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1.1 Type area
The text should fit exactly into the type aea of 1!" ×
#"# $$ %".&'( × 1)."1(*. +o coect settin,s of
$a,ins in the -a,e Setup dialo, .ox %+ile $enu* see
Ta.le 1.
1.# Typefont, typesize and spacing
Use Ti$es Ne/ Ro$an 1# point si0e and 1& point
line spacin, %No$al1text ta,*. Use o$an type
except fo the headin,s %2eadin, ta,s*3 paa$etes in
$athe$atics %not fo lo,3 sin3 cos3 ln3 $ax.3 d %in dx*3
etc*3 Latin na$es of species and ,enea in .otany and
0oolo,y and the titles of 4ounals and .oo5s /hich
should all .e in italics. Ne6e use .old3 except to
denote 6ectos in $athe$atics. Ne6e undeline any
text. Use the s$all font %1) points on 11 points* fo
ta.les %Ta.le ta,s*3 fi,ue captions %+i,ue caption
ta,* and the efeences %Refeence text ta,*.
Ne6e use lettespacin, and ne6e use $oe than
one space afte each othe.
#.1 Preparing the new file with the correct template
Copy the te$plate file %if you pint on
A9 si0e pape* o %fo Lette si0e
pape* to the te$plate diectoy. This diectoy can
.e found .y selectin, the Tools $enu3 Options and
then .y, the +ile Locations. :hen the :od
po,a$$e has .een stated open the +ile $enu and
choose Ne/. No/ select the te$plate
o %see a.o6e*. Stat .y ena$in, the
docu$ent .y clic5in, Sa6e As in the $enu +iles.
Na$e you file as follo/s; +ist thee lettes of the
file na$e should .e the fist thee lettes of the last
na$e of the fist autho3 the second thee lettes
should .e the fist lette of the fist thee /ods of
the title of the pape %e.,. this pape; .alpat.doc*.
No/ you can type you pape3 o copy the old
6esion of you pape onto this ne/ fo$ated file.
#.# Copying old text onto new file
Open you old file and the ne/ file. S/itch .et/een
these t/o /ith the :indo/ $enu. Select all text of
the old file %excludin, title3 authos3 affiliations and
a.stact* and paste onto .otto$ of ne/ file3 afte
ha6in, deleted the /od INTRO7UCTION %see also
section #.<*. Chec5 the $a,in settin, %-a,e Setup
dialo, .ox in +ile $enu* and colu$n settin,s %see
Ta.le 1 fo coect settin,s*. Afte this copy the texts
/hich ha6e to .e placed in the fa$es %see sections
#.& and #.9 *. In ode to a6oid disuption of the text
Ta.le 1. =a,in settin,s fo A9 si0e pape and lette
si0e pape.
Settin, A9 si0e pape Lette si0e pape
>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>
c$ inches c$ inches
Top 1.# ).9"( ).&# ).1&(
8otto$ 1.& ).<1( ).9# ).1"(
Left 1.1< ).9<( 1.9< ).<"(
Ri,ht 1.1< ).9<( 1.9< ).<"(
All othe ).) ).)( ).) ).)(
Colu$n /idth? @.) &.<9( @.) &.<9(
Colu$n spacin,? )." ).#!( )." ).#!(
? Colu$n dialo, .ox in +o$at $enu.
and fa$es3 copy these texts paa,aph .y paa,aph
/ithout includin, the fist /od %/hich includes the
old ta,*. It is .est to fist etype the fist /ods
$anually and then to paste the coect text .ehind.
-epain, a t/o colu$n pape /ith =S :od fo :indo/s
A.T. 8al5e$a A G. :estes
A.A. Balkema Publishers, otterdam, !etherlands
8. Un5no/n
!ew "nstitute, #ouda, !etherlands
A8STRACT; Authos of papes to poceedin,s ha6e to type these in a fo$ suita.le fo diect photo,aphic
epoduction .y the pu.lishe. In ode to ensue unifo$ style thou,hout the 6olu$e3 all the papes ha6e to
.e pepaed stictly accodin, to the instuctions set .elo/. The enclosed CPI_AR_PDF1.7.joboptions
should be used to create the final Camera Read Cop PDF file. The pu.lishe /ill educe the ca$eaB
eady copy to "<C and pint it in .lac5 only. +o the con6enience of the authos te$plate files fo =S :od
'.) %and hi,he* ae po6ided.
:hen the ne/ file contains all the text3 the old ta,s
in the text should .e eplaced .y the ne/ 8al5e$a
ta,s %see section &*. 8efoe doin, this apply
auto$atic fo$attin, %Auto+o$at in +o$at $enu*.
