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Abu-Lughod, Janet L., and Nezar AlSayyad. "Cairo." In Britannica School. (Accessed May 5,
Cairo is the capitol of Egypt, and has been one of Africa's largest cities for a long
standing time. For more than 1,000 years, Cairo has been located on the banks of the Nile
River, and has acted as the gateway to the Nile's delta, which is where the river separates
into the Rosetta and Damietta branches. This important encyclopedia article was filled
with a wide range of information on Cairo, from which I used its info to learn about its
character, landscape, and culture.

Campo, D. W., & Richards, D. P. (2000). Tunneling beneath cairo. Civil Engineering, 70(1), 36-
41. (Accessed May 6, 2014)
To reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental pollution in the city of Cairo,
the Egyptian government developed the Greater Cairo Metro Master Plan in the early
1970s for an underground heavy-rail transit system. The plan calls for a regional line and
two urban lines, which would run through both the downtown and east bank area of
Cairo. This is a valuable article that gives me lots of information about Cairo's
transportation system, and further explains how it was built, which was a very difficult

Echols, Stuart P., and Hala F. Nassar. "Canals and Lakes of Cairo." In Proquest, 203-12.
Basingstoke, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. (Accessed May 10, 2014.)
The system of constructed canals and lakes that were developed in Cairo encouraged a
unique perspective on sustainable city planning, and ultimately changed Cairo. These
processes resulted in a planned system of lakes and canals that annually changed Cairo's
physical form, urban structure, and social character. This article shows me how unique
and resourceful Cairo is as a city, because they use things like floods to their advantage,
which later improves their city altogether.

El-Ayouty, Yassin. "Egypt." Lands and Peoples. Grolier Online (Accessed May 6, 2014).
Cairo is surrounded by the sands of the Eastern and Western desert, which in ways
isolates the city for many miles in every direction. The Nile also is also a locality for
Cairo, which works to give them a huge advantage to make the city successful. But Cairo
also has some of the most hot and dry weather there is to offer in the world. This source
helps me understand the land situation Cairo as a city has to live with, since they are
positioned in Egypt with difficult conditions that are near them.

Thomas, Benjamin E. "Cairo (Egypt)." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online (Accessed May
6, 2014).
Cairo has lots of history, as it is one the pieces of that contributes to Egypt, which one the
oldest civilizations in the world. In the vicinity of Cairo, there has structures dating back
to 3000 B.C., and many historical settlements that existed in the pre Christian era.
Economically, Cairo has a very traditional approach to what they do, which they have
continued into the present. This site helped me understand the key events and specifics of
Cairo's rich history, and their economic traditions, which continue to remain the same.

Antar, Tarek. Cairo. Photograph. National Geographic. (Accessed May 4, 2014)
This is a picture of a section of Cairo called Old Cairo. It is a very artistic picture that
will go on the home page of my website to provide a pretty opening picture.

"Cairo, Egypt." Map. Maps 101. 2001. (Accessed May 28, 2014.)
This map gives me a look at the entire city, which includes the branches of the Nile
River. It is a good map to include in my Internal Systems and Structures page, because it
gives a good "big picture" perspective on the city.

Cairo Egypt, Roof Tops of the City. Photograph. World All Details. (Accessed May 18, 2014)
This picture provides an overlook of Cairo, which shows all of the unique architecture in
the city. This will be useful as a header on each page of my website. (At the top)

Egyptian Museum. Photograph. Destination 360. (Accessed May 20, 2014)
This picture shows me the Egyptian Museum located in Cairo, which relates to Cairo’s
culture and history. This provides me with a visual while talking about the cultural
museums located in the city.

Fox, Karen, Christopher Fox, and Alan Fox. Cairo and the Nile River. Photograph. Great River.
(Accessed May 17, 2014)
This is a beautiful picture of the Nile River flowing through the city of Cairo. I will use
this photo along with the description from my research to represent Cairo and its relation
with the Nile River.

"Greater Cairo Metro System."Photograph. Map. (Accessed May 11, 2014.)
Cairo's rail line system is very dense and complex in each individual line. In this map of
the Greater Cairo Metro System, I assume that the people go to generally the same places
every day, since there are only three lines. But there is an impressive amount of
stations/stops along each line, which works to the benefit of commuters, because they
don't have to walk as much to get to where they want. I think that this map of the metro
system is valuable because it shows that Cairo spent lots of time making it, and that
people in Cairo use it a lot, which reduces congestion and pollution.

