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CASE DOCTRINES

ON
TORTS & DAMAGES
PROFESSOR: ATTY. JUN DE GRANO
Submitted by:
Thursday Class 4:30 to 7:30 P.M.
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List of Cases on Torts
Assine!
to: PAGE
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1 Africa vs. Calte! 1" SC#A 44$ %ili& 0'
( Alfialda vs. S)ouses *isole! $' Phil "7 Cuyco 0'
3 Alitalia vs. +AC! 1,( SC#A , -o)e. Adde/dum
4 Amadora vs. CA! 1"0 SC#A 31' Me/.o/ 0'
' Atla/tic 0ulf vs. CA! (4, SC#A 3,7 1olos 0"
" 1ati2ui/ vs. CA! ('$ SC#A 334 32ueta/ Adde/dum
7 1o/ifacio vs. 1-T1! 34 SC#A "1$ 3sta/islao 0"
$
1ustama/te! et al.! vs. CA! et al.! 0.#. 4o. $,$$0!
" 5ebruary 1,,1 -as2ue 0"
,
Ca/&co vs. The Ma/ila #ailroad Com)a/y! 3$
Phil 7"$ Aure Adde/dum
10
Ca)u/o! et al.! vs. Pe)si Cola! et al. 0.#. 4o. -6
1,331! 30 A)ril 1,"' -eo/ 07
11
Chi/a Airli/es vs. CA! 0.#. 47. 4',$'! 1$ May
1,,0 3sta/islao 07
1(
City of Ma/ila vs. Teotico! 0.#. 4o. -6(30'(! (,
8a/uary 1,"$ Padla/ 07
13
Corliss! et al.! vs. The Ma/ila #ailroad Co.! (7
SC#A "74 Acosta 0$
14 Cru. vs. 4-#C! (03 SC#A ($" 9illa/ueva 0$
1'
Cuadra vs. Mo/fort! 0.#. 4o. -6(4101! 30
Se)tember 1,70 -o)e. 0$
1"
Culio/ +ce! 5ish a/d 3lectric Co.! +/c. vs. Phil.
Motors Cor).! '' Phil 1(, Aure 0,
17 %ay:alt vs. #ecoletos! 3, Phil '$7 1arrios 0,
1$
%e 0u.ma/ vs. 4-#C! 0.#. 4o. ,0$'"! (3 8uly
1,,( #oas 0,
1, %ichoso vs. CA! 1,( SC#A 1", 0umabay 10
(0 3P0 Co/structio/ vs. CA! (10 SC#A (30 #odri&ue. 10
(1
3co/de vs. Ca)u/o! 0.#. 4o. -610134! (, 8u/e
1,'7 -o)e. 10
(( 5abre vs. CA! (', SC#A 4(" 1olos 11
(3 55 Cru. vs. CA! 1"4 SC#A 733 32ueta/ Adde/dum
(4
5ilamer Christia/ Colle&e vs. CA! 0.#. 4o.
7'11(! 17 Au&ust 1,,( Me/do.a 11
(' 5ili/vest vs. CA! (4$ SC#A '4, Sali)si) Adde/dum
("
5irst Malaya/ vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. ,137$! ,8u/e
1,,( Padla/ 11
(7
5o/ta/illa vs. Mallama/! 0.#. 4o. -6'',"3! 1
%ecember 1,$, Me/.o/ 1(
($ 0atchalia/ vs. %elim! (03 SC#A 1(" %e Chave. Adde/dum
(, 0elisa/ vs. Alday! 1'4 SC#A 3$$ #odri&ue. 1(
30 0uilatco vs. City of %a&u)a/! 0.#. 4o. "1'1"! (1 Pador 1(
3
March 1,$,
31 *ermosisima vs. CA! 10, Phil "($ Sali)si) Adde/dum
3(
8arco Mar;eti/& vs. CA! 0.#. 47. 1(,7,(! (1
%ecember 1,,, 0atioa/ 13
33 -1C Air Car&o vs. CA! (41 SC#A "1, %ili& 14
34
-ilius! et al. vs. The Ma/ila #ailroad Co.! ', Phil
7'$ Abad 14
3' -im vs. Po/ce de -eo/! "" SC#A (,, A&o/oy 1'
3" Ma/uel vs. CA! ((7 SC#A (, 0atioa/ 1'
37
Mc;ee! et al. vs. +AC et al.! 0.#. 4o. -6"$10(! 1"
8uly 1,,( -as2ue 1"
3$
Merritt vs. 0over/me/t! 0.#. 4o. 16111'4! (1
March 1,1" Me/do.a 1"
3, M*P 0arme/ts vs. CA! (3" SC#A ((7 A&o/oy 1"
40
4a;)il < So/s vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. -647$'1! 3
7ctober 1,$" Pador 17
41
4AP7C7# vs. CA! 1"1 SC#A 334! 0#4 -6
4737, May 1"! 1,$$ %ayo 17
4(
4AP7C7# vs. CA! et al.! 0.#. 4os. 10344(64'!
