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Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 1 – Introduction to Educational Research

1. Writing daily observations, without interpretation, is

an example of description research.

2. Action research is typically conducted by

administrators, teachers, counselors, and other
professionals to answer questions to specifically help
them solve local problems.

3. We should trust research findings after different

researchers have found the same findings.

4. Basic research is the development of a solid

foundation of reliable knowledge.

5. Deductive reasoning is the process of drawing a

specific conclusion from a set of premises.

6. The rule of parsimony is the idea that when selecting

between two different theories with equal explanatory
value, one should select the theory that is the most
simple, concise, and succinct.

7. Research that is done to examine the findings of

someone else using the “same variables but different
people” is an example of replication research.

8. Empiricism is the idea that knowledge comes from


9. According to many authorities, the five key objectives

of science include the following: exploration,
description, explanation, prediction, influence.

10. A researcher designs an experiment to test how

variables interact to influence how well children learn
spelling words. The primary purpose of the study is

11. There is a set of churches in the U.S. where part of the

service involves snake handling. The researcher wants
to find out why the people attending these churches do
this and how they feel and think about it. The primary
purpose of the study is exploration.

12. Characteristics of good theories and explanations

include the following:
a) It is parsimonious
b) It is testable
c) It is general enough to apply to more than one
place, situation, or person

13. Basic assumptions of science including the

a) Science cannot provide answers to all
b) It is possible to distinguish between more and
less plausible claims
c) Researchers should follow certain agreed upon
norms and practices

Note: Science is not best at solving value conflicts,

such as whether abortion is immoral.

14. Orientational research is focused on collecting

information to help a researcher advance an
ideological or political position.

15. The inductive “scientific method” involves

observation, data collection, looking for patterns, and
theoretical constructs.

16. The rationalism approach to knowledge generation

uses reasoning skills as the primary source.

17. The deductive method is a scientific method that is a

top-down or confirmatory approach to research.

18. The inductive method is a scientific method that is a

bottom-up or generative approach to research.

19. The
deductive method focuses on testing hypotheses
developed by theories.

20. The
inductive method often focuses on generating
new hypotheses and theories.

21. The following statements are true of a theory:

a) It most simply means “explanation”
b) It answers the “how” and “why” questions
c) It can be a well developed explanatory system

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 2 – Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Research

1. Mixed research is based on the pragmatic view of


2. Qualitative research is least concerned about

generalizing its findings.

3. Quantitative research attempts to confirm the

researcher’s hypotheses.

4. A variable is a condition or characteristics that can

take on different values or categories.

5. An independent variable is presumed to cause a

change in another variable.

6. Common characteristics of experimental research

include the following:
a) it relies primarily on the collection of numerical
b) it can produce important knowledge about cause
and effect
c) it uses the deductive scientific method

Note: Experimental research is rarely conducted

in a controlled setting or environment.

7. Qualitative research is often exploratory. Common

characteristics of qualitative research include the
a) it relies on the collection of non-numerical
data such as words and pictures
b) it is used to generate hypotheses and develop
theory about phenomena in the world
c) it uses the inductive scientific method

Note: Qualitative research typically is not used when

a great deal is already known about the topic of interest.

8. Experimental research provides the strongest

evidence about the existence of cause-and-effect

9. Manipulation of the independent variable is the key

defining characteristic of experimental research.

10. In causal-comparative and correlation research,

random assignment to groups is never possible and the
researcher cannot manipulate the independent

11. Manipulation of the independent variable is the

defining characteristics of experimental research.

12. A positive correlation is present when two variables

move in the same direction.

13. Mixedmethod research uses the qualitative

paradigm for one phase and the quantitative paradigm
for another phase.

14. Mixed model research uses both qualitative and

quantitative research within a stage or across two of
the stages in the research process.

15. Historical
research is done to understand an event
from the past.

16. Experimental research occurs when the researcher

manipulates the independent variable.

