visit the impressive stadium to take a
peek backstage at this remarkable facility.
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f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 59
3 M2006 created two stand alone walkie-talkie networks for their
requirements. One for ceremonies department and one for general
3 Additional power supply was 5 times the MCG’s normal capacity.
Not only did Peter and the facilities team have to ensure everything
was ready in time for the Opening Ceremony, after the Games they had
the daunting task of return the Stadium to its former state in time for the
Anzac Day AFL Collingwood vs. Essendon match.
“We had a 29-day window. The closing ceremony was on March 26
and we had the ANZAC Day AFL game to be ready for on April 25. We
had two immovable events with 29 days to turn it around from a
Commonwealth Games set-up to a full football set up and they were
both big crowds. The Commonwealth Games closing ceremony
attracted just over 77,000 patrons and the AFL game attracted more
than 91,000 patrons.”
Despite a very tight timeframe, Peter said all parties pulled together
to make sure the process was a success. The achievement is something
he attributes largely to the unique nature of the MCG’s work culture.
“There’s something fairly unique about the MCG culturally. The
people who come to work here, even if they’re only here for a project,
seem to feel that it’s such an iconic venue that they really make an effort
to ensure that projects are completed on time. We did have issues and
there were times that we’d have to sit down and thrash things out, but
the reality was that it went relatively smoothly given the stressful time it
was and the amount of pressure that everyone worked under.”
While not every week is as hectic as those leading up to the Games,
Peter is kept busy all year round running the facilities at optimum
“There’s delineation between event day and non-event day at the
MCG. We have a General Manager of Event Operations who is
responsible for event days, for non-event days it is my responsibility to
look after the entire facility and make sure it’s ready for event days. What
we do leading up to events is have a brieﬁng session mid-week on the
event and what the various issues are. As we get closer to the event we’ll
start to work through any issues and any carry over between different
For Peter, ensuring effective communication lines are operating
between contractors, MCC staff and stakeholders is made easier by the
number of staff that have worked at the MCG for long periods of time.
Pride and passion are prevalent among staff, all determined to continue
living up to the respected heritage of the stadium. As such, visitors to the
stadium are considered key stakeholders and feedback on their
experiences at the MCG is addressed as a top priority.
“The MCG is a very public facility, so everyone has a vested interest
in it. Also, because we host some of the major sporting events around
the world, it is an international icon. Certainly the whole facilities team
and staff here consider that we’re involved with the public and we enjoy
it. Every Monday after each event we have a debrief where we address
any issues, resolve them and work out the way forward. We could have
an event that has 90,000 people and there’s always going to be
someone who found something they weren’t happy with. As we are very
public and very available, people will send emails through which we
need to respond to.”
Peter believes having strong communication skills and being able to
make quick, operative decisions is crucial to achieving success in his role.
“Because of the size, scope and nature of the role here you’ve got to
be fairly decisive and be able to make a decision pretty much on the
move or on your feet. Because it’s so big and because we have so many
events you don’t have the luxury to be able to sit down to have
committee meetings to mull things over. I suppose you always have to
have one eye on the strategic direction as well, our asset is probably
valued anywhere between $1-1.5 billion so we need to be looking at
what areas we need to be spending money in.
With a small core facilities team, and only a dozen permanent arena
staff, Peter relies heavily on contractors to deliver required services. Major
contractors working at the stadium include cleaning and security,
alongside electrical, hydraulic services, data and communications,
lifts/escalators, PA and Television systems, painting and maintenance
work for catering. AV for conferences on non-event days is also
outsourced. To ensure contractors will meet demands, a painstaking
tendering process is undertaken before any agreements are signed.
“We go through a very rigorous tendering process and we spend a
signiﬁcant amount of time looking and benchmarking against what work
they’ve done at other sites. We also look at putting some fairly rigorous
KPI’s into the contract and we have a dedicated contract manager to
monitor ongoing contract performance as well.
By revising all the KPI’s and service level agreements it has with
contractors, the MCC is continuing to raise the bar in relation to all areas
“A key move for us was to appoint a dedicated contract manager
who is responsible for looking at each one of the contractors and the
contract we have in place with them and ensuring that both parties are
optimising their performance out of that contract. We’ve also had a
major focus on our asset management system. Obviously given the size
of the venue and the number of assets we have here we’ve had to revisit
that, we’re now taking a much more strategic plan approach to the
tendering out of works.”
Innovative strategies and planning has also been the backbone of
MCC’s long-term sustainability vision for managing facilities at the MCG.
In the past year, the introduced Visy (Australia’s largest recycling
company) Closed Loop recycling has seen the stadium recycling as much
waste as possible. It’s already proving a success – recent reports show
they’ve gone from less than 25 per cent recycling to ﬁgures that exceed
70 percent – putting them among the ranks of Australia’s best stadium
“We’ve also put quite a few water conservation measures in place;
we’ve got a 1.5 million litre rainwater harvesting tank which we’ve used
for cleaning the seating bowl. We currently are in the planning stages of
a full water audit, and we’ll get a raft of plans that we will put in place as
a result of that. We’ve also changed our turf management on the arena,
and we’ve put a new water conservation plan in place which has quite
considerably reduced the water usage there. Also as part of the
reconstruction following the Commonwealth Games, we have a new
sand proﬁle ground which reduces the amount of water – we’ve probably
reduced it by about one million litres.”
Life-cycle costing, maintenance regimes and security are three other
key issues the MCC will be addressing in the near future.
