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DCS Handbook

DCS HANDBOOK































DCS Handbook


CUSTOMER:


OBJECT: Distributed Control System Engineering


SUPPLIER:


ENGINEERED BY: FAST Automation S.p.A.






REVISION HISTORY:

Issue No Date Revision History

Issue 1.0 January 2000 First Issue





DATE : 10 Jan 2000

COMPILED BY : P. Capelli

CHECKED BY :

APPROVED BY :

DESTINATION : E1















DCS Handbook



CONTENTS


0 INTRODUCTION


1 CONFIGURATION OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Devices and Communication Net 1


2 GRAPHIC PAGES
2.1 Introduction 3
2.2 Tag denomination rules 3
2.3 Tag dynamic representation 6
2.4 Synoptic graphic page list 10
2.5 Moving among graphic pages 11
2.6 Interlock pages 11
2.7 Soft keys 12


3 ALARMS, MESSAGE AND SECURITY
3.1 Alarms 13
3.2 Message 13
3.3 Security 14


4 HISTORICAL TRENDS AND REPORTS
4.1 Introduction 15
4.2 Historical trends 15
4.3 Reports 16


5 FCS ENGINEERING CONCEPTS
5.1 Introduction 17
5.2 Analogue variables 18
5.3 Motors and On/Off valves 19
5.4 Alarm switches 20
5.5 Calculation 20
5.6 Interlock and sequences 20
5.7 Other blocks 21





DCS Handbook

1. INTRODUCTION

This operator guide is to be a handy quick help for the first approach to the
supervision system.
All supervision instruments, programming tools and features available with the
Centum CS3000 Distributed Control System are already described in Yokogawa
Manuals.
Once the operator has got a basic knowledge by these manuals, this guide will
introduce him how the system has been configured, how all CS3000 features
(controllers and operator stations, I/O instruments, graphic pages, alarms etc.) have
been configured, programmed and combined to provide the supervision and the
monitoring of the plant.
Nevertheless all information that the operator will find on the screen is supposed to
be enough to perform all operations, this guide will be necessary just to take a little
of getting used.


DCS Handbook

CHAPTER 1
CONFIGURATION OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM


1.1 Introduction

This section briefly describes the Distributed Control System (DCS) Configuration as engineered
for a polyester production plant.

The DCS provides integrated process control, supervision and management facilities, within the
unified architecture and open environment offered by Yokogawa CENTUM CS3000 control system.



1.2 Devices and Communication Net

The control system is basically composed by the following components :

. 1 Engineering Station (HIS)
. 3 Operator Stations (HIS)
. 1 redundant Controller (FCS)
. 1 redundant Control Network (V-NET)


1.2.1 Engineering Station

The Engineering Station is a PC with Pentium II processor, standard keyboard, mouse and operator
keyboard. It is equipped with the Yokogawa engineering software, that provides the tools
necessary to configure the control and supervision system of the plant (graphic pages, control
strategies, historical trends and so on); it also provides the operator with the process interaction
via a graphical user interface (see next paragraph : Operator Stations).
The Engineering Station is located in the Control Room.


1.2.2 Operator Stations

The Operator Stations are PCs with the same hardware platform as the Engineering Station; they
provide the man-machine interface, i.e. all operations done toward the plant (like setting a
variable, bypassing an interlock condition, start a motor, etc.), and the whole process and control
system monitoring, the alarm management, the event and alarm historization etc. are performed in
a CS3000 system through the Operator Stations.
Each Operator Station can be dedicated to supervise the whole plant areas (thus realizing the full
redundancy of the supervision functions), or only some plant areas.
The Operator Stations are also located in the Control Room.
The supervision system is also equipped with laserjet printers, for alarm logging, self-
documentation and report generation.
DCS Handbook

1.2.3 Controllers

The process control (discrete and continuous data acquisition, algorithms for the regulation of
continuous variables, complex calculations, sequence and interlocks, etc.) is carried out by the
Field Control Station (FCS).

