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Project number
IEC 60079-10-1/Ed2
Title of TC/SC:
Classification of hazardous areas and installation
requirements
Date of circulation
2013-05-03
Closing date for comments
2013-08-09
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TC 18
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31J/194/CD and 31J/200A/CC
Proposed horizontal standard
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Title:
IEC 60079-10-1/Ed2: Explosive atmospheres – Part 10-1: Classification of areas – Explosive gas
atmospheres
(Titre) :


Introductory note



Copyright © 2013 International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC. All rights reserved. It is
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CONTENTS 1
FOREWORD 2
INTRODUCTION 3
1 Scope 4
2 Normative references………………………………………………………………………………...9 5
3 Terms and definitions……………………………………………………………………………….10 6
4 General…………………………………………………………………………………………….....13 7
4.1 Safety principles………………………………………………………………………………...13 8
4.2 Area classification objectives…………………………………………………………..........14 9
4.3 Competence of personnel……………………………………………………………….........15 10
5 Area classification methods…………………………………………………………………........15 11
5.1 General.................................................................................................................15 12
5.2 Classification by calculation of sources of release………………………………...........15 13
5.3 Use of indusry codes and national standards…………………………………...............15 14
5.4 Simplified methods………………………………………………………………………........16 15
5.5 Combination of methods........................................................................................16 16
6 Release of flammable material......................................................................................16 17
6.1 General.................................................................................................................16 18
6.2 Sources of release 19
6.3 Forms of release 20
6.3.1 Gaseous release 21
6.3.2 Liquified under pressure 22
6.3.3 Liquified by refrigeration 23
6.3.4 Aerosols 24
6.3.5 Vapours 25
6.3.6 Liquid releases 26
7 Ventilation (air movement) and dispersion 27
7.1 General 28
7.2 Main types of ventilation 29
7.2.1 Natural ventilation 30
7.2.2 Artificial ventilation 31
7.2.2.1 General 32
7.2.2.2 Ventilation considerations 33
7.2.2.3 Examples of artificial ventilation 34
7.2.3 Degree of dilution 35
8 Type of zone 36
8.1 Influence of grade of the source of release 37
8.2 Influence of dilution 38
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8.3 Influence of availability of ventilation 39
9 Extent of zone 40
9.1 Influence of release rate 41
9.2 Influence of form of release 42
9.3 Influence of lower explosive limit (LEL) 43
9.4 Influence of ventilation 44
9.5 Influence of climatic conditions 45
9.6 Influence of topography 46
10 Documentation 47
10.1 General 48
10.2 Drawings, data sheets and tables 49
Annex A (informative) Suggested documentation formats 50
A.1 Hazardous aea suggested shapes 51
Annex B (informative) Examples of sources of release 52
B.1 Process plant 53
B.1.1 Sources giving a continuos grade of release 54
B.1.2 Sources giving a primary grade of release 55
B.1.3 Sources giving a secondary grade of release 56
B.2 Hole size and source radius 57
B.3 Release rate 58
B.3.1 Estimation of release rate 59
B.3.1.1 Release rate of liquids 60
B.3.1.2 Release rate of gas or vapour 61
B.3.1.2.1 Release rate of gas with non choked gas velocity 62
B.3.1.2.2 Release rate of gas with choked gas velocity 63
B.3.2 Release rate of evaporative pools 64
B.4 Openings 65
B.4.1 Openings as possible sources of release 66
B.4.2 Openings classification 67
Annex C (informative) Estimation of types of zones 68
C.1 Introduction 69
C.2 Assesssment of ventilation or dilution and its influence on hazardous area 70
C.2.1 General 71
C.2.1.1 Wind induced ventilation in indoor situations 72
C.2.1.2 Buoyancy induced ventilation 73
C.2.1.3 Combination of the natural ventilation induced by wind and buoyancy 74
C.2.2 Effectiveness of ventilation 75
C.2.2.1 Background concentration and releases in a ventilated room 76
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C.2.3 Criteria for dilution 77
C.2.3.1 Assesment of effecive venilation/air velociy 78
C.2.3.2 Assessment of ventilation/dilution 79
C.2.4 Criteria for availability of ventilation 80
C.2.4.1 Criteria for natural ventilation 81
C.2.4.2 Criteria for artificial ventilation 82
C.3 Practical guide for estimating types of the zones by using Table C.1 83
C.3.1 Area of applicability 84
C.3.2 Assessment of grades of release 85
C.3.3 Assessment of release rate 86
C.3.4 Assesssment of ventilation or dilution 87
C.3.5 Assessment of availability of the ventilation 88
C.4 Examples of ventilation arrangements and assessments 89
C.4.1 Introduction 90
C.4.2 Jet release in a large building 91
C.4.3 Jet release in a small naturally ventilated building 92
C.4.4 Jet release in a small artificially ventilated building 93
C.4.5 Releases with low velocity 94
C.4.6 Fugitive emissions 95
C.4.7 Local ventilation-extracrion 96
Annex D (informative) Estimation of extents of zones 97
Annex E (informative) Examples of hazardous area classification 98
E.1 General 99
E.2 Relevant industry codes 100
E.3 Example case study for area classification 101
Annex F (informative) Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F1 102
Annex F (informative) Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F2 103
Annex F (informative) Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F3 104
Annex F (informative) Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F4 105
Annex G (informative) Flammable mist 106
Annex H (informative) Hydrogen 107
Annex I (informative) Hybrid mixtures 108
Annex J (informative) Useful equations in support to hazardous area classification 109
J.1 Introduction 110
J.2 Estimate of lower explosive limit of flammable mixtures 111
J.3 Estimate of vapour pressure 112
J.3.1 Vapour pressure of pure flammable liquid 113
J.3.2 Vapour pressure of flammable liquids mixtures 114
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J.4 Dilution in air of flammable material release 115
J.5 The time required to dilute a flammable material release 116
Bibliography 117
Figure 6.1 - Forms of release 118
Figure A.1 - Preferred symbols for hazardous area zones 119
Figure A.2 - Gas/vapour at low pressure (or at high pressure in case of unknown release 120
direction) 121
Figure A.3 - Gas/vapour at high pressure 122
Figure A.4 - Gas/vapour (liqified under pressure or by refrigeration) 123
Figure A.5 - Flammable liquids (non boiling evaporative pools) 124
Figure B.1 - Volumetric evaporative rate of liquids 125
Figure C.1 - Volumetric flow rate of fresh air 126
Figure C.2 - Example of opposing ventilation driving forces 127
Figure C.3 - Chart for determining the degree of dilution 128
Figure C.4 - Practical guide for using Table C.1 129
Figure C.5 - Self diffusion of an unimpeded high velocity jet release 130
Figure C.6 - 131
Figure C.7 - Supply only ventilation 132
Figure C.8 - Supply and extraction ventilation 133
Figure C.9 - Local extraction ventilation 134
Figure D.1 - Hazardous distances 135
Figure E.1 - Compressor facility 136
Figure E.2 - Example of area classification for a compressor facility handling natural gas 137
Figure E.2a - Example of area classification for a compressor facility handling natural gas 138
(lay out drawing) 139
Table A.1 - Hazardous area classification data sheet - Part I: Flammable material list and 140
characteristics 141
Table A.2 - Hazardous area classification data sheet - Part II: List of sources of release 142
Table B.1 - Hole cross sections 143
Table B.2 - Effect of openings on grade of release 144
Table C.1 - Influence of ventilation on type of zone 145
Table E.1 - Examples of codes and standards 146
147
148
149
150
151
152
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INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION 153
____________ 154
155
EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES 156
157
Part 10-1: Classification of areas – Explosive gas atmospheres 158
159
160
FOREWORD 161
1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising 162
all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote 163
international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To 164
this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, 165
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Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested 167
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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by 170
agreement between the two organizations. 171
2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international 172
consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all 173
interested IEC National Committees. 174
3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National 175
Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC 176
Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any 177
misinterpretation by any end user. 178
4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications 179
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between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in 181
the latter. 182
5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity 183
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services carried out by independent certification bodies. 185
5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any 186
equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication. 187
6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication. 188
7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and 189
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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is 194
indispensable for the correct application of this publication. 195
9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of 196
patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. 197
International Standard IEC 60079-10-1 has been prepared by subcommittee 31J: 198
Classification of hazardous areas and installation requirements, of IEC technical committee 199
31: Equipment for explosive atmospheres. 200
This second edition of IEC 60079-10-1 cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 201
2009, and constitutes a technical revision. 202
The significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: 203
a) Restructuring of main body of the text and dividing it into sections to identify possible 204
methodologies for classifying hazardous areas and to provide further explanation on 205
specific assessment factors; 206
b) Introducing new terms and the definitions in section 3; 207
c) Introducing clauses for alternative methods of area classification in section 5; 208
d) Restructuring of the Annexes including: 209
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• Updating calculations for release rate in Annex B; 210
• Updating examples for hazardous area classification; 211
• Complete re-write of Annex C for ventilation assessment, with a new approach based 212
upon the degree of dilution instead of the degree of ventilation; 213
• Introduction of Annex D for zone extents: 214
• Update for Annex E to reference to national and industry codes for specific examples 215
of hazardous area classification; 216
• Introduction of Annex H for hydrogen; 217
• Introduction of Annex I for hybrid mixtures. 218
The text of this standard is based on the following documents: 219
FDIS Report on voting
31J/xxx/FDIS 31J/xxx/RVD
220
Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on 221
voting indicated in the above table. 222
This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. 223
A list of all parts of the IEC 60079 series, under the general title Explosive atmospheres, can 224
be found on the IEC website. 225
The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until 226
the stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data 227
related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be 228
• reconfirmed, 229
• withdrawn, 230
• replaced by a revised edition, or 231
• amended. 232
233
The National Committees are requested to note that for this publication the stability date 234
is .... 235
THIS TEXT IS INCLUDED FOR THE INFORMATION OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEES AND WILL BE 236
DELETED AT THE PUBLICATION STAGE. 237
238
The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until 239
the maintenance result date
1
indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in 240
the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be 241
reconfirmed; 242
withdrawn; 243
replaced by a revised edition, or 244
• amended. 245
246
———————
1
The National Committees are requested to note that for this publication the maintenance result date is 2014.

