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SUBSURFACE PUMPING SYSTEM

November, 2003
DEO PREDUZE]A ZA ISTRA@IVAWE I PROIZVODWU NAFTE,
PRIRODNOG GASA, PODZEMNIH VODA I GEOTERMALNE
ENERGIJE
NOVI SAD, NARODNOG FRONTA 12
OD “TEHNI^KI SERVISI” – Pogon “O D R @ A V A NJ E”
ZRENJANIN, Beogradska 26;
Subsurface pumping system
SUBSURFACE PUMPING SYSTEM
The subsurface pumping system consists of a great number of different elements composed
into one piece, with the purpose of crude oil lifting to the surface.
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SUBSURFACE PUMPING
SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
Subsurface pumping system
The system is designed for being used in different conditions, which depends on well depth, reservoir
pressure (hydrostatic level), oil components (sand, water, gas, salts, etc.). It also has to be reliable and
easy to handle and maintain.
The error on either of its parts will result in the system shutdown, where expensive repair
should be necessary and the possible oil production loss may occur.
NATA!A" has used its long experience in oil production with suc#er rod surface pumps for
the complete subsurface pumping system e$uipment design and manufacturing process.
Today, NATA!A" with %&& subsurface pumping systems covers the following'
()*+I,-)NT AN. ,A/T" .)"I!NIN!
()*+I,-)NT AN. ,A/T" -AN+A0T+/IN!
()*+I,-)NT -AINT)NAN0)'
(/)!+1A/ -AINT)NAN0)
(,/)2)NTI2) -AINT)NAN0)
()-)/!)N03 -AINT)NAN0)
(",A/) ,A/T" -AN+A0T+/IN!
("+4"+/A0) ,+-,IN! )*+I,-)NT 56/762)/
NATA!A" has been using A,I and I"6 standards and recommendations for subsurface pumping
e$uipment designing and maintenance as well as the experiences of the world manufacturers in order
to gain optimal economic efficiency.
The production program of NATA!A" consists of the following'
! PUMPING UNITS
2! P"#IS$E% R"%S
&! SUC'ER R"%S
(! SUC'ER R"% C"UP#INGS
)! SUC'ER R"% CENTRA#IZERS
6! SEA#ING $EA%S
*! P"#IS$E% P"% C#AMPS
+ ! P"#IS$E% R"% $ANGER
,! %YNAM"METER $ARNESS
-! SAFETY .A#.ES
! CASING/F#"0 #INE S$"RT C"NNECTI"N
2! SUBSURFACE PUMPING 0E## $EA% EQUIPMENT
&! SUBSURFACE PUMPING CENTRE
(! SUBSURFACE PUMPS
)! GAS ANC$"RS
6! TUBING ANC$"R
*! REM"TE PUMPING UNIT C"NTR"# AN% "PERATI"N
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Subsurface pumping system
! PUMPING UNIT
A! %ESIGNING
NATA!A" has been producing pumping units of its original construction for more than 8&
years, while those constructed according to the re$uirements of A,I 99) "tandard, for 9& years.
The manufacturing process includes the pumping units given in table 9.
According to the purchaser:s re$uest, we offer other pumping unit types as well.
.
Table 9.
T)0;NI0A1
0;A/A0T)/I"TI0"
+nit of
measur.
,+-,IN! +NIT T3,)
<&(99=(>? 9>&(9@A(<> 88<(89A(<> A8&(8%>(9&&
-aximum output
reducer tor$ue
lb.in <&&&& 9>&&&& 88<&&& A8&&&
Nm =&?& 9<&&& 8%@%& A>9>&
,olished rod load
lb 99=&& 9@A&& 89A&& 8%>&&
N %A&& @@&&& =?<&& 99A=8&
,olished rod stro#e
length
in >?B?%B8%,% <>B@?B>AB%9 <>B@AB>&B?@ 9&&B<%B@&B%%
mm 9>8%B99?&B@&& 89<?B9<<&B9%@%B98=% 89<?B9<%?B9%8?B99=? 8%?&B89%=B9@@<B9A=@
Number of polished
rod stro#es
min
(9
>,8B<,<B99,8B9? ?,%B%,>B@,<B98,8B9? ?,>B%,@B@,9B=,8B99,% ?,>B%,@B@,9B=,8B99,%
)lectric motor type C7... C7... C7... C7...
)lectric motor power 75 According to the siDe and number of stro#es
)lectric motor speed /.,.- @%& @%& @%& @%&
,umping unit weight #g @9&& 98A&& 9?9&& 9%@&&
N6T)'
( EC7F asynchronic electric motor.
( The manufacturer reserves the right to change the pumping unit constructionG
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Subsurface pumping system
B!MANUFACTURING PR"CESS
or the needs of oil production in 3ugoslavia, A%& pumping units of different type and capacity
have been manufactured.
C! MAINTENANCE
NATA!A" maintains %&& pumping units of different type and capacity'
(0apacity' %, @, =, 99 t.