The FCS, also located in the Control Room, consists of the following elements :

. 1 Field Control Unit (FCU), that is the intelligent part of FCS and is dedicated to
algorithm computation, control strategies, etc.; it is equipped with redundant Power Supply,
redundant CPU and redundant V-NET board;

. 5 Nodes, each one made up of a NIU (Node Interface Unit), and a number of I/O modules
and/or communication modules that provide the interface functions to the field; the I/O
interface modules and the RS-232 Communication Modules are installed in dedicated nests;

. redundant RIO Bus (Remote Input Output bus) which connects FCU and Nodes together.

The Communication Modules are interfaces used to provide serial communication with the third
party PLCs and power center instruments.

The FCS is dual-redundant type. The processor card on board is fitted with two CPUs. If transient
error occurs, this is detected by comparing the calculation of the two CPUs; an error in the active
processor causes control to transfer to the standby processor. As the standby processor card carries
out the same control calculation as the active processor, continuity of control is mantained when
switching to the standby processor.


1.2.4 Control Network

The Engineering station, Operator stations and Controller are connected each others via redundant V-
net (Real-time control network), that provides the full communication between the various
component of the CS3000 system.
Furthermore the HISs are also connected each others via an RJ45 Ethernet network, by a 10Mb/s
HUB.

DCS Handbook

CHAPTER 2
GRAPHIC PAGES



2.1 Introduction

Synoptic graphic pages are used to build up the custom, graphical representation of the plant. They
offer the most powerful features to give a global monitoring and operation of the process.
Synoptic graphic pages contain drawing objects such as tanks, reactors, columns, piping, and all
mechanical equipment which is used to make up the plant, static data (such as identification
labels), and dynamic data (such as process variable values, alarm switches, tag status indications,
controlled device animation), and so on.
The following sections describe the graphic panel main features.



2.2 Tag denomination rules

The Tag name is the name by which all the configured instruments are referenced in the control
system. It is an alfanumeric character string (max. length = 16), whose assignment rules are as
follows:


2.2.1 Analogue Instruments

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,...)
Subarea Code _ followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
Process Variable Type First letter P : pressure
T : temperature
L : level
F : flow
W: weight
S : speed
I : current
A : chemical analysis
Visualisation type Second letter I : Indicated Variable
R :Registered Variable
Regulatory control Third letter (regulated variables) C : Controlled Variable
Alarm annunciation Third letter (not regulated variables) A : Threshold Alarm(s)
Instrument P&I No - followed by two or three digits and eventually by one letter

Examples:
01LRA-11 Area 01 Level 11, Indicated, Registrated, with Threshold Alarm(s)
03FRC-10 Area 03 Flow 10, Indicated, Registrated and Controlled
04_1TIA-07 Area 04 part 1 Temperature 07, Indicated, with Threshold Alarm(s)

DCS Handbook

2.2.2 Alarm Switches

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,...)
Subarea Code - followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
Process Variable Type First letter P : pressure
T : temperature
L : level
F : flow
Second letter A : Alarm
Alarm Type Third and fourth letters HH : High High
H : High
L : Low
LL : Low Low
Instrument P&I No - followed by two or three digits and eventually by one letter

Examples:
03LAHH-01 Area 03, Level 01, High High switch
04_1FAL-05 Area 04 part 1, Flow 05, Low switch
08_2LAL-04 Area 08 part 2, Level 04, Low switch


2.2.3 Motors

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,...)
Subarea Code Underscore followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
Motor Type letter P : pump
V : ventilator
R : agitator (mixer)
F : fan
Instrument P&I No two or three digits and eventually one letter (i.e. A, B, ect, S for Spare)

Examples:
01P01 Area 01 pump 01.
03R01 Area 03, Agitator 01
32_1P08C Area 32 part 1, Pump 08C


2.2.4 Motor signals

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,04,...)
Subarea Code _ followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
Motor signal Type text EAL : Status
ISH : Fault
HC : Loc/rem switch
ST : Start/stop
Instrument P&I No - followed by motor type indication (P, R, V), by two or three
digits and eventually by one letter (i.e. A, B, ect, S for Spare)

Examples:
01EAL-P02A Area 01, status indication of pump 02A.
DCS Handbook

03ISH-R01 Area 03, fault indication of agitator R01
32_1HC-P08C Area 32 part 1, Loc/Rem status indication of Pump 08C


2.2.5 On /Off Valves

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,,...)
Subarea Code _ followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
text CV
Instrument P&I No two or three digits and eventually one letter