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INTRODUCTION 247
In areas where dangerous quantities and concentrations of flammable gas or vapour may 248
arise, protective measures are to be applied in order to reduce the risk of explosions. This 249
part of IEC 60079 sets out the essential criteria against which the ignition hazards can be 250
assessed, and gives guidance on the design and control parameters which can be used in 251
order to reduce such hazards. 252
253
254
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EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES 255
Part 10-1: Classification of areas – Explosive gas atmospheres 256
1 Scope 257
This part of IEC 60079 is concerned with the classification of areas where flammable gas or 258
vapour hazards may arise and may then be used as a basis to support the proper selection 259
and installation of equipment for use in hazardous areas. 260
It is intended to be applied where there may be an ignition hazard due to the presence of 261
flammable gas or vapour, mixed with air (see note 4), but it does not apply to: 262
a) mines susceptible to firedamp; 263
b) the processing and manufacture of explosives; 264
c) areas where a hazard may arise due to the presence of combustible dusts or fibres (refer 265
IEC 60079-10-2; 266
d) catastrophic failures or rare malfunctions which are beyond the concept of abnormality 267
dealt with in this standard (see 3.34 and 3.35); 268
e) rooms used for medical purposes; 269
f) commercial and industrial applications where only low pressure fuel gas is used for 270
appliances e.g. for cooking, water heating and similar uses, where the installation is 271
compliant with relevant gas codes 272
g) domestic premises. 273
This standard does not take into account the consequences of ignition of an explosive 274
atmosphere. 275
For the purpose of this standard, an area is a three-dimensional region or space. 276
Flammable mists may form or be present at the same time as flammable vapours. Liquids not 277
considered to be hazardous in terms of this standard (due to the flash point), when released 278
under pressure may also generate flammable mists. In such cases, the strict application of 279
area classification for gases and vapours may not be appropriate as the basis for selection of 280
equipment. Information on flammable mists is provided in Annex F. 281
The use of IEC 60079-14 for selection of equipment and installations is not required for mist 282
hazards. 283
For the purpose of this standard, an area is a three-dimensional region or space. 284
Atmospheric conditions include variations above and below reference levels of 101,3 kPa (1 285
013 mbar) and 20 °C (293 K), provided that the variations have a negligible effect on the 286
explosion properties of the flammable materials. 287
In any process plant, irrespective of size, there may be numerous sources of ignition apart 288
from those associated with equipment. Appropriate precautions will be necessary to ensure 289
safety in this context. This standard may be used with judgement for other ignition sources. 290
2 Normative references 291
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. 292
For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition 293
of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. 294
IEC 60050-426, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV) – Part 426: Equipment for 295
explosive atmospheres 296
IEC 60079-0, Explosive atmospheres – Part 0: Equipment – General requirements 297
IEC 60079-20-1, Explosive atmospheres – Part 20-1: Material characteristics for gas and 298
vapour classification – Test methods and data 299
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3 Terms and definitions 300
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60079-0 and the 301
following apply. 302
NOTE Additional definitions applicable to explosive atmospheres can be found in the IEC 60050-426. 303
3.1 Explosive atmosphere 304
Mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions, of flammable substances in the form of gas, 305
vapour, dust, fibres, or flyings, which, after ignition, permits self-sustaining flame propagation. 306
|IEC 60079-0| 307
3.2 Explosive gas atmosphere 308
Mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions, of flammable substances in the form of gas or 309
vapour, which, after ignition, permits self-sustaining flame propagation. 310
|IEC 60079-0| 311
NOTE 1 Although a mixture which has a concentration above the upper explosive limit (UEL) is not an explosive 312
gas atmosphere, it can readily become so and, generally for area classification purposes, it is advisable to 313
consider it as an explosive gas atmosphere. 314
NOTE 2 There are some gases which are explosive with the concentration of 100% (e.g. acetylene, C2H2; vinyl 315
acetylene, C4H4; propyl nitrate vapour, CH3 (CH2)2 NO3; iso-propyl nitrate vapour, (CH3)2 CH ONO2; ethylene oxide 316
vapour, (CH2)2 O; hydrazine, N2H4 vapour). 317
3.3 Hazardous area (on account of explosive gas atmospheres) 318
An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is or may be expected to be present, in 319
quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of 320
equipment. 321
NOTE The interior of many items of process equipment is commonly considered as a hazardous area even though 322
a flammable atmosphere may not normally be present to account for the possibility of air entering the equipment. 323
Where specific controls such as inerting are used the interior of process equipment may not need to be classified 324
as hazardous areas. 325
3.4 Non-hazardous area (on account of explosive gas atmospheres) 326
An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not expected to be present in quantities 327
such as to require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of equipment. 328
3.5 Zones 329
Hazardous areas are classified into zones based upon the frequency of the occurrence and 330
duration of an explosive gas atmosphere, as follows: 331
3.6 Zone 0 332
An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present continuously or for long periods or 333
frequently. 334
NOTE Both “long” and “frequently are the terms which are intended to describe a very high likelihood of potentially 335
explosive atmosphere to be present in the area. In that respect, those terms do not necessarily need to be 336
quantified. 337
3.7 Zone 1 338
An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur periodically or occasionally in 339
normal operation. 340
3.8 Zone 2 341
An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if 342
it does occur, it will exist for a short period only. 343
|IEC 60050-426| 344
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NOTE Indications of the frequency of the occurrence and duration may be taken from codes relating to specific 345
industries or applications. 346
3.9 Extent of zone 347
Distance in any direction from the source of release where a gas/air mixture has been diluted 348
by air to a concentration below the lower explosive limit. 349
NOTE The extent of a zone should also consider appropriate safety factors and the level of uncertainty in the 350
assessment 351
3.10 Source of release 352
A point or location from which a gas, vapour, mist or liquid may be released into the 353
atmosphere so that an explosive gas atmosphere could be formed. 354
|IEC 60050-426| 355
3.11 Grades of release 356
There are three basic grades of release, as listed below in order of decreasing frequency of 357
occurrence and/or duration of release of flammable material: 358
a) continuous grade; 359
b) primary grade; 360
c) secondary grade. 361
A source of release may give rise to any one of these grades of release, or to a combination 362
of more than one. 363
3.12 Continuous grade of release 364
Release which is continuous or is expected to occur frequently or for long periods. 365
NOTE Both “long” and “frequently are the terms which are intended to describe a very high likelihood of a potential 366
release . In that respect, those terms do not necessarily need to be quantified. 367
3.13 Primary grade of release 368
Release which can be expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normal operation. 369
3.14 Secondary grade of release 370
Release which is not expected to occur in normal operation and, if it does occur, is likely to do 371
so only infrequently and for short periods. 372
3.15 Release rate 373
Quantity of flammable gas, vapour or mist emitted per unit time from the source of release. 374
3.16 Normal operation 375
Situation when the equipment is operating within its designed parameters 376
NOTE 1 Minor releases of flammable material may be part of normal operation. For example, releases from seals 377
which rely on wetting by the fluid being pumped are considered to be minor releases. 378
NOTE 2 Failures (such as the breakdown of pump seals, flange gaskets or spillages caused by accidents) which 379
involve repair or shut-down are not considered to be part of normal operation. 380
NOTE 3 Normal operation includes start-up and shut-down conditions and routine maintenance. 381
3.17 Ventilation 382
Movement of air and its replacement with fresh air due to the effects of wind, temperature 383
gradients, or artificial means (for example, fans or extractors). 384
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3.18 Dilution 385
The mixing of flammable vapour or gas with air which, over time, will reduce the flammable 386
concentration to a safe level. 387
3.19 Volume under consideration 388
The volume served by the actual ventilation in the vicinity of the release being considered. 389
NOTE For an enclosed space this may be an entire room or part of a larger space where the considered 390
ventilation will dilute the gas or vapour from a given source of release. Outdoors, this is the volume around a 391
source of release where an explosive mixture could form. In congested outdoor places this volume may be dictated 392
by the partial enclosure provided by the surrounding process plant. 393
3.20 Dilution volume 394
The Volume in the vicinity of a source of release where the concentration of flammable gas or 395
vapour is not diluted to a safe concentration 396
NOTE 1 The dilution volume is mathematically equal to the hazardous volume but the boundary of the hazardous 397
area should additionally take into account possible movement of the release due to the direction and velocity of the 398
release and of the surrounding volume of air. 399
NOTE 2 In certain instances, the volumes under 3.19 and 3.20 may be the same. 400
3.203.21 Background concentration 401
The mean concentration of flammable material within the volume under consideration outside 402
of the release plume or jet. 403
3.213.22 Lower explosive limit (LEL) 404
The concentration of flammable gas, vapour or mist in air below which an explosive gas 405
atmosphere will not be formed. 406
|IEC 60050-426| 407
3.223.23 Upper explosive limit (UEL) 408
The concentration of flammable gas, vapour or mist in air above which an explosive gas 409
atmosphere will not be formed. 410
|IEC 60050-426| 411
3.233.24 Relative density of a gas or a vapour 412
Density of a gas or a vapour relative to the density of air at the same pressure and 413
temperature (air is equal to 1,0). 414
3.243.25 Flammable material (flammable substance) 415
Material which is itself flammable, or is capable of producing a flammable gas, vapour or mist. 416
3.253.26 Flammable liquid 417
Liquid capable of producing a flammable vapour under any foreseeable operating conditions. 418
NOTE 1 An example of a foreseeable operating condition is one in which the flammable liquid is handled at 419
temperatures close to or above its flash point. 420
NOTE 2 This definition is used for the classification of hazardous areas and may be different from the definition of 421
flammable liquids used for other purposes e.g. codes for classification of flammable liquids for transport. 422
3.263.27 Flammable gas or vapour 423
Gas or vapour which, when mixed with air in certain proportions, will form an explosive gas 424
atmosphere. 425
3.273.28 Flammable mist 426
Droplets of liquid, dispersed in air so as to form an explosive atmosphere. 427
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3.283.29 Flashpoint 428
Lowest liquid temperature at which, under certain standardized conditions, a liquid gives off 429
vapours in a quantity such as to be capable of forming an ignitable vapour/air mixture. 430
3.293.30 Boiling point 431
Temperature of a liquid boiling at an ambient pressure of 101,3 kPa (1 013 mbar). 432
NOTE The initial boiling point that should be used for liquid mixtures is to indicate the lowest value of the boiling 433
point for the range of liquids present, as determined in a standard laboratory distillation without fractionation. 434
3.303.31 Vapour pressure 435
Pressure exerted when a solid or liquid is in equilibrium with its own vapour 436
NOTE This is also, the partial pressure of the substance in the atmosphere above the liquid. It is a function of the 437
substance and of the temperature. 438
3.313.32 Ignition temperature of an explosive gas atmosphere 439
Lowest temperature of a heated surface which, under specified conditions (according to IEC 440
80079-20-1), will ignite a flammable substance in the form of a gas or vapour mixture with air. 441
|IEC 60079-0] 442
3.323.33 Liquefied flammable gas 443
Flammable material which is stored or handled as a liquid and which at ambient temperature 444
and atmospheric pressure is a flammable gas. 445
3.34 Catastrophic failure 446
An occurrence which exceeds the design parameters of the process plant and control system 447
resulting in a major release of flammable material. 448
NOTE Catastrophic failures in the context of this standard include, for example, major accidents such as the 449
rupture of a process vessel, or large scale failures of equipment or piping such as total breakdown of a flange or 450
seal. 451
3.333.35 Rare malfunction 452
Type of malfunction which may happen only in rare instances. 453
NOTE 1 Rare malfunctions in the context of this standard include failure of separate and independent process 454
controls, that may be either automated or manual, that could trigger a chain of events that would lead to major 455
release of flammable material. ` 456
NOTE 2 Rare malfunctions could also include unanticipated conditions that are not covered by the plant design 457
such as unexpected corrosion that results in a release. Where releases due to corrosion or similar conditions may 458
be expected as part of the plant operations then this is not considered as a rare malfunction. 459
4 General 460
3.344.1 Safety principles 461
Installations in which flammable materials are handled or stored should be designed, 462
operated and maintained so that any releases of flammable material, and consequently the 463
extent of hazardous areas, are kept to a minimum, whether in normal operation or otherwise, 464
with regard to frequency, duration and quantity of a release. 465
It is important to examine those parts of process equipment and systems from which a release 466
of flammable material may arise and to consider modifying the design to minimize the 467
likelihood and frequency of such releases and the quantity and rate of release of material. 468
These fundamental considerations should be examined at an early stage of the design 469
development of any process plant and should also receive prime attention in carrying out the 470
area classification study. 471
In the case of activities other than those of normal operation, e.g. commissioning or non- 472
routine maintenance, the area classification may not be valid. It is expected that this would be 473
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dealt with by a safe system of work.The area classification should take into account any 474
routine maintenance. 475
In a situation in which there may be an explosive gas atmosphere, the following steps should 476
be taken: 477
a) eliminate the likelihood of an explosive gas atmosphere occurring around the source of 478
ignition, or 479
b) eliminate the source of ignition. 480
Where this is not possible, protective measures, process equipment, systems and procedures 481
should be selected and prepared so the likelihood of the coincidence of a) and b) is so small 482
as to be acceptable. Such measures may be used singularly, if they are recognized as being 483
highly reliable or in combination to achieve the required level of safety. 484
3.354.2 Area classification objectives 485
Area classification is a method of analysing and classifying the environment where explosive 486
gas atmospheres may occur so as to facilitate the proper selection and installation of 487
equipment to be used safely in that environment. The classification also takes into account 488
the ignition characteristics of the gas or vapour such as ignition energy (gas group) and 489
ignition temperature (temperature class). 490
In most practical situations where flammable materials are used, it is difficult to ensure that an 491
explosive gas atmosphere will never occur. It may also be difficult to ensure that equipment 492
will never give rise to a source of ignition. Therefore, in situations where an explosive gas 493
atmosphere has a high likelihood of occurring, reliance is placed on using equipment which 494
has a low likelihood of creating a source of ignition. Conversely, where the likelihood of an 495
explosive gas atmosphere occurring is reduced, equipment constructed with less rigorous 496
requirements may be used. 497
Subsequent to the completion of the area classification, a risk assessment may be carried out 498
to assess whether the consequences of ignition of an explosive atmosphere requires the use 499
of equipment of a higher equipment protection level (EPL) or may justify the use of equipment 500
with a lower equipment protection level than normally required. The risk assessment may also 501
result in modification of the extent of any area where equipment with a relevant EPL should 502
be applied. 503
The EPL requirements may be recorded, as appropriate, on the area classification documents 504
and drawings to allow proper selection of equipment. 505
It is rarely possible by a simple examination of a plant or plant design to decide which parts of 506
the plant can be equated to the three zonal definitions (zones 0, 1 and 2). A more detailed 507
approach is therefore necessary and this involves the analysis of the basic possibility of an 508
explosive gas atmosphere occurring. 509
In determining where a release of flammable gas or vapour may occur the likelihood and 510
duration of the release should be assessed in accordance with the definitions of continuous, 511
primary and secondary grades of release. Once the grade of release, the release rate, 512
concentration, velocity, ventilation and other factors are assessed there is then a firm basis 513
on which to assess the likely presence of an explosive gas atmosphere in the surrounding 514
areas and determine the type and/or extent of the hazardous zones,. 515
This approach therefore requires detailed consideration to be given to each item of process 516
equipment which contains a flammable material, and which could therefore be a source of 517
release. 518
In particular, zone 0 or zone 1 areas should be minimized in number and extent by design or 519
suitable operating procedures. In other words, plants and installations should be mainly 520
zone 2 or non-hazardous. Where release of flammable material is unavoidable, process 521
equipment items should be limited to those which give secondary grade releases or, failing 522
this (that is where primary or continuous grade releases are unavoidable), the releases should 523
be of very limited quantity and rate. In carrying out area classification, these principles should 524
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receive prime consideration. Where necessary, the design, operation and location of process 525
equipment should ensure that, even when it is operating abnormally, the amount of flammable 526
material released into the atmosphere is minimized, so as to reduce the extent of the 527
hazardous area. 528
Once a plant has been classified and all necessary records made, it is important that no 529
modification to equipment or operating procedures is made without discussion with those 530
responsible for the area classification. Unauthorized action may invalidate the area 531
classification. It is necessary to ensure that all equipment affecting the area classification 532
which has been subjected to maintenance is carefully checked during and after re-assembly 533
to ensure that the integrity of the original design, as it affects safety, has been maintained 534
before it is returned to service. 535
3.364.3 Competence of Personnel 536
The area classification should be carried out by those who understand the relevance and 537
significance of the properties of the flammable materials and those who are familiar with the 538
process and the equipment along with safety, electrical, mechanical and other qualified 539
engineering personnel. 540
45 Area classification methods 541
4.15.1 General 542
The following sub clauses give guidance on options for classifying areas in which there may 543
be an explosive gas atmosphere. An example of a schematic approach to the classification of 544
hazardous areas is given in Annex F. 545
The area classification should be carried out when the initial process and instrumentation line 546
diagrams and initial layout plans are available and should be confirmed before plant start-up. 547
Reviews should be carried out during the life of the plant. 548
Consideration should always be given to the type, number and location of various potential 549
points of release so that relevant zone and boundary conditions are assigned in the overall 550
assessment. Control systems designed and installed to a Functional Safety standard may 551
reduce the potential for a source of release and/or the volume of a release. Such controls may 552
therefore be considered where relevant to the hazardous area classification. 553
4.25.2 Classification by calculation of sources of releases 554
Classification may be approached by calculation, considering appropriate statistical and 555
numerical assessments for the factors concerned, for each source of release. 556
Formulae relevant to determining the release rates under specified conditions can be found in 557
Annex B. These formulae are generally accepted as providing a good basis for calculating 558
release rates for the conditions provided. 559
Guidance on the assessment of ventilation and dispersion is provided in Annex C.This 560
guidance is not intended to be universally applicable and may not be reliable in some 561
situations. 562
Other forms of assessment, e.g. computational fluid dynamics (CFD), may be used and may 563
provide a good basis for assessment in some situations. Computer modelling is also an 564
appropriate tool when assessing the interaction of multiple factors. 565
In all cases the assessment method and tools used should be validated as suitable or used 566
with appropriate caution. Those carrying out the assessment should also understand the 567
limitations or requirements of any tools and adjust the input conditions or results accordingly 568
to ensure appropriate conclusions. 569
4.35.3 Use of industry codes and national standards 570
Industry codes and national standards may be used where they provide guidance or examples 571
appropriate to the application and comply with the general principles of this standard. 572
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Annex E identifies some relevant industry codes and national standards that may provide 573
further detail as well as examples. 574
4.45.4 Simplified methods 575
Where it is not practicable to assess distances from individual sources of release, a simplified 576
method may be used. 577
Simplified methods shall identify sources for each of the zone types, zone 0, 1 and 2 that are 578
suitably conservative to allow for potential sources of release without individual detail. The 579
judgement is best made by reference to a set of criteria based on industry experience and 580
appropriate to the particular plant. 581
Larger zone areas are characteristic of simplified methods, stemming from the approach and 582
the necessity to apply more conservative zonal classification where doubt exists as to the 583
hazards involved. This approach shall err on the side of safety. 584
To arrive at less conservative or a more accurate figures of the boundaries of the classified 585
area, reference to illustrative examples or more detailed assessment of point sources of 586
release, as applicable could be used. 587
4.55.5 Combination of methods 588
The use of different methods may be appropriate for classification of a plant at various stages 589
of its development or for various parts of the plant. 590
For example, at the initial conceptual stage of a plant the simplified method may be 591
appropriate to set out the equipment separations, plant layout and plant boundaries. This 592
might be the only method that could be applied due to lack of detailed data on sources of 593
release. As the plant design proceeds and detailed data is available on the potential sources 594
of release, the classification should be upgraded using method more detailed assessment. 595
In some cases the simplified method can be applied to a group of similar equipment in 596
sections of plant (e.g. sections of piping with flanges, such as pipe racks) while applying a 597
more detailed assessment to the more significant potential sources of release (e.g. relief 598
valves, vents, gas compressors, pumps and the like). 599
In many cases the classification examples provided in relevant national or industry codes can, 600
where appropriate, be used to classify some components of larger plants. 601
56 Release of flammable material 602
5.16.1 General 603
An introduction to the nature of releases that should be considered when approaching 604
classification of potentially explosive areas is provided in the following clauses. 605
5.26.2 Sources of release 606
The basic elements for establishing the hazardous zone types are the identification of the 607
source of release and the determination of the grade or grades of the release. 608
Since an explosive gas atmosphere can exist only if a flammable gas or vapour is present 609
with air, it is necessary to decide if any flammable materials can exist in the area concerned. 610
Generally speaking, such gases and vapours (and flammable liquids or solids which may give 611
rise to them) are contained within process equipment that may or may not be totally enclosed. 612
It is necessary to identify where a flammable atmosphere can exist inside process equipment, 613
or where a release of flammable materials can create a flammable atmosphere outside 614
process equipment. 615
Each item of process equipment (for example, tank, pump, pipeline, vessel, etc.) should be 616
considered as a potential source of release of flammable material. If the item cannot 617
foreseeably contain flammable material, it will clearly not give rise to a hazardous area 618
around it. The same will apply if the item contains a flammable material but cannot release it 619
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into the atmosphere (for example, a fully welded pipeline is not considered to be a source of 620
release). 621
If it is established that the item may release flammable material into the atmosphere, it is 622
necessary, first of all, to determine the grade or grades of release in accordance with the 623
definitions, by establishing the likely frequency and duration of the release. It should be 624
recognized that the opening-up of parts of enclosed process systems (for example, during 625
filter changing or batch filling) should also be considered as sources of release when 626
developing the area classification. By means of this procedure, each release will be graded 627
either ‘continuous’, ‘primary’ or ’secondary’. 628
NOTE Releases may form part of process, e.g. taking samples, or may occur as part of a regular maintenance 629
procedure. These forms of release are generally classified as continuous or primary grades of release. Other 630
accidental releases are generally classified as a secondary grade of release. 631
Having established the grade or grades of the release, it is necessary to determine the 632
release rate and other factors that may influence the type and extent of the zone. 633
If the total quantity of flammable material available for release is ‘small’, for example, labo- 634
ratory use, whilst a potential explosion condition may exist, it may not be appropriate to use 635
this area classification procedure. In such cases, account shall be taken of the particular 636
factors involved. 637
The area classification of process equipment in which flammable material is burned, for 638
example, fired heaters, furnaces, boilers, gas turbines etc., should take into account purge 639
cycle, start-up and shut-down conditions. 640
In some cases the construction of closed systems where specific construction codes are met 641
can be accepted as effectively preventing and/or limiting releases of flammable materials to a 642
negligible leakage hazard. The hazardous area classification of such equipment or 643
installations requires a complete assessment to verify the full compliance of the installation to 644
the relevant constructional and operating standards. Verification of compliance should 645
consider design, installation, operation, maintenance and monitoring activities. 646
Mists which form through leaks of pressurized liquid can be flammable even though the liquid 647
temperature is below the flash point. It is important therefore to ensure that clouds of mist do 648
not occur (see Annex G). 649
5.36.3 Forms of release 650
The characteristics of any release depends upon the physical state of the flammable material, 651
its temperature and pressure. The physical states include: 652
• a gas, which may be at an elevated temperature or pressure; 653
• a gas liquefied by the application of pressure, e.g. LPG; 654
• a gas which can only be liquefied by refrigeration, e.g. methane; 655
• a liquid with an associated release of flammable vapour. 656
Releases from such plant items as pipe connections, pumps and compressor seals and valve 657
packings often start with a low flow rate. However, if the release is not stopped erosion of the 658
source of the release can greatly increase the rate of release and hence the extent of the 659
hazard. 660
A release of flammable material above its flashpoint will give rise to a flammable vapour or 661
gas cloud which may initially be less or more dense than the surrounding air or may be 662
neutrally buoyant. The forms of release and the pattern of behaviour at various conditions are 663
displayed as a flow chart in Figure 6.1. 664
5.3.16.3.1 Gaseous release 665
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A gas release will produce a gas jet or plume at the release source depending on the 666
pressure at the point of release, e.g. pump seal, pipe connection or evaporative pool area. 667
The relative density of the gas, the degree of turbulent mixing and the prevailing air 668
movement will all influence the subsequent movement of any gas cloud. 669
In calm conditions low velocity releases of a gas that is significantly less dense than air will 670
tend to move upwards, e.g. hydrogen and methane. Conversely, a gas that is significantly 671
denser than air will tend to accumulate at ground level or in any pits or depressions, e.g. 672
butane and propane. Over time, atmospheric turbulence will cause the released gas to mix 673
with air and become neutrally buoyant. A gas or vapour with density that is not significantly 674
different to air is regarded as neutrally buoyant. 675
Higher pressure releases will initially produce jets of released gas which will mix turbulently 676
with the surrounding air and entrain air in the jet. 677
At high pressures, a thermodynamic effect due to expansion can come into play. As the gas 678
escapes, it expands and cools down and may initially behave as heavier than air. However, 679
the cooling due to the Joule-Thomson effect is eventually offset by the heat supplied by the 680
air. The resulting gas cloud will eventually become neutrally buoyant. The transition from 681
heavier than air to neutrally bouyant behaviour may occur at any time depending on the 682
nature of the release and may occur after the cloud has been diluted to below the LEL. 683
NOTE Hydrogen demonstrates a reverse Joule-Thomson effect. 684
6.3.2 Liquefied under pressure 685
Some gases can be liquefied by the application of pressure alone, e.g. propane and butane, 686
and are usually stored and transported in this form. 687
When a pressurized liquefied gas leaks from its containment the most likely scenario is that 688
the material will escape as a gas from any vapour space or gas lines. The rapid evaporation 689
produces significant cooling at the point of release and icing due to the condensation of water 690
vapour from the atmosphere may occur. 691
A liquid leak will partially evaporate at the point of release. This is known as flash 692
evaporation. The evaporating liquid pulls energy from itself and the surrounding atmosphere 693
and in turn cools down the leaking fluid. The cooling of the fluid prevents total evaporation 694
and therefore an aerosol is produced. If the leak is large enough then cold pools of fluid can 695
accumulate on the ground which will evaporate over time to add to the gas release. 696
The cold aerosol cloud will act like a dense gas. A pressurized liquid release can often be 697
seen as the cooling effect of evaporation will condense ambient humidity to produce a vapour 698
cloud. 699
6.3.3 Liquefied by refrigeration 700
Other gases, the so-called permanent gases, can only be liquefied by refrigeration e.g. 701
methane and hydrogen. Small leaks of refrigerated gas will evaporate quickly without forming 702
a pool of liquid by drawing heat from the environment. If the leak is large a cold pool of liquid 703
may form. 704
As the cold liquid pulls energy from the ground and surrounding atmosphere the liquid will boil 705
generating a cold dense gas cloud. As with liquids, dikes or bund walls can be used to direct 706
or hold the flow of leakages. 707
NOTE Care needs to be taken when classifying areas containing cryogenic flammable gases such as liquefied 708
natural gas. Vapours emitted will generally be heavier than air at low temperatures but will become neutrally 709
buoyant on approaching ambient temperature. 710
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6.3.4 Aerosols 711
An aerosol is not a gas, but consists of small droplets of liquid suspended in air. The droplets 712
are formed from vapours or gases under certain thermodynamic conditions or by flash 713
evaporation of pressurized liquids. The scattering of light within an aerosol cloud frequently 714
makes the cloud visible to the naked eye. The dispersion of an aerosol may vary between the 715
behaviour of a dense gas or a neutrally buoyant gas. Aerosol droplets can coalesce and rain 716
out of the plume or cloud. More usually they absorb heat from the surrounding environment, 717
evaporate and add to the a gas/vapour cloud (for more details see Annex G). 718
6.3.5 Vapours 719
Liquids at equilibrium with their environment will generate a layer of vapour above their 720
surface. The pressure this vapour exerts in a closed system is known as the vapour pressure, 721
which increases in a non-linear function with temperature. 722
The process of evaporation uses energy which normally comes from the liquid and the 723
surrounding environment. The evaporation process may decrease the temperature of the 724
liquid and may tend to balance the heat input to the liquid to limit temperature rise. Changes 725
in temperature due to inceased evaporation from normal environmental conditions is 726
considered too marginal to affect the hazardous area classifcation. The concentration of the 727
generated vapour is not easy to predict as it is a function of the evaporation rate, temperature 728
of the liquid and the surrounding air flow (see B.3.3). 729
6.3.6 Liquid releases 730
The release of flammable liquids will normally form a pool on the ground, with a vapour cloud 731
at the liquid’s surface unless the surface is absorbent. The size of the vapour cloud will 732
depend on the properties of the material and its vapour pressure at the ambient temperature 733
(see B.3.3). 734
NOTE The vapour pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. A substance with a high vapour 735
pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. As a general rule, vapour pressure of liquid at 736
ambient temperatures increases with decreasing boiling point. As the temperature rises so does the vapour 737
pressure. 738
Release may also occur on water. Many flammable liquids are less dense than water and and 739
are often not miscible. Such liquids will spread on the surface of water, whether it is on the 740
ground, in plant drains, pipe trenches or on open waters (sea, lake or river), forming a thin 741
film and increasing the evaporation rate due to the increased surface area. In these 742
circumstances the calculations in Annex B may not be suitable. 743
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744
Source
of
release
Heavy
Consider
larger
zone


Flash
evapo
ration

Initially
heavy
Hot gas
Initially
buoyant
Heavy
Neutral
Buoyant
Heavy
Heavy
Gases
and
vapours
Flamm
able
liquids
Boiling pool
See eq. B.6

Non boiling
evaporative
pools
See eq. B.6
Aerosol
Cold
gas
Neutrally
buoyant
gas
Aerosol
Cold
gas
Self diluted
See Figure
C.5
Cold
gas

Dense
gas
(heavier
than air)

Conden
sation
Heat
evapor
ation

Heat
evapor
ation

Fuming
Sonic
gas jet


Buoyant
gas
(lighter
than air)
At low
pressure
See eq. B.3



Gases
liquefied
by
refrigera
tion
At high
pressure

Gases
liquefied
under
pressure
Flammable
or combust-
ible liquids

Possibility of mists


Vapour
Obstructed
release
See eq. B.4

Any
(depending on gas
conditions and
nature of release)
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Figure 6.1 – Forms of release 745
67 Ventilation (or air movement) and dispersion 746
6.17.1 General 747
Gas or vapour released into the atmosphere will dilute through turbulent mixing with air, and 748
to a lesser extent by diffusion driven by concentration gradients, until the gas disperses 749
completely and the concentration is essentially zero. In buildings air movement due to natural 750
or artificial ventilation will promote dispersion. Increased air movement may also increase the 751
rate of release of vapour due to increased evaporation on an open liquid surface. 752
Suitable ventilation rates can reduce persistence of an explosive gas atmosphere thus 753
influencing the type of zone. Increased ventilation will normally reduce the extent of the zone. 754
Obstacles which impede the flow of air and hence reduce the local ventilation rate may 755
increase the extent of the zone. On the other hand, some obstacles, for example, dykes, walls 756
or ceilings, may limit the extent of the zone. 757
A well ventilated shelter e.g. a shelter with a large roof-ventilator and with the sides open 758
sufficient to allow free passage of air through all parts of the building is considered in many 759
cases to be well ventilated and should be treated as an open air area (i.e. “medium” degree 760
and “good” availability). 761
7.2 Main types of ventilation 762
The two main types of ventilation are: 763
a) natural ventilation; 764
b) artificial (or forced) ventilation, either general to the area or local to the source of release. 765
6.1.17.2.1 Natural Ventilation 766
Natural ventilation in buildings arises from pressure differences induced by the wind and/or by 767
temperature gradients (buoyancy induced ventilation). Natural ventilation may be effective in 768
certain indoor situations (for example, where a building has openings in its walls and/or roof) 769
to dilute releases safely. 770
Examples of natural ventilation: 771
• an open building which, having regard to the relative density of the gases and/or vapours 772
involved, has openings in the walls and/or roof so dimensioned and located that the 773
ventilation inside the building, for the purpose of area classification, can be regarded as 774
equivalent to that in an open-air situation; 775
• a building which is not an open building but which has natural ventilation (generally less 776
than that of an open building) provided by permanent openings made for ventilation 777
purposes. 778
Consideration of natural ventilation in buildings should recognise that gas or vapour buoyancy 779
may be a significant factor and should be arranged to promote dispersion and dilution. 780
Ventilation rates arising from natural ventilation are inherently very variable. Where dilution of 781
releases is by natural ventilation, the worst case scenario shall preferably be considered to 782
determine the degree of ventilation. Such a scenario will then lead to a higher level of 783
availability even though the degree of the ventilation is reduced. Generally, with any natural 784
ventilation, a lower degree of ventilation leads to a higher level of availability and vice versa 785
which will compensate for overly optimistic assumptions made in estimating the degree of 786
ventilation. 787
There are some situations which require special care. This is particularly the case where the 788
ventilation openings are limited to mainly one side of the enclosure. Under certain 789
unfavourable ambient conditions, such as windy days when the wind is blowing onto the 790
ventilated face of the enclosure, the external air movement may prevent the operation of the 791
thermal buoyancy mechanism. Under these circumstances the level of ventilation and the 792
availability will both be poor resulting in a more rigorous classification. 793
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6.1.27.2.2 Artificial Ventilation 794
6.1.2.17.2.2.1 General 795
Air movement required for ventilation may also be provided by artificial means, for example, 796
fans or extractors. Although artificial ventilation is mainly applied inside a room or enclosed 797
space, it can also be applied to situations in the open air to compensate for restricted or 798
impeded air movement due to obstacles. 799
The artificial ventilation of an area may be either general or local and, for both of these, 800
differing degrees of air movement and replacement can be appropriate. 801
With the use of artificial ventilation it is sometimes possible to achieve: 802
• reduction in the type and/or extent of zones; 803
• shortening of the time of persistence of an explosive gas atmosphere; 804
• prevention of the generation of an explosive gas atmosphere. 805
6.1.2.27.2.2.2 Ventilation considerations 806
Artificial ventilation can provide an effective and reliable ventilation system in an indoor 807
situation. The following considerations should be included for artificial ventilation systems: 808
a) classification of the inside of the extraction system and immediately outside the extraction 809
system discharge point and other openings of the extraction system; 810
b) for ventilation of a hazardous area the ventilation air should normally be drawn from a 811
non-hazardous area taking into account the suction effects on the surrounding area; 812
c) before determining the dimensions and design of the ventilation system, the location, 813
grade of release, release velocity and release rate should be defined. 814
In addition, the following factors will influence the quality of an artificial ventilation system: 815
a) flammable gases and vapours usually have densities other than that of air, thus they may 816
accumulate near to either the floor or ceiling of an enclosed area, where air movement is 817
likely to be reduced (see 6.3.1); 818
b) proximity of the artificial ventilation to the source of release; artificial ventilation close to 819
the source of release will normally be more effective and may be needed to adequately 820
control gas or vapour movement; 821
c) changes in gas density with temperature; 822
d) impediments and obstacles may cause reduced, or even no, air movement, i.e. no 823
ventilation in certain parts of the area; 824
e) turbulence and circulating air patterns. 825
For more details see C.6. 826
Consideration should be given to the possibility or need for recirculation of air in the 827
ventilation arrangement. This may impact the background concentration and effectiveness of 828
the ventilation system in reducing the hazardous area. In such cases the classification of the 829
hazardous area may need to be modified accordingly. Recirculation of air may also be 830
necessary in some applications e.g. for some processes or to provide for the needs of 831
personnel or equipment in high or low ambient temperatures where supplemental cooling or 832
heating of the air is required. Where recirculation of air is needed then additional controls for 833
safety may also be required. 834
6.1.2.37.2.2.3 Examples of artificial ventilation 835
General artificial ventilation may include a building which is provided with fans in the walls 836
and/or in the roof to improve the general ventilation in the building. 837
The role of fans may be twofold. They can increase the air flow though a building, helping to 838
remove gas from the building. Fans within a building can also increase turbulence and aid the 839
dilution of a cloud which is much smaller than the room which contains it, even if no gas is 840
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transported out of the room. Fans may also enhance dilution by increasing turbulence in some 841
outdoor situations. 842
Local artificial ventilation may be: 843
a) An air/vapour extraction system applied to an item of process equipment which 844
continuously or periodically releases flammable vapour. 845
b) A forced or extraction ventilation system applied to a local area where it is expected that 846
an explosive gas atmosphere may otherwise occur. 847
For more details see C.4. 848
6.1.37.2.3 Degree of Dilution 849
The effectiveness of the ventilation in controlling dispersion and persistence of the explosive 850
atmosphere will depend upon the ‘degree of dilution’, the availability of ventilation and the 851
design of the system. For example, ventilation may not be sufficient to prevent the formation 852
of an explosive atmosphere but may be sufficient to avoid its persistence. 853
The degree of dilution is defined to correspond with the ability of a given release to dilute 854
down to a safe level within defined ventilation or atmospheric conditions. Therefore a larger 855
release corresponds with a lower degree of dilution for a given set of ventilation / atmospheric 856
conditions, and a lower ventilation rate corresponds with a lower degree of dilution for a given 857
size of release. 858
If other forms of ventilation, e.g. cooling fans are taken into account, then care should be 859
exercised as to ventilation availability. 860
‘Degrees of dilution’ depend not only on the ventilation, but also on the nature and the type of 861
the expected release of gas. Some releases will be amenable to mitigation by enhanced 862
ventilation with others much less so. 863
The following three degrees of dilution are recognized: 864
a) High dilution 865
The concentration near the source of release reduces quickly. 866
b) Medium dilution 867
The concentration is controlled resulting in a stable zone boundary, whilst the release is in 868
progress and the explosive gas atmosphere does not persist unduly after the release has 869
stopped. The type and extent of zone are limited to the design parameters. 870
c) Low dilution 871
There is significant concentration whilst release is in progress and/or significant persistence 872
of a flammable atmosphere after the release has stopped. 873
8 Type of zone 874
The likelihood of the presence of an explosive gas atmosphere depends mainly on the grade 875
of release and the ventilation. This is identified as a zone. Zones are recognized as: zone 0, 876
zone 1, zone 2 and the non-hazardous area. 877
Where zones created by adjacent sources of release overlap and are of different zonal 878
classification, the higher classification criteria will apply in the area of overlap. Where 879
overlapping zones are of the same classification, this common classification will normally 880
apply. 881
8.1 Influence of grade of the source of release 882
The grade of release generally determines type of the zone. A continuous grade of release 883
generally leads to a zone 0 classification, a primary grade to zone 1 and a secondary grade to 884
zone 2. This general rule may be modified by considering the degree of dilution and 885
availability of ventilation which may require a more severe classification or allow a less severe 886
classification (see Annex C). 887
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8.2 Influence of dilution 888
The effectiveness of ventilation or degree of dilution must be considered when estimating the 889
type of zone classification. A medium degree of dilution will generally result in the 890
predetermined types of the zones based upon the types of the sources of release. A high 891
degree of dilution will allow a less severe classification, e.g. zone 1 instead of zone 0, zone 2 892
instead of zone 1 and even zone NE in some cases. On the other hand a low degree of 893
dilution (DL) will require a more severe classification (see Annex C). 894
8.3 Influence of availability of ventilation 895
The availability of ventilation has an influence on the presence or formation of an explosive 896
gas atmosphere and thus also on the type of zone. As availability, or reliability, of the 897
ventilation decreases, the likelihood of not dispersing flammable atmospheres increases. The 898
zone classification will tend to be more severe, i.e. a zone 2 may change to a zone 1 or even 899
zone 0. Guidance on availability is given in Annex C. 900
NOTE Combining the concepts of the efficiency of ventilation and the availability of ventilation results in a 901
qualitative method for the evaluation of the zone type. This is further explained in Annex C. 902
9 Extent of zone 903
The extent of the zone depends on the estimated or calculated distance over which an 904
explosive atmosphere exists before it disperses to a concentration in air below its lower 905
explosive limit. An appropriate safety factor should be selected based on any uncertainties 906
and the assessment methodology. When assessing the area of spread of gas or vapour 907
before dilution to below its lower explosive limit, expert advice should be sought. 908
Consideration should always be given to the possibility that a gas which is heavier than air 909
may flow into areas below ground level (for example, pits or depressions) and that a gas 910
which is lighter than air may be retained at high level (for example, in a roof space). 911
Where the source of release is situated outside an area or in an adjoining area, the pene- 912
tration of a significant quantity of flammable gas or vapour into the area can be prevented by 913
suitable means such as: 914
a) physical barriers; 915
b) maintaining a sufficient overpressure in the area relative to the adjacent hazardous 916
areas, so preventing the ingress of the explosive gas atmosphere; 917
c) purging the area with sufficient flow of fresh air, so ensuring that the air escapes from all 918
openings where the flammable gas or vapour may enter. 919
The extent of the zone is mainly affected by a number of physical and chemical parameters, 920
some of which are intrinsic properties of the flammable material; others are specific to the 921
process. For simplicity, the effect of each parameter listed in the following clauses assumes 922
that the other parameters remain unchanged. 923
9.1 Influence of release rate 924
The release rate of flammable material is the most important factor that affects the extent of a 925
zone. The higher the release rate the larger the extent of a zone. 926
9.2 Influence of form of release 927
Every form of release will eventually end as a gaseous or vapour release and the gas or 928
vapour may appear as buoyant, neutrally buoyant or heavy. This characteristic will affect the 929
extent of the zone generated by a particular form of release (see Figure 6.1). 930
The horizontal extent of the zone at ground level will generally increase with increasing 931
relative density and the vertical extent above the source will generally increase with 932
decreasing relative density. 933
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25