17. The following includes examples of quantitative

a) age, temperature, income, height
b) grade point average, anxiety level, reading

Note: Remember, gender, religion, ethnic group are

not quantitative variables

18. A constant is the opposite of a variable.

19. Causal-comparative research is the type of non-

experimental research in which the primary
independent variable of interest is categorical.

20. Religion can best be described as a categorical


21. In
research, something that does not “vary” is called a

22. When interpreting a correlation coefficient expressing

the relationship between two variables, it is very
important to avoid jumping to the conclusion of

23. Aresearcher studies achievement by children in

poorly funded elementary schools. She/he develops a
model that supports parent involvement as an
important variable. She/he believes that parent
involvement has an impact on children by increasing
their motivation to do school work. In the model,
greater parent involvement leads to higher student
motivation, which in turn creates higher student

Student motivation is what kind of variable in this

study? Answer: Mediating or intervening variable.

24. Thestrongest evidence for causality comes from the

experimental research method.

25. Which correlation is the strongest?

a) +10 b) -.95 c) +.90 Answer d) -1.00

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 3 – Developing Research Questions and

Proposal Preparation

1. A good qualitative problem statement conveys a sense

of emerging design.

2. The “tool” function of theory is to suggest new

relationships and make new predictions.

3. The statement of purpose in a research study should

identify the intent or objective of the study.

4. Why is the statement “What are the effects of

extracurricular activities on cognitive development of
school age children” not a good statement of a
quantitative research question?

Answer: Because the statement was not specific

enough to provide an understanding of the variables
being investigated.

5. A qualitative research question asks a question about

some process, or phenomenon to be explored; is
generally an open-ended question.

6. In developing a research idea, the following flowchart

is recommended:
Research topic, research problem, research
purpose, research question, hypothesis.

7. It is essential to evaluate the quality of internet

resources because information obtained via the
internet ranges from very poor to very good.

8. Steps included in planning a research study include the

a) Identifying a researchable problem
b) A review of current research
c) Developing a research plan

Note: Conducting a meta-analysis of the research is

not included in planning a research study.

9. Sources of researchable problems can include:

a) Researchers’ own experiences
b) Practical issues that require solutions
c) Theory and past research

10. A key characteristic of past research that guides

researchers in new research questions is that studies
typically generate more research questions than
they answer.

11. Making predictions is a function of theory.


12. A review of the literature prior to formulating

research questions allows the researcher to do the
a) To become familiar with prior research on the
phenomenon of interest
b) To identify potential methodological problems
in the research area
c) To develop a list of pertinent problems relative
to the phenomenon of interest

13. Sometimes a comprehensive review of the literature

prior to data collection is not recommended by
grounded theorists.

14. Issues of values and morality such as the

correctness of having prayer in schools can’t be
empirically research.

15. The following are databases containing

information to be used during the literature review:
a) ERIC b) PsychINFO c) SocioFILE

16. Computer
database searches can be done with a
computer with CD-Rom drive, at the library, and

17. The feasibility of a research study should be

considered in light of the following:
a) Cost and time required to conduct the study
b) Skills required of the researcher
c) Potential ethical concerns

18. A formal statement of the research question or

“purpose of research study” generally is made after the
literature review and will help guide the research

19. Thefollowing qualitative research purpose

statement is well stated:

The focus of the present study was to explore

distressing and nurturing encounters of patients with
caregivers and to ascertain the meanings that are
engendered by such encounters. The study was
conducted on one of the surgical units and the
obstetrical/gynecological unit of a 374-bed community

20. Which of the following quantitative research

questions is superior?
a) “What is the effect of participation in various
extracurricular activities on academic
b) “What effect does playing high school football
have on students’ overall grade point average
during the football season?”

21. A statement of the quantitative research question

should include the following:
a) Extend the statement of purpose by specifying
exactly the question(s) the research will
b) Help the research in selecting appropriate
participants, research methods, measures, and
c) Specify the variables of interest

22. The
research participants are described in detail in the
method section of the research plan.

23. Research
hypotheses are statements of predicted
relationships between variables. Research
hypotheses are stated such that they can be
confirmed or refuted.