Examples:
03CV02A Area 03, Valve 02A
10CV08 Area 10, Valve 08


2.2.6 On /Off Valve signals

Plant Area Code First two digits (i.e. 01,02,03,...)
Subarea Code _ followed by one digit (i.e. _1, _2)
Signal Tipe terxt ZSH : open proximity
ZSL : close dproximity
CV : command
Instrument P&I No - followed two or three digits and eventually by one letter

Examples:
03ZSH-02A Area 03, open proximity of Valve 02A
10CV-08 Area 10, command to Valve 08


2.2.7 Other signals

Tag name of signals coming from local board (example : cutter board, TPA feeder board, etc.)
doesn t follow the above mentioned rules. As far as these name are concerned, please refer to
related I/O lists.





DCS Handbook


2.3 Tag dynamic representation

2.3.1 Analogue Instruments

The analogue variables are divided in two main categories : not regulated and regulated variables.
A not regulated input variable is a variable whose value is acquired from the field. For example it
could be a temperature of an oil flow (input variable).
These variables are displayed in graphic pages as in the following :

01LRA-11 (tag name)
000.0 % (process value, eng. unit)

A regulated variable is a variable that takes part on the process outputting a regulating variable.
The value of the regulating output variable is modulated in order to keep the process variable as
close as possible to the set point value (entered by the operator).
These variables are displayed in graphic panels as in the following :

04_1PRC-23 MAN (tag name, mode)
000.0 Bar (process value, eng. unit)
000.0 (set point)
000.0 % (regulating (or output) eng. unit)

The colour of the numeric field of process value of regulated and not regulated variables changes
according the following :

Colour Meaning
cyan no alarm (normal status)
flashing red not aknowledged alarm
steady red aknowledged alarm
flashing cyan not in alarm, but last alarm not acknowledged

All setting and displaying operations concerning the various parameters (thresholds, PID
parameters, set point, alarm state, etc.) might be done in any moment calling the faceplate and the
detail display of the point in two different ways:
- clicking on its relevant representation on the graphic pages
- clicking on the button NAME of the supervision upper menu and typing its tag name.

A not regulated output variable is a variable whose value is sent to the field. For example it could
be a set point to an inverter.
These variables are displayed in graphic panels as in the following:

set speed 000.0 %

Clicking on the button, the operator can easily set a value that is immediately sent to the related
physical device.



DCS Handbook

2.3.2 Alarm Switches

Alarm switches are all the digital input signals that turn active when a specific alarm situation
occurs on the plant; they could be low level switches, high pressure switches, tank cover switches,
and so on.
Their representation in synoptic graphic pages is made by a character string (the tag name) that is
placed in the point where the alarm situation can arise; the dynamic graphic proprieties of alarm
switches follow this simple scheme :

Colour Meaning
dark grey no alarm
flashing red not aknowledged alarm
steady red aknowledged alarm
flashing dark grey not in alarm, but last alarm not acknowledged

The access to the faceplate of these instruments is possible by clicking on the button NAME of
the supervision upper menu and typing their tag name


2.3.3 Motors and On/Off Valves

Motors and on/off valves have been configured using the Switch Instruments Blocks (SIO).
A SIO can read discrete input data (answerbacks) and transmit discrete output data. When a
command is sent by an operator or a sequence, the outputs are driven to the specified values and
the inputs are evaluated in order to understand if the current status matches the command; if the
inputs do not match within the pre-set transition time, the SIO goes in alarm status.
The simplest way to send commands to on/off valves and motors from the Operator Station is
obtained by clicking on the graphic representation of the device in the synoptic, thus calling the
relevant faceplate. At this point it is possible to issue the desired command and/or read the status.
The access to the faceplate of the instruments it is also possible by clicking on the NAME icon
and typing the tag name.

Motors and on/off valves are displayed in synoptic graphic pages according to the following colour
code :

Motors
Colour Meaning
white not running
green running
flashing red not aknowledged alarm (thermic or answerback
fault)
steady red aknowledged alarm
flashing white or green not in alarm, but last alarm not acknowledged

Valves
Colour Meaning
white closed
green open
flashing red not aknowledged alarm (answerback fault)
steady red aknowledged alarm
DCS Handbook

flashing white or green not in alarm, but last alarm not acknowledged

Furthermore a red text IHS appears near each motor when the relevantd thermical fault goes
active.
Finally, motors can be operated either locally (from the field) or remotely (from the DCS). Local
or remote status indication is shown next to motors, by a LOC/ REM yellow text.