“One of the things that we’re always looking at is reviewing and
revising our security plans – that will certainly be something which
continues into the future. We have plans in place for event-day and non-
event day security, should any issues arise. It’s one of those items which is
continually reviewed and revised and that’s based on the latest
intelligence information available. What we tend to do before the start of
any cricket season, football season and any major event is have a session
with all the emergency authorities involved such as the police and ﬁre
brigade and key MCC staff, and we run through scenarios to ensure that
the plan we have in place is going to work. Emergency management
planning does consume quite a bit of our time, because we take it very,
Future projects the public can look forward to is refurbishment of the
Great Southern Stand and a National Sports Museum which is set to
open its doors in March 2008. Covering all major sports, the Museum is
expected to be a fairly extensive project including features such as: an
Olympic display, an AFL hall of fame and the Sport Australia hall of
There’s no doubt when talking to Peter Wearne that he is passionate
not only about the stadium’s future projects, but also about continuing to
improve the facility management of one of Australia’s most beloved
“The MCG is a fantastic place to work, there’s no doubt that when
you walk into this venue you do actually sense and feel something
special, it has some sort of aura about it. Another thing that is very
unique about working here is that we do have a sense of history and a
lot of that history is displayed around the place so you’re well aware that
it’s a substantial asset you’re involved in looking after.”
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 61
FM LEGAL & COMPLIANCE
the prescribed information (as yet to be advised) and register with in 3
months after the relevant section takes effect.
The consultation draft Bill has generated a range of comments from
the industry and residents which are being considered by the Minister. In
the meantime, village operators should be aware of the proposed
amendments as they are likely to apply to existing village contracts and
n 23 November 2006, the Minister for Fair Trading tabled a
consultation draft Bill to amend the Retirement Villages Act
1999 (NSW). The Minister indicated that these reforms are a
reﬂection of the New South Wales Government’s commitment to
“stronger rights for residents and a reduction of red tape for village
Over 750 retirement villages – home to more than 40,000 residents -
will be affected by the proposed amendments. Among the many new
proposed reforms, the consultation Bill includes the following provisions:
3 the introduction of a 90 day ‘settling-in’ or ‘cooling off’ period for
3 the protection of residents by making them secured creditors if an
operator becomes insolvent;
3 the prohibition on manipulation by operators of ‘interest free loans’
or ‘donations’ by new residents to reduce their share of capital gain
when a resident leaves a village;
3 the improvement of safety procedure requirements, including annual
3 simplifying accounting and budget procedures for the beneﬁt of
3 a simpler approach for capital maintenance and repairs;
3 the improvement of dispute settling procedures; and
3 the requirement that operators must hold at least one meeting a
year to respond to resident’s questions.
A register of retirement villages is also proposed. This will apply to
new and established villages. Existing villages will be required to provide
Review Of The Retirement
Villages Act 1999 (NSW)
BY CHRISTOPHER CONOLLY, PARTNER, MADDOCKS SOLICTORS
About Christopher Conolly &
Christopher is a partner in Maddocks Property
group. He has experience in all aspects of
commercial property law including corporate
sales and acquisitions, leases and agreements
for lease, project development agreements,
subdivisions and options. As an accredited specialist in property law,
Christopher has assisted in a number of complex and signiﬁcant matters
including leasehold transactions, staged strata developments, stratum
subdivisions, retirement village and aged care facilities, community title
developments and public positive covenants. His clients include urban
and regional developers, corporations (listed and unlisted) and
government authorities. Christopher can be contacted on (02) 8223
4100 or email@example.com
62 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
Repositioning a built environment asset in the market place has
become a vital component of maximizing and prolonging the intrinsic
value of that asset.
This particularly holds true for the business and lifestyle market
sectors – shopping centres, hotels and resorts as well as ofﬁce buildings
and even industrial buildings and estates.
Watermark Architecture has developed considerable skill at
successfully repositioning buildings and building precincts in the market
place to generate a greater return on investment, to increase productivity
and effectiveness and to add lustre to a company’s brand.
Greg Barnett, Managing Director of Watermark Architecture and
Interiors, says that “It is more than responding to a design brief; it is the
expertise of ‘positioning’ the design of the built environment to attract
the target market and to manifest a company ethos.”
Entry lobby Shangri-La
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
Repositioning The Built
BY CATE COWLISHAW, PRACTICE MANAGER
WATERMARK ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIORS
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
Main entry Shangri-La
Photography by ISIS DEVELOPMENTS Tel: (02) 9906 6977
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 63
The ﬁrst step that Watermark takes to successfully reposition a
building or building precinct is to understand the target market and a
company’s ‘perceived’ and ‘aspirational’ brand position.
Formal market research and workshops are combined with
Watermark’s own experience, knowledge and understanding of brand in
the built environment and the value of this important asset, establishing
what the market or company is really seeking.
This process of listening and research is underpinned by a
comprehensive and detailed understanding of functional and operational
imperatives, and user needs analysis, gaining a clear understanding of
physical space needs, accommodation features, workplace ﬂows, access
requirements, environmental issues, statutory requirements, budget and
A successful repositioning project effectively satisﬁes or exceeds all
of the above practical imperatives and also ultimately best positions the
asset in the market place to maximize investment returns, productivity,
effectiveness and brand value.
Illustrating the elements and successful outcomes of this
repositioning process is best done through industry based case studies.
The following are some examples of Watermark’s projects in the retail,
hospitality and commercial industry sectors.
The optimum positioning in the market place of a retail asset creates
the opportunity for signiﬁcantly increasing value.
According to Barnett “Understanding the target market – both in
terms of the customer and the retailer is essential, as is the
understanding of what this target market demands in terms of retail mix,
retail precincts, branding, function, pedestrian ﬂows and appearance.”