24. Hypotheses
in qualitative research studies usually are
often generated as the data are collected,
interpreted, and analyzed.

25. A research plan should be detailed, given to

others for review and comments, and sets out the
rationale for a research study.

26. The Method section of the research plan typically

specifies the following:
a) The research participants
b) The apparatus, instruments, and materials for
the research study
c) The planned research procedures

27. The Introduction section of the research plan

supplies the following information:
a) Gives an overview of the prior relevant studies
b) Contains a statement of the purpose of the
c) Concludes with a statement of the research
questions and, for quantitative research, it
includes the research hypothesis

28. The following are sources for research ideas:

a) Everyday life b) Practical issues
c) Past research d) Theory

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 – Research Ethics

1. Ethics is the set of principles and guidelines that help

us to uphold the things we value.

2. A description of the purpose of the research is

necessary in obtaining informed consent.

3. When doing research, the following need to be

a) Informed consent form the parent or guardian
b) Consent from the child if he or she is capable

4. If there is deception in a study, the participants may

need to be debriefed. The use of deception must be
outweighed by other benefits of the study.

5. Having full anonymity rather than just

confidentiality cannot be done in qualitative studies
conducted in the field.

6. Utilitarianism is the primary approach that is used by

the Institutional Review Board to assess the ethical
acceptability of a research study.

7. Deontological approaches emphasize that ethical

issues should be judged on the basis of some universal

8. Telling participants they must continue until the

study has been completed is not an ethnical guideline
for conducting research with humans.

9. Ethical skepticism emphasizes research ethics should

be a matter of the individual’s conscience.

10. Confidentiality means that the participant’s identity,

although known to the researcher, is not revealed to
anyone outside of the researcher and his or her staff.

11. Misrepresenting and creating fraudulent data is

dishonest. Misrepresenting data can be difficult to
detect. Breaking confidentiality should be avoided.

12. Ideally,the research participant’s identity is not

known to the researcher. This is called: Anonymity.

13. Utilitarianism is the primary approach used by

the federal government and most professional

14. Confidentiality is when the participants are not

revealed to any one but the researcher and staff.

15. Research participants must give informed consent

before they can participate in a study.

16. There are three basic approaches that people tend

to adopt when considering ethical issues in research.
These include the following:
a) Ethical skepticism b) Deontology

17. Debriefingis the term that refers to a post-study

interview in which all aspects of the study are
revealed, reasons for the use of deception are given,
and the participant’s questions are answered.

18. Research ethics are a set of principles to guide and

assist researchers in deciding which goals are most
important and in reconciling conflicting values when
conducting research.

19. IRB is an acronym for Institutional Review Board.

20. When it is necessary to engage in a good amount

of deception to conduct a scientifically valid study, the
researcher should consider the following:
a) Debriefing b) Dehoaxing c) Desensitizing

21. Duplicatepublication is the act of publishing the

same data and results in more than one journal or

22. Concerning “authorship” in educational research,

intellectual ownership is predominantly a function of
creative contribution.

23. Partialpublication refers to publishing several

articles from the data collected in one large study.

24. According
to the American Education Research
Association (AERA), participant’s submitting
manuscripts for publication have the freedom to

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 5 – Standardized Measurement and Assessment

1. Assumptions underlying testing and measurement

include the following:
a) Various approaches to measure aspects of the
same thing can be useful
b) Present-day behavior predicts future
c) Testing and assessment benefit society

Note: Error is always present in the measurement


2. Systematic effort is associated with validity.

3. Concurrent evidence is a type of criterion-related

Predictive evidence is a type of criterion-related

4. If a test measures a single construct then the items

should correlate with the total score.

5. Professor Kritsonis develops a test of emotional

intelligence. Convergent and discriminant evidence
occurs when the test correlates highly with another

test of emotional intelligence and is uncorrelated

with self-efficacy.

6. An ordinal scale is used to rank order people, objects,

or characteristics.

7. A nominal scale is the simplest form of measurement.

8. Aptitude tests focus on information acquired through

the informal learning that goes on in life.