2.3.4 Buttons

Buttons are graphic points that provide the operator the capability to set continuous values (i.e.
setting an additive concentration in the dosing system), and discrete commands (i.e.
enabling/disabling an interlock).
The button representation and the operations to be made to issue the command are similar to the
ones for not regulating output variables; over each button the operator find a string with its
meaning.


2.3.5 Modulating valves

Modulating valves (or control valves) have been considered static objects. Their colour correspond
to the colour of the process pipes where they are located.
In order to know how much the valves are open (or closed), it is necessary to read the output value
of the related loops.


2.3.6 Material flows and pipe colours

The plant piping represents the most important static information, as it allows to follow process
flows. The main pipes are drawned according to the following categories:
Pipe Colour Meaning
Red TPA and Product flow
Blue Glycol flow
Grey Steam flow anf Vacuum
Green Water flow
Light blue Air flow
Orange Oil flow
Yellow Nitrogen
Magenta Additive flows


2.3.7 Texts

Various text labels have been used in the synoptic graphic panels near the objects (instruments,
equipment), in order to show their real name; furthermore, text labels close to flow pipes give an
indication about the flow pipe destination in the plant. All these labels are displayed in white
colour.
DCS Handbook

Labels showing an interlock number (i.e. Int.22) have been placed near the instruments that are
handled by interlocks or sequences. These labels are normally displayed in dark grey colour; when
the relevant interlocks go active (it means that at least interlock condition turns on), they change to
red colour, thus giving the operator the information on locked situation.



2.3.8 Bargraphs

Bargraphs are present near objects everywhere an analogue level value is measured.
DCS Handbook

2.4 Synoptic graphic page list

The following table shows the list of synoptic graphic panels :

Area Panel Name

01 EG-STORAGE

02 PTA

03 PASTE-MIXER
ESTERIFICATOR
HEATING

04 1REACTOR
1HEATING
2REACTOR
2HEATING
04-B-02
VACUUM

05 EXTRUSION

06 CHIPS

08 ADDITIVES
TIO2

10 EG-RECOVERY

18 TEG-STORAGE
TEG-RECOVERY

19 TEG-FILTER

32 BOILER
STEAM
DIPHYL
CUTTING

33 COMPRESSOR

35 UTILITIES-DEMI

60/61 SCRUBBER

POWER CENTER POWER


DCS Handbook

2.5 Moving among graphic pages

The Main Overview is a display that can be easily called by clicking on the dedicated icon in the
upper main menu or typing the dedicated function key in the operator keyboard; the Main
Overview page has been configured in order to give the operator the capability to immediately call
each synoptic graphic page. It means that whatever supervision display is operating, (graphic
panel, trend, faceplate, alarm display), it is possible to quickly jump to a desired synoptic simply
passing through the Main Overview page and clicking on the relevant box.
Furthermore, from each page it is possible to call all the logically connected synoptic pages
(logical connection is referred to physical process); this operation can be easily done clicking on
the arrows placed at the end of the flow pipe.
The operator keyboard provides another direct access to synoptics, thanks to the fact thet most of
its function keys have been configured to call them.
Finally a synoptic graphic page can be accessed directly from the faceplate of each point included
in the panel, clicking on the dedicated icon in upper menu.


2.6 Interlock pages

The interlock pages are graphic pages used to display the status of interlocks and sequences
(enabled or disabled) and provide access to related control groups.
Four interlock pages have been configured :
. Interlock page Area 03
. Interlock page Area 04
. Interlock page Area 10-18-19
. Interlock page Area 08-32-33

They are accessible by Main Overview Page, by dedicated function keys in the operator keyboard
and, finally, by dedicated soft keys from synoptic pages.

For each interlock or sequence the following information is displayed :
. Number
. Brief functional description
. Status (enabled/disabled)
. Control Group (that can be accessed clicking on the relevant button)

The Control Group is generally a graphic page that includes more instrument faceplates; speaking
about interlocks, control groups have been realised to give an immediate view about the current
interlock situation.

