Name Roll No.

G M Firoz Khan 520931217 Human Resource Management [Set 2] MB 0027

Program MBA Subject Code

Learning Systems Domain –Indira Nagar, Centre Bangalore [2779]

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1. Mention and briefly explain different sources of recruitment. The sources of employee’s recruitment can be classified into two types, internal and external. Filing a job opening from within the firm has advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer of promotion, increasing the general level of morale, and providing more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organisation. A job posting has number of advantages. From the view point of employee, it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. The jobs posted on notice boards, group emails and publishing in internal news papers. Internal applications often restricted to certain employees, the guidelines for companies include: – – – – Good or better in most recent performance review Dependable attendance record Not under probationary sanction Having been in present position for at least one year

The personnel department acts as a clearing house in screening applications that are unrealistic, preventing an excess number of bids by a single employee and counselling unsuccessful employees in their constant attempt to change their jobs. Similarly the firm may go to external sources for recruitment of lower entry jobs, for expansion, and positions whose specifications cannot be met by the present personnel. The following external resources are available for firms:
a) Advertising: There is a trend toward more selective recruitment in

advertising. This can be affected in at least two ways. First advertisements can be placed in media read only by particular groups. Secondly, more information about the company, the job, and the job specification can be included in the ad to permit some self-screening. b) Employment Agencies: Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, both public and private. Today, in contrast to their former unsavoury reputation, the public employment agencies in several states are well-regarded, particularly in the fields of unskilled semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. In the

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c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

technical and professional areas, however, the private agencies tend to specialize in a particular engineer. Employee Referrals: Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired and stay with the company for a specific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job openings for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, however, suffers from a serious defect that it encourages nepotism, i.e. Persons of one’s community or caste are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job. Schools, colleges and professional institutions: These offer opportunities for recruiting their students. They will also have separate placement cell where the bio data and other particulars of the students are available. The prospective employers can review credentials and interview candidates for management trainees or probationers. This is an excellent source of potential employees for entry-level positions in the organisations. Labour Unions: Firms which closed or union shops must look to the union in their recruitment efforts. This has disadvantage of monopolistic workforce. Casual applicants: Unsolicited applications, both at the gate and through the mail, constitute a much-used source of personnel. These can be developed through attractive employment office facilities, prompt and courteous reply to unsolicited letters. Professional organisations or recruiting firms or executive recruiters: Maintain complete records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon as head hunters, raiders and pirates by organizations may employ “executive search firms” to help them find talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre for managerial, marketing and production engineers’ posts. Indoctrination seminars for colleges are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. Professors are invited to take part of these seminars. Visits to plants are arranged so that professors may be favourably impressed. They may speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel.

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i) Unconsolidated applications: for positions in which large numbers

of candidates are not available from other sources, the companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make direct enquiries about the possible vacancies on their own, or may send unsolicited applications. This would be helpful to firms for future vacancies. j) Nepotism: the hiring of relatives will be an inevitable component of recruitment programmes in family-owned firms, such a policy does not necessarily coincide with hiring on the basis of merit, but interest and loyalty to the enterprise are offsetting advantages. k) Leasing: to adjust to short term fluctuations in personnel needs, the possibility of leasing personnel by the hour or day should be considered. This principle has been particularly well developed in the office administration field because they can avoid any obligation in pensions, insurance and any other fringe benefits. l) Voluntary Organisations: Such as private clubs, social organisations might also provide employees – handicaps, widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands etc. In response to advertisements. m) Computer Data Banks: when a company desires a particular type of employees, job specifications and requirements are fed to computers, where they are matched against data stored in. This method is very useful in identifying candidates for hard-t-fit positions which calls for unusual combinations of skills.
2. Write a note on guided and unguided interview.

Hitchcock (1989:79) lists nine types: structured interview, survey interview, counselling interview, diary interview, life history interview, ethnographic interview, informal/unstructured interview, and conversations. Cohen & Manion (1994:273), however, prefers to group interviews into four kinds, including the structured or guided interview, the unstructured or unguided interview, the non-directive interview, and the focused interview. In-depth interviewing, also known as unstructured interviewing, is a type of interview which researchers use to elicit information in order to achieve a holistic understanding of the interviewee’s point of view or situation; it can also be used to explore interesting areas for further investigation. This type of interview involves asking informants open-ended questions, and probing wherever necessary to obtain data deemed useful by the