This must be combined with the knowledge of more pragmatic
issues such as access requirements, loading facilities, back of house
operations, carparking and vehicle ﬂows, longevity of materials,
maintenance and amenities such as toilet and parent room facilities.
Palms Shopping Centre
The Palms Shopping Centre in Coffs Harbour was successfully re-
positioned in the market place from a tired, standard c-grade shopping
centre to a vibrant and active local retail precinct which attracted higher
quality retail offerings, increased patronage and improved investment
Through extensive brieﬁng, client input, on-the-ground market
research and even listening to the local taxi drivers, Watermark tapped in
to the wants and needs of the target market. Watermark analysed the
habits and trends that over time had moved customers away from the
shopping centre as their preferred place to shop.
Based on this research, Watermark delivered a new positioning
strategy based on ‘ownership’ of the centre by the community with the
centre intrinsically connected with the activities and shopping habits of
Watermark also applied best practice retail design and architecture
to the functional and operational requirements of the centre to deﬁne a
scope of refurbishment and revitalization works aligned with the re-
branding strategy of this regional shopping centre.
Key features of these revitalisation works included the creation of
specialist retail precincts within the centre including a fresh-food market
precinct on the ground ﬂoor, a fashion precinct on the ﬁrst ﬂoor and an
alfresco dining precinct.
The interior was re-planned to simplify existing trafﬁc ﬂows and
improve orientation and pedestrian movements within the centre. The
interiors were cleverly upgraded to provide a fresh contemporary
ambience reﬂecting the new positioning.
The exterior was completely re-modelled with new branding and
graphics, a strong connecting veranda element with feature yellow wrap,
materials and ﬁnishes that reﬂected the semi-tropical environment
including the use of recyclable timber, sophisticated perforated metal
and vitrepanel façade elements, and a huge 8m x 12m interchangeable
vinyl entry banner.
This huge vinyl banner portrays actual photographic images of locals
and local events and is changed at seasonal times – the general banner
shows the local nippers running out of the water, the Christmas banner
shows a local family on the beach and there is a “Buskers Banner” for the
annual Coffs Harbour Buskers Event.
As a result the centre now resonates with the local connection and
market positioning of the building asset.
The ambience, feel and quality of the space is critical to the
positioning of a hospitality environment in the market place. Also critical
to its efﬁciency and effectiveness, is the ﬂow of guests, staff and visitors,
front of house functions, back of house facilities and operational
requirements, combined with in-house room facilities and features, food
and beverage offerings and associated recreational facilities.
This major $40 million refurbishment project took a faded and non-
performing landmark and established the hotel, repositioned as Shangri-
La, The Marina, Cairns, as a successful destination for international and
domestic travellers as well as the broader Cairns community. Watermark
combined strategic planning and analysis with our understanding of
brand, market position and lifestyle trends to arrive at a successful
outcome for Shangri-la.
A strategic assessment of the functional allocation of the hotel
identiﬁed critical opportunities and redistribution of key areas that would
allow the hotel to reach its full potential.
The scope included the refurbishment of public areas that
encompassed the hotel lobby, lounge and restaurant areas, guest
facilities, and in particular the new “Horizon Club” hotel rooms and
business centre, the refurbishment of existing rooms and ancillary spaces,
minor works to the retail area and signiﬁcant external works.
Identifying the crucial relocation of retail areas from the upper levels
to the ground ﬂoor allowed the former retail space to be replaced by
both new Horizon Club rooms, with marina views and hotel function
spaces. The Horizon Club rooms are a new “resort” concept in hotel
rooms that were fundamental to the re-positioning of the hotel. The
relocation also reinforced activation of the lower levels with revamped
public spaces, new guest facilities and unique alfresco dining along the
The successful revitalisation and repositioning of this hotel combined
with the functional and operational improvements, including space and
stafﬁng efﬁciencies, is reﬂected in greater operational effectiveness, and
Shangri-La Room appointments
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
Shangri-La Boardwalk Dining
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
Boardwalk Street front, Shangri-La
Photography by Isis Developments Tel: (02) 9906 6977
facility (a central focus of the resort); completely reﬁtting the bungalow-
style accommodation set into the forest; and rejuvenating the small
reception building. Other accommodation also received a minor
The architecture and interiors were comprehensively reinterpreted
with the use of light, beige tones and natural materials. Artwork that
might have detracted from the scenery was eschewed in favour of
elongated sculptural lighting, descending from the ceiling like giant
Similar principles were applied to the reﬁtting of the Daintree
Retreats units, which were completely gutted. The interiors were
lightened to emphasize the deep green of the surrounding rainforest, in
part by introducing white-washed board as paneling. Exposed beams
64 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
higher occupancy and tariffs than originally anticipated by the hotel. The
hotel has increased in value and was awarded the Australian Hotel
Association’s Best Hotel Redevelopment in Queensland 2006.
In a broader perspective, the fresh resort style re-design has opened
the hotel to the world market, particularly the Asian tourist market. The
public function spaces, with their subtle east/west design are a unique
and successful offering to the business and local Cairns market.
Combined with the activation of the alfresco boardwalk domain, the
redevelopment has also assisted the hotel to integrate as a destination of
choice within the broader Cairns community.
Coconut Beach Rainforest Eco-Lodge, Cape Tribulation
With awareness of the Earth’s delicate environmental balance ever
growing, eco-travelers have become an important sector of the tourist
industry. With today’s eco-resorts providing
travellers with an up-close-and-personal
experience, building or upgrading such
facilities to meet the expectations of the up-
market traveller whilst preserving the
environment was critical for the successful
positioning of this resort.