(1 May 1,,3 -eo/ 17
43
Pa/tra/co vs. 1aesa! 0#4 7,0'0 4ovember 14!
1,$, %aca/ay 17
44 Pecso/ vs. CA! (44 SC#A 407 Te=a/o 17
4' P*+MC7 vs City of Cebu! $1 SC#A ,, 9illa/ueva 1$
4"
Phoe/i Co/structio/! +/c. et al. vs. +AC! et al.!
14$ SC#A 3'3 %ayo 1$
47 Picart vs. Smith! 37 Phil $0, Abad 1,
4$ P-%T vs. CA! 17$ SC#A ,4 %aca/ay 1,
4, Po/ce vs. -e&as)i! (0$ SC#A 377 Sayo Adde/dum
'0 #a;es vs. Atla/tice 0ulf! 7 Phil 3', Carlos Adde/dum
'1 #CP+ vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. 7,'7$! March 13! 1,,1 Che/& 1,
'( #ubio vs. CA! 141 SC#A 4$$ 1arrios Adde/dum
'3 Salvosa vs. +AC! 0.#. 4o. 704'$!' 7ctober 1,$$ Mori (0
'4 Security 1a/; vs. CA! (4, SC#A (0" Te=a/o (0
'' Shoo;at vs. CA! (1, SC#A 11' Sayo Adde/dum
'"
Solima/ vs. Tua.o/! 0.#. 4o. ""(07! 1$ May
1,,( 0atioa/ (0
'7 Taylor vs. Ma/ila 3lectric! 1" Phil $ Cuyco (1
'$ >mali vs. 1aca/i! et al.! ", SC#A ("3 Acosta ((
', 9elayo vs. Shell! 100 Phil 1$" #odri&ue. ((
"0 9er&ara vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. 77"7,! 30 Se)t. 1,$7 Che/& ((
"1 9estil vs. +AC! 17, SC#A 47 Mori ((
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List of Cases on Da"aes
Assine!
to:
"( Air 5ra/ce vs. CA! 0#4 7"0,3 March (1! 1,$, 0umabay (3
"3 Araos vs. CA! 0#4 1070'7 8u/e (! 1,,4 *amdai/ Adde/dum
"4
Co/solidated Ply:ood vs. CA! 0#4 10170"
Se)tember (3! 1,,( #oas Adde/dum
"'
Cou/try 1a/;ers vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. $'1"1
Se)tember ,! 1,,1 A&o/oy (3
"" %avila vs. PA-! 0#4 -6($'1( 5ebruary ($!1,73 -e&asto (3
"7 %e -eo/ vs. Ca! 0#4 -631,31 Au&ust 31! 1,$$ 9illa/ueva (4
"$
3aster/ Shi))i/& vs. CA! 0#4 ,741( 8uly 1(!
1,,4 Ma/&otara ('
",
5ili/vest Credit vs. +AC! 0#4 -6"',3'
Se)tember 30! 1,$$
%e
Chave. Adde/dum
70 8iso/ vs. CA! 0#4 -64'34, Au&ust 1'! 1,$$ %aca/ay ("
71 -ao vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. $($0$ 8uly 11!1,,1 Su/tay Adde/dum
7(
-o)e. vs. Pa/ America/ ?orld Air:ays! 0#4 -6
((41'. March 30! 1,"" Ma/la)a. ("
73
Malaysia/ Airli/e vs. CA! 0#4 -67$01'
%ecember 11! 1,$7 1olos ("
74
7ctot vs. +ba/e.! 0#4 -64$"43 8a/uary 1$!
1,$( 1arrios (7
7'
PA- vs. CA! 0.#. 4o. '4470. May $! 1,,0 @1$'
SC#A 110A %ayo (7
7"
PA- vs. CA! 0#4 11,"41 May 17!1,," @('7
SC#A 33A Carlos Adde/dum
77 PA- vs. Mia/o! 0#4 10"""4 March $! 1,,' *amdai/ Adde/dum
7$ Patricio vs. -eviste! 0#4 '1$3( A)ril ("! 1,$, Aure (7
7,
Peo)le vs. Builato/! 0#4 ",""" 8a/uary (3!
1,,( -e&asto ($
$0
P41 vs. >tility Assura/ce! 0#4 3,(1'
Se)tember 1! 1,$, Ma/la)a. (,
$1
#eformi/a vs. Tomol! 0#4 -6',0," 7ctober 11!
1,$' Ma/&otara (,
$(
Calamea vs. CA! 0#4 104(3' 4ovember 1$!
1,,3 Su/tay Adde/dum
$3
Camboa/&a @CAMC3-C7A vs. 1uat! 0#4
100'14 March (,!1,,' 0atioa/ 30
S#$"itte! %&: Di'i( Jose Ro!o'fo Man#e' )#o %.