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researcher. As in-depth interviewing often involves qualitative data, it is also called qualitative interviewing. Patton (1987:113) suggests three basic approaches to conducting interviewing: One essential element of all interviews is the verbal interaction between the interviewer/s and the interviewee/s. Hitchcock (1989:79) stresses that ‘central to the interview is the issue of asking questions and this is often achieved in qualitative research through conversational encounters.’ Consequently, it is important for the researchers to familiarise themselves with questioning techniques before conducting interviews. (i) The informal conversational interview This type of interview resembles a chat, during which the informants may sometimes forget that they are being interviewed. Most of the questions asked will flow from the immediate context. Informal conversational interviews are useful for exploring interesting topic/s for investigation and are typical of ‘ongoing’ participant observation fieldwork. (ii) The general interview guide approach (commonly called guided interview) When employing this approach for interviewing, a basic checklist is prepared to make sure that all relevant topics are covered. The interviewer is still free to explore, probe and ask questions deemed interesting to the researcher. This type of interview approach is useful for eliciting information about specific topics. For this reason, Wenden (1982) formulated a checklist as a basis to interview her informants in a piece of research leading towards her PhD studies. She (1982:39) considers that the general interview guide approach is useful as it ‘allows for in-depth probing while permitting the interviewer to keep the interview within the parameters traced out by the aim of the study.’ (iii) The standardised open-ended interview (Unguided interview) Researchers using this approach prepare a set of open-ended questions which are carefully worded and arranged for the purpose of minimising variation in the questions posed to the interviewees. In view of this, this method is often preferred for collecting interviewing data when two or more researchers are involved in the data collecting process. Although this method provides less flexibility for questions than the other two mentioned previously, probing is still possible, depending on the nature of the interview and the skills of the interviewers (Patton 1987:112). 3. Discuss the techniques to motivate employees. The motivation techniques may be divided into two parts [a] that is to be done and [b] how and why what is done. The former are steps in

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motivation and the later are rules governing the steps. Both are performed simultaneously. These are listed below:
a) Size up situation requiring motivation: The first step of motivation is

to make sure of motivational needs. Every employee needs motivation; however, all people do not react exactly as the same way to the same stimuli. Keeping this in mind executive shall size up how much and what kind of motivation is needed. b) Prepare a set of motivational tools: An executive from his personnel experience should prepare a list of what devices are likely towork with what type of people and under what circumstances. c) Selecting and applying motivator: Proper application of motivational plan is important. This involves selection of the appropriate technique, method of application and the timing and location of applications. d) Follow up the results of applications: The last stage of motivation is to follow-up the results of the application of the plan. The primary objective is to ascertain if an employee has been motivated or not. If not some other technique should be tried. Rules of motivating: The motivation manager must be guided with some fundamental rules which should be based on the following principles.
a. Self interest and motivation: Motivation is mainly built on selfishness.

Psychologically speaking, selfishness is a part and parcel of life. To deny this is to build the theory on unrealistic foundation. To seek some other basis of motivation would be to ignore the real nature of man. The aim should be to learn more about selfishness. b. Attainability: Motivation must be establish attainable goals. This does not mean that the goal is realised at once. This may take years to attain. But it must be within reach. Eight ways to motivate plant employees: The following recommendations are for improving the motivation of employees in the routine jobs.
a. Provide assembly line employees with more than minimum training.

This would result in greater personnel involvement in the job.

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b. Crate sub goals to measure accomplishment. A sense of completion

c. d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

is important for motivation. They are likely to be more interested in the work which will reduce monotony and mental fatigue. Provide regular feedback on performance. Studies show that people work better when they receive positive feedback. Maintain a neat and orderly work area. If the foreman does not care about housekeeping then employees may feel that they also need not care about it and this attitude may affect quality of work. Arrange work situations so that conversation between employees is either easy or possible. Experience workers may to their job with little attention to the task. Conversation my reduce monotony and thus fatigue. Increase the number of operations performed by one employee. This can be done by simplification of manual operations. It offers several advantages: • The risk of errors reduced; • Management can hire employees at lower wages; • Training costs are minimised. Structure jobs, so that workers can at least occasionally move about the work area. Besides job rotation, there are other ways to provide for physical movement like stetting employees secure their own tools etc. Explore ways to assign greater personnel responsibility. Increased responsibility means greater self esteem and greater job meaningfulness. One way to enlarge responsibility is to let the employee inspect his own work.

2. Explain in detail the Disciplinary –Action Penalties. Disciplinary-Action Penalties There are varying penalties for first, second, and third offences of the same rule. Among the penalties available in business are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Oral reprimand Written reprimand Loss of privileges Fines Lay off

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6. Demotion 7. Discharge The penalties are listed in the general order of severity, from mild to severe for most cases, an oral reprimand is sufficient to achieve the desired result. The supervisor must know his or her personnel in determining how to give a reprimand. For one person, a severe “chewing out” may be necessary in order to get attention and co-operation; another person may require only a casual mention of a deficiency. If the offence is more serious, the reprimand may be put in written form. Since a written reprimand is more permanent than an oral one, it is considered a more severe penalty. For such offences as tardiness or leaving work without permission, fines or loss of various privileges can be used. The loss of privileges includes such items as good job assignments, right to select machine or other equipment, and freedom of movement about the workplace or company. The more severe penalties of layoff, demotion, and discharge are usually outside the grant of authority to the immediate supervisor. Disciplinary layoffs can vary in severity from one to several days’ loss of work without pay. The use of demotions as a penalty is highly questionable. If the employee is properly qualified for the present assignment, he or she will be improperly placed on a lower job. Discharge is the most severe penalty that a business organization can give and constitutes “industrial capital punishment”.