#.& Title, author and affiliation frame
-lace the cuso on the T of Title at the top of you
ne/ly na$ed file and type the title of the pape in
lo/e case %no caps except fo pope na$es*. The
title should not .e lon,e than "< chaactes*. 7elete
the /od Title %do not delete the paa,aph end*.
-lace the cuso on the A of A.8.Autho%s* and type
the na$e of the fist autho %fist the initials and then
the last na$e*. If any of the coBauthos ha6e the sa$e
affiliation as the fist autho3 add his na$e afte an A
%o a co$$a if $oe na$es follo/*. 7elete the
/ods A.8. Autho etc. and place the cuso on the
A of Affiliation. Type the coect affiliation %Na$e of
the institute3 City3 StateD-o6ince3 County*. No/
delete the /od Affiliation. If thee ae authos lin5ed
to othe institutes3 place the cuso at the end of the
affiliation line 4ust typed and ,i6e a etun. No/ type
the na$e%s* of the autho%s* and afte a etun the
affiliation. Repeat this pocedue until all affiliations
ha6e .een typed.
All these texts fit in a fa$e /hich should not .e
chan,ed %:idth; Exactly 1!" $$ %".&'(*1 2ei,ht;
Exactly "& $$ %#.!"(* fo$ top $a,in1 Loc5
#.9 Abstract frame
If thee ae no futhe authos place the cuso one
space .ehind the /od A8STRACT; and type you
a.stact of not $oe than 1<) /ods. The top of the
fist line of the a.stact /ill .e "& $$ %#.!"(* fo$
the top of the type aea. The co$plete a.stact /ill
fall in the a.stact fa$e3 the settin,s of /hich should
also not .e chan,ed %:idth; Exactly 1!" $$
%".&'(*1 2ei,ht; Auto$atic1 Eetical "& $$ %#.!"(*
fo$ $a,in1 Loc5 ancho*.
#.< $irst line of text or heading
If you text stats /ith a headin,3 place the cuso on
the I of INTRO7UCTION and type the coect text
fo the headin,. No/ delete the /od
INTRO7UCTION and stat /ith the text afte a
etun. This text should ha6e the ta, +ist paa,aph.
If you text stats /ithout a headin, you should
place the cuso on the I of INTRO7UCTION3
chan,e the ta, to +ist paa,aph and type you text
afte deletin, the /od INTRO7UCTION.
&.1 Text and indenting
Text is set in t/o colu$ns of @ c$ %&.<9(* /idth
each /ith " $$ %).#!(* spacin, .et/een the
colu$ns. All text should .e typed in Ti$es Ne/
Ro$an3 1# pt on 1& pt line spacin, except fo the
pape title %1! pt on #) pt*3 autho%s* %19 pt on 1'
pt*3 and the s$all text in ta.les3 captions and
efeences %1) pt on 11 pt*. All line spacin, is exact.
Ne6e add any space .et/een lines o paa,aphs.
:hen a colu$n has .lan5 lines at the .otto$ of the
pa,e3 add space a.o6e and .elo/ headin,s %see
opposite colu$n*.
+ist lines of paa,aphs ae indented < $$ %).#(*
except fo paa,aphs afte a headin, o a .lan5 line
%+ist paa,aph ta,*.
&.# %eadings
Type pi$ay headin,s in capital lettes o$an
%2eadin, 1 ta,* and seconday and tetiay headin,s
in lo/e case italics %2eadin,s # and & ta,s*.
2eadin,s ae set flush a,ainst the left $a,in. The
ta, /ill ,i6e t/o .lan5 lines %#' pt* a.o6e and one
%1& pt* .eneath the pi$ay headin,s3 1H .lan5 lines
%#) pt* a.o6e and a H .lan5 line %' pt* .eneath the
seconday headin,s and one .lan5 line %1& pt* a.o6e
the tetiay headin,s. 2eadin,s ae not indented and
neithe ae the fist lines of text follo/in, the headin,
indented. If a pi$ay headin, is diectly follo/ed .y
a seconday headin,3 only a H .lan5 line should .e
set .et/een the t/o headin,s. In the :od
po,a$$e this has to .e done $anually as follo/s;
-lace the cuso on the pi$ay headin,3 select
-aa,aph in the +o$at $enu3 and chan,e the
settin, fo spacin, afte3 fo$ 1& pt to ) pt. In the
sa$e /ay the settin, in the seconday headin, fo
spacin, .efoe should .e chan,ed fo$ #) pt to " pt.
&.& &isting and numbering
:hen listin, facts use eithe the style ta, List si,ns
o the style ta, List nu$.es.