9.3 Influence of lower explosive limit 934
For a given release volume, the lower the LEL the greater will be the extent of the zone. 935
NOTE Experience has shown that a release of ammonia, with an LEL of 15 % by volume, will often dissipate 936
rapidly in the open air, so an explosive gas atmosphere will, in most cases be of negligible extent. 937
9.4 Influence of ventilation 938
Dispersion or diffusion of a gas or vapour into the atmosphere is a key factor in reducing the 939
concentration of the gas or vapour to below the lower explosive limit. 940
Ventilation and air movement has two basic functions: 941
a) To increase the rate of dilution and promote dispersion to limit the extent of a zone; 942
b) To avoid the persistence of an explosive atmosphere that may influence the type of a 943
zone. 944
With increased ventilation or air movement the extent of a zone will normally be reduced. 945
Obstacles which impede the ventilation or air movement may increase the extent of a zone. 946
On the other hand, some obstacles, for example, dykes, walls and ceilings, which limit the 947
extent of vapour or gas movement, may also limit the extent of the zone. 948
NOTE Increased air movement may also increase the release rate of vapour due to increased evaporation from 949
open liquid surfaces. However the benefits of increased air movement normally outweigh the increase in release 950
rate. 951
9.5 Influence of climatic conditions 952
For low velocity releases the rate of gas or vapour dispersion in the atmosphere increases 953
with wind speed, but in stable atmospheric conditions layering of the gas or vapour may occur 954
and the distance for safe dispersal can be greatly increased. 955
NOTE 1 In plant areas with large vessels and structures even at low wind speeds eddies may be formed behind 956
vessels and structures thus forming pockets of gas or vapour, despite sufficient turbulence that could otherwise 957
promote dispersion. 958
NOTE 2 In normal practice, the tendency of layering is not taken into account in area classification because the 959
conditions which give rise to this effect are rare and occur for short periods only. However, if prolonged periods of 960
low wind speed are expected for the specific circumstance then the extent of the zone should take account of the 961
additional distance required to achieve dispersion. 962
9.6 Influence of topography 963
Under some conditions dense gases and vapour can behave like a spilled liquid spreading 964
down terrain slopes, through plant drains or pipe trenches and can be ignited at a point 965
remote from the original leakage, therefore putting at risk a large area of plant (see 6.3.4). 966
The layout of the plant, where possible, should be designed to aid the rapid dispersal of 967
explosive gas atmospheres. 968
An area with restricted ventilation (for example, in pits or trenches) that would otherwise be 969
zone 2 may require zone 1 classification; on the other hand, wide shallow depressions used 970
for pumping complexes or pipe reservations may not require such rigorous treatment. 971
710 Documentation 972
7.110.1 General 973
It is recommended that the steps taken to carry out area classification and the information and 974
assumptions used are fully documented. The area classification document should be a living 975
document and should include the method used for area classification and should be revised 976
during any plant changes. All relevant information used should be referred to. Examples of 977
such information, or of a method used, would be: 978
a) recommendations from relevant codes and standards; 979
b) gas and vapour dispersion characteristics and calculations; 980
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26

c) a study of ventilation characteristics in relation to flammable material release parameters 981
so that the effectiveness of the ventilation can be evaluated. 982
d) the properties of all process materials used on the plant (see IEC 60079-20-1), which may 983
include: 984
• molar mass 985
• flash point 986
• boiling point 987
• minimum ignition temperature 988
• vapour pressure 989
• vapour density 990
• flammability limits 991
• gas group and temperature class 992
A suggested format for the materials listing is given in Table A.1 and a format for recording 993
the results of the area classification study and any subsequent alterations is given in Table 994
A.2. 995
The source of information (code, national standard, calculation) needs to be recorded so that, 996
at subsequent reviews, the philosophy which was adopted is clear to the area classification 997
team. 998
7.210.2 Drawings, data sheets and tables 999
Area classification documents may be in hard copy or electronic form and should include 1000
plans and elevations or three dimensional models, as appropriate, which show both the type 1001
and extent of zones, gas group, ignition temperature and/or temperature class. 1002
Where the topography of an area influences the extent of the zones, this should be 1003
documented. 1004
The documents should also include other relevant information such as: 1005
a) The location and identification of sources of release. For large and complex plants or 1006
process areas, it may be helpful to itemize or number the sources of release so as to 1007
facilitate cross-referencing between the area classification data sheets and the drawings; 1008
b) The position of openings in buildings (for example, doors, windows and inlets and outlets 1009
of air for ventilation). 1010
The area classification symbols which are shown in Figure A.1 are the preferred ones. A 1011
symbol key shall always be provided on each drawing. Different symbols may be necessary 1012
where multiple equipment groups and/or temperature classes are required within the same 1013
type of zone (for example, zone 2 IIC T1 and zone 2 IIA T3). 1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
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27

Annex A 1021
(informative) 1022
Suggested presentation of hazardous areas 1023
1024
1025
1026
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
IEC 1253/02
1027
1028
1029
Figure A.1 – Preferred symbols for hazardous area zones 1030
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28

Table A.1 − Hazardous area classification data sheet – Part I: Flammable material list and characteristics 1031
Plant:
Reference
drawing:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Flammable material
Volatility
a

LEL Ex characteristics
No. Name Composi-
tion
Molar
mass
(kg/
kmol)
Rela
tive
density
gas/air
Polytropic
index of
adiabatic
expansion
γ
Flash
point
(°C)
Ignitio
n temp.
(°C)
Melting
point
(°C)
Boiling
point
(°C)
Vapour
pressure
at 20
0
C
(kPa)
vol
(%)
(kg/m
3
) Group Temp.
class
Any other
relevant
information
and remarks













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29



a
Normally, the value of vapour pressure is given, but in the absence of that, boiling point can be used.
1032
Table A.2 − Hazardous area classification data sheet − Part II: List of sources of release 1033
Plant:
Area:
Reference
drawing:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Source of release Flammable material Ventilation Hazardous area
No. Description Location Grade of
release
a

Refer-
ence
b

Operating
temperature
and pressure
State
c
Type
d
Degree
e
Avail-
ability
e

Zone
type
0-1-2
Zone extent
(m)
Refere
nce
f

Any other relevant
information and/or
remarks
(°C) (kPa) Verti-
cal
Hori-
zontal











































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30





a
C – Continuous; S – Secondary; P – Primary
b
Quote the number of list in Part I
c
G – Gas; L – Liquid; LG – Liquefied gas; S – Solid
d
N – Natural; AG – Arificial General; AL – Artificial Local.
e
See IEC 60079-10-1 Annex C
f
Indicate code reference if used, or calculation reference

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31
A.1 Hazardous area suggested shapes 1034
The following figures show some suggested hazardous area shapesbased on the form of 1035
release described in 6.3, which may be useful in the preparation of hazardous area 1036
classification drawings. The effects of impingement of the release on obstacles and the 1037
influence of topography are not considered. The hazardous area generated by a release may 1038
result in the combination of different shapes. 1039
Key 1040
SR Source of release 1041
r Main extension of hazardous area to be defined taking into consideration the estimated 1042
hazardous distance (see Annex D) 1043
r

, r” Secondary extension(s) of hazardous area to be defined taking into account release 1044
behaviour 1045
h Distance between source of release and ground level or surface below the release 1046

or
1047
Figure A.2 – Gas/vapour at low pressure 1048
(or at high pressure in case of unknown release direction) 1049
1050

or
1051
Figure A.3 – Gas/vapour at high pressure 1052
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32

1053
Figure A.4.1 – Gas or vapour (liquefied under pressure or by refrigeration) 1054
NOTE Liquid pool should not be formed in case of dripping. 1055
1056
Figure A.4.2 – Gas or vapour (liquefied under pressure or by refrigeration) with spillage 1057
NOTE Liquid pool could be formed in case of spillage. In this case, an additional source of release should be 1058
considered 1059
1060
Figure A.5 – Flammable liquid (non boiling evaporative pool) 1061
NOTE Source of spillage of flammable material is not indicated. 1062
1063
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33

Annex B 1064
(informative) 1065
Estimation of sources of release 1066
1067
B.1 Examples of grade of release 1068
The following examples are not intended to be rigidly applied and may need to be varied to 1069
suit particular process equipment and the situation. It needs to be recognised that some 1070
equipment may exhibit more than one grade of release. 1071
B.1.1 Sources giving a continuous grade of release 1072
a) The surface of a flammable liquid in a fixed roof tank, with a permanent vent to the atmo- 1073
sphere. 1074
b) The surface of a flammable liquid which is open to the atmosphere continuously or for 1075
long periods. 1076
B.1.2 Sources giving a primary grade of release 1077
a) Seals of pumps, compressors or valves if release of flammable material during normal 1078
operation is expected. 1079
b) Water drainage points on vessels which contain flammable liquids, which may release 1080
flammable material into the atmosphere while draining off water during normal operation. 1081
c) Sample points which are expected to release flammable material into the atmosphere 1082
during normal operation. 1083
d) Relief valves, vents and other openings which are expected to release flammable 1084
material into the atmosphere during normal operation 1085
B.1.3 Sources giving a secondary grade of release 1086
a) Seals of pumps, compressors and valves where release of flammable material during 1087
normal operation of the equipment is not expected. 1088
b) Flanges, connections and pipe fittings, where release of flammable material is not 1089
expected during normal operation. 1090
c) Sample points which are not expected to release flammable material during normal 1091
operation. 1092
d) Relief valves, vents and other openings which are not expected to release flammable 1093
material into the atmosphere during normal operation. 1094
B.2 Hole size and source radius 1095
The most significant factor to be estimated in a system is the hole size. It determines the 1096
release rate of the flammable material and thus eventually the type of zone and the extent of 1097
the zone. 1098
Release rate is proportional to the square of the hole radius. A modest underestimate of the 1099
hole size will therefore lead to a gross underestimate of the calculated value for release rate, 1100
which should be avoided. Overestimate of the hole size will lead to a conservative calculation 1101
which is acceptable for safety reasons, however, the degree of conservatism should also be 1102
limited because it eventually results with overlarge zone extents. A carefully balanced 1103
approach is therefore needed when estimating the hole size. 1104
NOTE While the term ‘hole radius’ is used, most unintended holes are not round. In such cases the coefficient of 1105
discharge is used as a compensating term to reduce the release rate given a hole of equivalent area. 1106
For continuous and primary grades of release the holes sizes are defined by the size and the 1107
shape of the release orifice, e.g. various vents and breather valves where the gas is released 1108
under relatively predictable conditions. 1109
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34

A guide to hole sizes that may be considered is included in Table B.1. 1110
Table B.1 – Secondary Grade of Releases – Suggested Hole Cross Sections 1111
Type of
item
Item
Leak Considerations
Typical values for
the conditions at
which the release
opening will not
expand
Typical values for
the conditions at
which the release
opening may
expand, e.g
erosion
Typical values for
the conditions at
which the release
opening may expand
up to a severe
failure, e.g blow out
S (mm
2
) S (mm
2
) S (mm
2
)
Sealing
elements
on fixed
parts

Flanges with
compressed
fibre gasket
or similar
≥ 0,025 up to 0,25 > 0,25 up to 2,5
(sector between two bolts)
×
(gasket thickness)
usually ≥ 1 mm
Flanges with
spiral wound
gasket or
similar
0,025 0,25
(sector between two bolts)
×
(gasket thickness)
usually ≥ 0,5 mm
Ring type
joint
connections
0,1 0,25 0,5
Small bore
connections
up to 50 mm
(1)
≥ 0,025 up to 0,1 > 0,1 up to 0,25 1,0
Sealing
elements
on moving
parts at low
speed
Valve stem
packings
0,25 2,5
To be defined according to
Equipment Manufacturer’s
Data but not less
than 2,5 mm
2
(5)

Pressure
relief valves
(2)
0,1 × (orifice
section)
NA NA
Sealing
elements
on moving
parts at
high speed
Pumps and
compressors
(3)
NA ≥ 1 up to 5
To be defined according to
Equipment Manufacturer’s
Data and/or Process Unit
Configuration but not less
than 5 mm
2

(4 and 5)

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35

Lower values in a range should be selected for ideal conditions where the likelihood of failure 1112
is low, e.g. operating at well below design ratings. Higher values in a range should be 1113
selected where operating conditions are close to design ratings and where adverse conditions 1114
such as vibrations, temperature dilatations, poor environmental conditions or contamination of 1115
gases may increase the likelihood of failure. Generally unattended installations require 1116
special considerations to avoid severe failure scenarios. The basis for selection of a hole size 1117
should be properly documented. 1118
B.3 Release rate 1119
The release rate depends itself on other parameters, namely: 1120
a) Nature and type of release 1121
This is related to the physical characteristics of the source of release, for example, an open 1122
surface, leaking flange, etc. 1123
b) Release velocity 1124
For a given source of release, the release rate increases with the release pressure. For a 1125
subsonic release, the release velocity is related to the process pressure. The size of a cloud 1126
of flammable gas or vapour is determined by the rate of flammable vapour release and the 1127
rate of dilution. Gas and vapour flowing from a leak at high velocity will entrain air and may be 1128
self-diluting. The extent of the explosive gas atmosphere may be almost independent of air 1129
flow. If the material is released at low velocity or if its velocity is reduced by impingement on a 1130
solid object, it will be carried by the air flow and its dilution and extent will depend on air flow. 1131
c) Concentration 1132
The mass of flammable material released increases with the concentration of flammable 1133
vapour or gas in the released mixture. 1134
d) Volatility of a flammable liquid 1135
This is related principally to the vapour pressure, and the enthalpy (‘heat’) of vaporization. If 1136
the vapour pressure is not known, the boiling point and flashpoint can be used as a guide. 1137
An explosive gas atmosphere cannot exist if the flashpoint is above the relevant maximum 1138
temperature of the flammable liquid. The lower the flashpoint, the greater may be the extent 1139
of the zone. However, if a flammable material is released in a way that forms a mist (for 1140
example, by spraying) an explosive atmosphere may be formed below the flashpoint of the 1141
material. 1142
NOTE 1 Flashpoints of flammable liquids are not precise physical quantities, particularly where mixtures are 1143
involved. A safety margin of approximately 5
0
C is commonly suggested for pure liquids and 15
0
C for mixtures of 1144
liquids. 1145
NOTE 1 Hole cross sections suggested for ring joints, threaded connections, compression joints (e.g.,metallic
compression fittings) and rapid joints on small bore piping.
NOTE 2 This item does not refer to full opening of the valve but to various leaks due to malfunction of the valve
components.
NOTE 3 Reciprocating Compressors – The frame of compressor and the cylinders are usually not those that leak
but the piston rod packings and various pipe connections in the process system.
NOTE 4 Equipment Manufacturer's Data – Cooperation with equipment's manufacturer is required to to assess
the effects in case of an expected failure (e.g. the availability of a drawing with details relevant to sealing
devices).
NOTE 5 Process Unit Configuration – In certain circumstances (e.g. a preliminary study), an operational analysis
to define the maximum accepted release rate of flammable material may compensate lack of equipment
manufacturer’s data.
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36

NOTE 2 There are two measures of flash point; closed cup and open cup. For closed equipment, and to be more 1146
conservative, the closed cup flash point should be used. For a flammable liquid in the open, the open cup flash 1147
point may be used. 1148
NOTE 3 Some liquids (for example, some halogenated hydrocarbons) do not possess a flashpoint although they 1149
are capable of producing an explosive gas atmosphere. In these cases, the equilibrium liquid temperature which 1150
corresponds to the saturated concentration at the lower explosive limit should be compared with the relevant 1151
maximum liquid temperature. 1152
e) Liquid temperature 1153
Increasing liquid temperature increases the vapour pressure, thus increasing the release rate 1154
due to evaporation. 1155
NOTE The temperature of the liquid may be increased after it has been released, for example, by a hot surface or 1156
by a high ambient temperature. However, vapourisation will also tend to cool the liquid until an equilibrium 1157
condition is reached based on the energy input and the enthalpy of the liquid. 1158
B.3.1 Estimation of Release Rate 1159
The following equations give the approximate release rates of flammable liquids and gases. 1160
Further refinement of release rates estimation would be achieved with consideration of 1161
properties of any openings and the viscosity of the liquid or gas. Viscosity may significantly 1162
reduce the release rate if the opening, through which the flammable material is released, is 1163
long compared to the width of the opening. These factors are normally considered in the 1164
coefficient of discharge (C
d
≤ 1). 1165
NOTE If Cd is applied to the calculations the value applied should be used by reference to a suitable guide for the 1166
application. 1167
The equations and assessment methodologies presented in this clause are not intended to be 1168
applicable to all installations and only apply to the limited conditions noted in each section. 1169
The equations also provide indicative results due to the restrictions of trying to describe 1170
complex matters with simplified mathematical models. Other calculation methods may also be 1171
adopted. 1172
B.3.1.1. Release rate of liquids 1173
The release rate of liquid can be estimated by means of the following approximation: 1174
p 2 S C W
d
∆ ρ = (B.1) 1175
where 1176
W is the release rate of liquid (mass per time, kg/s); 1177
d
C is the coefficient of discharge; 1178
S is the cross section of the opening, through which liquid is released (m
2
); 1179
ρ is the liquid density (kg/m
3
); 1180
p ∆

is the pressure difference across the opening that leaks in (Pa). 1181
The rate of vapourisation of a liquid release is then required to be determined. Liquid releases 1182
may take many forms. The nature of the release and how any vapour or gas is generated is 1183
also dependant on many variables. Examples of releases include: 1184
a) Two phase release (i.e. combined liquid and gas release) 1185
Liquids such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), may include both gas and liquid phases either 1186
immediately before the release orifice or after the release orifice through a variety of 1187
thermodynamic or mechanical interactions. This may further lead to droplet and/or pool 1188
formation which results in further boiling of the liquid contributing to the vapour cloud. 1189
b) Single phase release of a non-flashing liquid 1190
For liquids with higher boiling points (above atmospheric ranges) the release will generally 1191
include a significant liquid component. The release may break up into small droplets as a 1192
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37

result of a jet action. Vapour released will then depend on any jet formation and vapourisation 1193
from the point of release, from any droplets or any subsequent pool formation. 1194
Due to the large number of conditions and variables a methodology for assessing vapour 1195
conditions is not provided in this standard. Users should carefully select a suitable model 1196
observing any limitations of the model and/or applying an appropriately conservative 1197
approach with any results. 1198
B.3.1.2. Release rate of gas or vapour 1199
The equations below are considered to provide reasonable estimations of release rate for 1200
gases. If the gas density approaches that of liquefied gas then two phase releases may need 1201
to be considered as noted in B.3.1.1. 1202
The release rate of gas from a container can be estimated based on adiabatic expansion of 1203
an ideal gas, if the pressurized gas density is much lower than liquefied gas density. 1204
The velocity of released gas is choked (sonic) if the pressure inside the gas container is 1205
higher than p
c
(critical pressure). 1206
Critical pressure is determined by the following equation:
.
1207
) 1 /(
a c
2
1
p p

|
.
|

\
| +
=
γ γ
γ

(B.2) 1208
where 1209
c
p is the critical pressure (Pa); 1210
a
p is the atmospheric pressure (Pa); 1211
γ is the polytropic index of adiabatic expansion or ratio of specific heats. 1212
For ideal gas the equation
R c M
c M
p
p

= γ may be used 1213
where 1214
p
c
is the specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K); 1215
M is the molar mass of gas (kg/kmol); 1216
R is the universal gas constant (8314 J/kmol K). 1217
NOTE For majority of gases the approximation
a c
p 89 , 1 p ≈ will generally serve the purpose for a quick estimate. 1218
It has to be noted that the critical pressures are low compared with the majority of pressures found in common 1219
industrial processes. Pressures below the critical pressure are normally found in terminal gas supply lines to fired 1220
equipment like e.g., heaters, furnaces, reactors, incinerators, vaporizers, steam generators, boilers and other 1221
process equipment. Such pressures can also be found in atmospheric storage tanks with moderate overpressures 1222
(usually up to 0,5 barg). 1223
B.3.1.2.1. Release rate of gas with non choked gas velocity (subsonic releases) 1224
Non chocked gas velocity (see B.3.1.2) is a discharge velocity below the speed of sound for 1225
the particular gas. 1226
The release rate of gas from a container, if the gas velocity is non-choked, can be estimated 1227
by means of the following approximation: 1228
γ γ γ
γ
γ
/ 1
a
/ ) 1 (
a
d g
p
p
p
p
1
1
2
T R Z
M
p S C W
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|