Meeting the needs of the target market,
protecting the site’s delicate ecology and
managing the logistics of the fragile
environment all required considerable focus
during the major reﬁt of this Queensland
eco-resort. Given the ecologically sensitive
location, every step of the rebuild and reﬁt
was undertaken in close consultation with
the Wet Tropics Management Authority.
The Lodge sits between two World
Heritage areas – the Daintree National Park
and the Great Barrier Reef. The target
market was the sophisticated
environmentally aware Australian combined
with the up-market European traveller who
may have back-packed Australia some years
before and who was seeking an
environmental adventure with some luxury
Before the works could take place,
materials had to be transported 79km along
a narrow, winding road and across the
Daintree River from Port Douglas. Small
cement trucks had to be used, as the river is
crossed by a pontoon which wouldn’t
support regular trucks.
The work itself comprised three main
aspects: upgrading the restaurant and bar
Building facade 346 Kent Street, Sydney
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
Cape Tribulation Rooms
Photography by David Sandison Photography Tel (07) 3846 3040
Cape Tribulation Eco Resort Bar
Photography by David Sandison Photography Tel (07) 3846 3040
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 65
imply a sense of being in a tree house and the simple, sophisticated feel
was reinforced by the use of natural textures throughout.
As Greg Barnett says, “The feel of Coconut Beach is one of total
immersion. Boardwalks between the accommodation, restaurant and
pools meander through dense, dark green foliage. Everything grows
larger than life and it’s easy to feel that you are visiting a very special
place – exactly what the target market is seeking.”
The “Grade” of a building as deﬁned by the Property Council of
Australia largely drives the positioning of an ofﬁce building. But the
outward look and feel of a building that manifests a tenant’s brand
position combined with physical and functional attributes can signiﬁcantly
add value to both ofﬁce and other commercial buildings, including
346 Kent Street Ofﬁce Building
This once ‘sugar sack’ heritage warehouse was run down and,
despite a previous attempt, was not achieving its potential as boutique
ofﬁce accommodation. Watermark was able to convert it into a highly
desirable ofﬁce building – increasing both rental returns and the value of
The re-positioning refurbishment works included a sophisticated
façade colour scheme and feature lighting; a new contemporary large
size entry lobby with the new building elements ﬂoating off the old
building fabric, a new lift service, air-conditioning throughout, new
lighting to the ofﬁce ﬂoors, and amenities upgrade all within the
constraints of a heritage listed building, a tight budget and a short time
Penfold Buscombe Industrial Building
This building was revitalized and repositioned from an almost un-
leasable industrial space to a vibrant 10,000sqm ofﬁce-warehouse asset
suitable for Penfold Buscombe’s sophisticated printing and ofﬁce
requirements over a long-term lease period.
Innovative uses of Symonite aluminium façade panels, steel framed
shading devices and strong orange coloured accent elements feature in
the refurbishment of an old and tired existing ofﬁce-warehouse to
accommodate Penfold Buscombe on behalf of Macquarie Goodman.
Our clients reposition their buildings to both differentiate them in the
market place and to extend their lives as useful and productive assets. As
both the market and available technologies are continually evolving,
what will be the issues to be considered by building owners in the
Brand and how to implement this important asset in the built
environment will continue to be a critical factor in successfully re-
Functional imperatives – to improve efﬁciency, effectiveness, comfort
and productivity will always be key ingredients to a successful
repositioning project as will the accommodation of statutory and
corporate governance requirements such as Occupational Health and
Safety, Access and Mobility.
Sustainability – Environmental, Economic and Social will become the
most critical factor in the short term for positioning and re-positioning
building assets. Much of the sustainability focus to this point has been on
new buildings, often in greenﬁeld locations, as the benchmark for
achieving sustainability objectives in the built environment.
For existing buildings to maintain their attractiveness to potential
tenants, building owners will have to demonstrate that their building can
compete – all part of the positioning of the asset in the marketplace.
Saving energy, water and money and enhancing our social fabric will be
tantamount in the repositioning of built environment assets both in the
short and longer terms.
ABOVE: After refurbishment of the old ofﬁce-warehouse
LEFT: Prior to refurbishment.
Photography by Marcus Clinton Photography Tel: (02) 9699 4065
66 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
Making sense of Fire Maintenance
– It’s your responsibility
BY GLENN TALBOT, DIRECTOR VERIFIED
The risk involved with relying solely on a contractor to deliver the required ﬁre
maintenance for your building safety systems is high. Evidence suggests that the items you
are currently paying for are not getting delivered and as the Facility Manager is
responsible, it is essential you have systems in place to ensure the work is getting done and
meets required standards.
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 67
he emergence of new systems on the market ensures that Facility
Managers can now track ﬁre safety maintenance down to the most
basic level, enabling managers with the information needed to
make sure they are, in fact, getting what they pay for. These systems also
provide valuable records and evidence needed should any situations
occur with ﬁre safety within the building.
Fire protection maintenance is driven largely by regulatory
authorities: the Building Codes Authority (BCA) tells us we should
maintain equipment to meet its original intended performance, some
State based Building Regulations force us to apply a maintenance
regime, and the Australian Standards are used to speciﬁcally tell us how
maintenance should be undertaken.
The authorities, regulations and standards are in place for a number
of reasons - the most important being to spell out exactly what needs to
occur for those important safety items to continually and consistently
operate when required. It can appear contradictory for some authorities
to judge those responsible for meeting certain criteria if they have not
ﬁrst demonstrated the manner in which they should be met.