&.9 '(uations
Use the eIuation edito of the selected /od
pocessin, po,a$$e. EIuations ae not indented
%+o$ula ta,*. Nu$.e eIuations consecuti6ely and
place the nu$.e /ith the ta. 5ey at the end of the
line3 .et/een paantheses. Refe to eIuations .y
these nu$.es. See fo exa$ple EIuation 1 .elo/;
+o$ the a.o6e /e note that sin θ J %x K y*z o;

= −

 1
ν δ tan
/hee c
J inteface adhesion1 δ J fiction an,le at
inteface1 and k
J shea stiffness nu$.e.
+o si$ple eIuations in the text al/ays use
supescipt and su.scipt %select +ont in the +o$at
$enu*. 7o not use the eIuation edito .et/een text
on sa$e line.
The inline eIuations %eIuations /ithin a sentence*
in the text /ill auto$atically .e con6eted to the
A=S notation standad.
&.< Tables
Locate ta.les close to the fist efeence to the$ in
the text and nu$.e the$ consecuti6ely. A6oid
a..e6iations in colu$n headin,s. Indicate units in
the line i$$ediately .elo/ the headin,. Explanations
should .e ,i6en at the foot of the ta.le3 not /ithin
the ta.le itself. Use only hoi0ontal ules; One a.o6e
and one .elo/ the colu$n headin,s and one at the
foot of the ta.le %Ta.le ule ta,; Use the ShiftB$inus
5ey to actually type the ule exactly /hee you /ant
it*. +o si$ple ta.les use the ta. 5ey and not the ta.le
option. Type all text in ta.les in s$all type; 1) on 11
points %Ta.le text ta,*. Ali,n all headin,s to the left
of thei colu$n and stat these headin,s /ith an
initial capital. Type the caption a.o6e the ta.le to the
sa$e /idth as the ta.le %Ta.le caption ta,*. See fo
exa$ple Ta.le 1.
&.' $igure captions
Al/ays use the +i,ue caption style ta, %1) points
si0e on 11 points line space*. -lace the caption
undeneath the fi,ue %see Section <*. Type as
follo/s; L+i,ue 1. Caption.M Lea6e a.out t/o lines
of space .et/een the fi,ue caption and the text of
the pape.
&." eferences
In the text3 place the authosM last na$es %/ithout
initials* and the date of pu.lication in paentheses
%see exa$ples in Section <*. At the end of the pape3
list all efeences in alpha.etical ode undeneath the
headin, RE+ERENCES %Refeence headin, ta,*.
The efeences should .e typed in s$all text %1) pt
on 11 pt* and second and futhe lines should .e
indented <.) $$ %).#(* %Refeence text ta,*. If
se6eal /o5s .y the sa$e autho ae cited3 enties
should .e chonolo,ical;
Lach3 A.A. 1@@'a. 7e6elop$ent ...
Lach3 A.A. 1@@'.. +acilities ...
Lach3 A.A. 1@@". Co$pute ...
Lach3 A.A. A Nensen3 =.C. 1@@'. Effects of ...
Lach3 A.A. A S$ith3 8.-. 1@@&. Alpine ...
&.".1 Typography for references
Last na$e3 +ist na$e o Initials %ed.* yea. Book title. City;
Last na$e3 +ist na$e o Initials yea. Title of aticle. Title of
*ournal %seies nu$.e if necessay* 6olu$e nu$.e %issue
nu$.e if necessay*; pa,e nu$.es.
&.".# 'xamples
Go6e3 A.T. 1@!). Geo$ophic e6olution of the Sahaa and
the Nile. In =.A.N. :illia$s A 2. +aue %eds*3 The +ahara
and the !ile; #1B&<. Rotteda$; 8al5e$a.
Nappelli3 R. A =aconi3 N. 1@@". Reco$$endations and
pe4udices in the eal$ of foundation en,ineein, in Italy;
A histoical e6ie/. In Calo Ei,,iani %ed.*3 #eotechnical
engineering for the preser,ation of monuments and
historical sites1 Proc. intern. symp., !apoli, -./ 0ctober
1223. Rotteda$; 8al5e$a.
Nohnson3 2.L. 1@'<. Atistic de6elop$ent in autistic childen.
Child 4e,elopment '<%1*; 1&B1'.
-olhill3 R.=. 1@!#. Crotalaria in Africa and 5adagascar.
Rotteda$; 8al5e$a.
&.".& 'ndnote
:e /ould appeciate it if you $a5e use of the
enclosed Endnotes stylefile %2a6ad.ens*.
&.! !otes
These should .e a6oided. Inset the info$ation in
the text. In ta.les the follo/in, efeence $a5s
should .e used; ?3 ??3 etc. and the actual footnotes
set diectly undeneath the ta.le.
&.@ Conclusions
Conclusions should state concisely the $ost
i$potant popositions of the pape as /ell as the
authoMs 6ie/s of the pactical i$plications of the
Nu$.e fi,ues consecuti6ely in the ode in /hich
efeence is $ade to the$ in the text3 $a5in, no disB
tinction .et/een dia,a$s and photo,aphs. +i,ues
should fit /ithin the colu$n /idth of @) $$ %&.<9(*
o /ithin the type aea /idth of 1!" $$ %".&'(*.