=

(B.3) 1229
where 1230
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
38

g
W is the release rate of gas (kg/s); 1231
d
C is the coefficient of discharge; 1232
S is the cross section of the opening, through which gas is released (area, m
2
); 1233
p is the pressure inside the container (Pa); 1234
a
p is the pressure outside the gas container (Pa); 1235
γ is the polytropic index of adiabatic expansion or ratio of specific heats; 1236
M is the molar mass of gas (kg/kmol); 1237
T is the absolute temperature inside the container (K); 1238
R is the universal gas constant (8314 J/kmol K); 1239
Z is the compressibility factor. 1240
The volumetric flow rate of gas in (m
3
/s) is equal to: 1241
g
g
g
W
Q
ρ
= 1242
where 1243
a
a
g
T R
M p
= ρ is the density of the gas (kg/m
3
); 1244
a
T is the absolute ambient temperature (K). 1245
B.3.1.2.1.B.3.1.2.2. Release rate of gas with choked gas velocity (sonic releases) 1246
Choked gas velocity (see B.3.2) is equal to the speed of sound for the gas. This is the 1247
maximum theoretical discharge velocity. 1248
The release rate of gas from a container, if the gas velocity is choked, can be estimated by 1249
means of the following approximations: 1250
) 1 ( / ) 1 (
d g
1
2
T R Z
M
p S C W
− +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
γ γ
γ
γ (B.4) 1251
where 1252
g
W is the mass release rate of gas (kg/s); 1253
d
C is the coefficient of discharge; 1254
S is the cross section of the hole/orifice, through which gas is released (m
2
); 1255
p is the pressure inside the container (Pa); 1256
γ is the polytropic index of adiabatic expansion or ratio of specific heats; 1257
M is the molar mass of gas (kg/kmol); 1258
T is the absolute temperature inside the container (K); 1259
R is the universal gas constant (8314 J/kmol K); 1260
Z is the compressibility factor. 1261
The compressibility factor for ideal gases is 1,0. For the real gases, compressibility factor 1262
takes values below or above 1,0 depending on type of the gas concerned, the pressure and 1263
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39

the temperature. For low to medium pressures, Z =1,0 can be used as a reasonable 1264
approximation, however for high pressures, e.g. above 50 bar, the real compressibility factor 1265
shall be applied. The values for compressibility factor can be found in relevant literature. E.g., 1266
the typical compressibility factor for high pressure natural gas with the pressures up to 250 1267
barg may be below 0,9. 1268
The coefficient of discharge C
d
is an empirical value which is obtained through a series of 1269
experiments for specific cases of release and for specific orifice details. As a result C
d
may 1270
take a different value for each particular case of release. A C
d
of not less than 0,99 for items 1271
with regularly shaped holes, e.g. for vents, and 0,75 for irregular holes can be a reasonably 1272
safe approximation if there is no other relevant information upon which to make the 1273
assessment. 1274
The volumetric flow rate of gas in (m
3
/s) is equal to: 1275
g
g
g
W
Q
ρ
= (B.5) 1276
where 1277
a
a
g
T R
M p
= ρ is the density of the gas (kg/m
3
); 1278
a
T is the absolute ambient temperature (K). 1279
NOTE The temperature of the gas at the release opening is usually below the ambient temperature and Ta for 1280
gas is used as an approximation for the purpose of easier calculation. 1281
B.3.2 Release rate of evaporative pools 1282
Evaporative pools may be the result of liquid spillage but also the part of a technological 1283
system where a flammable liquid is stored or handled in an open vessel. 1284
The following assumptions are made concerning the assessment below: 1285
• There is no phase change and the plume is at ambient temperature (phase and 1286
temperature changes would cause variations in dispersion and evaporation rates). 1287
• The flammable substance released is neutrally buoyant. The dense gases are treated the 1288
same way as neutrally buoyant gases in this analysis. 1289
• A continuous release for catastrophic spillage loss is not considered in this analysis. 1290
• Liquids are instantaneously spilled from containment onto a flat, level surface forming a 1291
1 cm deep pool and are allowed to evaporate at ambient boiling conditions. 1292
Then the evaporation rate could be estimated by using following equation: 1293
T R
M p A u 10 55 , 6
W
667 , 0
v p
78 , 0
w
3
g
×
×
=

(B.6) 1294
where 1295
g
W is the evaporation rate of liquid (kg/s); 1296
w
u
is the wind speed over the liquid pool surface (m/s);
1297
p
A
is the pool surface area (m
2
);
1298
v
p
is the vapour pressure of the liquid at temperature T (kPa)
1299
M is the molar mass of vapour (kg/kmol); 1300
R is the universal gas constant (8,314 kPa m
3
/kmol K); 1301
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40

T is the absolute temperature of the liquid (K). 1302
NOTE 1 Vapour pressure can be estimated through various methods, e.g. derived from Antoine’s equation. 1303
NOTE 2 It is assumed that the vapour pressure at the boiling temperature is 101,3 kPa. 1304
Since the density of the vapour in (kg/m
3
) is: 1305
a
a
v
T R
M p
= ρ 1306
then, the volumetric evaporation rate in (m
3
/s) is approximately: 1307
T
T
M 10
p A u 5 , 6
Q
a
333 , 0 5
v p
78 , 0
w
g
× ≈ (B.7) 1308
where 1309
a
T is the absolute ambient temperature (K) 1310
NOTE Since pv increases with liquid temperature then the evaporation rate ultimately increases with the rise of T. 1311
The real value of pool surface area may be estimated by the following approximation: 1312
10
G
A
s
p
≈ (B.8) 1313
1314
where 1315
G
s
is the quantity of spilled liquid in (kg). 1316
If we assume that the pool area is 1,0 m
2
that the wind speed above ground level is 0,5 m/s 1317
and that the liquid temperature is equal to the ambient temperature, then the volumetric 1318
evaporation rate in (m
3
/s) would be: 1319
333 , 0
v
5
g
M
p 10 x 78 , 3
Q

≈ (B.9) 1320
NOTE The wind speeds for evaluation of evaporation rate must be consistent with the wind speeds in latter 1321
calculations for estimating the degree of dilution (see C.2.3). It has to be emphasized that increasing the wind, 1322
speed will increase evaporation but at the same time contributes to the dilution of flammable gas or vapour. 1323
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41

1324
Figure B.1 – Volumetric evaporation rate of liquids 1325
The chart in Figure B.1 is based upon equation B.9. The evaporation rate is obtained by 1326
multiplying the value on the vertical axis with the real pool surface area. 1327
The wind speed of 0,5 m/s is characteristic for meteorological calm just above ground level. 1328
Typically, it represents the worst case regarding dispersion of the vapour but not the worst 1329
case with respect to evaporation rate. 1330
NOTE The value for vapour pressure on the horizontal axis should be taken for the relevant temperature. 1331
B.4 Openings in buildings 1332
The following clause provides examples for openings in buildings or walls. They are not 1333
intended to be rigidly applied, but may need to be varied to suit the particular situation. 1334
B.4.1 Openings as possible sources of releas 1335
Openings between areas should be considered as possible sources of release. The grade of 1336
release will depend upon: 1337
• the zone type of the adjoining area, 1338
• the frequency and duration of opening periods, 1339
• the effectiveness of seals or joints, 1340
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42

• the difference in pressure between the areas involved. 1341
B.4.2 Openings classification 1342
For the purpose of this assessment, openings are classified as A, B, C and D with the 1343
following characteristics: 1344
Type A 1345
Openings not conforming to the characteristics specified for types B, C or D, e.g.: 1346
• open passages for access or utilities (examples of utilities include ducts or pipes through 1347
walls, ceilings and floors); 1348
• openings which are frequently opened; 1349
• fixed ventilation outlets in rooms, buildings and similar openings of types B, C and D 1350
which are opened frequently or for long periods. 1351
Type B 1352
Openings which are normally closed (e.g., automatic closing), infrequently opened and close- 1353
fitting. 1354
Type C 1355
Openings which are normally closed (e.g., automatic closing), infrequently opened and fitted 1356
with sealing devices (e.g, a gasket) along the whole perimeter; or two type B openings in 1357
series, having independent automatic closing devices. 1358
Type D 1359
Openings which are effectively sealed, such as in utility passages; or openings normally 1360
closed conforming to type C which can only be opened by special means or in an emergency; 1361
or a combination of one opening type C adjacent to a hazardous area and one opening type B 1362
in series. 1363
The following table shows the effect of openings on grade of release when a hazardous zone 1364
has been established upstream of those openings. 1365
1366
Table B.2 – Effect of hazardous zones on openings as possible sources of release 1367
Zone upstream of opening Opening type
Grade of release of
openings considered as
sources of release
Zone 0
A
B
C
D
Continuous
(Continuous)/primary
Secondary
Secondary / no release
Zone 1
A
B
C
D
Primary
(Primary)/secondary
(Secondary)/no release
No release
Zone 2
A
B
C
D
Secondary
(Secondary)/no release
No release
No release
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43

NOTE For grades of release shown in brackets, the frequency of operation of the openings should be
considered in the design.
1368
Under certain circumstances, if appropriate, the grade of release of an opening may also be 1369
defined according to the hazardous area methodology indicated in Annex C (see note). 1370
The grade of release of the opening between an indoor naturally ventilated classified location 1371
and an outdoor non classified area may be defined considering the grade of release of the 1372
source generating the indoor hazardous zone. 1373
1374
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44

Annex C 1375
(informative) 1376
Estimation of type of zones 1377
Maintenance team note: Repetition of some content is recognized in this Annex 1378
and the maintenance team proposes to address this issue in preparation of 1379
CDV along with NCs comments 1380
C.1 Introduction 1381
The purpose of this annex is to provide guidance on determining the type of zone(s) by 1382
assessing type and likely extent of gas or vapour releases and comparing these factors with 1383
the dispersion and dilution of those gases or vapours by ventilation or air movement. 1384
It should be emphasised that releases may take many forms and can be influenced by many 1385
conditions (see Clause 6.3). These include: 1386
• gases, vapours or liquids; 1387
• indoor or outdoor situations; 1388
• sonic or subsonic jets, fugitive or evaporative releases; 1389
• obstructed or unobstructed conditions; 1390
• gas or vapour density. 1391
The information presented in this annex is intended to provide qualitative guidance on the 1392
assessment of the ventilation and dispersion conditions to determine the type of zone. The 1393
guidance applies to the conditions noted in each section and therefore may not be applicable 1394
to all installations. 1395
The guidance herein may be used in the selection and assessment of artificial ventilation 1396
systems and natural ventilation arrangements, since these are of paramount importance in the 1397
control and dispersion of releases of flammable gasses and vapours in enclosed spaces. 1398
NOTE Ventilation criteria for specific applications may also be found in national standards or industry codes. 1399
It is important to distinguish throughout these discussions between the concepts of 1400
‘ventilation’ (the mechanism by which air enters and leaves a room or other enclosed space) 1401
and dispersion (the mechanism by which clouds dilute). These are very different concepts, 1402
and both are important. 1403
In indoor situations it should be noted that the hazard depends on the ventilation rate, the 1404
nature of the expected source of gas and the properties of the gas released, in particular the 1405
gas density/buoyancy. In some situations the hazard may depend sensitively on the 1406
ventilation; in others it may be almost independent of it. 1407
In outdoor situations the concept of ventilation is not strictly applicable and the hazard will 1408
depend on the nature of the source, the properties of the gas and the ambient air flow. In 1409
open air situations, air movement will often be sufficient to ensure dispersal of any explosive 1410
gas atmosphere which arises in the area. 1411
NOTE For unobstructed outdoor areas, the evaluation of dilution should normally be based on an assumed 1412
minimum wind speed of 0,5 m/s, which will be present virtually continuously. In many places the wind speed will 1413
frequently be above 2 m/s, however in particular situations, it may be below 0,5 m/s (for example, at the immediate 1414
surface of the ground). 1415
The method developed in this annex provides for the estimation of the type of zone by using 1416
Table C.1 to relate relevant factors including: 1417
• the effectiveness of ventilation and degree of dilution, 1418
• the availability of ventilation and 1419
• the grade of release. 1420
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45

C.2 Assessment of ventilation or dilution and its influence on hazardous area 1421
C.2.1 General 1422
The size of a cloud of flammable gas or vapour and the time for which it persists after the 1423
release stops can often be controlled by means of ventilation. Approaches for evaluating the 1424
degree of dilution required to control the extent and persistence of an explosive gas 1425
atmosphere is described below. Other calculations from reputable sources or alternative 1426
forms of calculation, e.g. CFD, may also be applied. 1427
Any assessment of the degree of dilution first requires an assessment of the expected release 1428
conditions including the size of the source of the release and the maximum release rate of 1429
gas or vapour at the source. The assessment should be declared in the documentation. 1430
It is normally indicated that a continuous grade of release leads to a zone 0, a primary grade 1431
to zone 1 and a secondary grade to zone 2. However, this is not always the case and may 1432
vary depending on the ability of a release to mix with sufficient air to dilute down to a safe 1433
level. 1434
In some cases, the degree of dilution and level of availability of ventilation may be so high 1435
that in practice there is no hazardous area or a hazardous area of negligible extent. 1436
Alternatively, the degree of dilution may be so low that the resulting zone has a lower zone 1437
number than might otherwise be applicable for the grade of release (i.e. a zone 1 hazardous 1438
area from a secondary grade source). This occurs, for example, when the level of ventilation 1439
is such that the explosive gas atmosphere persists and is dispersed only slowly after the gas 1440
or vapour release has stopped. Thus, the explosive gas atmosphere persists for longer than 1441
would be expected for the grade of release. 1442
The dilution of a release is determined by the interaction of the momentum and buoyancy 1443
forces of the release and the atmosphere within which it is dispersing. For an unimpeded 1444
jetted release, for example through a vent, the jet momentum dominates and the initial 1445
dispersion is dominated by the shear between the release and the atmosphere. However, if a 1446
jetted release is at low velocity or is impeded to such an extent that the momentum is 1447
redirected or dissipated, the release buoyancy and atmospheric effects become more 1448
important. 1449
For small releases of lighter than air gas the dispersion in the atmosphere will dominate, for 1450
example similar to dispersion of cigarette smoke. For larger releases of lighter than air gas 1451
the stage may eventually be reached, especially in low wind conditions, when the release 1452
buoyancy is significant and the release will lift off from the ground and disperse like a plume, 1453
for example similar to the plume from a large bonfire. For vapour releases from a liquid 1454
surface the vapour buoyancy and local air movement will dominate the dispersion behaviour. 1455
In all cases, where there is adequate fresh air for dilution of a release to very small 1456
concentrations (i.e. well below the LEL), the diluted gas or vapour will tend to move along with 1457
the general mass of the air and exhibit neutral behaviour. The exact concentration where such 1458
neutral behaviour is reached will depend on the relative density of the gas or vapour to air. 1459
For greater relative density differences a lower concentration of the gas or vapour is required 1460
for neutral behaviour. 1461
C.2.1.1 Wind induced ventilation 1462
The degree of air movement in the interior of a building will depend on the size and position of 1463
the openings relative to wind direction, as well as on the shape of the building. Ventilation 1464
flows may be induced by infiltration through non-airtight doors and windows or cracks and 1465
gaps in parts of the structure even if there are no ‘architectural’ openings in the walls and/or 1466
roof, or if those are closed. The equations used here assume flow through openings designed 1467
for ventilation, rather than infiltration. This philosophy is also appropriate to adopt for the 1468
classification of hazardous areas. 1469
Ventilation implies both ingress and egress of air and some openings will act primarily as inlet 1470
openings and others as outlet openings. Windward (upwind) openings will normally act as the 1471
inlet openings and leeward (downwind) and roof openings as the outlet openings. This implies 1472
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46

that wind induced ventilation could be estimated only with a good knowledge of the wind rose 1473
diagram for a particular location. 1474
The driving force of wind induced ventilation is the pressure differential between the windward 1475
and leeward sides of a building. 1476
The pressure difference across a building can be calculated as: 1477
2
w a p
u C 5 , 0 p ρ ∆ ∆ = (Pa) 1478
where 1479
p
C ∆ is the pressure coefficient characteristic of the building; 1480
a
ρ is the density of air (kg/m
3
); 1481
w
u is the wind speed at a specified reference height (m/s); 1482
Then, air flow due to wind can be expressed as: 1483
2
C
u A C Q
p
w e d a

= (C.1) 1484
where 1485
a
Q is the volumetric flow rate (m
3
/s); 1486
d
C is the discharge coefficient which is a characteristic of the openings and accounts 1487
for the effects of turbulence and viscosity, typically 0.50 to 0.75, dimensionless; 1488
e
A is the equivalent effective area for upwind and downwind openings at the same 1489
height in m
2
is: 1490
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
e
A A
A A 2
A
+
= (C.2) 1491
and: 1492
1
A

is the area of the upwind opening (m
2
); 1493
2
A

is the area of the downwind opening (m
2
). 1494
The most reliable way to assess the pressure coefficient for a building is by CFD modelling or 1495
wind tunnel testing. 1496
Wind strength and direction are variable and not generally predictable. A wind speed of

0,5 1497
m/s should be considered in most situations. Wind should be considered in conjunction with 1498
other types of ventilation to verify whether it complements or opposes the other types. Wind 1499
may have a positive effect if the inlet and outlet openings for purely wind-induced ventilation 1500
are the same as they would have been for other sources of ventilation, but an impairing effect 1501
if they are opposed. e.g., wind of any direction will have a positive effect if there is a 1502
ventilation opening on the roof top, but will have an impairing effect if the outlet ventilation 1503
openings happen to be upwind. 1504
C.2.1.2 Buoyancy induced ventilation 1505
Buoyancy induced ‘Stack Effect’ ventilation is accomplished by the movement of air due to the 1506
difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures. The driving force is the difference in air 1507
density due to the different temperatures. The vertical pressure gradient depends on the 1508
density of air and will therefore not be the same indoors and out, leading to a pressure 1509
difference. 1510
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47

If the average indoor temperature is higher than the outdoor temperature the indoor air will 1511
have a lower density. If an enclosed space has openings at different heights air will enter 1512
through the lower openings and leave through the upper level openings. The flow rate will 1513
increase as the magnitude of the temperature difference grows larger. Therefore buoyancy 1514
induced ventilation will be more effective at lower ambient outdoor temperatures. At higher 1515
ambient outdoor temperatures buoyancy induced ventilation will become less effective and if 1516
the ambient outdoor temperature rises above the indoor temperature the flow would reverse. 1517
The indoor temperature may be higher due to natural causes, deliberate heating or process 1518
heat. Thermal currents may also be induced indoors varying the effect of average indoor 1519
temperature. Assuming that the inside of the building is fully mixed, constant temperatures 1520
can be used both inside and out. The pressure difference across the inlet opening can be 1521
written: 1522
H g
T
1
T
1
R
p
p
in out
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = ∆ (C.3) 1523
where 1524
p ∆ is the pressure difference across the opening in Pa; 1525
p is the pressure (Pa); 1526
R is the gas constant for air (J/kg/K); 1527
g is the acceleration due to gravity (m/s); 1528
H is the vertical distance between the midpoints of the lower and upper openings (m): 1529
in
T is the indoor temperature (K); 1530
out
T is the outdoor temperature (K). 1531
For a temperature gradient, assuming the inside temperature at the lower opening is the same 1532
as the outside temperature, T
out
, and the inside temperature at the upper opening is T
in
, the 1533
volume flow rate of air can be calculated from the following equation: 1534
( )
H g
T T
T
A C Q
out in
e d a
+
=

(C.4) 1535
where 1536
a
Q is the volume flow rate (m
3
/s); 1537
d
C is the discharge coefficient which is a characteristic of the openings and accounts 1538
for the effects of turbulence and viscosity, typically 0.50 to 0.75 for sharp orifices 1539
and 0.95 to 0.99 for rounded orifices, dimensionless; 1540
e
A is the equivalent effective area of the lower opening (m
2
); 1541
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
e
A A
A A 2
A
+
= The symbols 1542
A
1
and A
2
should not be mixed with the same symbols in C.2.1.1. 1543
1
A is the effective area of the lower opening (m
2
); 1544
2
A is the effective area of the upper opening (m
2
); 1545
T ∆ is the difference between the indoor and the outdoor temperature. 1546
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48

These equations give reasonable results only for rooms with inlet and outlet openings 1547
positioned on opposite walls relative to each other (see Figure C.2, and little or no 1548
obstructions which could impede the free flow of air. Also, if the vertical distance between the 1549
midpoints of the lower and upper openings H is small and the horizontal distance is large, 1550
then the buoyancy induced ventilation will be reduced and the calculation may be less 1551
accurate. E.g., where H is smaller than the width of the room, then a safety factor related to 1552
the inefficiency of ventilation must be applied (see C.2.2.1). 1553
NOTE The coefficient of discharge Cd is an empirical value which is obtained through a series of experiments for 1554
specific cases of release and for specific types of openings/apertures. Any other value above 0,75 should be based 1555
on established references for the application. 1556
The indoor temperature must be higher than the outdoor temperature to achieve the 1557
necessary conditions for buoyancy induced ventilation. During periods of high outdoor 1558
ambient temperatures the indoor temperature may become lower than the outdoor unless 1559
there is some heat source indoors. Temperature gradients are also affected by the material of 1560
the building and for some constructions the indoor temperature may be lower than the outside 1561
temperature under certain conditions. If the indoor temperature is lower then the outdoor, then 1562
the equation C.4 is not applicable. 1563
The greater the vertical distance between the midpoints of the lower and upper openings, the 1564
more effective the natural ventilation will be. The most desirable position for the inlet 1565
openings is at the bottom of the opposite walls and for outlet openings, at the roof top. 1566
However, where this is not feasible, the inlet and outlet openings should be positioned at the 1567
opposite walls to provide for the air movement across the whole area. 1568
In many cases the heating requirements at the lower ambient temperatures may be 1569
compromised by the natural ventilation thus imposing the need to reduce, or close the 1570
ventilation openings. Consideration must be given to reduction of the openings to the extent 1571
that might impair natural ventilation thus preventing the dilution of the explosive atmosphere. 1572
Generally, all the openings that could be normally closed such as doors, windows, adjustable 1573
louvres/shutters, etc, should not be considered as ventilation openings. 1574
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49

1575
Figure C.1 – Volumetric flow rate of fresh air per m
2
of equivalent effective opening area 1576
The chart in Figure C.1 is based upon equation (C.4). Therefore see also limitations in the 1577
use of these calculations described in C.2.1.2. 1578
C.2.1.3 Combination of the natural ventilation induced by wind and buoyancy 1579
Both wind and buoyancy induced ventilation can occur separately but are likely to occur at the 1580
same time. Pressure differences due to thermal buoyancy will typically be the dominating 1581
driving force on a calm cold day with practically no wind, whereas pressure differentials 1582
created by wind may be the dominating driving force on a windy hot day. Their forces can 1583
oppose or complement each other depending on the position of the inlet and outlet openings 1584
(of the buoyancy-induced ventilation) in relation to the wind direction (see Figure C.2). 1585
A probability based assessment must be applied taking into account climate, the wind rose 1586
diagram for a particular location and the possible indoor temperatures. 1587
1588
1589
1590
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50

1591
1592
1593
1594
Figure C.2 – Example of opposing ventilation driving forces 1595
The ventilation flows caused by pressure differences, due to wind, or temperature differences, 1596
can also be calculated. For larger openings, designed for ventilation, the flow can be obtained 1597
from the following equation using the pressure difference due to wind and the change in air 1598
density due to the average temperature: 1599
a
e d a
p 2
A C Q
ρ

= (C.5) 1600
where 1601
a
Q is the volumetric flow rate (m
3
/s); 1602
d
C is the discharge coefficient, characteristic of large ventilation openings, inlet or 1603
outlet, and accounts for the turbulence and viscosity, typically 0,50 to 0,75, 1604
dimensionless, 1605
e
A

is the effective equivalent area of the opening (m
2
); 1606
p ∆ is the pressure difference, due to wind or temperature effects (Pa); 1607
a
ρ is the air density (kg/m
3
). 1608
C.2.2 Effectiveness of ventilation 1609
The most important factor is the effectiveness of ventilation, in other words the quantity of air 1610
relative to the type, release location and release rate of the flammable material. The higher 1611
the amount of ventilation in respect of the possible release rates, the smaller will be the 1612
extent of the zones (hazardous areas) and shorter the persistence time of explosive 1613
atmosphere. With a sufficiently high effectiveness of ventilation for a given release rate, the 1614
extent of the hazardous zone may be so reduced to be of negligible extent (NE) and be 1615
considered a non-hazardous area. 1616
C.2.2.1 Background concentration and releases in a ventilated room 1617
wind
pressure
(pw)
H
A
1

A
2

lower relative to
outdoor
higher relative
to outdoor
„Stack“
pressure (ps)
p2 = ps-pw
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51