“Nile Cruise by Air. Photograph”. Golden Pyramid. January 12 2013. (Accessed May 29, 2014)
This image is related to a tourist advertisement for a website, but it provides this really
beautiful picture that shows the branches of the Nile River in Cairo while there are so
many vessels on the river. This picture is important to me because it would really fit well
as a side picture to the text of “Urban Development through the Nile River”

"People Walking in Cairo, Egypt." Video file. Youtube. Posted by Images Best Shot, December
8, 2010. (Accessed May 28, 2014.)
This youtube video shows me footage of people walking through Cairo, and gives me a
sense of the culture and what everything looks like. This is important to me because it
allows me to provide a visual look at the people while talking about them in my
population section.

Sahin, Erol. Cairo Tower. Photograph. Flickr. (Accessed May 15, 2014)
Here is a picture of the Cairo Tower on an upward view. This picture provides me a good
quality picture of the Cairo Tower, which can be used in my website along with its

Schlenker, Jochen. Al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo. Photograph. National Geographic. (Accessed May
19, 2014).
This mosque is a very well recognized place in Cairo. It is very large and beautiful. This
picture will be useful to me to provide a visual of Egypt's Language and Religion.

Williams, Harry K. Egypt's Turmoil. Photograph. The Guardian. (Accessed May 23, 2014)
This photograph shows housing in Cairo, and represent how crowded and run down the
area is. I will use this photo so that it will provide a visual look at the majority kind of
housing in Cairo.

Web sites, e-sources
Cairo Tower. "History." Accessed May 6, 2014.
The lotus flower shaped Cairo Tower is a modern and contemporary landmark in Cairo
and has been a very popular destination for tourists visiting the city. The Cairo president
Gamal Abdel Nasser initiated the idea of building it in 1961, and after refurbishment, the
tower reopened in 2009. This source is important for my research on Cairo, because it
gives me information about a new structure that has been recently introduced to the city.
It gives me an understanding of a more "modern" Cairo, which is necessary to know.

Daniel. "Migration and Integration of Cairo." United Nations Alliance of Civilizations. Last
modified September 9, 2010. (Accessed May 28, 2014.)
This quotation gives me valuable information about Cairo's migration patterns. This
would be a valuable aspect while explaining the people of Cairo, and where they are
coming from to get to the city. I will use this information on my population page, as it fits
with the "people" section of the website. Migration is an important spot to fill in the
website rubric as well.

Doughty, Dick. "Cairo: The Mega City." (Accessed May 6, 2014.)
Cairo is a megacity that has many features, which would surprise people. Although city
has been known to prosper through recent times, they have had their own share of
economic problems. Another surprising trait about Cairo is that they have some of the
most upbeat and friendly people there are in cities. Today's Cairo for the most part has
been a product of the industrial age, and continues to remain the same in a lot of
categories. This source is very important, because it specifically talks about Cairo in
ways that you wouldn't normally read or learn about. This source provides hard to find
evidence and truly shows that Cairo is a unique city, proving that it is one of a kind in the

"Egypt." World Fact Book. (Accessed May 5, 2014.)
Egypt has always had a variety of transportation from which they take people places
within and out of the country. Egypt's statistics of its people and society don't really pop
out as unusual, but they do have some areas like Cairo, which are very highly populated,
while people don't die very often. In relation to geography, Egypt's total area is very
large, as it has tons of land, but doesn't have much water other than the Nile. This source
provides me with very exact statistical information about Egypt in general, which is
always important to use, because of its specific information about the country.

Pro Quest. "Arab Republic of Egypt." (Culture Grams. Accessed May 5, 2014.)
In Egypt, the official language is Arabic, in which there is a large variety of dialects
spoken throughout the country. However the country of Egypt is about 90 percent
Muslim, most of whom are Sunni Muslim, which shows that they aren't very diverse in
religion. In urban areas, apartments are the most normal for both the wealthy and poor,
with apartment buildings ranging from a few floors to more than 10 stories high. This
source gives me lots of information about Egypt's people, how they live, and how they
are dominated by a single language and religion.