+i,ues3 photo,aphs3 etc. can .e in .lac5D/hite o
full colo3 .ut /ill .e poduced in the .oo5 in
.lac5D/hite only. -lease inset the hi,h esolution
fi,ues %see at/o5 docu$ent* in the /od file.
+i,ues3 etc. should not .e centeed3 .ut placed
a,ainst the left $a,in. Lea6e a.out t/o lines of
space .et/een the actual text and fi,ue %includin,
caption*. Ne6e place any text next to a fi,ue. Lea6e
this space .lan5. The $ost con6enient place fo
placin, fi,ues is at the top o .otto$ of the pa,e.
A6oid placin, text .et/een fi,ues as eades $i,ht
not notice the text. Oeep in $ind that e6eythin, /ill
.e educed to "<C. Theefoe3 @ point should .e the
$ini$u$ si0e of the lettein,. Lines should .e ).# $$ %).1(* thic5. Oeep fi,ues as
si$ple as possi.le. A6oid excessi6e notes and
σ f
stiffness decease
in tension
cac5 closue
yieldin, point
stiffness decease
unde co$pession
cac5 closue
anelastic stain
+i,ue 1. Caption of a typical fi,ue. -hoto,aphs /ill .e
scanned .y the pinte. Al/ays supply oi,inal photo,aphs.
-hoto,aphs should .e /ith ,ood contast and in TI++ o E-S fo$at %see At/o5
docu$ent*. -hoto,aphic epoductions cut fo$
.oo5s o 4ounals3 photocopies of photo,aphs and
sceened photo,aphs ae unaccepta.le. The
poceedin,s /ill .e pinted in .lac5 only. +o this
eason a6oid the use of colou in fi,ues and
photo,aphs. Colou is also nealy al/ays
unnecessay fo scientific /o5.
Consistency of style is 6ey i$potant. Note the
spacin,3 punctuation and caps in all the exa$ples
− eferences in the text6 +i,ue 13 +i,ues #B93 '3
!a3 . %not a..e6iated*
− eferences between parentheses6 %+i,. 1*3 %+i,s #B
93 '3 !a3 .* %a..e6iated*
− USA D UO D The Nethelands instead of U.S.A. D
U.O. D Nethelands D the Nethelands
− Autho A Autho %1@!@* instead of Autho and
Autho %1@!@*
− %Autho 1@!@a3 .3 Autho A Autho 1@!"*
instead of %Autho3 1@!@a3.1 Autho and Autho3
− %Autho et al. 1@!@* instead of %Autho3 Autho A
Autho 1@!@*
− 7se the following style6 %Autho3 in pess*1
%Autho3 in pep.*1 %Autho3 unpu.l.*1 %Autho3
pes. co$$.*
Al/ays use the official SI notations;
− 5, D $ D 5N D $$ instead of 5,. %O,* D $. D 5N.
%ON* D $$.1
− #)P1'′&#′′S: instead of #)P 1'′ &#′′ S:
− ).<) instead of )3<) %used in $rench text*1 @)))
instead of @3))) but if more than 1)3))); 1)3)))
instead of 1))))

C instead of C
D CB19 and 8- D 8C D A7
instead of 8.-. D 8.C. D A.7.
− Q #) instead of ×#) D G#) D x #)1 9 K < R "
instead of 9K<R" but S! D K! instead of S ! D K !
− e.,. D i.e. instead of e.,.3 D i.e.3
The camera!read cop PDF file of the complete
paper should be created "ith the enclosed
CPI_AR_PDF1.7.joboptions file and sent to the
editor. To#ether "ith the $s%ord or &aTe' file.
All fi,ues should .e included as hi,h esolution file
in the -7+ and /od file %see at/o5 docu$ent*.
Chec5 /hethe the pape loo5s the sa$e as this
sa$ple; Title at top of fist pa,e in 1! points3 authos
in 19 points and all othe text in 1# points on 1&
points line space3 except fo the s$all text %1) point
on 11 point line space* used in ta.les3 captions and
efeences. Also chec5 if the type /idth is 1!" $$
%".&'(*3 the colu$n /idth @) $$ %&.<9(*3 the pa,e
len,th is #"# $$ %1)."1(* and that the space a.o6e
the A.stact is exactly as in the sa$ple. :ite you
na$e and the shotened title of the pape in pencil in
the .otto$ $a,in of each pa,e and nu$.e the
pa,es coectly.
The a.o6e $ateial should .e /ith the edito .efoe
the deadline fo su.$ission. Any $ateial ecei6ed
too late /ill not .e pu.lished.