9. A test accurately indicates participants’ scores on a

future criterion used to indicate high-school GPA
scores. This test would clearly have predictive

10. Ifa softball coach calculates batting average, he or she

would use a ratio scale.

11. Most of the outcome/dependent variable

characteristics and attributes measured in educational
research probably exist at the ordinal level of

12. Anxiety enduring for months or years is most

clearly an example of a psychological trait.

13. The following are examples of Intelligence Tests:

a) Wechsler Scales
b) Stanford-Binet

c) Slosson

14. Reliability is simply known as consistency or stability.

15. An ordinal scale is a rank-order scale of


16. The following are types of reliability measures:

a) Test-retest
b) Content
c) Internal consistency

Note: Split-half is not a type of reliability.

17. The measure of consistency of test scores over

time describes test-retest reliability.

18. Test-retest reliability refers to the consistency of

test scores over time.

19. Criterion-related validity refers to a judgment of

the extent to which scores from a test can be used to
infer, or predict, the examinees’ performance in some

20. The following is the correct order of the four levels of

measurement: Nominal – Ordinal – Interval – Ratio

21. Validation is the process of gathering evidence

supporting inferences based test scores.

22. In evaluating tests and assessments, “reliability”

refers to the consistency of results.

23. Validity of a test designed to measure a construct

such as self-esteem is best described as follows:
Scores from the test have a relatively strong and
positive correlation with other tests of the same
construct (i.e., with other measures of self-esteem)
but much lower correlations with tests of different

24. Equivalent forms of reliability refers to the

consistency of a group of individuals’ scores on two
equivalent forms of a test designed to measure the
same characteristic.

25. Achievement tests are designed to measure the

degree of learning that has taken place after a person
has been exposed to a specific learning experience.

26. Content validity evidence refers to how well the

particular sample of behaviors used to measure a
characteristic reflects the entire domain of behaviors
that constitutes that characteristic.
Dr. William Kritsonis
Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 6 – Methods of Data Collection


1. A rating scale should have somewhere from 4 to 11


2. What is the problem(s) with this set of response

categories to the question “What is your current age?”

(Both 1-5 and 5-10 are problems)

3. In educational research, we should mix methods in a way

that provides complementary strengths and non-
overlapping weaknesses. This is known as the
fundamental principle of mixed research.

4. Questionnaires can address events and characteristics

taking place as follows:
a) In the past (retrospective questions)
b) In the present (current time questions
c) In the future (prospective questions)

5. The following are principles of questionnaire

a) Consider using multiple methods when
measuring abstract constructs
b) Use multiple items to measure abstract
c) Avoid double-barreled questions

6. The following are methods of data collection:

a) Questionnaires b) Interviews c) Observations

Note: Experiments are not a method of data collection.

7. Secondary/existing data may include the following:

a) Official documents
b) Personal documents
c) Archived research data

8. An item that directs participants to different follow-up

questions depending on their response is called a
contingency question.

9. Secondary data refers originally collected at an earlier

time by a different person for a different purpose.

10. Researchers use both open-ended and closed-ended

questions to collect data. Open-ended questions
provide qualitative data in the participant’s own

11. Open-ended questions provide primarily qualitative


12. Concerning observations, it is often not possible to

determine exactly why the people behave as they do.

13. Qualitative observation is usually done for exploratory

purposes. It is also called naturalistic observation.

14. When constructing a questionnaire it is important to

do each of the following:
a) Use natural language
b) Understand your research participants
c) Pilot your test questionnaire

Note: Do not use “leading” or “loaded” questions.

15. Another name for a Likert Scale is a summated rating


16. The six major methods of data collection that are used
by educational researchers include the following:
a) Observation
b) Interviews
c) Questionnaires

Note: Checklists are not one of the six major methods.

17. Theinterview guide approach is when the specific

topics are decided in advance but the sequence and
wording can be modified during the interview.

18. The following are major methods of data collection:

a) Questionnaires
b) Interviews
c) Secondary data
d) Focus groups

19. A
question during an interview such as “Why do you feel
that way?” is known as a probe.

20. A census taker often collects data through interviews.

21. A
researcher becomes a complete participant when
they place themselves (as a member) in the group that is
being studied.