(Types' 2+10AN, -A6(TC)(.+N, 5+)1)1, 1)!/AN. A-)/I0AN
and NATA!A"
All #inds of maintenance have been applied'
(regular (monthly inspection, balancing, lubrication, etc.)
(preventive (bearing chec#ing, oil $uality control and pumping unit parts inspection)
(emergency (system failure repair)
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Subsurface pumping system
%! SPARE PARTS MANUFACTURING PR"CESS
The spare parts have been carefully manufactured, with the same $uality as that of the original
part, which means the same shape, dimensions, high material $uality and control.
E! PUMPING UNIT 0"R'".ER
After a long service life and according to the needs, all pumping units are submitted to the
complete wor#over in NATA!A", and they reach their original operation state.
2! P"#IS$E% R"%S
,olished rods, manufactured in NATA!A", meet all the
re$uirements of A,I "pec.994.
The production program includes standard dimensionsB dia' 9 9H?F
(A9.<mm) and length' 9>ft (?.< m). ,olished rod length depends on
the subsurface pump stro#e, so at a purchaser:s re$uest, polished
rods of other lengths can also be manufactured.
,olished rod material has mechanical characteristics of higher
$uality with rolled threads, which guarantee the safe production in
all conditions.
&! SUC'ER R"%S
"uc#er rods are manufactured according to the re$uirements of
A,I "pec.994.
The material class of the suc#er rods is 7, 0 and .. "uc#er rod
rolled threads guarantee the threaded connection material
characteristics of higher $uality.
6ur production program includes the following'
(%H<F(9%.=mm) standard lengths 8%ft (@.>8m) and A&ft (=.9?m)
(AH?F(9=.9mm) standard lengths 8%ft (@.>8m) and A&ft (=.9?m)
(@H<F(88,88mm) standard lengths 8%ft (@.>8m) and A&ft (=.9?m)
(9F (8%.?mm) standard lengths 8%ft (@.>8m) and A&ft (=.9?m)
NATA!A" manufactures and uses pony suc#er rods as well,
which are necessary for precise subsurface pump placing.
"uc#er rods are delivered with the standard suc#er rod threaded
couplings, thread cages and corrosion protection.

(! SUC'ER R"% SUB/C"UP#INGS
The suc#er rod coupling is manufactured according to the re$uirements of A,I "pec.994 "tandard, the
material class T (;/0 min. 9>, max. 8A ). All suc#er rod coupling types are manufactured.
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Subsurface pumping system
)! SUC'ER R"% CENTRA#IZERS
"uc#er rod centraliDers are used for suc#er rod and tubing mechanical
protection.
The specific operation of the subsurface pumping system in deviated holes
represents the additional suc#er rod string stress and polished rod loading.
0entraliDer protects the tubing walls from mechanical damages, caused by contact (
friction between the suc#er rod coupling and tubing wall.
Two types of suc#er rod centraliDers are manufactured'
(II). ( tightly fixed to the suc#er rod body.(rubber and plastic types).
(/611)/" ( a specially designed coupling with small wheels. Instead of
couplings, at critical points /611)/" are installed. They prevent the
possible friction occurring between the suc#er rod and tubing wall.
6!SEA#ING $EA%S
The sealing head construction enables safe polished rod movement and prevents from oil
overflow.
"ealings have the dimensions and are constructed in such a manner so as to enable the
following' (safe ( hermetic connection
(pumping unit centering error tolerance
(polished rod lubrication
(the possibility of sealing power adJustment
(easy replacement of worn out sealings
"ealing heads are manufactured as a standard product, which has to be conformed to the ending
christmas tree flange.
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Subsurface pumping system
*! P"#IS$E% R"% C#AMPS
According to the polished rod dimension (A8mm), NATA!A" manufactures and uses Jaw
type polished rod clamps of high material $uality.
In a simple way, the polished rod clamp fixes the suc#er rod string at the wanted position,
whenever it is needed.
If the construction, material and manufacturing process are properly used, and if the allowed
fastening force applied, polished rod clamp enables a long service life, since it does not damage the
polished rod.
+! P"#IS$E% R"% $ANGER
The pumping unit wire line and polished rod connection is a safely constructed and
manufactured connection, which guarantees higher strength in all production conditions.
,! %YNAM"METER $ARNESS
or the subsurface pumping operation control, mechanical types of
dynamometers are used. NATA!A" manufactures E/I./I; 1AKT)/F
types of dynamometer harnesses, with the capacity of'
( % to @ t 11(%@(9
( @ to 99 t 11(%@(8
.ynamometer harness enables dynamometer safe instalment, so that it can draw a precise
diagram while the pumping unit is in operation, which means during the suc#er rod string moving
downward and upward.
-! SAFETY .A#.ES
or wells, located in an inhabited place, which are pumped by subsurface rod pumps, safety valve is
used to enable the safe operating process.
Two dimensions of these valves are manufactured and used'
( 8 9H8F ( 8&&& ,"I
2 1!2" 3### PSI
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Subsurface pumping system
! CASING/F#"0 #INE S$"RT C"NNECTI"N
In wells where gas in casing with its pressure lowers the fluid level in the well, the casing(flow
line connection is necessary.