Some States specify performance levels that need to be met without
deﬁning a periodic regime and experience tells us that unless a task is
clearly explained the probability of it being completed, or completed
correctly, is unlikely. It is human nature for two people to interpret things
differently. Australian Standards are the ultimate prescriptive device to fall
back on if it is speciﬁed by regulation or if there are performance hurdles
to jump. The new Australian Standard AS1851-2005 is perfect for this
The major challenges for building owners and managers in
complying with these standards, is the amount of items requiring regular
maintenance. Aside from being numerous and varied, the tasks are often
complex and difﬁcult, and the applicable Standards are dense, wordy,
contain complicated tables and diagrams and demand elaborate
Building owners, Facilities Managers, and Managing Agents are not
expected to speciﬁcally understand what is required by the Standards
and compliance bodies in order to provide the appropriate maintenance
for every service under their control - they are not expected to be
experts. What is expected is that they manage ﬁre maintenance and
ensure it gets done correctly. So the easiest way most organisations deal
with these challenges is to outsource their maintenance to a specialist
contractor. ALL FIXED! – Or is it?
The Contractor Rules
Contracting out the maintenance requirements in order to deliver
compliance seems to be the only answer, however the engagement of
another party is not a way to transfer statutory obligations. Passing the
batten does not relieve the building owner of their responsibilities and it
does not shift any of the legal responsibilities. Contracting out the
liability, whether it is to a Facility Management company or even a
Building Surveyor, does not guarantee immunity. These appointments
sometimes go as far as to stipulate that the relevant party sign-off on the
respective State documentation on the owner’s behalf. But the question
remains, has the maintenance been done?
Although the owner can contract out the actual function of doing the
maintenance work, or its responsibility to be done (that is, requiring a
tenant do it under a lease), doing so will not transfer any potential
criminal liability to the third party.
It then becomes a case of totally relying on the contractor to deliver
the correct result. If we investigate the process from contract
management through to invoicing, it’s easy to see where the deﬁciencies
Process – Contract Management
A contract is drawn up that speciﬁes many clauses, Key Performance
Indicators (KPI’s), millions of dollars in indemnity insurance and penalties
for failing to meet any of these criteria. Some contracts even go so far as
to rewrite in Standards Clauses, to include what items need servicing,
what documents need sign-off, and what the contract price is per year to
complete all this maintenance.
Firstly, I’ve rarely heard of a company that has applied dollar
penalties for failing to meet contract requirements or meet KPI’s. There is
also the belief that if a contract is overloaded with things like Standards
Clauses, no one will actually ever read it. Making it thick and covering
every minute item means nothing if you cannot measure the outcome.
Finally, because most companies don’t know exactly what their assets
are, they rely on the contractor to provide a list, so often these important
details aren’t even included in the contract.
Process – Tender
The tender is sent out to a number of ﬁre protection companies,
electricians, HVAC contractors and door maintainers. The contractors
review the tender and submit their most competitive rate.
The majority of contractors will tell you they generally don’t make
too much money on preventative (or scheduled) maintenance. This is
because to win a contract, they must appear to be ﬁnancially
competitive. A majority of their revenue will be achieved through reactive
(or breakdown) maintenance, therefore the contractual obligations
surrounding preventative (or scheduled) maintenance will not be their
main focal point.
Process – Servicing
The contractors begin servicing as per the Standard agreed to in the
contract, and the frequencies speciﬁed.
In order for contractors to achieve a more competitive rate,
important things sometimes get sacriﬁced such as the number of hours
they devote to preventative maintenance, which leads to services not
being completed. In other words, the contractor may sacriﬁce their
margins on preventative maintenance to gain the work, with no ﬁnancial
incentive to meet the contract criteria. In many circumstances contractors
do not have the labour to complete all the required tasks – a situation
exacerbated by current labour shortages.
Process – Invoicing
The contractor completes the ﬁrst month’s service cycle and sends
Generally a one or three year contract is signed, with invoicing
usually occurring each month. Like most building owners and managers,
contractors also have a lot of difﬁculty tracking what has actually
happened during the invoicing timeframe. Therefore they make it easy
Will Your Electrical Inspection Company
• Can they provide you an identical level of Service across Australia?
• Do they specialise in ONLY ONE aspect of Maintenance?
At Nilsen – Our TEGG® core business is the protection of your facilities from electrical
system failures, fires, and resultant business interruptions through a unique &
comprehensive electrical preventative & predictive maintenance functions, and we
guarantee the results.
With many of our programs, if we certify that an electrical component is in proper
working order and it breaks, then we will replace it for free!*
www.nilsen.com.au (03) 9450 1300
68 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
on all parties and invoice 1/12th of the contract value each month. Just
by looking at the invoice the client is unable to verify if the contractor has
completed the necessary maintenance. You may choose to withhold
payment until a service docket is provided for every service, but even to
process the payment you would need to know all about the contract
requirements as well as the Standards that need to be met. Considering
that just one building can have up to 185 tests undertaken per annum by
multiple contractors, it’s easy to get bogged down in paperwork whilst
the bigger picture is being missed: or should I say the maintenance is
The fact is that most people spend more time ensuring their cars are
being serviced properly then they do on compliance maintenance. No
one would pay for maintenance on their car, particularly in advance,
unless they knew exactly what was completed.
Evidence of Delivery
Over time there has been substantial evidence proving that lack of
safety measures maintenance contributes to the severity of building ﬁres
– you only have to look at the coronial inquests of the Kew Cottages ﬁre
or the Childers Backpackers report for conﬁrmation. Our regulators
understand the situation and are now making regulations even harder to
comply with. As a result of the Childers ﬁre, the penalties in Queensland
now carry ﬁnes of up to $750,000 and up to a three-year jail term for
ﬁres that result in signiﬁcant damage or death (if it is the result of a failure
to properly maintain safety items).