For indoor releases it is necessary to specify the room background concentration, X
b
, which 1618
embodies the effects of ventilation. Background Concentration is the mean concentration of 1619
flammable material within the volume under consideration (room or building) after a period of 1620
time during which a steady state has been established between the release and the flow of air 1621
induced by ventilation. 1622
Consideration of the background concentration then provides a measure for assessing 1623
ventilation in a room which removes gas or vapour compared to dispersion of the gas or 1624
vapour. This ratio then influences the consideration of the degree of dilution. 1625
The background (vol/vol) concentration may be assessed as: 1626
2
g
1 g
g
b
Q
Q f
Q Q
Q f
X
×
=
+
×
= (C.6) 1627
and the air change frequency and ventilation flux are related by: 1628
0 2
CV Q = 1629
where 1630
1
Q is the volumetric flow of air entering the room through apertures (m
3
/s); 1631
g
Q is the volume flux of flammable gas from the source (m
3
/s); 1632
g 1 2
Q Q Q + = is the volumetric flow of air/gas mixture leaving the room (m
3
/s); 1633
C is the air change frequency in the room (s
-1
); 1634
0
V is the volume under consideration (room or building).(m
3
); 1635
b
X is the background concentration (vol/vol); 1636
1 f > is the mean background concentration X
b
in the room divided by the concentration 1637
at the ventilation outlet. 1638
The average background concentration X
b
which is ultimately achieved depends on the 1639
relative magnitude of source and ventilation fluxes, but the timescale over which this is 1640
achieved is inversely proportional to the air change frequency. 1641
The factor f is a measure of the degree to which the air in the enclosure outside of the release 1642
zone is well mixed and can be considered as follows: 1643
f =1; the background concentration is essentially uniform and the outlet is distant from the 1644
release itself, so that the concentration at the outlet reflects the mean background 1645
concentration. 1646
f >1; there’s a gradient of background concentration in the room due to inefficient mixing, and 1647
the outlet is distant from the release itself, so that the concentration at the outlet is 1648
smaller than the mean background concentration. 1649
Given the origin of the cases f =1 or f >1, this value may be denoted as a safety factor related 1650
to the inefficiency of mixing (as progressively larger values reflect progressively less efficient 1651
mixing of air within the room). This factor allows for imperfections of air flow patterns in a real 1652
space with obstructions and where ventilation openings may not be ideally positioned for 1653
maximum ventilation (see C.2.1.2). 1654
NOTE Ventilation alone which describes how air enters the room has little to say about the expected hazardous 1655
volume. That depends on how the gas, or vapour and air are distributed within the room, i.e. on dispersion. 1656
C.2.3 Criteria for dilution 1657
The criteria for dilution are based upon the two values that are characteristic for any release: 1658
• the relative release rate (ratio of release rate and LEL in mass units); 1659
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• the ventilation velocity (the value that symbolizes the atmospheric instability, i.e. air flow 1660
induced by ventilation or wind speed outdoors). 1661
The relation between the two determines the degree of dilution as displayed in Figure C.3. 1662
1663
C.2.3.1 Assessment of effective ventilation/air velocity 1664
If a gas leak exists, the gas must be transported away, or gas build up will occur. The gas can 1665
be transported away by flow induced by the momentum in the gas leak, by buoyancy induced 1666
by the gas, or by flow caused by natural or forced ventilation or by wind. 1667
The flow caused by momentum in the release itself should generally not be taken into account 1668
unless it is very clear that this momentum will not be broken by impingement or other 1669
influence of geometry. 1670
The flow to transport away the gas should be assessed primarily based on an assessment of 1671
the ventilation for indoor situations, or by flow caused by the wind for outdoor situations. 1672
Buoyancy may be taken into account by increasing the efficient ventilation velocity for lighter 1673
than air gases or by normally decreasing it for heavier than air gases. 1674
For indoor situation the flow or effective ventilation velocity could be based on an average 1675
flow velocity caused by the ventilation. This could be calculated as the volumetric flow of 1676
air/gas mixture divided by the cross section area perpendicular to the flow (see Figure C.4). 1677
This ventilation velocity should be reduced by a factor due to inefficiency of the ventilation or 1678
due to flow being obstructed by different objects. CFD simulation is recommended to get an 1679
estimate of the ventilation velocity in different parts of the room under consideration. 1680
For natural ventilated enclosures and for open areas, the ventilation velocity should be 1681
assessed as the velocity that is exceeded 95 % of the time. The availability of this ventilation 1682
can be considered to be “fair”. 1683
Ventilation velocity for open areas may be based on wind speed statistics using a reduction 1684
factor considering the reference height applied for any weather statistics. Published values 1685
are usually available for elevations above the height of a process plant and may need to be 1686
reduced due to local geometry such as topography, buildings, vegetation and other obstacles. 1687
E.g. in a process area with a lot of structures, piping and process equipment, the effective 1688
ventilation velocity could typically be as low as 1/10 of the free flow velocity above the plant. 1689
Assessment could also be made by measurement of the velocity in some locations around the 1690
plant and comparing these to the published figures. CFD is also recommended for any 1691
complex plant where there are a number of equipment items that could affect localised air 1692
movement. 1693
Lighter than air gases tend to move upwards where the ventilation normally will be better, and 1694
the buoyancy may also transport the gas away. This may be taken into account by increasing 1695
the effective ventilation velocity for such releases. For releases with a relative density of less 1696
than 0.8, it is normally considered safe to assume that the effective ventilation velocity is at 1697
least 0.5 m/s in outdoor situations. The availability of this minimum ventilation can be 1698
considered as good. 1699
Heavier than air gases tend to move downwards where the ventilation generally will be lower, 1700
and accumulation at ground level is a possibility. This can be taken into account by lowering 1701
the effective ventilation velocity. A gas can be heavy due to the molecular weight or due to 1702
low temperature. Low temperature can be caused by leak from high pressure. For gases with 1703
a specific gravity above 1.0 the effective ventilation velocity should be reduced by a factor 1704
of 2. 1705
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C.2.3.2 Assessment of ventilation and dilution 1706
The size of the flammable cloud from a gas leak will be dependent on the mass release rate 1707
W
g
and the lower explosion limit LEL. A release that is very unlikely to form a gas cloud with a 1708
flammable volume above 0.1 m
3
is considered to be well ventilated or have high ventilation for 1709
both indoor and outdoor situations. For indoor areas the ventilation is considered to be low if 1710
a mass balance between the leak and the ventilation shows that the background gas 1711
concentration in the room becomes higher than 0,2 LEL. For outdoor areas, the ventilation is 1712
considered to be low if the leak may lead to a flammable gas cloud larger than 100 m
3
. 1713
NOTE The assessment factors expressed in this standard are also based on experiments considering the 1714
consequences of an explosion. These investigations suggest that a hazardous volume of less than 0,1 m
3
or less 1715
than 1% of V0 could be considered as negligible in terms of explosion consequences. 1716
The degree of dilution may be assessed by using the figure C.3: 1717
1718
1719
Figure C.3 – Chart for determining the degree of dilution 1720
Where 1721
LEL
W
g
g
ρ
is a characteristic of release in (m
3
/s); 1722
Dilution high (DH)
Dilution medium (DM)
Dilution low (DL)
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g
W

is the mass release rate of flammable material (kg/s), for mixtures, only the 1723
total mass of flammable material should be considered; 1724
a
a
g
T R
M p
= ρ is the density of the gas/vapour (kg/m
3
); 1725
LEL is the lower explosive limit (vol/vol); 1726
w
u is the ventilation/air velocity at given release conditions (m/s). 1727
Figurer C.3 is based on an initial zero background concentration. 1728
The degree of dilution is obtained by finding the intersection of respective values displayed on 1729
horizontal and vertical axis. 1730
In outdoor locations where there are no significant restrictions to air flow, the degree of 1731
dilution should be classified as medium if the condition for DH is not met. A low degree of 1732
dilution will not generally occur in open air situations. Situations where there are restrictions 1733
to air flow, for example, in pits, should be considered in the same way as an enclosed area. 1734
For indoor applications users should also assess the background concentration in accordance 1735
with C.2.2.1 and if the background concentration exceeds 20% of the LEL the degree of 1736
dilution cannot be considered as high. 1737
C.2.4 Criteria for availability of ventilation 1738
The availability of ventilation has an influence on the presence or formation of an explosive 1739
gas atmosphere. Thus the availability (as well as the degree) of ventilation needs to be taken 1740
into consideration when determining the type of zone. 1741
Three levels of availability of the ventilation should be considered (see Table C.1): 1742
• good: ventilation is present virtually continuously; 1743
• fair: ventilation is expected to be present during normal operation. Discontinuities are 1744
permitted provided they occur infrequently and for short periods; 1745
• poor: ventilation which does not meet the standard of fair or good, but discontinuities are 1746
not expected to occur for long periods. 1747
Ventilation that does not even meet the requirement for poor availability must not be 1748
considered to contribute to the ventilation of the area. 1749
Different types of ventilation require different approach for assessing of their availability, e.g. 1750
availability of natural ventilation shall never be considered as good because it depends 1751
heavily upon ambient conditions, i.e. outdoor temperature and wind (see Clause C.1). As a 1752
matter of fact, the availability of natural ventilation depends on how realistic the assessment 1753
of indoor or outdoor conditions has been, i.e. whether the worst case scenario has been 1754
applied. If yes, than it may be that the level of availability could be fair, but never good. It has 1755
to be assumed that the higher the difference between indoor and outdoor temperature applied 1756
for calculation, the lower the level of availability in terms of diluting explosive atmosphere will 1757
be. 1758
On the other hand, artificial ventilation that serves the areas exposed to explosion conditions 1759
usually has a good availability because it incorporates technical means to provide for high 1760
degree of reliability. 1761
The level of availability must be assessed as realistic as possible taking into account all the 1762
relevant factors. For outdoor gas jet releases dilution will occur irrespective of the ambient 1763
wind, and so the dispersion must be considered as being equivalent to good availability of 1764
ventilation indoors. 1765
C.2.4.1 Criteria for natural ventilation 1766
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In case of natural ventilation, the worst case scenario shall preferably be considered to 1767
determine the degree of ventilation. Such a scenario will then lead to a higher level of 1768
availability. Generally, by any natural ventilation, a lower degree of ventilation leads to a 1769
higher level of availability and vice versa. That will compensate for too optimistic assumptions 1770
made in the procedure of estimating the degree of ventilation. 1771
There are some situations which require particular care. In the case of natural ventilation of 1772
enclosed spaces, it shall be estimated whether the ventilation is present at all under certain 1773
unfavourable ambient conditions and such situations must then be scrutinized, i.e. frequency 1774
of occurrence of such situations / likelihood must be anticipated and put into a broader 1775
context. E.g., critical may be hot summer windy days from two different aspects: indoor 1776
temperature may be slightly above the outdoor temperature so that buoyancy induced 1777
ventilation could hardly work and the wind from certain direction may easily block it. If we look 1778
just at the buoyancy aspect, then we may say that such modest, buoyancy induced ventilation 1779
could be present virtually all the time and hence the availability could be estimated as fair if 1780
not good. On the other hand, the wind factor that may completely block it makes the 1781
availability poor. So, in this case we have a combination of poor ventilation and a poor 1782
availability which will probably result with some more rigorous classification. 1783
C.2.4.2 Criteria for artificial ventilation 1784
In assessing the availability of artificial ventilation, the reliability of the equipment and the 1785
availability of, for example, standby blowers should be considered. Good availability will 1786
normally require, on failure, automatic start-up of standby blower(s). However, if provision is 1787
made for preventing the release of flammable material when the ventilation has failed (for 1788
example, by automatically closing down the process), the classification determined with the 1789
ventilation operating need not be modified, i.e. the availability may be assumed to be good. 1790
Table C.1 – Influence of ventilation on type of zone 1791
Grade of
release
Effectiveness of Ventilation
High Dilution Medium Dilution
Low
Dilution
Availability of ventilation
Good Fair Poor Good Fair Poor
Good,
fair or
poor
Conti-
nuous
(Zone 0 NE)
a

Non-hazardous
(Zone 0 NE)
a

Zone 2
(Zone 0 NE)
a

Zone 1
Zone 0
Zone 0
+
Zone 2
Zone 0
+
Zone 1
Zone 0
Primary
(Zone 1 NE)
a

Non-hazardous
(Zone 1 NE)
a

Zone 2
(Zone 1 NE)
a

Zone 2
Zone 1
Zone 1
+
Zone 2
Zone 1
+
Zone 2
Zone 1 or
zone 0
c

Secon
dary
b

(Zone 2 NE)
a

Non-hazardous
(Zone 2 NE)
a

Non-hazardous
Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2 Zone 2
Zone 1
and even
Zone 0
c

a
Zone 0 NE, 1 NE or 2 NE indicates a theoretical zone which would be of negligible extent under normal
conditions.
b
The zone 2 area created by a secondary grade of release may exceed that attributable to a primary or conti
nuous grade of release; in this case, the greater distance should be taken.
c
Will be zone 0 if the ventilation is so weak and the release is such that in practice an explosive gas
atmosphere exists virtually continuously (i.e. approaching a ’no ventilation‘ condition).
NOTE 1 ‘+’ signifies ‘surrounded by’.
NOTE 2 Availability of ventilation in naturally ventilated enclosed spaces shall never be considered as good.
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1792
C.3 Practical guide for estimating types of the zones by using Table C.1 1793
C.3.1 Area of applicability 1794
Table C1 can be applied for indoor areas and open areas. In open air situations the degree of 1795
dilution is generally considered as medium while the availability of ventilation in terms of wind 1796
presence may be considered as good unless there is restricted ventilation such as within pits, 1797
dykes or areas surrounded by high structures. 1798
C.3.2 Assessment of grades of release 1799
A wrong assessment of grades of release may compromise the outcome of the whole 1800
procedure. Although the grades of release are defined (see 3.13, 3.14 and 3.15), in practice it 1801
is not always easy to distinguish one grade of release from the other. 1802
For example, it is usually considered that every release that does not occur in normal 1803
operation is a secondary release and the anticipated duration of the release is usually 1804
neglected. However, the concept of a secondary grade of release is also based upon the 1805
assumption that the release will only last for short periods. This implies that a potentially 1806
ongoing release will be detected soon after the beginning of the release and that remedial 1807
action will be taken as soon as possible. Such assumption leads to the issue of regular 1808
monitoring and maintenance of the equipment and installation. 1809
Obviously, if there is no regular monitoring and the maintenance is poor, the releases may 1810
last for hours if not days before being detected. Such delay in detection does not mean that 1811
the sources of the release should therefore be declared as primary or continuous. There are 1812
many unattended remote installations where a release may occur without being noticed for 1813
long time, but even such installations should be monitored and inspected on a reasonabl y 1814
regular basis. So, any assessment of the release grade must be based upon careful 1815
considerations and the assumption that monitoring and inspection of the equipment and 1816
installations will be performed in a reasonable way according to the any manufacturer’s 1817
instructions, relevant regulations and protocols and sound engineering practice. Area 1818
classification should not be a cover for a poor maintenance practice but the user must be 1819
aware that poor practices may compromises the established basis for area classification. 1820
There are many cases of release which may apparently fit comfortably with the definition of a 1821
primary grade of release. However when scrutinizing the nature of the release it may be 1822
revealed that the release could happen so frequently and so unpredictably that one cannot be 1823
reasonably assured that an explosive atmosphere will not exist near the source of release. In 1824
such cases the definition of continuous grade of release may be more suitable. Therefore the 1825
definition of a continuous grade of release implies not only continuous releases but releases 1826
with a high frequency as well (see 3.12). 1827
C.3.3 Assessment of ventilation or dilution 1828
Dilution may occur by either the exchange of fresh air that dominates the release of the gas or 1829
vapour or by having sufficient volume to allow the gas or vapour to disperse to a low 1830
concentration even with minimal fresh air. In this later case the volume available for dilution 1831
must be high with respect to the anticipated volume of the release. 1832
For a jet release of gas, dilution may occur even without any local air movement due to 1833
entrainment of air in the expanding jet. However if a jet is impeded due to impact on nearby 1834
objects then the ability for self dilution is greatly reduced. 1835
The degree of dilution can also be assessed by assessment of the average background 1836
concentration of the flammable material (see C.2.2.1). The higher the ratio of release rate 1837
against the ventilation rate the higher will be the background concentration X
b
and the lower 1838
will be the degree of dilution. 1839
In assessing background concentration the release rate, ventilation rate and efficiency factor 1840
must be carefully selected to take into account all relevant factors considering an appropriate 1841
safety margin. The ventilation efficiency factor should recognize if there is a possibility of 1842
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recirculating or impeded air flow in a space which may reduce the efficiency compared to a 1843
good air flow pattern. 1844
A zero background concentration should be consided only outdoors or in regions with local 1845
extraction ventilation which controls the movement of flammable material near the source of 1846
release. A negligible background concentration, described as X
b
<< X
crit
, may be considered in 1847
highly ventilated rooms or enclosures. 1848
A low background concentration does not mean that the whole room is a non hazardous area. 1849
The larger part of the room may be considered non hazardous but the area near the source of 1850
the release is still a hazardous area until the release is sufficiently dispersed (similar as for 1851
open air situations). 1852
Consideration of background concentration and the extent of possible zones around sources 1853
of release also need to be moderated with practical factors considering variations in possible 1854
dispersion patterns in an enclosed space. Many enclosed areas contain multiple sources of 1855
release and it is not good practice to have multiple small hazardous areas within an enclosed 1856
area generally classified as non hazardous. Also, it is not good practice to have a limited 1857
hazardous area within a relatively small room and the the whole room should be considered 1858
for a uniform classification. 1859
C.3.4 Assessment of the availability of ventilation 1860
It is relatively easy to assess the availability of artificial ventilation. Such assessment depends 1861
on various technical aspects which are inherent properties of a ventilation system. For 1862
example, good availability of ventilation may be assured by sufficient redundancy of fans, 1863
automatic energizing before or upon starting of equipment, autonomous or uninterruptible 1864
power supply, etc. 1865
It may be more difficult to assess the availability of natural ventilation. However it is generally 1866
accepted that where high dilution is required the availability of natural ventilation can never be 1867
assessed as good. As a general rule, the availability of natural ventilation will be considered 1868
as good with respect to medium dilution. 1869
C.3.5 Summation of releases 1870
In indoor areas with more than one source of release, in order to determine the type and 1871
extent of zones, the releases need to be summated before the degree of dilution and 1872
background concentration is determined. 1873
Since continuous grade releases, by definition, can be expected to be releasing most if not all 1874
of the time, then all continuous grade releases should be included. 1875
Primary grade releases occur in normal operation but it is unlikely that all of these sources 1876
will be releasing at the same time. Knowledge and experience of the installation should be 1877
used to determine the maximum number of primary grade releases that may release 1878
simultaneously under worst conditions. In the absence of such information Table X should be 1879
used to determine the maximum number to be considered. The selection of these releases 1880
should reflect the different releases. 1881
Secondary grade releases are not expected to release in normal operation so, given that it is 1882
unlikely that more than one secondary source would release at any one time, only the largest 1883
secondary release should be considered. 1884
The summation of sources of release with regular (i.e. well predictable) activity should be 1885
based on detailed analysis of operating procedures. In the determination of the summated 1886
releases (both mass and volumetric): 1887
• the overall continuous release is the sum of all the individual continuous releases, 1888
• the overall primary release is the sum of some of the individual primary releases 1889
combined with the overall continuous release, 1890
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• the overall secondary release is the largest individual secondary release combined 1891
with the overall primary release. 1892
Where the same flammable material is released from all of the release sources then the 1893
release rates (both mass and volumetric) can be summated directly. 1894
However, when the releases are of different flammable materials, the situation is more 1895
complex. In the determination of the degree of dilution (see Figure C.3), the values of W
g
/(ρ
g
1896
LEL) need to be determined for each flammable before any summation takes place. The 1897
secondary release with the highest value should be used. 1898
In the determination of the background concentration (see equation C.6) the volumetric 1899
release rates can be summated directly. The critical concentration with which the background 1900
concentration is compared is a proportion of the LEL (typically 20%). Since there are a 1901
number of different flammable materials being released the combined LEL (see equation J.1) 1902
should be used as the comparator. 1903
In general, continuous and primary sources of release should preferably not be located in 1904
areas with a low degree of dilution. Either sources of release should be relocated, ventilation 1905
should be improved or the grade of release should be reduced. 1906
1907
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1908
1909
1910
Figure C.4 – Practical guide for using Table C.1 1911
Determine the
grade of release
Estimate release rate of the flammable material using
Equations (B.3), (B.4) or (B.6)
Estimate volumetric flowrate of
fresh air using Equation (C.4)
Estimate the background
concentration using Equation (C.6)
Estimate the
ventilation or air velocity
Estimate the volume
under consideration
Estimate physical properties of the
flammable material (ρ, LEL)
Calculate the characteristic value on the
horizontal axis of the chart on Figure C.3
Find respective point on the chart applying the characteristic value on the horizontal axis
and the predetermined ventilation or air velocity and determine the degree of dilution
Is the background
concentration in
this volume higher
than 20% LEL ?
No Yes
The degree of
dilution cannot
be considered as
high (DH)
Estimate degree of the dilution applying Table C.1
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C.4 Examples of ventilation arrangements and assessments 1912
C.4.1 Introduction 1913
The following examples are intended to illustrate the interaction between the release of 1914
flammable material and ventilation based on the principles outlined in sections 6 and 7. It is 1915
important to understand that dilution is a complex process which takes place either through 1916
air entrainment at the boundaries of a release jet, or through mixing with air caused by 1917
ventilation flow or atmospheric instabilities. Usually, both mechanisms are considered 1918
because a jet eventually becomes a passive plume susceptible to air movement. Mixing with 1919
air generally does not happen uniformly throughout the ventilated space and the background 1920
concentration as the result of the mixing with air is just a very rough measure of the average 1921
contamination of the volume under consideration. 1922
In a real ventilated space the ventilation arrangement may not be adequate to dilute the 1923
flammable material uniformly. In practice the true nature of dispersion and dilution may 1924
substantially deviate from the average results obtained by calculation. The ventilation 1925
arrangement, i.e. position of the inlet and outlet openings relative to each other and relative to 1926
source of the release, may sometimes have greater influence on the atmosphere than 1927
capacity of the ventilation itself. 1928
The examples below illustrate a few possible scenarios which may help in better 1929
understanding of the ventilation arrangements that are required for a particular situation. 1930
C.4.2 Jet release in a large building 1931
This example (see Figure C.5) illustrates the conditions where there are a limited number of 1932
sources of gas release in a large space e.g. gas release from pipe fittings. 1933
A small leak in a pipe fitting would be expected to create a jet release with a high velocity if 1934
the pressure is high. The jet would self dilute and disperse even without much other apparent 1935
air movement in the building. 1936
For a space with normal ventilation, (e.g. good sized door and wall openings and / or roof 1937
ventilation or other designated ventilation provisions), the volume of the space and natural air 1938
movement would suggest the degree of dilution is medium and the availability of ventilation is 1939
fair. 1940
For a space with poor ventilation, (e.g. an unventilated basement), a jet release may initially 1941
self dilute and disperse into the space but the lack of air movement may also lead to a longer 1942
term build up of gas in the space. In this situation the diluted gas from the release will be re- 1943
entrained in the continuing jet release resulting in a build-up of the background gas 1944
concentration. 1945
Unless the ventilation provisions are adequate to control the background concentration in the 1946
space the degree of dilution is considered low. However it may still be practical to provide for 1947
different zone classifications throughout the space. 1948
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1949
Figure C.5 - Self diffusion of an unimpeded high velocity jet release 1950
C.4.3 Jet release in a small naturally ventilated building 1951
This example illustrates conditions where there may be sources of gas release in a small 1952
room or building. 1953
Dispersion and dilution factors are the same as described in 8.2. 1954
Where the building includes provision for ventilation to ensure adequate removal of any gas 1955
from a release then the interior of the building may be considered to have a medium degree of 1956
dilution. 1957
Where there are a limited number of sources of release (or locations for the sources of 1958
release) it may be practical to classify hazardous areas that are limited to regions around the 1959
sources of release. Where there are large numbers of possible sources of release then it is 1960
common practice to classify the entire space with a single zone classification. This reflects the 1961
consideration of the self dilution volume from a jet from many possible positions and the 1962
possible variants in gas or vapour dispersion from various locations. 1963
Where the degree of dilution is low then it is normal practice to provide a single zone 1964
classification for the enclosed space irrespective of the number of sources of release. 1965
C.4.4 Jet release in a small artificially ventilated building 1966
This example (see Figure C.6) might apply to a situation such as a gas compressor room. 1967
Irrespective of the rate of ventilation or arrangement of a ventilation system a jet release is 1968
not likely to be diluted to below the LEL immediately at the source of release unless the 1969
pressure is very low. Therefore the degree of dilution at the source of release can rarely be 1970
described as high. 1971
The degree of dilution for the remainder of the space is largely dependent on the arrangement 1972
and rate of artificial ventilation. The degree of dilution may also be highly sensitive to both 1973
these factors as illustrated on the following figures. 1974
release velocity profile
Eddy diffusion at extremities
d
d
s
zero
velocity
Concentration in
flammable range
concentration
approaching 0%
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1975
Figure C.6 – Supply only ventilation 1976
In this case an enclosed space is supplied with fresh air with an equal volume discharging 1977
through a vent. 1978
Despite an apparently high number of air changes per hour the ventilation arrangement can 1979
create a circulatory air movement within the enclosure resulting an elevated background 1980
concentration. An alternative way of looking at this is that the re-entrained gas increases the 1981
dilution volume from the sources of release. Where this happens the degree of dilution should 1982
be treated as low. 1983
1984
Figure C.7 – Supply and extraction ventilation 1985
In this case the enclosed space is provided with both supply and extraction ventilation. As 1986
with the case for supply only there is a possibility that the ventilation arrangement will create 1987
recirculating air movement and result in re-entrainment of the diluted gas into a jet release 1988
thereby increasing the background gas concentration. 1989
With careful consideration of the ventilation arrangements and positioning of the extraction 1990
points it is possible to minimize any re-circulatory air patterns. In this case a degree of 1991
dilution of medium or even high may be achieved. 1992
NOTE Ventilation is commonly applied as an extraction system only which may be either general or local (for local 1993
extraction ventilation see 7.2.2.3). 1994
C.4.5 Release with low velocity 1995
Releases at low velocity are common in many industrial processes and include applications 1996
such as evaporation of flammable liquids from vents, baths, drains or printing and painting. 1997
A jet release may also be considered a low velocity release if the jet impinges on a surface. In 1998
this case the velocity of the gas release can be brought to a complete stop with the jet turning 1999
into passive plume. 2000
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For releases at low velocity dispersion and dilution are influenced largely by air movement in 2001
the space and the buoyancy of the gas or vapour. 2002
As for jet releases the degree of dilution will be dependent on the size of the building or room, 2003
rate of release and ability to control any background concentration by general ventilation. 2004
Maintenance team proposes to insert more examples here 2005
C.4.6 Fugitive emissions 2006
Fugitive emissions are small releases of gases or vapours from pressurized equipment due to 2007
leaks (generally in the order of magnitude between 10E-7 kg/s and 10E-9 kg/s). Though small, 2008
these releases can still accumulate in enclosures that are not ventilated. 2009
Such fugitive emissions may accumulate in the course of time thus giving rise to the explosion 2010
hazard. Therefore, care must be taken when designing particular facilities or equipment such 2011
as analyzer houses and sealed enclosures like e.g. instrument panels or instrument weather 2012
protection enclosures, thermally insulated heated enclosures or enclosed spaces between 2013
pipe installations and envelope of thermal insulation or similar items with higher pressure gas 2014
lines. Such items should be provided with some ventilation or provision for gas dispersion 2015
even if only for critical periods of time. Where that is not possible, practicable or desirable, 2016
effort should be made to keep major potential sources of release out of enclosures, e.g. pipe 2017
connections should normally be kept out of insulation enclosures as well as any other 2018
equipment that may be considered a potential source of release. 2019
Where tighlty closed enclosures are used the effectiveness and availability of ventilation in 2020
such enclosures with natural ventilation may need consideration as low and poor respectively. 2021
C.4.7 Local ventilation-extraction 2022
Local artificial ventilation is recommended wherever practical. 2023
Local artificial ventilation can improve the degree of dilution near to the source of release. 2024
More importantly local artificial ventilation should control the movement of the gas or vapour 2025
to limit gas or vapour beyond the intended area of influence of the local ventilation system. 2026
Where this is achieved the degree of dilution around the source of release can be considered 2027
as medium. 2028
Generally local artificial ventilation should be located close to the source of release to be 2029
effective. Local artificial ventilation can be very effective where source of release is 2030
characterized by a very low release velocity. As local artificial ventilation needs to overcome 2031
the release velocity of the gas or vapour to control the movement of that release, the 2032
applicability of local artificial ventilation for jet releases is greatly reduced over other forms of 2033
release. 2034
To control any source of release a minimum air velocity of 0.5m/s is suggested. 2035
2036
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64