.epending on the gas $uantity in the well and the production procedure, casing(flow line short
connection is used'
(with non(return valve, which continually enables the flow of gas from casing into the flow
line and not vice versa.
(with regulating valve, which at the regulated pressure of %(A% bars lets the gas flow from
casing into flow line.
2! SUBSURFACE PUMPING 0E## $EA% EQUIPMENT
or the exploration process, well head e$uipment (christmas tree) remains as the standard
solution, after one or two gate valves have been removed. "ince, during the subsurface mechanical
pumping process the christmas tree at the well head loses its function, it can be replaced by more
simple and less expensive e$uipment, which enables the necessary safety and at the same time the
producing system is significantly cheaper
.
The whole e$uipment has the dimensions and pressure class according to' .N>% AN"I >&& /K
(AN"I 4.9>.%).
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Subsurface pumping system
&! SUBSURFACE PUMP SEATS
"ubsurface pump seats are manufactured according to the subsurface pump type as well as to the
type and dimensions of the tubing. The following types are manufactured'
A ( with a spring in a subsurface pump seat
4 ( with a spring on a subsurface pump
0 ( seat for sealing elements
. ( seat for upset and non(upset tubing
"eats are manufactured according to the re$uirements of A,I "pec 99Ax.
(! SUBSURFACE PUMPS
A! %ESIGNING
According to A,I "pec. 99AI a documentation for several
subsurface pump types and dimensions has been #ept.
The main manufactured and applied pump types and dimensions are'
(8% ( 98% ( /;A- ( 9> ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 98% ( /"A- ( 9A ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 9%& ( /;A- ( 9> ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 9%& ( /"A- ( 9A ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 9@% ( /;AN ( 9> ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 9@% ( /"A- ( 9> ( ? ( ?
(8% ( 88% ( T;- ( 9A ( ? ( ?
.epending on the exploration conditions, the user can change
the elements of the subsurface pump according to his choice.
.ifferent well conditions such as depth, specific gravity,
viscosity and temperature re$uire different elements and tolerances
from those that are recomended here. These dimensions are for normal,
general conditions and mediate depths.
B! MANUFACTURING PR"CESS
To enable a long subsurface pump life, corrosion and wear out proof material should be used
and high $uality machining and each part control be applied.
C! 0"R'".ER
"ubsurface pump wor#over is being completely done according to A,I /, 99A/ with defined
subsurface pump operation registering system.
NATA!A" has built its long experience in subsurface wor#over of the following types and
manufacturers'
(N!29(A8B N!29(A<B N!29(?A of /ussian production
(N"294(A8B N"294(A<B N"294(?? of /ussian production
(N294(A8B N294(A<B N294(??B N294(%@ of /ussian production
(0A-,INA and T4(%@ /omanian insert pumps
(NATI6NA1 according to A,I standard, of American production
("4" according to A,I standard, of Austrian production.
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Subsurface pumping system
)! GAS ANC$"RS
In the case of free gas occurring in the well, a gas anchor should be installed at
the tubing string bottom.
There are two types of gas anchors manufactured in NATA!A"'
a) ,ipe type (made of one part)
b) ,late type (made of segments)
NATA!A" manufactures gas anchors for the casing of % 9H8F(9A=.@ mm) and
for the tubing of 8 @H<F(@A.& mm).
6! TUBING ANC$"R
NATA!A" is the manufacturer and user of Jaw type tubing anchor for the
string of % 9H8F(9A=.@ mm) and for the tubing of 8 @H<F (@A.& mm).
Tubing anchor strengthens and anchors the tubing and protects it from damages,
which can be caused by reciprocating movement of the suc#er rod string while the
pumping unit is operating.
&' ()*+,-+./0 +12./0 3)*4 2,/5./0, +12./0 6/-7*) ./-),68,8 +7, 81281)36-,
(14( ()*51-+.9.+':
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Subsurface pumping system
*! REM"TE PUMPING UNIT C"NTR"# AN% "PERATI"N
The aim of the remote pumping unit control and operation is to'
(systematically solve the problem of oil production
(systematically control the well operation as well as the subsurface pump e$uipment
(optimise the well operation during subsurface pumping
(increase the inter(wor#over period and decrease the number of wor#over interventions.
This system is planned to follow the subsurface and pumping unit operation on an oil field of
%#m ,and the siDes which are controlled can be analysed on ,0(computers in a control room and
placed in data base as well.
The system enables the operation control and protection from overload and brea#down, as well
as remotely controlled turning on and off.
-easured properties'
(,olished rod force
(,olished rod stro#e
()lectric motor power
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Subsurface pumping system
(,ressure in flow line
(low through the system
(5ell fluid level
-easuring is continually done with cycling recording and memorising.
"oftware enables the correct acceptance, digital conversion of the measured data and
memorising. The system enables the operation under 5IN.65" NT operating system.
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