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has
issued millions of dollars in ﬁnes in this area to companies who did not
deliver ﬁre servicing for which they were paid. The Trade Practices Act
1974 is very clear on this point. Section 58 spells out that a corporation
should not invoice for items that the corporation is aware, or ought to be
aware, of goods or services that will not be delivered within the period
The statistics below show us that all is not well:
3 Over a three year contract period for hundreds of sites with
sprinklers ﬁtted only 55% of the 3 yearly valve overhauls were
completed, yet 100% were paid for. (Veriﬁed Statistic)
3 Building audits by councils and ﬁre brigade estimated that 90-100%
of buildings had some type of Safety Measures non-compliance.
(Building Commission Report)
3 After 6 months of a new contract period for 1000+ buildings using
the new standard for ﬁre protection maintenance (AS1851-2005);
3 Only 86% of the weekly sprinkler tests were completed. (Veriﬁed
3 Only 9% of the six-monthly sprinkler tests were completed.
3 Only 86% of the extinguisher 6-monthly tests were completed.
3 Only 25% of tests under the new AS1851-2005 were within
tolerance as deﬁned by the Standard. (Veriﬁed Statistic)
The new Australian Standard for Fire Safety Maintenance (AS1851-
2005) has been tightened up signiﬁcantly to stop service contractors
failing to deliver what is required. New items like frequency anniversary
dates, tolerances on frequencies, logbook reporting and recording
speciﬁcations, notiﬁcation requirements and annual condition reporting
have all been detailed to ensure service providers deliver what they are
paid to do. Because of the emphasis on dates and anniversaries under
this new standard, most building owners/facility managers do not have
the historical data required to effectively change from one contractor to
the next. Overall though, the new Standard has been put in place
because it is apparent there is an abhorrent lack of compliance.
The question of whether or not you should, or in some cases MUST
(Queensland is the only State currently to adopt the Standard), adopt the
new Standard is a pertinent one and isn’t always easy to answer.
Irrespective of opinion regarding the application of service tasks, the
black and white nature of the new requirements makes it difﬁcult for
service providers to negate their maintenance responsibilities.
However the maintenance process still needs to be managed and
there is not enough understanding and resource in place to ensure
delivery for most companies. Regardless of the applicable Standard,
there is a very real threat to life and safety should companies rely solely
on a third party for protection.
It’s certainly clear that Facility Managers must not rely on contractors
alone to ensure their ﬁre maintenance requirements are being delivered.
There are plenty of ways to ensure you are effectively measuring
compliance and service delivery and from what we’ve seen, you’ll be far
safer if you did.
Infrared Thermal Image Testing assists in the
reduction of maintenance costs on electrical and
mechanical equipment and is an excellent
condition monitoring tool used to carry out non
destructive testing. While the equipment is online
and running under full load, you are able to
monitor temperatures and thermal patterns. It
allows for early detection of faults indicated by a
rise in temperature. Your guideline would be the
operating temperature limits that most
mechanical equipment allows.
Preventative Maintenance is a Savings – Not a cost
THERMAL IMAGE DIGITAL IMAGE
Contact Glenn Burns
P: 0403 650 633 E: firstname.lastname@example.org
About Glenn Talbot
Glenn Talbot is the founder and Managing
Director of Veriﬁed, a company that provides
state of the art management processes for the
control of ﬁre protection and building
maintenance. Glenn holds an Associate
Diploma in Applied Science (Fire Technology)
and has been in the ﬁre protection industry for over twenty years. His
roles have included State and General Manager of some of the
industries largest service providers. He has been an active Fire
Protection Association (FPA) State committee member of the
FPIA/FPAA for over 15 years, holding the position of Vice Chairman of
the Victorian division from 2003 – 2006. In 2006 he was elected to the
board of the FPA. He is also a current member of FMA Australia.
There is increasing interest in the use of waterless urinals and ultra low ﬂush urinal systems
as a way to save water in large buildings and public amenities. Sydney Water has recently
published a Factsheet that describes the different design features of commonly available
waterless urinals, and the things you should consider to make sure your waterless urinal
installation is successful. Wendy Hird from the Every Drop Counts Business Program
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 69
FM WATER WATCH
70 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
FM WATER WATCH
s a ﬁrst step it is recommended facility managers ﬁx leaks, install
ﬂow restrictors in taps and showers, and improve cooling tower
performance to achieve the largest reduction in water and energy
costs. Installing waterless urinals can be an excellent way to save more
water once these easy efﬁciencies have been gained.
Conventional water-ﬂushed urinals are water intensive. Multiple stalls
connected to one ﬂushing device use between ﬁve litres and 20 litres a
ﬂush. In some commercial buildings urinals can account for up to 20 per
cent of total water use – and it’s estimated that they use about two per
cent of Sydney’s drinking water.
Many conventional urinals are designed to ﬂush automatically.
However, water is wasted if the sensors are set to ﬂush continuously, if
the radar/infra-red motion sensor malfunctions or if the motion detection
sensor is activated by general bathroom trafﬁc.
The most efﬁcient types of conventional urinal are well maintained,
single stall, smart demand or manual ﬂush urinals as the ﬂush volumes
can be controlled.
Waterless urinals have three main designs:
1. Oil barrier (either reﬁllable or replaceable cartridge)
2. Mechanical designs
3. Microbial blocks.
Each design has different requirements for installation and
maintenance, and offers different advantages and disadvantages.