2037
Figure C.8 – Local extraction ventilation 2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
65

Annex D 2062
(Informative) 2063
Estimation of hazardous distance 2064
2065
D.1 Assessment of the extent of the hazardous zone 2066
The extent of the hazardous zone or region where combustible gas may occur depends on the 2067
release rate and several other factors such as gas properties and release geometry and 2068
surrounding geometry. Figure D.1 may be used as a guide to determine the extent of 2069
hazardous zones for various forms of release. Other forms of calculation or assessment 2070
based on reputable sources, e.g. CFD, may also be applied. 2071
The appropriate curve should be selected based on the type of release as either : 2072
a) An unimpeded jet release with high velocity; 2073
b) A diffusive jet release with low velocity or a jet that loses its momentum due to the 2074
geometry of the release or impingement on nearby surfaces (see C.xxx); 2075
c) Heavy gases or vapours that spread along horizontal surfaces (e.g. the ground). 2076
2077
2078
Figure D.1 – Chart for determining hazardous distances 2079
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
66

Where 2080
LEL
W
g
g
ρ
is a characteristic of release in (m
3
/s); 2081
g
W

is the mass release rate of flammable material (kg/s); 2082
a
a
g
T R
M p
= ρ is the density of the gas/vapour (kg/m
3
) 2083
LEL is the lower explosive limit (vol/vol). 2084
Figure D.1 shows only approximate distances and should be used with appropriate caution. It 2085
is based on an initial zero background concentration. 2086
NOTE This chart has been developed based on continuity equation and selected CFD simulations assuming a 2087
dispersion distance proportional to the square root of the X axis and the results have been moderated for the 2088
purpose of this standard. 2089
Different zones are also not identified and zones should be assessed based on the 2090
ventilation around the source of release (see Annex C) and possible variations in release 2091
conditions. 2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
67

Annex E 2114
(Informative) 2115
Examples of hazardous area classification 2116
2117
E.1 General 2118
The practice of area classification involves knowledge of the behaviour of flammable gases 2119
and liquids when they are released from containment, and sound engineering judgement 2120
based on experience of the performance of items of plant equipment under specified 2121
conditions. For this reason, it is not practicable to give every conceivable variation of plant 2122
and process characteristics. 2123
E.2 Industry codes and national standards 2124
In general, examples of classification may be accepted in accordance with national or industry 2125
codes where their application to the particular situation can be clearly demonstrated. Any 2126
criteria or limitations identified in the national or industry code should be followed. 2127
If it is intended that the examples given in the reference national or industry codes be used for 2128
area classification in practice, account must be taken of the specific details of each individual 2129
case, e.g. process and location characteristics. 2130
In general the examples are based on the assumption that plant and equipment are 2131
adequately maintained. 2132
The codes may not apply to specific situations, for example where: 2133
a) the quantity of release is either very large or very small; 2134
b) the design of a particular plant does not comply with all the requirements of the 2135
appropriate national standard or industry code ; or 2136
c) ventilation, use of inert gases, vapour barriers or other methods are used to reduce the 2137
extent of the hazard or the likelihood of the occurrence of a particular hazardous area. 2138
Where the use of examples from specific codes or standards is followed, standards and codes 2139
addressing the same example should not be interchanged, e.g. where a standard is selected 2140
as a preferred base for a site or application, examples from another standard should not be 2141
selected to achieve a less rigorous classification without due justification. 2142
Where examples from industry codes or national standards are used,then they shall be 2143
quoted as the basis for classification and not IEC 60079-10-1. Examples of national standards 2144
or industry codes include, but are not limited to those shown in Table E.1. The countries of 2145
origin are set in alphabetical order. 2146
Table E.1 – Examples of codes and standards 2147
Country or
Region
of Origin
Code or
Standard
Designation
Title
Developing
Body
Application
Notes
Australia
and New
Zealand
AS/NZS
(IEC)
60079-10-1
Explosive Atmospheres Part
10-1: Classification of areas –
Explosive Gas Atmospheres
Standards
Australia/
Standards
New
Zealand
Introduced in
AS/NZS
60079-10-1 as
the national
Annex
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
68

Country or
Region
of Origin
Code or
Standard
Designation
Title
Developing
Body
Application
Notes
Germany BRG 104 ExRL »Explosionsschutz-
Regeln – Regeln für das
Vermeiden der Gefahren durch
explosionsfähige Atmosphäre
mit Beispielsammlung«
ExRL “Explosion Protection-
Rules – Rules for avoiding the
dangers of explosion able
atmospheres with examples
collection“

Germany TRBS 2152. Technischen Regeln fϋr
Betriebssicherheitsverordnung
Technical Rules for Plant
Safety Provisions

Italy GUIDA CEI
31-35
&
GUIDE CEI
31-35/A

Explosive atmospheres –
Guide for classification of
hazardous areas for the
presence of gas in application
of CEI EN 60079-10-1
(CEI 31-87)
CEI –
Comitato
electro-
technico
Italiano
CEI – Italian
Electrotech-
nical
Commission
Scope of this
Guide is the
analysis in
details of the
classification
of hazardous
areas due to
the presence
of flammable
gases, vapours
or mists,
according to
IEC szandard
60079-10-1.
Sweden SEK
Handbook
426
Classification of Hazardous
Areas
Svensk
Elstandard

Switzerland SUVA
Merkblatt
Nr. 2153
Explosionsschutz
Grundsätze
Mindestvorschriften
Zonen
Explosion protection
Basics
Minimal requirements
Zones
Schweize
rische
Unfall-
versicher-
ungsanstalt

The
Netherlands
NPR 7910-1 Netherlands practical guideline
NPR 7910-1, Classifcation of
hazardous areas with respect
to explosion hazard – part 1:
gas explosion hazard, based
Netherlands
Standard-
isation
Institute,
NEN

60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
69

Country or
Region
of Origin
Code or
Standard
Designation
Title
Developing
Body
Application
Notes
on NEN-EN-IEC 60079-10-1
UK IP15 Model code of safe practice for
the petroleum industry,
Part 15: Area Classification
Code for Petroleum
Installations Handling
Flammable Liquids.
Energy
Institute

IGEM/SR/25 Hazardous area classification
of natural gas installations.
Institution of
Gas
Engineers
and
Managers

USA

API RP 505 Recommended Practice for
Classification of Locations for
Electrical Installations at
Petroleum Facilities classified
as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1 and
Zone 2.
American
Petroleum
Institute
(API)

NFPA 59A Standard for the Production,
Storage, and Handling of
Liquefied Natural Gas.
National
Fire
Protection
Association

NFPA 497 Recommended Practice for the
Classification of Flammable
Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and
of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical
Installations in Chemical
Process Areas
National
Fire
Protection
Association

E.3 Example case study for area classification 2148
The following example is intended to illustrate the philosophy of area classification and the 2149
way in which Zones should be displayed. This example is not intended to present zones that 2150
should be applied in practice. Zone details may vary depending on the specific installation 2151
details and/or application of the relevant code of practice. 2152
The example uses a compressor facility handling natural gas to illustrate the principles of 2153
area classification. In this example compressor units are considered as skid mounted 2154
packages with gas engine driven reciprocating compressors intended for gas gathering. The 2155
units are considered as consisting of a gas engine, compressor, combined air cooler, process 2156
piping, on-skid scrubbers, pulsation bottles, and auxiliary equipment. 2157
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
70

Gas engines and compressors in this example are considered to be installed within a naturally 2158
ventilated shelter withair enterimg throughlouvred openings at the bottom and an open front of 2159
the shelter and leaving through arooftop opening (see Figure E.1). 2160
The external part of the facility is considered to consist of combined air coolers with cooling 2161
water and process gas heat exchangers, piping, valves (ESD, block and regulating), off-skid 2162
scrubbers, etc. The flammable substances used in this example are: 2163
1. Process gas (natural gas with 80% vol methane), 2164
2. Process gas condensate collected in the scrubbers and automatically drained towards 2165
collecting reservoir (mainly heavier hydrocarbons in quantities which are determined by 2166
the respective equilibrium state at each stage of compression), 2167
3. Gas engine fuel and starting gas (dry pipeline quality natural gas, min 96% vol methane), 2168
4. Various chemicals applied in the process, e.g. corrosion inhibitors, antifreezing additives. 2169
The sources of release used in this example are: 2170
1. Starting gas vent (a predictable source that gives primary grade of release; happens at 2171
each start of the engine), 2172
2. Compressor blowdown vent (a predictable source that gives primary grade of release; 2173
happens at each depressurization of the blocked compressor), 2174
3. Gas engine shut-off valve vent (a relatively predictable source that gives primary grade of 2175
release (happens at each shutdown of the engine when the trapped fuel gas is evacuated 2176
into atmosphere), 2177
4. Pressure relief valve vent (a non predictable source that typically gives secondary grade 2178
of release; happens if the pressure upstream increases above the set point; usually a 2179
shutdown safety device is installed in the protective system of compressor units to trigger 2180
the action before the safety relief valve opens and therefore it should not normally be 2181
counted as the primary source of release; see B.1.2 and B.1.3), 2182
5. Compressor piston rod packings vent (a source that typically gives primary grade of 2183
release, however, if in doubt regarding monitoring, control and quality of maintenance, 2184
this vent may be considered as a continuous source of release (see B.1.2 and B.1.3), 2185
6. Gas engine, compressor and air cooler (sources that give secondary grade of release), 2186
7. Process gas scrubbers and drains (sources that give secondary grade of release of the 2187
liquid phase). 2188
8. Valves inside and outside of the shelter (sources that give secondary grade of release). 2189
9. Pipe connections (sources that give secondary grade of release). 2190
The rates of release for the purpose of this illustration are assessed from: 2191
1. For starting gas, the gas flow rate delivered in the manufacturers data sheet for 2192
pneumatic starters, 2193
2. For blowdown vent, the pressurized gas trapped in the compressor cylinders, scrubbers, 2194
pulsation bottles and process piping, 2195
3. For gas engine shut-off valve vent, the gas trapped in the fuel line and cylinders, 2196
4. For safety relief valves vent, the gas flow rate delivered in the manufacturers data sheet 2197
for respective pressure set point, 2198
5. For all other sources of release, the gas flow rates calculated according to B.3.1.2.1, or 2199
B.3.1.2.2, or estimated otherwise. 2200
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
71

Figure E.1 – Compressor facility 2201
Hereunder is an example which uses a stepwise procedure for classification of hazardous 2202
areas on a compressor facility displayed in Figure E.1. The area classification should be 2203
carried out by those who are familiar with the process and the equipment of compressor 2204
station (see also 4.3). Therefore, a process flow diagram should be the first document to start 2205
with. 2206
SHELTER
01 What are the flammable
substances involved ?
Process gas, gas condensate collected in the interstage
scrubbers of the compressor units and engine fuel and
starting gas.
02 Is the composition of those
substances known ?
It is known for the process, fuel and starting gas but it is
not known for the process gas condensate. We can
assume that it is a mixture of various higher
hydrocarbons, mostly pentane and hexane with water.
03 Can we calculate or
reasonably assume
the lower explosive limits
of the flammable
substances ?
Yes:
• for the process gas: LEL = 0,04;
• for the fuel and starting gas: LEL = 0,05;
• for the condensate: LEL = 0,013 to 0,08 depending on
the compression stage.
04 What are the sources of
release within the shelter ?
Various pipe connections on the gas engines,
compressors, scrubbers and the piping as well as local
instruments connections
05 What are the grades of
release ?
The grades of release are all secondary. It is assumed
that there should be no gas in the room under normal
operating conditions provided that the facility is well
Air inlet
V0
air
cooler
2 - Compressor blowdown vent
2
3
5
1
4
3 - Fuel gas shut-off valve vent
1 - Starting gas vent
4 & 4a - Pressure relief valve vents
5 - Compressor piston rod packings vent
4a
Air outlet
Air inlet
H1
H2
H
B
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72

monitored and maintained. Such type of facility is
typically manned what provides for timely reaction to
abnormal conditions.
06 What would be the most
representative sources of
release under given
conditions ?
Reciprocating compressors rarely leak at the cylinders.
However, they are vibrant machinery with the process
piping which is exposed to dynamic and thermal
stresses. Therefore, any hot pipe connection may be a
source of release.
The other realistic source of release would be the
crankcase breather valve of compressor. When a piston
rod packing gets worn or broken, then the compressed
gas may blow-by through the distance piece between
the cylinder and the crankcase, enter the crankcase and
then leak through the breather valve into the
surrounding area.
There are also other sources of release which have to
be scrutinized. Some may not be so obvious and may
remain hidden for quite some time thus raising the
doubts about the grade.
07 Since the sources that give
secondary grades of
release are not summated,
which of those should be
chosen for the purpose ?
It is advisable to simulate the leak from more sources
and choose the one that gives higher release rate. Since
for both cases the conditions of the process gas would
be the same, e.g. for the 2nd stage of compression
which is presumably the more stressed:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• p = 51 barA;
• T = 422 K (max allowed working temperature).
Then, the larger orifice of the release shall decide,
e.g. 2,5 mm
2
(see Table B.1).
08 If we decide that the leak
at the blown gasket
appears as more
abundant, which method of
calculation of release rate
should be applied ?
Since the operating pressure indicates sonic release,
the equations applied shall be:
) 1 ( / ) 1 (
d g
1
2
T R Z
M
p S C W
− +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
γ γ
γ
γ (B.4)


s / kg 10 54 , 1 W
2
g

× =
M p
T R W W
Q
a
a g
g
g
g
= =
ρ

s / m 10 85 , 1
6 , 21 10 3 , 101
316 8314 10 54 , 1
Q
3 2
3
2
g


× =
× ×
× × ×
=
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73

09 Is natural ventilation of the
shelter possible at all
ambient conditions
throughout a year ?
Yes, the buoyancy induced natural ventilation will be
possible even during hot summer days because the heat
dissipated by the engines and compressors will
constantly keep the interior temperature above the
ambient. The configuration of the shelter (with the
rooftop opening) will also enable wind to enhance the
ventilation no matter at which direction it is blowing.
10 What are the geometrical
characteristics of the
building ?
• Length of the shelter: L = 12 m
• Breadth of the shelter: B = 12 m
• Overall Heigth of the shelter: H = 8,0 m
• Total volume concerned: V ≈1000 m
3

• Volume under consideration:V
0
≈0,80V = 800 m
3

• Total effective area of air inlet openings: A
1
= 30 m
2

• Total effective area of air outlet openings: A
2
= 24 m
2

• Vertical distance between the midpoints of rear inlet
and outlet openings: H
1
= 7,0 m
• Vertical distance between the midpoints of front inlet
and outlet openings: H
2
= 5,4 m
• Average vertical distance between the midpoint of
the openings: H
a
= 6,2 m
11 What is the equivalent
effective area of the lower
opening ?
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
e
A A
A A 2
A
+
= (see C.2.1.2)
2
2 2
2 2
e
m 5 , 26
24 30
24 30 2
A ≈
+
× ×
=
12 What are the temperatures
at the most unfavourable
conditions ?
• Average inside temperature: T
in
= 316 K
• Outside temperature: T
out
= 313 K
13 What is the volumetric flow
rate of fresh air ?
According to Equation (C.4):
( )
a
out in
e d a
H g
T T
T
A C Q
+
=


s / m 7 , 10 2 , 6 81 , 9
313 316
313 316
5 , 26 75 , 0 Q
3
a
≈ ×
+

× =
14 What is the number of air
changes per hour in
the volume under
consideration ?
0
a
V
Q
C =
1 1
h 48 s 013 , 0
800
7 , 10
C
− −
≈ ≈ =
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
74

15 What is the ventilation
velocity ?
The ventilation velocity shall be calculated according to
the air flow pattern and that implies that the referent
cross section of the shelter shall be horizontal:
B L
Q
u
a
w
×
=
s / m 075 , 0
12 12
7 , 10
u
w

×
=
16 What is the background
concentration in the
volume under
consideration ?
Since the air flow pattern indicates movement of the air
upwards in direction of the rooftop opening, there is no
reason to apply a more strict factor of (in)efficiency of
ventilation than 1,0:
0
g
b
V C
Q f
X
×
= (C.6)
LEL % 5 , 4 % 18 , 0 10 77 , 1
800 013 , 0
10 85 , 1 0 , 1
X
3
2
b
≈ ≈ × =
×
× ×
=



17 What is the value on axis X
of the chart in Figure C.3 ?
s / m 5 , 0
04 , 0 6 , 21 10 3 , 101
316 8314 10 54 , 1
LEL M p
T R W
LEL
W
3
3
2
a
a g
g
g

× × ×
× × ×
= =

ρ

18 What is the degree of
dilution ?
See the chart in Figure C.3 and find the intersection of
the values for axis X and Y (values under items 15 and
17 in this table). The dilution appears as medium.
19 Is the background
concentration in this
volume higher than
20% LEL ?
No, it is 4,3 % LEL.
Taking into account the answer, the degree of dilution
can be considered as medium DM).
20 What is the availability of
the ventilation ?
Taking into account said under item 09, the availability
of the ventilation could be considered as good.
However, the availability in naturally ventilated enclosed
spaces in principle should never be considered as good
due to the natural uncertainties. So, we have to consider
the availability of the ventilation as “fair”.
21 What will be the type of
the zone within the
shelter ?
Taking into account the grades of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation, the interior of
the shelter is classified as zone 2 (see Table C.1).
22 Is there any opening on
the shelter which may be
considered as the source
of release ?
Yes, it is the rooftop outlet opening.
It is type A opening.
23 What is the mass release
rate of the gas through this
opening ?
b g 2 2 g
X A u W ρ =
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
75

a
b a w
b g 1 w g
T R
X M p B L u
X B L u W = = ρ
316 8314
10 73 , 1 6 , 21 10 3 , 101 12 12 075 , 0
W
3 3
g
×
× × × × × × ×
=


s / kg 10 54 , 1 W
2
g

× ≈
The result is the same as with equation (B.3) what is in
compliance with Mass Conservation Law.
24 What is the degree of
dilution ?
The degree of dilution is again obtained by using the
chart in Figure C.3, except that the ventilation velocity
u
w
is now the wind speed, We assume that 1,0 m/s is a
realistic approximation taking into account the height of
the opening above ground. The degree of dilution still
appears as medium (DM).
25 What is the hazardous
area around the opening ?
The hazardous area shall apparently be zone 2.
26 What is the hazardous
distance around the
opening ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1). We may be
in doubt which curve to choose as referent. Certainly not
the one for heavy gas, so it should be the one of the
remaining two. Taking into account the position of the
source of release, there is no need for too much
conservatism and the lower curve should be the logical
choice. Hazardous distance in the chart appears
somewhat above 1,0 m so the zone will have the extent
of 1,5 m.
27 Conclusion The whole area under the shelter is zone 2. There is no
need to extend the zone beyond the walls except at the
rooftop where the air and gas mixture may escape as
result of.the buoyancy induced natural ventilation.
STARTING GAS VENT (Source 1)
28 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is dry pipeline quality natural
gas with min 96% vol of methane:
• M = 16,8 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,3;
• LEL = 0,05.
29 Under which
circumstances is the gas
being released ?
The gas is being released through the pneumatic starter
during the starting sequence of max 20 sec. The gas is
used as the driving media in the cases where no
compressed air is available. Since methane is a
glasshouse gas, its release into atmosphere is
prohibited in many instances. Nevertheless, on many
older plants it is still being used.
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
76

30 Which grade of release is
this ?
This is a typical primary grade of release. The release
occurs in normal operation and is quite predictable
regarding the timing and the release rate.
31 What is the release rate ? The gas supply pressure is 10 barg. However, after the
engagement of the mechanism in the starting sequence,
the pressure drops substantially. Anyway, the gas
volumetric flow rate is given in the manufacturer’s data
sheet. In case of the starter on this compressor station,
it is 802 L/s what makes:
s / m 802 , 0 Q
3
g
= and
a
a g
g g g
T R
M p Q
Q W = = ρ
s / kg 5 , 0
313 8314
8 , 16 10 3 , 101 802 , 0
W
3
g

×
× × ×
=
NOTE The ambient temperatures are not the same under the
shelter and in the open air.
32 What is the value on axis X
of the chart in Figure C.3 ?
s / m 16
05 , 0 8 , 16 10 3 , 101
313 8314 524 , 0
LEL M p
T R W
LEL
W
3
3
a
a g
g
g