22. The following are major methods of data collection:

a) Questionnaires
b) Focus groups
c) Secondary data

Note: The correlation method is not a major method of

data collection.

23. The
informal conversational interview allows the
questions to emerge from the immediate context or
course of things.

24. When conducting an interview, asking “Anything else?

What do you mean?, Why do you feel that way?,” etc,
are all forms of probes.

25. Avoid
using multiple items to measure a single
construct when constructing a questionnaire.

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 7 - Sampling

1. When each member of a population has an equally

likely chance of being selected, this is called an equal
probability selection method.

2. A technique for yielding a simple random sample

requires numbering all the elements of a sampling
frame and then using a random number table to
pick cases from the table.

3. The following are true about stratified random

a) It involves a random selection process from
identified subgroups.
b) Disproportional stratified random sampling is
especially helpful for getting large enough
subgroups samples when subgroup comparisons
are to be done
c) Proportional stratified random sampling yields a
representative sample

Note: Proportions of groups in the sample that always

match their population proportions is not a true
representation of stratified sampling.

4. The more categories or breakdowns you want to

make in your data analysis, the larger the sample

5. To determine how many people to include in the

original sampling, use the desired sample
size/proportion likely to respond.

6. EPSEM is an equal probability selection method.

By using this method, every individual in the
population has an equal chance of being selected.

The following EPSEM are examples of the equal

probability selection method:
a) Simple random sampling
b) Systematic sampling
c) Proportional stratified sampling
d) Cluster sampling using the PPS (Probability
proportional to size) technique

7. The following are forms of nonrandom sampling:

a) Snowball sampling
b) Convenience sampling
c) Quota sampling
d) Purposive sampling

8. A large sample based on a simple random sampling

will give a more “accurate” representation of the
population from which a sample has been taken.

9. Sampling in qualitative research is similar to

purposive sampling in quantitative research.

10. Cluster sampling would generally require the largest

sample size.

11. The Census Bureau takes a complete population count

every ten years.

12. Convenience sampling is a method used when people

are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited.

13. Quota sampling involves the researcher determining

the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified
as important, and then taking convenience samples
from those groups.

14. Negative-case sampling is used in qualitative

research that involves selecting cases that disconfirm
the researcher’s expectations and generalizations.

15. How many participants will be needed for a research

study with a population of 120,000? Answer: 384

16. In using the Snowball nonrandom sampling

technique, the researcher asks the research
participants to identify other potential research

17. Proportional stratified sampling is one of the most

efficient random sampling techniques.

18. If
we took 500 people attending a school in Houston,
divided them by gender and then took a random
sample of males and a random sampling of the
females, the variables on which we would divide the
population is called the stratification variable.

19. A parameter is a number calculated with complete

data and quantifies a characteristic of the population.

20. Sampling with replacement is a type of sampling in

which each member of the population selected for the
sample is returned to the population before the next
member is selected.

21. The following are examples of random sampling

a) Convenience sampling
b) Quota sampling
c) Purposive sampling

Note: Cluster sampling is a nonrandom sampling.

22. Simple random sampling would usually require the

smallest sample size because of its efficiency.

23. The Probability proportional to size or PPS is a

technique used when selecting clusters of different

24. Sampling is the process of drawing a sample from a


25. It
is recommended to use the whole population rather
than a sample when the population size is 100 or less.

26. The following are random sampling technique:

a) Purposive sampling
b) Quota sampling
c) Convenience sampling

Note: Cluster sampling is a nonrandom sampling


27. Random sampling is the best way to select a group of

people for a study if the researcher is interested in
making statements about the larger population.

28. Asample is a set of elements taken from a larger

population according to certain rules.

29. Determining the sample interval (represented by k),

randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and
including each kth element in the sample are the steps for
systematic sampling.

30. Purposive sampling is a technique that involves

selecting a convenience sample from a population with a
specific set of characteristics for the research study.