The set of interlock pages and control groups allows a complete monitoring and management of
interlock and sequences. Nevertheless, some information about interlocks and sequences is also
shown in the synoptics, in fact close to each involved equipment (motor or valve), a red text
appears if at least one related interlock condition goes active.
DCS Handbook

2.7 Soft Keys

Soft keys are functional buttons placed in the bottom of synoptic graphic panels; they can be
configured to give the operator the capability to run specified functions directly from the page they
are included in.

In the developed supervision system the soft keys have been configured to realise the following
tasks:
. calling the Main Overview page;
. calling the interlock pages (This rule is only for synoptic pages that include at least one device
managed by an interlock or a sequence);
. calling the historical trends of the points included in the synoptic page;
. calling dedicated pages (i.e. pages for setting the dosing values, or pages showing the signal
detail of devices such as cutter).

DCS Handbook

CHAPTER 3
ALARMS, MESSAGES AND SECURITY


3.1 Alarms

HIS grouping configuration is the function that assigns plant area to HIS; it means that a single
Operator Station can manage the whole plant or only some plant areas according to its grouping
configuration.
These considerations are obviously valid also for alarm management; in other words, from an
Operator Station the operator can handle the alarms (silencing the horn, acknowledge the alarms,
etc.) for only those points allocated in the HIS by grouping assignment.
(Buttons to silent the horn and acknowledge alarms are placed both in the operator keyboard and
in the upper menu of the supervision pages).

Process alarm acknowledgement can be indifferently done from the instrument faceplate (single
acknowledgement), from the synoptic page (acknowledgement of all the alarms active on that
page) or from the process alarm display (acknowledgement of all the active alarms).

In order to have a summary of the process and system alarms, the process alarm and the system
alarm displays can be called clicking on the dedicated icons on the main upper menu. This pages
let available all the information regarding alarms belonging to assigned area: date and time,
acknowledgement status, type of alarm, description, etc.; furthermore the colour of the associated
mark gives an immediate information about alarm priority.

From the point of view of priority, alarms can be configured according the following :
. High priority
. Medium priority
. Low priority
. Logging

This scheme implies different actions regarding horn sounds, output on printer and display,
locking after acknowledgement and so on.



3.2 Messages

Other than default messages (process and system alarms), two kinds of message have been
configured using the tools of CS3000 engineering software, with the aim to provide the operator
with a further information about some conditions that are potential for critical situations :
. Alarm Annunciators
. Operator Guide messages

Alarm Annunciators advise the operator with a horn sound and a message regarding an alarm
situation or an interlock intervention, i.e. 32-B-01 HIGH LEVEL , INTERLOCK 63 ACTIVE,
etc.
DCS Handbook


The message appears in the dedicated row in the upper part of each supervisor display and is
collected in the process alarm display.

Operator Guides output further messages about interlock actions and sequence situation, i.e.
POLYMER PUMP STOPPED BECAUSE PRESSURE IS TOO HIGH (INT.37) and, in some
cases, give operators suggestion about action to be taken, i.e. SEQ.64 - INSERT LOAD TIME
AND ERROR TIME .
When a new Operator Guide message goes active, the horn sounds and the dedicated button
(placed on the operator keyboard) and icon (in the upper main menu) start to blink. Typing the
button or clicking on the icon the message appears.



3.3 Security

Usually two kinds of personnel interact with the control system during the life of the plant :
. Engineers, that have in charge the development of software necessary to control and
supervise the plant.
. Operators, that have in charge the running of the plant.

Two hierarchical level of system users have been defined in order to practically realise this task
partition : Administrator and Users.
People that can be logged as Administrator have the access to CS3000 engineering tools; it means
they can add, change or delete instruments, interlocks and sequences, synoptic pages, trend panels
and so on.
People that can be logged as Operator can access all the control and supervision objects realised by
engineers; it means they can supervise the plant (read process values and states, send commands,
manage alarms, display trends, and so on ), but they cannot work with engineering tools.
The level of access to the system is defined by the password typed when log-on.