× × ×
× ×
= =
ρ

33 What is the degree of
dilution ?
Taking into account the wind speed of 1,0 m/s, the
degree of dilution appears as medium (see Figure C.3).
34 What is the availability of
the ventilation ?
The availability of ventilation (wind speed of 1,0 m/s) at
this height and position of the source of release relative
to other objects can be considered as “good”.
35 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
Taking into account the grades of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation, the area
should be classified as zone 1 (see Table C.1).
36 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1). Taking the
lower curve as referent, the hazardous distance appears
9,0 m.
37 Conclusion When assessing the extent of a zone we must apply a
balanced approach taking into account all the relevant
circumstances. E.g., the hazardous distance in this case
appears large but so is the predictable release rate. On
the other hand, it is known that the starting sequence
lasts max. 20 sec and the question is whether this
deserves such a large hazardous area. However, there
may be few unsuccessful starts in a row and then the
explosive atmosphere may cumulate, especially at low
wind. So, the distance of 9,0 m appears as realistic.
In this particular case the vents should preferably be
collected in a common manifold and brought to a safe
distance or to the plant flare, otherwise zone 1 could
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
77

take the part of the shelter interior.
COMPRESSOR BLOWDOWN VENT (Source 2)
38 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is the process gas with 80%
vol of methane:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• LEL = 0,04.
39 Under which
circumstances is the gas
being released ?
The gas is being released during blowdown of the
compressor after the shutdown sequence
40 Which grade of release is
this ?
This is a typical primary grade of release. The release
occurs in normal operation and is relatively predictable
regarding the timing and the release rate.
41 What is the release rate ? The gas is released at the pressure which was caught in
the compressor in the moment of shutdown. At
multistage compressors it is an average pressure of all
the stages. In this particular case we can calculate with
approximately 29 barA:
) 1 ( / ) 1 (
d g
1
2
T R Z
M
p S C W
− +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
γ γ
γ
γ (B.4)
Taking into account that the release opening of the vent
is 1”, then the orifice area S = 5 x 10
-4
m
2
and:
s / kg 75 , 1 W
g
=
42 What is the value on axis X
of the chart in Figure C.3 ?
s / m 52
04 , 0 6 , 21 10 3 , 101
313 8314 75 , 1
LEL M p
T R W
LEL
W
3
3
a
a g
g
g

× × ×
× ×
= =
ρ

The result quite expectedly appears high. Unless we
apply the wind speed higher than 1,0 m/s, the degree of
dilution will appear as low (DL). On the other hand, the
availability of ventilation will be lower if we choose
higher than 1,0 m/s wind speed.
43 What is the degree of
dilution ?
Taking into account the wind speed of 1,0 m/s, the
degree of dilution appears as low (see Figure C.3).
44 What is the availability of
the ventilation ?
The availability of ventilation at wind speed of 1,0 m/s,
at this height and position of the source of release
relative to other objects, can be considered as “good”.
45 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
Taking into account the grades of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation, the area
should be classified as zone 1 (see Table C.1).
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
78

46 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see the chart in Figure D.1).
Taking the lower curve as referent, the intersection point
is beyond the range of the chart. Any extrapolation in
this case is not advisable.
However, in this case we have to take into account that
the release occurs at the decreasing pressure. Usually it
takes a minute to evacuate the trapped gas from
compressor. That means that the above method which
counts with a continuous release is quite conservative.
It is helpful to assume that the release from a known
containment happens instantaneously and then
calculate volume of the expanded gas diluted to LEL
level, This will give a more realistic view of the possible
size of the hazardous area.
47 The size of the flammable gas cloud in case of
instantaneous release will be:
LEL p
V p
V
a
c
z
=
where V
c
is the volume of the compressor interior and
the process vessels and piping, e.g. 3,0 m
3
.
3
3
5
z
m 2150
04 , 0 10 3 , 101
0 , 3 10 29
V ≈
× ×
× ×
=
The radius of such a spherical volume would be
approximately 8,0 m.
48 Conclusion In cases when a large quantity of gas is expected to be
released into atmosphere it is recommended to
discharge it to the plant flare. However, that is not
always practicable because the operating staff usually
needs to observe the release. Also, there is always a
backpressure in the pipe to the flare which prevents a
complete depressurization.
FUEL GAS SHUT-OFF VALVE VENT (Source 3)
49 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is dry pipeline quality natural
gas with min 96% vol of methane:
• M = 16,8 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,3;
• LEL = 0,05.
50 Under which
circumstances is the gas
being released ?
The engine fuel gas is being released during the
shutdown sequence when the three way shut-off valve
blocks the incoming gas and simultaneously releases
into atmosphere the gas trapped in the engine.
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79

51 Which grade of release is
this ?
This is a typical primary grade of release. The release
occurs in normal operation and is relatively predictable
regarding the timing and the release rate.
52 What is the release rate ? The gas is released at the pressure which was trapped
in the engine in the moment of shutdown. This is
actually the pressure after the first reduction to the
engine and is approximately 4,0 barA.
Taking into account that the release opening of the vent
is 1”, then the orifice area is S = 5 x 10
-4
m
2
and:
s / kg 25 , 0 W
g

53 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
The logic of the release is the same as for compressor
blowdown vent.
Taking into account the grades of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation, the area
around the starting gas vent shall be classified as
zone 1 (Table C.1).
54 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1). Taking the
lower curve as referent, the hazardous distance appears
6,0 m.
However, in this case we have to take into account that
the release occurs at the decreasing pressure. Usually it
takes less than a minute to evacuate the trapped gas
from an engine of this size. That means that the above
method which counts with a continuous release is quite
conservative (see also item 47). Taking into account the
nature of the release, a zone with extent of 6,0 m would
probably be an exaggeration.
55 Conclusion Similar as in item 49.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE VENT – COMPRESSOR UNIT (Sources 4 & 4a)
56 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is the process gas with 80%
vol of methane:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• LEL = 0,04.
57 Under which
circumstances may the
gas be released ?
The process gas may be released if the pressure in a
compressor stage exceeds the relief valve setting. The
other cause of release may be an accidental leak due to
malfunction of the closing element.
58 Which grade of release is
this ?
This is a secondary grade of release. The release
occurs only if the shutdown system which is set below
the relief valve setting fails to activate or due to failed
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
80

closing element.
Only the accidental leaks and not the full flow operation
should be taken into account, because it may result with
overlarge hazardous areas. The approach is actually a
matter of risk assessment because if there is a
shutdown system to protect the equipment, it is highly
unlikely that the relief valve will activate ever during the
lifetime.
59 What is the release rate ? Hereunder, the calculation will be performed with the full
flow just to demonstrate the difficulties of such
approach. It is reasonable to assume that full flow
through the relief valve is approximately equal to
capacity of the compressor. In this particular case, it is:
s / m 39 , 1 Q
3
g
=
s / kg 2 , 1 W
g

60 What is the value on axis X
of the chart in Figure C.3 ?
s / m 35
LEL
W
3
g
g

ρ

The result quite expectedly appears very high. That’s
why the degree of dilution will be low (DL). Low dilution
leads to zone 1 with a very large extent. Taking into
account that the compressor has a fully automatic
shutdown system with trip devices to prevent excessive
pressure, such an approach would be too conservative.
That’s why a more realistic approach is needed, e.g. an
accidental leak through a 2,5 mm
2
orifice (see item 17).
Then, by applying the same equation, the value on axis
X appears as ≈ 0,5 m
3
/s
61 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
Taking into account the grade of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation that is
considered good for this heighth of the source, the
position relative to other objects and the wind speed of
1,0 m/s, the area around the vent should be classified
as zone 2 (see Table C.1).
62 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1).
Taking the middle curve as referent, the hazardous
distance appears 3,0 m.
63 Conclusion Unless a pressure relief valve belongs to the first line of
protection, the release rate should be calculated as an
accidental leak through a failed or semi opened closing
element. Any other approach would lead to unnecessary
large hazardous areas (see Table B.1).
COMPRESSOR PISTON ROD PACKINGS VENT (Source 5)
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
81

64 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is the process gas with 80%
vol of methane:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• LEL = 0,04.
65 Under which
circumstances may the
gas be released ?
The gas may be released through a packing ring set that
has not been sufficiently broken in, or through a worn
out or otherwise failed packings.
66 Which grade of release is
this ?
Piston rod packings are supposed to seal and normally
are gas tight. However, this source of release is
unpredictable and may leak at any time. Therefore, the
distance peaces between compressor cylinders and the
the crankcase that encapsulate the piston rod packings
are vented into atmosphere. That is why this vent is
normally considered a primary source of release.
67 What is the release rate ? The gas is released at the pressure in the cylinders. If
we take the second stage where the pressure is 51
barA, select the hole size of 2,5 mm
2
(see Table B.1)
and the coefficient of discharge, e.g. C
d
= 0,50 (taking
into account the configuration of the packing and the
path of the gas), then by using Equation B.4:
s / kg 10 0 , 1 W
2
g

× ≈
68 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
Taking into account the grade of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation (good for this
heighth and the wind speed of 1,0 m/s), the area around
the vent should be classified as zone 1 (see Table C.1).
69 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1).
Taking the lower curve as referent, the intersection point
is somewhat above 1,0 m. That means that zone extent
will be 1,5 m.
70 Conclusions The problem is that the gas will not flow only through
the vent but may also blow-by the packings and enter
the crankcase and then consequently leak through the
breather valve into the surrounding area (see item 06).
The vent itself is sometimes considered as continuous
source of release because of its unpredictability. If there
are no warning signs of release, then the gas may leak
unnoticed. The leak usually gets noticed when the
release is so large that it starts leaking through the
frame breather valve.
SCRUBBERS (GAS RELEASE)
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82

71 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is the process gas with 80%
vol of methane:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• LEL = 0,04
72 Under which
circumstances may the
flammable substance be
released ?
The gas may be released through blown gasket of a
pipe connection, through the failed closing element of
pressure relief valve or through a nontight threaded
connection of local pressure/temperature indicator.
73 Which grades of release
are those ?
Those are secondary grades of release.
74 What is the release rate ? The gas is released through the blown gasket at the
discharge pipe connection where the pressure is 51
barA, the hole size is 2,5 mm
2
, temperature of the gas at
this point is 323 K and the coefficient of discharge
typically C
d
= 0,75. Then by using Equation B.4:
s / kg 10 8 , 1 W
2
g

× ≈
75 What is the hazardous
area around the release
orifice ?
Taking into account the grade of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation (good for the
wind speed of 0,5 m/s), the area around the scrubber
should be classified as zone 2 (see Table C.1).
76 What is the hazardous
distance around the
release orifice ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1).
Taking the middle curve as referent, the intersection
point is somewhere between 2,0 and 3,0 m. That means
that zone extent should be 3,0 m.
77 Conclusion The hazardous area should spread around the scrubber
in all directions taking into account a large number of
connections and fittings same as possible
consequences of an explosion in the vicinity of the
pressure vessel.
SCRUBBERS (LIQUID RELEASE)
78 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The composition of the condensate depends on the
equilibrium state for each compression stage. For the
purpose of this calculation, we assume the following::
• M = 46 kg/kmol;
• LEL = 0,013
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83

79 Under which
circumstances may the
flammable substance be
released ?
The condensate may be released through the sight
glass venting or drain cocks or through any pipe
connection in the drain system if it was not properly
tightened. We can assume that the whole quantity of
approximately 100 L that has been collected at the
bottom of the vessel will be released before the
compressor shuts down.
80 Which grade of release is
this ?
This is a secondary grade of release.
81 What is the release rate ? If we assume that the spilled condensate will form a
pool around the scrubber, at least of the quantity that
has not been evaporated instantaneously, then:
T R
M p A u 10 55 , 6
W
667 , 0
v p
78 , 0
w
3
g
×
×
=

(B.6)
The area of the pool is approximately:
10
G
A
s
p

And then:
T R
M p G u 10 55 , 6
W
667 , 0
v s
78 , 0
w
4
g
×
×
=


Taking the wind speed of 0,5 m/s, the quantity of the
spilled liquid of approximately 50 kg and the
temperature of 323 K, then the mass evaporation rate
will be:
s / kg 10 93 , 0
323 314 , 8
46 3 , 101 50 5 , 0 10 55 , 6
W
2
667 , 0 78 , 0 4
g


× ≈
×
× × × × ×
=

82 What is the value on
axis X of the chart in
Figure C.3 ?
s / m 4 , 0
013 , 0 46 10 3 , 101
313 8314 10 93 , 0
LEL M p
T R W
LEL
W
3
3
2
a
a g
g
g

× × ×
× × ×
= =

ρ

83 What is the hazardous
area around the
scrubber ?
Taking into account the grade of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation (good for the
wind speed of 0,5 m/), the area around the scrubber
should be classified as zone 2 (see Table C.1).
84 What is the hazardous
distance around the
scrubber ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1).
Taking the upper curve as referent (heavy gas), the
intersection point is near 5,0 m.
85 Conclusions Gas condensate evaporates quickly, especially at higher
ambient temperatures. What will remain in liquid form
are higher hydrocarbon components in mixture with
water.
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84

Since the vapours are heavier than air, the zone around
the scrubbers will spread at the ground level. The zone
should preferably be marked by different colour and
respective temperature class to distinguish it from the
rest of hazardous area which is presumably IIAT2.
VALVES, PIPE CONNECTIONS, FITTINGS AND OTHER (OUTSIDE OF THE SHELTER)
86 What is the flammable
substance involved and
what are the properties ?
The flammable substance is the process gas with
80% vol of methane:
• M = 21,6 kg/kmol;
• γ = 1,2;
• LEL = 0,04
87 Under which
circumstances may the
flammable substance be
released ?
The gas may be released through blown gasket of a
pipe connection, through the failed closing element of
pressure relief valve or through a nontight threaded
connection of local pressure/temperature indicator.
88 Which grade of release are
those ?
Those are secondary grades of release.
89 What is the release rate ? The gas is released through the blown gasket at the
discharge pipe connection where the pressure is 51
barA, the hole size is 2,5 mm
2
(see Table B.1),
temperature of the gas at this point is 323 K and the
coefficient of discharge typically C
d
= 0,75, then by using
Equation B.4:
s / kg 10 8 , 1 W
2
g

× ≈
90 What is the hazardous
area around the
scrubber ?
Taking into account the grade of release, the degree of
dilution and the availability of ventilation (good for the
wind speed of 0,5 m/s), the area around the scrubber
should be classified as zone 2 (see Table C.1).
91 What is the hazardous
distance around the
scrubber ?
The hazardous distance can be estimated by applying
the method set in Annex D (see Figure D.1).
Taking the middle curve as referent, the intersection
point is somewhere between 2,0 and 3,0 m. That means
that zone extent will be 3,0 m.
The zone extents for the purpose of this illustration are considered as: 2207
a = 1,5 m from the rooftop opening (zone 2) 2208
b = 9,0 m from the starting gas vent (zone 1) 2209
c = 8,0 m from the compressor blowdown vent (zone 1) 2210
d = 6,0 m from the engine shut-off valve vent (zone 1) 2211
e = 3,0 m from the pressure relief valve vent (zone 2) 2212
f = 1,5 m from the piston rod packing vent (zone 1) 2213
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
85

g = 3,0 m from the pressure relief valve vent (zone 2) 2214
h = 3,0 m from the valve connections, or body of the scrubbers (zone 2) 2215
i = 5,0 m from the body of the scrubbers (zone 2, IIAT3) 2216
The secondary grades of release are attributed provided that the releases are noticed and 2217
dealt with in the shortest time possible. 2218
The figures below are not to scale and are intended only to illustrate the area classification 2219
procedure, 2220
2221
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
86

Air inlet
Air outlet
V
0

air
cooler
2 - Compressor blowdown vent
2
3
5
1
4
3 - Fuel gas shut-off valve vent
1 - Starting gas vent
4 - Safety relief valve vent
5 - Compressor piston rod packings vent
a
b
c
d
e
h
g
i
h
h
f
Zone 1
Zone 2
Not to scale !
4a

AIIT3
Engine Compressor
Scrubber
Air inlet
Figure E.2 – Example of area classification for a compressor facility handling natural gas
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
87

i
b
e
h
Figure E.2a – Example of area classification for a compressor facility handling natural gas
L

B
4
1
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
88

Hazardous area classification data sheet − Part I : Flammable material list and characteristics 2240
Sheet 1 of 3 2241
Plant: Compressor facility handling natural gas (case analysis) Figures
E.2, E.2a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Flammable material
Volatility
a

LEL
Ex
characteristics

No. Name Compos
ition
Molar
mass
(kg/
kmol)
Rela
tive
density
gas/air
Polytropic
index of
adiabatic
expansion
γ
Flash
point
(°C)
Igni
tion
temp.
(°C)
Melting
point
(°C)
Boiling
point
(°C)
Vapour
pressure
20
0
C
(kPa)
vol
(%)
(kg/m
3
) Group Temp.
class
Any other
relevant
information
and remarks
1
Process
gas
80% vol
CH4+
higher
hydrocar
bons
21,6 0,8 1,2 – >400 – – – 4,0 0,036 IIA T2

2
Process
gas
condens
ate
Iso- and
normal
pentane,
hexane
and
heptane
46 >3,0 – <30 <300 – <50 unknown
1,3 to
8,0
0,025
to
0,153
IIA T3
The values are
estimated
3
Starting
and fuel
gas
96% vol
CH4+
higher
hydrocar
bons
16,8 0,6 1,3 – >500 – – – 5,0 0,035 IIA T1




60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
89


a
Normally, the value of vapour pressure is given, but in the absence of that, boiling point also indicates the volatility (see also J.3.1)

2242
2243
2244
Hazardous area classification data sheet − Part II : List of sources of release 2245
Sheet 2 of 3 2246
Plant: Compressor facility handling natural gas (case analysis)
Figures
E.2,E.2a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Source or release Flammable material Ventilation Hazardous area
No. Description Location Grade of
release
a

Refer-
ence
b

Operating
temperature
and pressure
State
c


Type
d

Degree
e
Avail-
ability
e

Zone
type
0-1-2
Zone extent
(m)
Refer
ence
f

Any
other
informa
tion and
remarks
(°C) (kPa) Vertical Horizontal
1
Starting gas
vent
Above the
roof of the
shelter
P 3 25 1000 G N Medium Good 1
9,0
From vent
outlet
9,0
From vent
outlet


2
Compressor
blowdown
vent
Above the
roof of the
shelter
P 1 35 5000 G N Medium Good 1
8,0
From vent
outlet
8,0
From vent
outlet


3
Fuel gas
shut-off
valve vent
Above the
roof of the
shelter
P 3 25 50 G N Medium Good 1
6,0
From vent
outlet
6,0
From vent
outlet


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90

4
Safety relief
valve vent
Above the
roof of the
shelter
S 1 149 2800 G N Medium Good 2
3,0
From vent
outlet
3,0
From vent
outlet


4a
Safety relief
valve vent
On the
scrubber
outside of
the shelter
S 1 50 5500 G N Medium Good 2
3,0
From vent
outlet
3,0
From vent
outlet


5
Compressor
piston rod
packings
vent
Above the
roof of the
shelter
P/C 1 25 101,325 G N Medium Good 0 or 1
1,5
From vent
outlet
1,5
From vent
outlet


6 Gas engi ne
Insi de the
shel ter
S 3 25 50 G N Medi um Good 2
Whole
interior of the
shelter
Whole
interior of the
shelter


6a Compressor
Insi de the
shel ter
S 1 149
200 to
5000
G N Medi um Good 2
Wholei
nterior of the
shelter
Wholei
nterior of the
shelter


2247
Hazardous area classification data sheet – Part II: List of sources of release (continued) 2248
Sheet 3 of 3 2249
Plant: Compressor facility handling natural gas (case analysis)
Figures
E2, E.2a
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Source of release Flammable material Ventilation Hazardous area
No. Description Location Grade of
release
a

Refer-
ence
b

Operating
temperature
and pressure
State
c
Type
d
Degree
e
Avail
ability
e

Zone
type
0-1-2
Zone extent
(m)
Refer
-
ence
f

Any
other
informa
tion and
remarks
(
0
C) (kPa) Vertical Horizontal
6b Air cooler
Infront of
the shelter
S 1 50
2500 to
5000
G N Medium Medium 2
3,0
From air
cooler
3,0
From air
cooler


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91

7
Process gas
scrubber
Compres
sor inside
the shelter
S 1 50 2500 L N Medium Medium 2
Whole
interior of the
shelter
Whole
interior of the
shelter


7a
Process gas
scrubber
Outside of
the shelter
S 2 50 5000 L N Medium Medium 2
3,0
From the
gas scrubber
3,0
From the gas
srcubber


8 Valves
Inside the
shelter
S 1/2/3 G/L N Medium Medium 2
Whole
interior of the
shelter
Whole
interior of the
shelter


8a Valves
Outside the
shelter
S 1/2/3 G/L N Medium Medium 2
3,0
From valves
3,0
From valves

9
Pipe
connections
Inside the
shelter
S 1/2/3 G/L N Medium Medium 2
Whole
interior of the
shelter
Whole
interior of the
shelter


9a
Pipe
connections
Outside the
shelter
S 1/2/3 G/L N Medium Medium 2
3,0
From pipe
connection
3,0
From pipe
connection

a
C – Continuous; S – Secondary; P – Primary.
b
Quote the number of list in Part I.
c
G – Gas; L – Liquid; LG – Liquid gas; S – Solid.
d
N – Natural; A – Artificial.
e
See IEC 60079-10-1 Annex C
f. Indicate code reference if used or calculation reference
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92

Annex F 2250
(informative) 2251
Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F.1 2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
Go to Section F.3 Go to Section F.2 Go to Section F.1
Yes
No
No
Does it contain a quantity of flammable material
which is capable of producing a dangerous volume
of explosive gas atmosphere?
Yes
The grades of each release must be determined (1)
Starting
Are there any sources of release?
Flammable material container
Yes
Can the sources of release be eliminated?
No
PRIMARY grade of release CONTINUOUS grade of release
SECONDARY grade of release
Non-hazardous
area
NOTE 1 – A source of release may give rise to more than one grade of release or a combination.
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93

Annex F 2262
(informative) 2263
Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas - Section F.2 2264
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
94

2265
2266
2267
High (DH) Low (DL)
Fair Poor Good
Poor
Yes
No
Zone 0
Zone 0 NE
(2)

Zone 0 NE
(2)

Zone 0
Zone 0
+

Yes
Go to Section F.3
Yes
Can it be changed to
Medium Dilution (DM)?
CONTINUOUS grade of release
Can it be changed to PRIMARY grade?
No
From Section F.1
The degree of dilution must be determined
Parameters which affect the type and extent of zones must be evaluated
(e.g. release rate, velocity, etc.)
Medium (DM)
Can it be changed to
High Dilution (DH)?
No
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
Fair
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
Good
The availability of the ventilation
is not considered
The type of zone is determined
Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Zone 0
+

Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Zone 0 NE
(2)
Non

Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
NOTE 2 – Zones NE indicate theoretical zones which would be of negligible extent under normal conditions.
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
95

Annex F 2268
(informative) 2269
Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas – Section F.3 2270
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
96

2271
Fair Poor Good Poor Fair
High (DH)
Zone 1 NE
(2)

Zone 1 NE
(2)

Zone 1
Zone 1
+

Zone 1
+

Yes
Zone 1
or

No
Low (DL)
Yes
Go to Section F.4
The type of zone is determined
No
Yes
Can it be changed to secondary grade?
PRIMARY grade of release
From Section F.1 or F.2
The degree of dilution must be determined
Parameters which affect the type and extent of zones must be evaluated
(e.g. release rate, velocity, etc.)
Medium (DM)
Can it be changed to
High Dilution (DH)?
Can it be changed to
Medium Dilution (DM)?
No
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
Good
The availability of the ventilation
is not considered
Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Zone 1 NE
(2)
Non

Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
NOTE 2 – Zones NE indicate theoretical zones which would be of negligible extent under normal conditions.
NOTE 3 – Will be Zone 0 if the low dilution (DL) is so weak and the release is such that in practice an explosive
atmosphere exist virtually continuously i e approaching a “no ventilation” condition
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
97

2272
Annex F 2273
(informative) 2274
Schematic approach to classification of hazardous areas – Section F.4 2275
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
98

2276
From Section F.1 or F.3
Poor Fair Good Poor
Zone 2
(4)
Zone 2 NE
(2)

Zone 2
Zone 2
(4)
Zone 2
Zone 1
and even


No
High (DH) Low (DL)
Yes
Can it be changed to
Medium Dilution (DM)?
Yes
Yes
Non-hazardous
area
SECONDARY grade of release
Can it be eliminated?
The type of zone is determined
No
The degree of dilution must be determined
Parameters which affect the type and extent of zones must be evaluated
(e.g. release rate, velocity, etc.)
Medium (DM)
Can it be changed to
High Dilution (DH)?
No
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
Fair
The availability of the ventilation
must be determined
Good
The availability of the ventilation
is not considered
Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
The type of zone is determined
Zone 2 NE
(2)
Non

Using an appropriate code or
calculations determine the extent
of zone
NOTE 2 – Zones NE indicate theoretical zones which would be of negligible extent under normal conditions.
NOTE 3 – Will be Zone 0 if the low dilution (DL) is so weak and the release is such that in practice an explosive
atmosphere exist virtually continuously i.e. approaching a “no ventilation” condition.
NOTE 4 – The Zone 2 area created by secondary grade of release may exceed that attributable to a primary or
continuous grade of release. In this case, the greater distance should be taken.
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
99