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 8 – Validity of Research Results


1. When an extraneous variable systematically

varies with the independent variable and
influences the dependent variable it is called a
confounding variable.

2. A statistical relation of X and Y is insufficient

evidence for inferring causality.

3. A school district examines a program that uses

mentors to help very poor readers improve their
reading performance. The children in the
program are at the 4th percentile at pretest. At
posttest they are around the 20th percentile.
While it is possible that the program made the
difference, another reason for the change in
scores could be regression artifact.

4. A group of researchers do a study where children

from particular classrooms are assigned to
treatment or control conditions. After the study,
the researcher finds out that the students in the
control group are higher achievers than those in
the experimental group. He/she found not
treatment effect. The failure to find an effect
may be due to a differential selection effect.

5. A researcher examines a program looking at the

effects of mentoring on poor readers’ reading
achievement. He/she looks at two different
schools. One serves as the control and the other
experimental group. Both schools had reading
achievement that was around the 50th percentile.
During the time that the mentoring program is in
place in the experimental group, a statewide
reading initiative is started in randomly selected
schools. The experimental, but not the control
school is involved in the initiative. At the end of
the year, the experimental group does better than
the control. From the information presented here,
a likely threat to the internal validity of the study
is selection-history effect.

6. Internal validity refers to the degree to which

the researcher can infer that the relationship
between two variables is causal.

7. Statistical conclusion validity refers to the

ability to infer that the independent and
dependent variables are related and that the
measured strength of the relationship is accurate.

8. An extraneous variable that systematically varies

with the independent variable and also influences
the dependent variable is known as a
confounding variable or third variable.

9. Investigator triangulation is the use of multiple

observers to allow cross-checking of observations
to make sure that the investigators agree with
what took place.

10. A verbatim is the lowest inference descriptor of

all because it uses the participant’s own words.

11. Maturation refers to physical or mental changes

that may occur within individuals over time, such
as aging, learning, boredom, hunger, and fatigue.

12. External validity refers to the extent to which

the results of a study can be generalized across

13. Interpretive validity accurately portrays the

meanings given by the participants to what is
being studied.

14. Reflexivityis a strategy where the researcher

actively engages in critical self-reflection about
his or her potential biases and predispositions.

15. The following are considered criteria for

inferring causality:
a) Evidence that the independent and
dependent variables are related
b) Evidence that the relationship between
the variables being investigated is not
due to a confounding extraneous
c) Evidence that changes in variable A
occur before changes in variable B

16. Datatriangulation is the use of multiple data

sources to help understand a phenomenon that is
used to promote qualitative research validity.

17. Selection-history effect may happen when

different comparison groups experience a
different history event.

18. Third
variable is another term that refers to a
confounding extraneous variable.

19. Instrumentation refers to any systematic change

that occurs over time in the way in which the
dependent variable is assessed.

20. Population validity describes the ability to

generalize from the sample of individuals on
which a study was conducted to the larger target
population of individuals and across different
subpopulations within the larger target

21. The following strategies are used to promote

qualitative research validity:
a) Peer review
b) Theory triangulation
c) Extended fieldwork

Note: Random assignment is not a strategy used

to promote qualitative research validity.

22. Multiple
operationalism is the use of several
measures of a construct.

23. Maturation is a physical or mental change that

occurs in participants over time that affects their
performance on the dependent variable.

24. Attrition
generally occurs in research where
some participants do not complete the study.

25. Differentialattrition occurs when the people

dropping out from one group are different from
the others in their group or from the people in the
comparison group.

26. Internalvalidity refers to the ability to infer that

a casual relationship exists between 2 variables.

27. Methods triangulation is a strategy used to

promote qualitative research validity that uses
multiple research methods to study a

28. Descriptive
validity refers to the factual
accuracy of an account as reported by the

29. Three
threats to internal validity include the
a) Maturation
b) Instrumentation
c) History

Note: Temporal change is not a threat to internal


30. Ecologicalvalidity refers to the ability to

generalize the results of a study across settings.