Another level of security is realised at operator level, in order to give operators different privileges
according to their duties; the privilege practically defines the type of function the operator can
perform on the supervision system.
CS3000 defines 3 standard default privileges :
. ENG
. ON
. OFF

The privilege depends by the position of the security key in the operator keyboard or, in case that
the operator keyboard is not present, it depends by the password set with the dedicated icon in the
upper main menu.
The operator can act on the supervision objects (instrument faceplates, synoptic pages, etc.)
according to the current security key position (or password) and according to the security level
assigned to the objects during the configuration, i.e. an operator can start a motor or change an
alarm threshold only if the privilege scheme allows these operations.


DCS Handbook

CHAPTER 4
HISTORICAL TRENDS AND REPORTS


4.1 Introduction

The CS3000 system performs historization of the process data by means of the configuration of
trend panels.

An interface with Microsoft Excel provides a way to obtain printing of plant reports, such as
consumption data, process data statistics and so on.



4.2 Historical trends

An historical trend is a graphic representation of the values of a process variable collected during a
pre-defined period in the life of the plant; at any moment the trend can be printed on the screen or
the printer, thus providing the personnel with a further powerful way for the plant management.

Historical trends are organised on page basis, where each page can show up to eight variables;
generally the trend pages have been configured with the aim to include variables that are logically
connected from the point of view of the process. At the end of this paragraph the complete list of
the configured trend pages is shown.

The sample time and the time span are configurable data (please refer to Yokogawa manuals).
Actually in each trend page data are collected according the following rules :

. sample time = 1 minute
. time span = 2 days

It means that all the variables are registered on two days basis; because of the circular structure,
further acquired data overwrite the oldest values.

Historical trends can be accessed in three different ways :

. calling the instrument faceplate which trend is required and clicking on the dedicated
button of the upper main menu;
. passing through the Trend Overview Page; it is a graphic page that provides the operator
the capability to immediately call every configured trend page;
. each synoptic page contains the soft keys that provide direct access to the trends of the
analogue variables included in that synoptic




DCS Handbook

Trend page list

Area Panel Name Area Panel Name

01 EG-STORAGE 05 FILTER
CUTTER
03 DOSING SYS
TPA FLOW 08 ADDITIVES
03K01 TiO2
03C01 (1)
03C01 (2) 10 10X01 (1)
03K01 HEAT 10X01(2)
03C01 HEAT 10B01
03C01 HEAT
18 18K01
04 04K01 18B05
04C01 18B01-02-06
04C01 HEAT
04C01 HEAT 20 AREA 20
04R01
SPEED-CURR 32 BOILER
04R01 HEAT STEAM
04B02 FLOW DIPHYL
04B02 TEMP AIR PROD
VACUUM 1
VACUUM 2 60-61 SCRUBER




4.3 Reports

The raw material consumption and PET production report has been realised in the Engineering
Station using Report Package, that is a dedicated package developed on Microsoft Excel platform.
The application program is scheduled on daily basis, that means every day, at a fixed time, the
system automatically prints the table containing the raw material consumption and PET production
data .
The flows of all the materials consumed in the plant (glycol, additives and so on) are available as
analogue input; the PET flow is computed on the basis of pump speed and capacity.

Other than the Report Package, one further application is involved in the report management :

. the scheduler, which is a standard CS3000 engineering software tool, provides the System
Administrator the capability to print the report at a fixed time and frequency.



DCS Handbook

CHAPTER 5
FCS ENGINEERING CONCEPTS



5.1 Introduction

The following chapter will briefly describe the basic concepts about the main software instruments
used to develop the FCS (Field Control System) application software, that is the heart of the whole
control system. FCS application software includes the field interface (field variable collection and
output setiings), control and regulation alghoritms, complex calculations development, interlock
and automatic sequences realization and so on.
The aim of the handbook is only to give the DCS users a general view about the functions
involved in the system they work with; for complete details about FCS software please refer to
Yokogawa manuals (IM 33S1B30-01E).
DCS Handbook


5.2 Analogue variables

The Input Indication Block (PVI) is used to implement the Analogue Input module, i.e the
functional block that realise an analogue variable acquisition from the field.

Example
IN
%%03TT-19 03TR-19
(PVI)

%%03TT-19 represents the physical connection of the field instrument to CS3000; it is realised by
its assignment in a a channal of an analogue input board.
03TR-19 is the PVI, i.e. the software block that provides the analogue input acquisition function.
When this diagram is loaded into FCS, a process variable with Tag name 03TR-19 is available to
the whole control system, and it can be referenced for all the control and supervision functions,
such as graphic display and history collection.