2. Explain the importance of Grievance Handling. Importance if Grievance Handling At one or the other stage of grievance procedure, the dispute must be handled by some member of management. In the solution of a problem, the greater burdens rest on management. The clearest opportunity for settlement is found at the first stage, before the grievance has left the jurisdiction of the supervisor. For this reason, many firms have specifically trained their supervisors as to how to handle a grievance or a

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complaint properly. The following directions help in handling grievances properly.
a. Receive and define the nature of the dissatisfaction: The manner

b.

c.

d.

e.

and the attitude with which the supervisor receives the compliant of grievance is important. The supervisor should assume that employee is fair in presenting the compliant or grievance. Statements should not be prejudged on the basis of past experience with this or other employees. The supervisors who are task oriented, as contrasted with people oriented, tended to experience a significantly greater number of complaints being filed in their units. Get the facts: In gathering facts, one quickly becomes are of the importance of keeping proper records such as performance ratings, attendance records and suggestions. The supervisor is wise to keep records on each particular grievance. The supervisor posses and exercise some skill in interview conference, and discussion. Analyse and Divide: With the problem defined and the facts in hand, the manager must now analyse and evaluate them, and then come to some decision. There is usually more than one possible solution. The manager must also be aware that the decision may constitute a precedent within the department as well as the company. Apply the Answer: through the solution decided upon by the supervisor is adverse to the employees, some answer is better than none. Employees dislike supervisors whowill take no stand, good or bad. In the event of an appeal beyond this stage of procedure, the manager must have the decision and the reasons for his decisions should be properly recorded. Follow up: The objective of the grievance handling procedure is to resolve a disagreement between an employee and organisation. Discussion and conference are important to this process. The purpose is to determine whether the clash of interest has been resolved. If the follow up reveals that the case has been handled unsatisfactorily or that the wrong grievance has been processed, then redefinition of the problem, further fact finding, analysis, solution and follow up are required.

Among the common errors of management encountered in the processing of grievances are:

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Stopping too soon in the search of facts; – Expressing management opinion prior to the time when all pertinent facts have been discovered; – Failing to maintain proper records; – Resorting to execute orders instead of discussion and conference to change minds; and – Setting the wrong grievance- a mistake which may in turn produce a second new grievance. Follow up is the step in the procedure that tells us when a mistake in handling has been made. 2. Explain Managerial Grid in detail. – Robert Blake, an eminent behavioural scientist differentiated the leaders on the basis of their concern to people and concern to task. He conducted study on 500 managers. He puts it on a grid called Managerial Grid, as follows: HIG H 9 C o n c er n e d fo r P e o pl e 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1, 9 5,5
1,1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9, 9

9, 1
8 9 HIG H
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LOW

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Concerned for Results The Managerial Grid Model [1964] is a behavioural leadership model developed by Mr. R Blake. This model identifies 5 different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for task. The optimal leadership in this model is based on theory Y. As shown in the figure, the model is represented as a grid with concern for work on X axis and the concern for people on Y axis; each axis ranges from 1 [low] to 9 [high]. The five resulting leadership styles are as follows:
i.

The impoverished style [1, 1]. The indifferent Leader (Evade and Elude)

In this style, managers have low concern for both people and work. Managers use this style to avoid getting into trouble. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes, which results in less innovative decisions. A leader uses the delegate and disappear style. They essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. Features: – – – Does only enough to preserve job and job seniority. Give little and enjoys little. Protects himself by not being noticed by others.

Implications: – Tries to stay in the same post for a long time.

Examples of leader speak: “I distance myself from taking active responsibility for results to avoid getting entangled into problems.” “If forced, I take a passive or supportive position”

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i. The country club style [1, 9]. The accommodating leader (Yield and Comply) This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for work. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees, in the hopes that this would increase performance. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly, but not necessarily that productive. This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline to encourage team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such power could jeopardise relationships with the other team members. Examples of Leader speak: “I support results that establish and reinforce harmony” “I generate enthusiasm by focussing on positive and pleasing aspects of work” ii. The produce or perish style [9, 1]. The controlling leader (Direct & Dominate)

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