Oil barrier – reﬁllable/replaceable cartridge or oil seal trap
How it works: A reﬁllable oil cartridge or oil trap creates a physical
barrier between the user and the plumbing. Oil ﬂoats on liquids,
including urine, and the oil layer prevents any odours from entering the
room through the trap.
3 Physical barrier between user and plumbing system.
3 Cartridge is easy to reﬁll/replace, improving ease of maintenance
3 Minimal waste creation.
3 Cartridge may still require use of a proprietary oil.
3 Cleaners and maintenance staff need to be trained to know when
the cartridge needs replacement.
3 Seals may be lost if cleaners empty water into the unit.
How they work: One-way valves enable urine to pass into the
plumbing system, but stop odours going back into the washroom. These
are the newest type of waterless urinals.
3 Barrier will not break down with large water volumes that may be
used by cleaners.
3 Mechanical design allows a wide range of cleaning products to be
used (no blocks or oil to be damaged).
3 Relatively new on market so durability is less tested.
3 Cleaners still need to be aware of corrosive tendency of some
cleaning agents on pipe work.
3 One-way valves may still require regular replacement of valves and
How it works: Bacteria are contained in a water-soluble block (like a
large sugar cube) that is placed in the urinal. The blocks are designed to
break down on contact with urine to release odour-masking agents and
bacteria that will break down the components of urine that cause scale
and odour. A small amount of water is required each day to keep the
3 Can retroﬁt an existing urinal without expensive plumbing works or
installing new urinals.
3 Users report that microbial blocks work most effectively in single stall
urinals because cleaning, maintenance and block placement can be
3 Sanitary ﬂushing may still be required.
3 Cleaning techniques need to be changed – common cleaning
chemicals can harm the bacteria. Special cleaning ﬂuid may need to
f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 71
FM WATER WATCH
3 Blocks can break down and become trapped, causing urine to pool
and create odour.
Ultra water efﬁcient urinals
These urinals use a very limited amount of water for ﬂushing, and
may suit situations where public perception, design standards or existing
plumbing ﬁxtures and pipe work make waterless urinals difﬁcult to install.
Units that use less than one litre of water per ﬂush and incorporate smart
demand “urine sensing” technology can achieve a Water Efﬁciency
Labelling Standards (WELS) 6 Star rating.
Issues to consider
The physical properties of urine can create problems for users and
maintenance staff if waterless urinals aren’t installed properly.
Copper pipes should be replaced with PVC pipes before installing
waterless urinals. This is due to the ammonia concentration in urine
corroding copper and copper alloys that may lead to corrosion and
stress cracking of sewer pipes.
Regular ﬂushing of urinals is essential to prevent the build up of hard
calcium scale on urinals and plumbing ﬁttings. The build up of scale can
cause odours and reduce the capacity of your pipes. It can be a costly
problem to ﬁx, especially in older buildings where sewer pipes may be
inaccessible, or their location unknown.
It is important to conﬁrm that sewer pipes have sufﬁcient fall to allow
urine to drain freely away without causing a build up of sludge or scale in
pipes. It is recommended the fall of pipes should be at least two
degrees, and preferably more.
To avoid odour, urinals should have a physical barrier between the
plumbing system and the user, and ventilation should be high.
Potential water and cost savings
Water savings achieved will depend on the efﬁciency of the original
ﬂushing urinal, the number of times the urinal is used, and the efﬁciency
of the waterless replacement.
If you are ﬁtting out a new building, or replacing an inefﬁcient cyclic
ﬂush system, water savings from waterless urinals or ultra water efﬁcient
urinals may be signiﬁcant. For example, a three-stall, automatically
ﬂushing urinal may cost up to $3,000 a year to operate. Savings of up to
$2,000 may be achieved after conversion to a waterless unit.
Waterless urinals can cost between $350 to nearly $1,500. This
compares favourably with the upfront cost of ﬂushing urinals, and you
may save money by avoiding the need to install items such as sensors
and ﬂush valves.
Waterless urinals may also make maintenance easier. As waterless
urinals don’t ﬂush, there may be a reduction in bacteria or pathogens
that are transported in aerosols to users. Without the need for a ﬂushing
lip, waterless urinals may be more streamlined, making cleaning easier
and reducing areas where bacteria breed.
To ﬁnd more information on waterless urinals and choosing the right
design for your business download the Factsheet from:
Investa Property Group
Investa Property Group has trialed a number of different
waterless urinals in its property portfolio and has retroﬁtted
most urinals with microbial blocks. “We’ve learnt that for urinals
retroﬁtted with microbial bocks to work effectively, a well
deﬁned cleaning regime is the most important factor” Shaun
Condon, Investa’s OHS & Environment Manager said.
“Training cleaning staff is critical. Cleaners use bleach for
many of their cleaning processes. This kills off the bio-treatment
capability of the microbial blocks. “Ensuring that every urinal is
cleaned every evening is very important, and property
managers need to conduct ongoing spot checks to check that
this is being done.
“There have been some leaks in the urinals we retroﬁtted.
At ﬁrst we assumed that uric acid was corroding the pipework.
After commissioning testing from a university research
laboratory, we determined that undiluted bleach was actually
causing the problems. Flushing had previously washed the
“We now use more environmentally friendly products for
cleaning. This provides a double environmental beneﬁt – less
water and milder chemicals. “Smell can sometimes be an issue,
but it’s usually the chemical fragrances causing the odour. This
can be overcome by increasing ventilation volumes,” Shaun
University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales (UNSW) is one of the
largest universities in Australia, with more than 40,000 students.