Annex G 2277
(informative) 2278
Flammable mists 2279
2280
G.1 When a liquid is handled at or above its flash point, any release will be treated through 2281
the normal area classification process described in this standard. If it is released below the 2282
flash point, under certain conditions, it may form a flammable mist cloud. 2283
Even the liquids that can be considered as non hazardous at process temperatures, in some 2284
situations may form a flammable mist which may then give rise to an explosion hazard. 2285
Examples of liquids that are commonly considered in this regard include high flash point liquid 2286
fuels, heat exchange oils and lubricating oils. 2287
G.2 In practice, a liquid release will normally comprise of broad range of droplet sizes with 2288
larger droplets tending to fallout immediately, leaving only a small fraction of the release 2289
airborne in the form of an aerosol. The flammability of the mist depends upon the 2290
concentration in air of the droplets plus any vapour, a function of the volatility of the liquid and 2291
the droplet sizes within the cloud. The size of droplets depends upon the pressure at which 2292
the liquid is being released, the properties of the liquid (primarily density, surface tension and 2293
viscosity) and the size and shape of the release opening. Normally, higher pressures and 2294
smaller openings will contribute to the degree of atomization of the release jet thus giving the 2295
rise to an explosion hazard. On the other hand, smaller release openings imply smaller 2296
release rates thus reducing the hazard. 2297
G.3 It has been proved that aerosol sized droplets are the most easily ignitable portion of the 2298
mist cloud, though generally these are only a small fraction of the total release. This fraction 2299
may increase if the release jet impacts on a nearby surface. 2300
NOTE 1 Aerosols are small (sub-micron to 50 microns) particles in suspension in the atmosphere. 2301
NOTE 2 Droplets in the aerosol range may be as low as 1 % of the total mass released, subject to release 2302
conditions. 2303
NOTE 3 Fuel droplet clouds have generally been found difficult to ignite, unless there is sufficient mass of vapour 2304
or very small droplets present. 2305
G.4 The likelihood that the release of liquid will generate a flammable mist during normal 2306
operation and/or expected malfunctions should be carefully assessed along with the likelihood 2307
of events that could lead to such a release. The assessment may indicate that the release of 2308
material is of a very low probability or that the mist cloud could be generated only during rare 2309
malfunctions or catastrophic failures. Assessments should be backed up by references or 2310
operational experience with similar plants. However, due to thermodynamic complexity of 2311
mists and a large number of factors that influence formation and flammability of mists, the 2312
reference may not be available for every given situation. In such cases, a judgement based 2313
upon relevant data should be applied. 2314
G.5 It is important to point out that not every leak will cause a mist formation, e.g. the leaks 2315
through broken flange gaskets or stuffing boxes/packing glands that are the most common 2316
secondary grades of release in case of gases or vapours, will usually be negligible in case of 2317
viscous liquids and in most cases will cause dripping rather than mist. 2318
That means that the likelihood of mists being generated through leaks at pipe joints, valves, 2319
etc. should not be overstated. Such considerations should take into account the physical 2320
properties of the liquid, the conditions at which it is being handled, mechanical details of the 2321
equipment through which it is being processed, quality of equipment and obstructions near 2322
source of release. 2323
NOTE 1 For liquids released well below their flash point, examples of mist explosions are rare in process 2324
industries. This is probably due to difficulty in generating sufficiently small droplet sizes from an accidental release 2325
and the associated difficulty of ignition. 2326
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
100

NOTE 2 Flammable mists may be ignited by sparks of similar energy as for vapour ignition but generally require 2327
very high surface temperatures for ignition. Ignition of mists by contact with hot surfaces generally requires 2328
temperatures higher than for vapour ignition. 2329
G.6 If formation of a flammable mist is considered possible, then the source of release 2330
should preferably be contained or managed to reduce the hazard, e.g. by porous guards in 2331
order to promote the coalescing of the mist, mist detectors or suppression systems. Where 2332
containment or similar controls cannot be assured, then the potential for a hazardous area 2333
should be considered. However, because the dispersion mechanisms and the criteria of 2334
flammability for mists are different than those for gases and vapours, the methodology of 2335
classification presented in Annex B cannot be applied. 2336
NOTE 1 The conditions that are needed to form a flammable mist are so complex that only a qualitative approach 2337
may be appropriate. It may be useful to identify the factors related to the handled liquid which contribute to 2338
formation, and to the flammability of mist. These factors along with the probability of events that would lead to 2339
release of the liquid may be sufficient to evaluate the degree of the hazard and help to decide whether a hazardous 2340
area is required. 2341
NOTE 2 In general, the only element relevant to determining the type of zone is the grade of release. In most 2342
cases, it will be a secondary grade of release. Continuous or primary grades of release would typically be 2343
associated with equipment which is intended for spraying, e.g. spray painting. 2344
NOTE 3 If a hazardous area has been established, it should be distinguished on the area drawing from other areas 2345
associated with gases and vapours, e.g. by appropriate marking. 2346
G.7 Even the mists that are not ignitable according to the criteria of droplets size could 2347
eventually land on a hot surface, relative to the ignition temperature of the vapour, thus 2348
causing a fire hazard. Care should be taken to contain potential releases and prevent contact 2349
with hot surfaces. 2350
G.8 Mists require minimum concentrations to be flammable (in a similar manner to 2351
flammable vapours or combustible dusts). For non-flammable liquids, this would typically be 2352
associated with a cloud that reduces visibility. 2353
The considerations should also take into account that mists are typically visible and hence, 2354
releases can usually be mitigated in due time. 2355
NOTE Lower flammability limits for fuel aerosols have been shown to be similar to or less than those associated 2356
with the fuel vapour. 2357
G.9 Flammable mists may occur within equipment due to oil lubrication systems, splashing 2358
or agitation as a part of the process operations. Internal parts of process plant should then be 2359
considered as hazardous areas. Under certain conditions, such mists may also be vented to 2360
atmosphere, e.g. lubricating oil mists through crankcase breathers, tank or gearbox vents, 2361
thus giving the rise to fire hazard. Venting of such mists should preferably be eliminated by 2362
mist extractors. 2363
G.10 Additional considerations should be applied for situations where the liquids are being 2364
sprayed intentionally, e.g. spray painting. Area classification in such cases is usually the 2365
subject of specific industrial codes. 2366
2367
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
101

Annex H 2368
(informative) 2369
Hydrogen 2370
2371
H.1 The flammable range of hydrogen in air is between 4% and 77% by volume. Hydrogen is 2372
also commonly found in mixtures of flammable gases such as refinery process streams. With 2373
gas mixtures, the gas group should be considered as IIC or IIB+H
2
where a gas mixture 2374
includes 30% or more of hydrogen by volume unless other specific data is available. The 2375
temperature class should be taken as the lowest ignition temperature for any gas exceeding 2376
3% in the mixture. 2377
NOTE IEC 60079-20-1 includes guidance for specific gas mixtures including hydrogen such as coke oven gas and 2378
industrial methane for relevant gas groups. 2379
H.2 The ignition temperature of hydrogen is 560 °C. Although very high temperatures are 2380
required to ignite a hydrogen-in-air mixture, precautions should be taken to ensure hydrogen 2381
leaks are not exposed to any hot surfaces. 2382
H.3 The diffusion rate of a gas due to buoyancy is proportional to its density relative to that 2383
of air. Hydrogen is a lighter than air gas which diffuses rapidly with a tendency to rise 2384
upwards. However, as the gas diffuses the bulk density of a given volume will tend to 2385
approach that of air. As the concentration of hydrogen reduces, such the bulk density 2386
approaches that of air, the low concentration of hydrogen will tend to move with the air. 2387
H.4 High volume releases hydrogen are likely to accumulate in overhead spaces. A 2388
hydrogen gas release can form gas pockets in alcoves, roof peaks, and dormers which tend to 2389
be poorly ventilated. Conversely, relatively small openings in such spaces will allow hydrogen 2390
to escape and may be sufficient to prevent hydrogen concentrating due to low volume 2391
releases. 2392
H.5 Hydrogen gas releases will generally result in a jet plume in the orientation of the point 2393
of release. Once the jet momentum is dissipated the plume will take a more vertical ascent 2394
and generally harmlessly disperse in a well ventilated area. 2395
H.6 A liquid hydrogen spill, which commonly has a vessel saturation pressure of 60 psig, 2396
can suddenly expose the cryogenic content of the vessel to ambient pressure (0 psig). Such a 2397
condition will instantly boil or flash a significant portion of the liquid to cryogenic vapour 2398
potentially resulting in the remainder of contents to spill. Liquid hydrogen boils at 20 K at 1 2399
atmosphere of pressure and the contents when exposed to ambient temperatures will have 2400
sufficient heat to rapidly vaporize the liquid hydrogen. The exposed cross-sectional area of 2401
the liquid hydrogen spill affects the rate at which the contents flash to vapour and warms. At 2402
hydrogen’s boiling point, the cold hydrogen vapour is heavier than air until it warms. As the 2403
cold vapours mix with air, the air can be chilled below the dew point, causing condensation 2404
and forming a visible cloud. After dwelling near the ground and warming sufficiently, the 2405
visible vapour cloud may form a plume as it rises. 2406
H.7 The flame fronts observed with hydrogen-in-air mixtures burn less readily when 2407
constrained to burning in a horizontal direction, and even less so in a downward direction. 2408
The release of a large quantity of hydrogen can form a plume that possesses an increasing 2409
concentration of hydrogen towards the centreline of the plume. Regions of lower- 2410
concentration hydrogen-air mixtures require greater initiation energy to ignite than those of 2411
higher concentration towards the centre of a plume. Movement and water vapour in a plume 2412
will also result in greater initiation energy when compared to the same composition mixture, 2413
that is dry and without movement. 2414
Therefore, as a plume of hydrogen rises, the exterior regions of the plume (the regions likely 2415
to encounter an ignition source) are less likely to ignite when compared to near-stoichiometric 2416
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
102

mixtures. Should ignition occur in an exterior region of the plume, only the gas in the 2417
immediate vicinity of the ignition source will tend to burn and the potential for flame 2418
propagation or deflagration throughout the cloud is reduced. Therefore, unless some process 2419
rapidly mixes the hydrogen plume to form a near-stoichiometric mixture with air throughout 2420
the cloud, the normal factors that typically influence mixing (diffusion, buoyancy, wind, and 2421
turbulence) in a release will not result in complete combustion of the plume. 2422
H.8 Mitigation strategies for hydrogen release should consider providing for rapid ascension 2423
of the gas to open air away from structures to assist with prevention of potential ignition 2424
during a release. Indoors, supplemental ventilation and/or adequate space for dilution and 2425
dispersion of a release may be provided. Where gas detection is used as a control measure 2426
sensors should be placed above release points and/or near the ceiling, exit fan or exit duct. 2427
The sensors require a routine calibration schedule, and the sensor should only be calibrated 2428
using hydrogen as the calibration gas. 2429
H.9 Hydrogen gas has several personnel safety and health hazard implications that should 2430
be considered during facility installation. 2431
Hydrogen gas has the potential to cause oxygen deficiency. An increased hydrogen-in-air 2432
mixture condition may be safe for breathing for short periods of time, but the atmosphere 2433
would be above the lower explosive limit (LEL) causing a potentially explosive atmosphere. 2434
Hydrogen flames, unless seeded with impurities, are very hard to see in daylight. This 2435
property, combined with its low emissivity producing very little infrared radiation, makes 2436
hydrogen combustion hard to sense until physical contact is made with the flame. Hydrogen 2437
combustion in air also produces ultraviolet (UV) radiation capable of producing effects similar 2438
to overexposure to the sun. Direct exposure to hydrogen flames produces immediate burns. 2439
Hydrogen is very easily ignited where it is released and ignition and/or fire is normally 2440
expected to occur. Small leaks may occur and ignite, but go unnoticed until maintenance 2441
personnel enter the area. A plume of hydrogen that is ignited will rapidly flash back to the 2442
source of hydrogen. From the perspective of controlling hazards, a hydrogen fire localized to 2443
a source or leak is often preferable to a growing hydrogen plume. 2444
Where hydrogen leaks are known to be problematic, e.g. very high pressure or high 2445
temperature systems, then additional safeguards for the leak sources should be considered. 2446
These safeguards could include: 2447
• Deflection guards to limit jet momentum and promote dispersion, 2448
• Steam jets around the source of release to cool high temperature releases, wet the gas 2449
and modify jet dispersion behaviour. 2450
Combustion of a hydrogen cloud will occur completely within several seconds. There is not 2451
enough deposition of thermal energy to ignite typical materials of construction used in 2452
buildings. Personnel caught in close proximity may be severely burned and directly exposed 2453
flammable liquids may also be ignited. 2454
Hydrogen stored at high pressure will normally produce a jet on release. If ignited, this would 2455
create a loud jet of nearly invisible flame that would be extremely dangerous to anything in its 2456
path. In high pressure systems with joints that are known to be susceptible to leakage 2457
supplemental controls should be considered. 2458
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
103

Annex I 2459
(informative) 2460
Hybrid mixtures 2461
2462
I.1 General 2463
A hybrid mixture is a combined mixture of a flammable gas or vapour with a combustible dust 2464
or combustible flyings. This hybrid mixture may behave differently than the gas or vapour or 2465
dust individually. The number of situations that may be encountered in industry will be highly 2466
variable and as such it is not practical to provide specific guidance. 2467
I.2 Concentration limits 2468
A hybrid mixture may form an explosive atmosphere outside the individual explosive limits of 2469
the gas/vapour or explosive concentrations for the dust. It is recommended, unless further 2470
data is available, that a hybrid mixture is considered explosive if the concentration of the gas 2471
or vapour exceeds 25 % of the LEL or the concentration of the dust exceeds 25 % of the 2472
Minimal Explosible Concentration (MEC). 2473
I.3 Energy and temperature limits 2474
Where a hybrid mixture exists, the minimum ignition parameters such as Minimum Ignition 2475
Energy (MIE) and auto-igniting temperature for gas or vapour or minimum ignition 2476
temperature of a dust cloud could be lower than any component parameter in the mixture. In 2477
the absence of other information the parameters used should be the lowest of any component 2478
in the mixture. 2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
104

Annex J 2497
(informative) 2498
Useful equations in support to hazardous area classification 2499
2500
J.1 Introduction 2501
The approach to hazardous area classification according to this edition of IEC 60079-10-1 2502
requires a better acknowledgment of flammable material properties to identify their behaviour 2503
when released or being released. The following paragraphs contain useful equations that 2504
could be used to calculate some parameters influencing the dilution and the dispersion of 2505
flammable gas or vapou, in air at ambient conditions. Parameters defined by qualified 2506
laboratory or by field tests are preferred where appropriate. 2507
J.2 Estimate of lower explosive limit of flammable mixtures 2508
Le Chatelier’s law can be used to establish with sufficient approximation the lower explosive 2509
limit of a flammable materials mixture by the following equation: 2510

=
=
n
1 i i
i
mix
LEL
y
1
LEL (J.1) 2511
where: 2512
LEL
i
is the lower explosive limit of component i (volume %); 2513
y
i
is the mole fraction of component i on a combustible basis; 2514
n is the number of combustible species. 2515
The lower explosive limit LEL
mix
as above can be converted from volume to mass units 2516
considering the flammable mixture like an ideal gas. 2517
First, the mixture density can be calculated as follows: 2518

=
a
a
i i mix
T R
p
M y ρ (J.2) 2519
where 2520
ρ
mix
is the density of the flammable mixture (kg/m
3
); 2521
M
i
is the molecular mass for component i (volume %); 2522
p
a
is the atmospheric pressure (Pa); 2523
R is the universal gas constant (8314 J/kmol K); 2524
T
a
is the absolute ambient temperature (K). 2525
NOTE 1 Variations of atmospheric conditions can influence the explosion properties of flammable materials. 2526
Thus, variations above and below reference levels of 101,3 kPa (1 013 mbar) and 20 °C (293 K) may requires a 2527
different approach. 2528
Then, the mass base of the limit can be obtained applying the following equation: 2529
100
LEL
LEL
mix
mix mix m
ρ = (J.3) 2530
NOTE 2 The above method can be used to calculate upper explosive limit UELm mix. 2531
NOTE 3 The method is valid to calculate the explosive limits of pure flammable material also. 2532
2533
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
105

2534
EXAMPLE 2535
Find the lower explosive limit of the following flammable materials mixture at 101,3 kPa and 2536
20 °C: 2537
• 3,0 vol. % of METHANE CAS
1
no. 74-82-8 M
1
= 16,04 kg/kmol LEL
v1
= 4,4 vol. % 2538
• 2,3 vol. % of ETHANE CAS
2
no. 74-84-0 M
2
= 30,07 kg/kmol LEL
v2
= 2,4 vol. % 2539
• 0,6 vol. % of HEXANE CAS
3
no. 110-54-3 M
3
= 86,18 kg/kmol LEL
v3
= 1,0 vol. % 2540
• 94,1 vol. % of AIR 2541
The mole fractions of only combustible components are: 2542
• y
1
= [3,0 vol. % / (3,0 vol. % + 2,3 vol. % + 0,6 vol. %)] = 0,508 of METHANE 2543
• y
2
= [2,3 vol. % / (3,0 vol. % + 2,3 vol. % + 0,6 vol. %)] = 0,390 of ETHANE 2544
• y
3
= [0,6 vol. % / (3,0 vol. % + 2,3 vol. % + 0,6 vol. %)] = 0,102 of HEXANE 2545
Now, applying the Le Chatelier’s law the lower explosive limit of the flammable materials 2546
mixture is: 2547
=
+ +
=
3
3
2
2
1
1
mix
LEL
y
LEL
y
LEL
y
1
LEL 2548
% . vol 63 , 2 vol / vol 0263 , 0
010 , 0
102 , 0
024 , 0
390 , 0
044 , 0
508 , 0
1
= =
+ +
2549
Then, the density of flammable materials mixture is equal to: 2550
( ) ( ) ( ) | | = + + =
a
a
3 3 2 2 1 1 mix
T R
p
M y M y M y ρ 2551
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
3
m / kg 192 , 1
293 8314
325 101
18 , 86 102 , 0 07 , 30 390 , 0 04 , 16 508 , 0 =

× + × + × 2552
Finally, the lower explosive limit mass based of the mixture is: 2553
3
mix v
mix mix m
m / kg 031 , 0
100
63 , 2
192 , 1
100
LEL
LEL = × = = ρ 2554
J.3 Estimate of vapour pressure 2555
J.3.1 Vapour pressure of a pure flammable liquid 2556
The following equation derived from Antoine’s equations can be used to calculate the vapour 2557
pressure of flammable liquids at a given liquid’s temperature: 2558
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
5
C
4 3
2
1 v
T C T ln C
T
C
C exp p (J.4) 2559
where 2560
p
v
is the vapour pressure of the flammable liquid (Pa); 2561
C
1
… C
5
are physical constants characteristic for each flammable liquid; 2562
T is the absolute temperature of the flammable liquid (K). 2563
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
106

2564
EXAMPLE 2565
Find the vapour pressure of BENZENE (CAS n. 71-43-2) at 20 °C: 2566
= |
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
5
C
4 3
2
1 v
T C T ln C
T
C
C exp p 2567
( ) ( ) kPa 0 , 10 293 10 9844 , 6 293 ln 2194 , 9
293
2 , 486 6
107 , 83 exp
2 6
=
(
¸
(

¸

× × + − +

+

2568
NOTE The physical properties of BENZENE were taken from: R. L. Rowley, W. V. Wilding, J. L. Oscarson, Y. 2569
Yang, N. A. Zundel, T. E. Daubert, R. P. Danner, DIPPR® Data Compilation of Pure Chemical Properties, Design 2570
Institute for Physical Properties, AIChE, New York (2007). 2571
J.3.2 Vapour pressure of flammable liquids mixture 2572
The Raoult’s law can be used to calculate the vapour pressure of a mixture of flammable 2573
liquids at a given liquids’ temperature: 2574

=
i v i mix v
p x p (J.5) 2575
where 2576
p
v mix
is the vapour pressure of the flammable liquids mixtures (Pa); 2577
x
i
is the molar fraction of flammable liquid component i (%); 2578
p
vi
is the vapour pressure of the flammable liquid component i obtained using 2579
Equation J.3-1 (Pa). 2580
Example 2581
Considering the following flammable liquid mixtures contained in a pressurized cylinder 2582
at 20 °C: 2583
• x
1
= 75,0 % of PROPANE CAS
1
no. 74-98-6 p
v1
= 866 kPa, estimated using Eq. J.3-1 2584
• x
2
= 25,0 % of BUTANE CAS
2
no. 106-97-8 p
v2
= 210 kPa, estimated using Eq. J.3-1 2585
the exerted pressure on the cylinder can be calculated as follows: 2586
kPa 702 210 40 , 0 866 75 , 0 p x p x p x p
2 v 2 1 v 1 i v i mix v
= × + × = + = =

2587
NOTE The calculation of the gas release rate requires the definition of the molar fraction of the flammable 2588
vapour mixture. 2589
J.4 Dilution with air of a flammable material release 2590
The theoretical minimum ventilation flow rate of fresh air to dilute a given release of 2591
flammable material to a concentration below the lower explosive limit Q
air min
can be calculated 2592
by means of the equation: 2593
293
T
LEL k
W
Q
a
m
g
min a
× = (J.6) 2594
where 2595
Q
a min
is theoretical minimum ventilation flow rate of fresh air required for dilution (m
3
/s); 2596
W
g
is the release rate of flammable material (kg/s); 2597
k is a safety factor to be establish according to the uncertainty of data (< 1,0); 2598
LEL
m
is the lower explosive limit mass based (kg/m
3
); 2599
T
a
is the ambient temperature (K). 2600
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
107

2601
EXAMPLE 2602
Find the theoretical minimum ventilation flow rate of fresh air required to dilute a release rate 2603
W
g
= 0,003 kg/s of BENZENE due to the evaporation of a confined liquid pool, at an ambient 2604
temperature of 40 °C: 2605
s / m 164 , 0
293
313
039 , 0 5 , 0
003 , 0
293
T
LEL k
W
Q
3 a
m
g
min a
= ×
×
= × = 2606
NOTE 1 The safety factor was defined considering the uncertainty of the release rate estimation (saturated 2607
vapour pressure, air speed, etc.). 2608
NOTE 2 The lower explosive limit mass based was taken from IEC 60079-20-1. 2609
J.5 Estimate of the time required to dilute a flammable material release 2610
The theoretical time t
d
required to dilute the concentration of flammable material from a 2611
certain value X
b
higher than the critical one X
crit
, in a specific volume, can be estimated from: 2612
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
crit
b
d
X
X
ln
C
1
t (J.7) 2613
where 2614
t
d
is the theoretical time required to dilute a defined value of flammable material 2615
concentration to another one lesser than first (s); 2616
C is the number of air changes per unit time in the specific volume (s
-1
); 2617
X
b
is the flammable material background concentration at steady-state conditions 2618
(vol/vol); 2619
X
crit
is the desired/critical value of the flammable material concentration (vol/vol). 2620
Example 2621
Find the theoretical time to reduce a flammable material concentration into an enclosure 2622
artificially ventilated to obtain a number of air changes per unit time C = 6 h
-1
(0,002 s
-1
) from 2623
the initial value X
b
= 0,012 to the desired value X
crit
= 0,0024. 2624
h 65 , 0 s 347 2
0024 , 0
012 , 0
ln
002 , 0
1
X
X
ln
C
1
t
crit
b
d
= = |
.
|

\
|
× =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 2625
NOTE The theoretical time td calculated as above is based on an ideal dilution of the flammable material 2626
released into the enclosure. Safety margins should always be considered. 2627
2628
2629
2630
60079-10-1/Ed2/CD © IEC (E)
108

Bibliography 2631
1. IEC 60050-426, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 426: Electrical 2632
apparatus for explosive atmospheres 2633
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1993 2635
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Mechanics, 1999. 2639
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High Flashpoint Liquid Fuels (Journal of Loss Prevention). 2648
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Science and Technology. 2650
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Flashpoint Liquid Fuels. Int. Symposium on Combustion. 2654
13. The Institute of Petroleum, Model Code of Safe Practice – Part 15 – Area 2655
Classification Code for Installations Handling Flammable Fluids; 2005-07 2656
14. The Institute of Petroleum, Model Code of Safe Practice – Part 15 – Area 2657
Classification Code for Installations Handling Flammable Fluids; 2005-07 2658
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1998-11 2660
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Protection – Part 1: Basic Concept and Methodology; 2010-05 2668
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the Calculation of the Physical Effects Due to Releases of Hazardous Materials, The 2673
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24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2678
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2681