The PID Controller Block (PID) provides the function that implements proportional-integral-
derivative control based on deviation between a process variable and a set point.

Examples
IN OUT
%%03FT-08 03FRC-08 %%03FV-08
(PID)




IN
%%03TT-13 03TRC-13
(PID)
OUT

SET
IN OUT
%%03FT-10 03FRC-10 %%03FV-10
(PID)


The examples show a simply PID block and two PID blocks that can operate in cascade mode.
%%03FT-08, %%03TT-13 and %%03FT-10 are the connection with the regulated variables
(inputs);
%%03FV-08 and 03FV-10 are the connections with the regulating variables (outputs);
03FRC-08, 03TRC-13 and 03FRC-10 are the blocks that implement the PID algorithm; their tag
names are referenced in the all the DCS application sofware to realize the control and supervision
functions. Furthermore the plant personnel can act on them to change PID parameters, operating
mode, set point, etc.
DCS Handbook


The Manual Loader Block (MLD) provide the CS3000 operators the capability to manually force
analogue actuators such as the motor inverters, or set continuous values such as the additive
concentration.

Example

OUT
03SET-R01 %%03SV-R01
(MLD)

%%03SV-R01 is the connection with the physical actuator;
03SET-R01 is the software instrument by which the operators can set the inverter speed.



5.3 Motors and On/Off valves

Motors and On/Off valves are implemented by Switch Instrument Block (SIO), that is a software
instrument that can read discrete input data (answerbacks) and transmit discrete output data.
. SIO-11 : 1 input data - 1 output data
. SIO-21 : 2 input data - 1 output data

Examples
IN OUT
Motor : 03ESI-P01S 03P01S 03ST-P01S
(SIO-11)

TSI

CPV
IN
03HC-P01S 03P01S-REMOTE
(NOT)



IN OUT
On/Off valve : 03ZSH-06A 03CV06A 03CV-06A
(SIO-21)

03ESI-P01S and 03ZSH-06A are the discrete input data, respectively the status of the motor
(running/stop) and the open proximity of the valve;
03ST-P01S and 03CV-06A are the discrete commands, respectively the start/stop and the
open/close command;
03HC-P01S is the local/remote switch;
the discrete input and output data and the local/remote switch are defined by their assignment in
the channels of a digital board.
03P01S and 03CV06A are the tag names that allow the reference for operators and other software
blocks, every time they have to be managed.
DCS Handbook

03P01S-REMOTE is a NOT function block used to invert the local/remote switch.

5.4 Alarm switches

The physical connection of an Alarm Switch in the relevant input board simply performs its
implementation in the control system. Furthermore the software link with an Alarm Annunciator
provides the alarm features.



5.5 Calculation

The arithmetic calculation and logical function can be implemented by the general purpose
calculation block (CALCU), using an expression description language.
General purpose calculation have been used in the application software every time a calculation
algorithms was required; an example is the development of the dosing system in the paste mixer.

Example

DEG-CALCU
(CALCU)




5.6 Interlock and sequences

Interlock and sequences are the procedures that carry out automatic action of some devices,
according to the behaviour of the process.
The word interlock define a procedure that has in charge the moving of one or more actuators as
answer to events that may be critical for the process or for the safety of the plant equipment (for
example stopping the dosing system because the paste mixer agitator is not running).
The word sequences instead define a procedure whose actions depend from events that are
considered to be normal in the process running (for example opening and closing an On/Off valve
to charge and discharge a tank).
The software blocks involved in these functions are the Sequence Tables (ST16) and the
Sequential Function Chart (_SFCSW).
Please note that both types of block can realise interlocks and sequences; their use only depends by
the specific application to be realised, that sometimes lets one type of block more suitable to easily
realise the required function.

Example

INT-29
(ST16)



DCS Handbook

5.7 Other blocks

Please find in the following the list of other types of functional blocks used in the development of
application software :
TM : Timer Block, that measures the time in minutes or seconds thus providing periodic actions.
CTS : Counter Block, that counts the number of events.
RL : Relational Expression Block, that provides the implementation of relationships between
two data, for example two process variable, or one process variable and one fixed value.