31. Sampling error is not a direct threat to the

internal validity of a research design.

Note: Direct threats to the internal validity of a

research design include history, testing, and
differential selection.

32. Reactivity
refers to the alteration in performance
due to being aware that one is participating in a

33. Replication logic is the idea that the more times

a research finding is shown with different sets of
people, the more confidence we can place in the
findings and in generalizing beyond the original

Dr. William Kritsonis

Educational Research
Lecture Notes

Chapter 9 – Experimental Research


1. Analysis of covariance is a statistical technique that can

be used to help equate groups on specific variables.

2. To determine whether noise affects the ability to solve

math problems, a researcher has one group solve math
problems in a quiet room and another group solve math
problems in a noisy room. The group solving problems
in the noisy room completes 15 problems in one hour
and the group solving problems in the quiet room
completes 22 problems in one hour. In this experiment,
the independent variable is the noise level in the room
and the dependent variable is the number of problems

3. The posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups is

likely to control historical threats to internal validity.

Note: Differential selection, additive and interactive

effects, and differential attrition will not control threats to
internal validity.

4. When all participants receive all treatment conditions,

the study is susceptible to order effects and carryover

5. A researcher is interested in the effects of a preschool

program on later school performance. Because the
researcher is concerned that socio-economic-status (SES)
is a potential variable in the study, the researcher picks

children to study who are only from low SES homes.

The control technique used in this study is matching.

6. An interaction effect is described as follows: The

effect of one independent variable (on a DV) depends
on the level of another independent variable.

7. Analysis of covariance refers to a statistical method that

can be used to statically equate groups on a pretest or
some other variable.

8. Random technique is not a way to manipulate an

independent variable.

9. The pretest-posttest control group design permits a

comparison of pretest scores to determine the initial
equivalence of groups on the pretest before the treatment
variable is introduced into the research setting.

10. Counterbalancing is chosen to control for such things

as order and carryover effects.

11. The group that receives the experimental treatment

condition is the experimental group.

12. The random assignment technique is available to the

researcher to control both known and unknown variables.

13. Thegroup that does not receive the experimental

treatment condition is the control group.

14. There are a number of ways in which confounding

extraneous variables can be controlled. Random
assignment is the best technique for controlling
confounding extraneous variables.

15. It is best to use a list of random numbers or a

computer randomization program for randomly
assigning participants to groups in an experimental study.

16. The following are related to counterbalancing:

a) Carryover effect
b) Order effect
c) Sequencing effects

17. A cell is a combination of two or more independent

variables in a factorial design.

18. The posttest-only control-group design and pretest-

posttest control-group design do an excellent job of
controlling for rival hypotheses that threatened the internal
validity of an experiment.

19. Manipulating the independent variable by varying the

type on the independent variable that is presented to the

different comparison group is known as the type


20. The order effect occurs from the order in which the
treatment conditions are administered.

21. The following describes this method of manipulating

the independent variable in an educational experiment:
a) An independent variable is manipulated using
the presence or absence technique
b) The researchers varies the amount of the
independent variable that is administered
c) The researcher varies the type of the
independent variable

22. Randomly assigning research participants to groups

is the best method for controlling confounding extraneous

23. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is

to isolate and identify the effect produced by the
independent variable.

24. Repeated measures design is one where all participants

participate in all experimental treatment conditions.

25. Factorial design is one in which two or more

independent variables are simultaneously studied to

determine their independent and interactive effects on

the dependent variable.

26. Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups

occurs when one group of research participants is
administered a treatment and is then compared, on the
dependent variable, with another group of research
participants who did not receive the experimental

27. Main effect refers to the influence of a single

independent variable.

28. Carryover effect occurs when performance in one

treatment condition is influenced by participation in a prior
treatment condition.

29. The following are possible in a factorial design with

two independent variables:
a) There is only one main effect present
b) There are two main effects present
c) There are two main effects and an interaction
effect present

30. Factorial design based on a mixed model is where

different participants are randomly assigned to the levels of
one independent variable but participants take all levels on
another independent variable.