It implemented a ‘waterless urinals only’ trial after calculating
that urinal ﬂushing used more than 11ML of drinking water a
The university uses oil seal trap style urinals for new
installations, and uses microbial blocks to retroﬁt existing urinals.
The university also uses bore water for some other toilet and
UNSW has estimated that using waterless urinals saves
between 95 and 140kL of water for each urinal (or per metre of
wall hung urinal) every year. Savings vary between the two
different types of urinals and also depend on the how often the
urinals are used.
To make sure that oil seal trap urinals are reﬁlled often
enough to avoid odours in extremely high use areas (near the
university’s quadrangle), the university uses one maintenance
contractor, whose service frequency depends on how often
urinals are used in each building. UNSW has also discovered
that installing privacy screens between urinals helps to even out
urinal use in washrooms, making it easier to schedule
The university has worked with microbial cube suppliers to
produce multilingual training material after noting the
importance of educating cleaners to avoid using strong
disinfectants in this type of urinal.
72 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
ncorporated into the new Eternal range is PUR Pearl™, a superior polyurethane reinforced cross-linked lacquer that offers
extremely high resistance to stains, scratching and scufﬁng whilst remaining ﬂexible and beautifully matte. This makes it
particularly appealing for installations requiring rugged ﬂooring, such as commercial foyers and ofﬁces, educational,
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The new Eternal collection from Forbo is the ﬁrst ﬂooring world-
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f aci l i t yper spect i ves • 75
for government support through a carbon trading scheme and tax
In 2008, Green Cities delegates will have the opportunity to hear
from the following internationally renowned Keynote Speakers including:
3 Professor Matthias Sauerbruch, Principal, Sauerbruch Hutton.
Matthias Sauberbruch’s practice has become known for its serious
engagement with issues of sustainability in architecture and
urbanism, and concern for the economic use of resources - both
natural and urban. Sauerbruch Hutton are best known for their GSW
Headquarter Building opened in Berlin in 1999 and the
Environmental Agency in Dessau.
3 Professor Vivian Loftness, Professor, Carnegie Mellon University
3 Vivian Loftness, FAIA, LEEDAP, is an internationally renowned
researcher, author and educator in environmental design and
sustainability, the integration of advanced building systems, climate
and regionalism in architecture, as well as design for health and
productivity. She is a key contributor to the development of the
Intelligent Workplace – a living laboratory of commercial building
innovations for performance, along with authoring a range of
publications on international advances in the workplace.
hemed What is Possible Now?, the two day conference and expo
will offer delegates the opportunity to explore the latest green
building initiatives and technologies and hear from key
international and Australian speakers who are currently transforming the
Over 40 exhibitors will also be showcasing leading technologies,
projects and services available within the green building industry.
The third day of the conference will include Green Star courses and
workshops, as well as a selection of the Property Council of Australia’s
Professional Development courses. A number of green building tours will
also be available.
Green Cities 08 will build on the successful outcomes of Green Cities
07, which brought together 900 delegates from a range of disciplines
including developers, engineers, marketing consultants, university
professors, urban planning experts and CEOs of leading property
industry companies to hear green building experts discuss the future of
green buildings, and sustainable design and technologies. Green Cities
07 was the biggest ever property industry meeting on green issues and
identiﬁed that improving the environmental performance of Australia’s
ageing commercial buildings is the key to greening our cities, and called
Following the resounding success of Green Cities 07, The Green Building Council of
Australia and the Property Council of Australia will again join forces to host Green Cities
08. This Australasian Conference & Expo will be held from 10-13 February 2008 at the
Sydney Convention Centre, Darling Harbour.
Green Cities 08
10-13 FEBRUARY 2008
SYDNEY CONVENTION CENTRE, DARLING HARBOUR
76 • f aci l i t yper spect i ves
3 Rick Fedrizzi, USGBC President, CEO & Founding Chairman. Rick
Fedrizzi, founding chairman of the U.S. Green Building Council
(USGBC), was appointed President & CEO of USGBC in April 2004.
Under his leadership, the Council has embarked on a new era of
growth, openness, and transparency.
3 Dr James Bradﬁeld Moody. James Bradﬁeld Moody is currently the
General Manager, International Development for the national
research organisation CSIRO. Named one of Australia’s Top 100
most inﬂuential engineers in Australia in 2005 and selected by Boss
Magazine as one of their young executives of the year and in 2007,
James Moody is passionate about space technologies and the
environment. James Moody holds a number of prominent
government roles, including membership of the Australian
Government’s Bureau of Meteorology advisory board and the
Bureau of Statistics advisory council. He has also worked with the
United Nations Environment Programme and was selected by the
World Economic Forum as one of their Young Global Leaders. He is
also a panellist on ABC TV’s The New Inventors.
A variety of interesting and challenging concurrent sessions will be
presented to ensure that within each session a topic will be of interest to
Panel discussions and debate will be presented on topics including:
3 Emissions Trading in the Built Environment
3 How are Green Star Rated Buildings Performing?
3 Regulation versus Innovation
3 Green Building; Who Risks and Who Beneﬁts
3 Valuing Green
Further concurrent session topics include:
3 Scenarios for Sustainable Cities
3 Gadgets and Greenhouse - What Does The Future Hold?
3 Post Occupancy: The Green Building FM Challenge
3 Building Beyond Sustainable Design
3 Landscaping: More than the Colour Green
3 Designing for a Renewable Future
3 Attendees will also have the opportunity to hear about various case
studies throughout the conference.
For further information on the conference and registration details go to
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