5
Afri*a +s.Ca'te,
Res I-sa Lo.#it#r / The re)ort submitted by a )olice officer i/ the
)erforma/ce of his duties o/ the basis of his o:/ )erso/al observatio/ that the
&asoli/e statio/ bei/& located o/ a thic;ly )o)ulated area! a )erso/ li&hti/& a
ci&arette ca//ot be ecluded a/d )oses as a seco/dary ha.ard! may )ro)erly be
co/sidered as a/ ece)tio/ to the hearsay rule. These facts! descri)tive of the
locatio/ a/d ob=ective circumsta/ces surrou/di/& the o)eratio/ of the &asoli/e
statio/ i/ 2uestio/! stre/&the/ the )resum)tio/ of /e&li&e/ce u/der the doctri/e
of res i)sa lo2uitur! si/ce o/ their face they called for more stri/&e/t measures of
cautio/ tha/ those :hich :ould satisfy the sta/dard of due dili&e/ce u/der
ordi/ary circumsta/ces.
S#$"itte! $&: C#&*o( 0ate J#ris Pr#!en*e C.
Mararita Afia'!a +. %asi'io )iso'e an! Fran*is*o )iso'e
The )ossessor of a/ a/imal! or the o/e :ho uses the same! is liable for
a/y dama&es it may cause! eve/ if such a/imal should esca)e from him or stray
a:ay. This liability shall cease o/ly i/ case! the dama&e should arise from force
ma=eure or from the fault of the )erso/ :ho may have suffered it. @Article 1,0'A
S#$"itte! $&: Men1on( %ra!for! %.
A"a!ora +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
234 SCRA 526
?here the school is academic rather tha/ tech/ical or vocatio/al i/
/ature! res)o/sibility for the tort committed by the stude/t :ill attach to the
teacher i/ char&e of such stude/t. This is the &e/eral rule. +/ the case of
establishme/ts of arts a/d trades! it is the head thereof! a/d o/ly he! :ho shall
be held liable as a/ ece)tio/ to the &e/eral rule.
+/ other :ords! teachers i/ &e/eral shall be liable for the acts of their
stude/ts ece)t :here the school is tech/ical i/ /ature! i/ :hich case it is the
head thereof that shall be a/s:erable.
S#$"itte! $&: %o'os( Maria Gra*ia Patri*ia S.
6
G.R. Nos. 227872/79 A##st 95( 2::6
ATLANTIC GULF +s. COURT OF APPEALS
Article (177
4o dama&es ca/ be recovered t:ice from the same act or omissio/.
T:o =ud&me/ts for im)ositio/ of dama&es may be &ive/ by the courts! those
arisi/& from 2uasi6delict a/d delict or other sources of obli&atio/! but the )arty
&ra/ted by the court of dama&es may claim o/ly o/e of the t:o :hichever is
hi&her. +/ case the first =ud&me/t is already claimed a/d the seco/d =ud&me/t is
hi&her! o/ly the differe/ce of the t:o may be claimed.
S#$"itte! $&: Estanis'ao( Ri1a'ino Jr.
%onifa*io +s %LT%
A driver should be es)ecially :atchful i/ a/tici)atio/ of others :ho may be
usi/& the hi&h:ayD a/d his failure to ;ee) a )ro)er loo;out for )erso/ a/d
ob=ects i/ the li/e to be traversed co/stitutes /e&li&e/ce.
A motorist :ho is )ro)erly )roceedi/& o/ his o:/ side of the hi&h:ay!
eve/ after he sees a/ a))roachi/& motorist comi/& to:ard him o/ the :ro/&
la/e! is &e/erally e/titled to assume that the other motorist :ill retur/ to his
)ro)er la/e.
The defe/se of due dili&e/ce of a &ood father of the family :ill /ot hel) a/
em)loyer :he/ it is sho:/ that it :as &uilty of i/ecusable laity i/ the
su)ervisio/ of its drivers a/d i/ mai/te/a/ce of the vehicles
S#$"itte! $&: Las.#e( Mer+in N.
%USTAMANTE( ET AL.( ;S. CA( ET AL.(
G.R. NO. 8:884( 3 FE%RUARY 2::2.
-ast Clear Cha/ce a))lies i/ a suit bet:ee/ the o:/ers a/d drivers of the
collidi/& vehicles. +t does /ot a))ly :here a )asse/&er dema/ds res)o/sibility
from the carrier to e/force its co/tractual obli&atio/s. 5or it :ould be i/e2uitable
7
to eem)t the /e&li&e/t driver of the =ee)/ey a/d its o:/ers o/ the &rou/d that
the other driver :as li;e:ise &uilty if /e&li&e/ce (lasque, mervin’s digest).
S#$"itte! $&: Leon( Da+i! Martin L.
CAPUNO ;S. PEPSI/COLA %OTTLING COMPANY OF T)E P)ILIPPINES
GR. No. L/2:552 < A-ri' 54(2:36
A/ actio/ based o/ a 2uasi6delict is &over/ed by Article 11'0 of the Civil
Code as to the 2uestio/ of :he/ the )rescri)tive )eriod of four years shall be&i/
to ru/! that is! Efrom the day @the actio/A maybe brou&htE :hich mea/s from the
day the 2uasi6delict occurred or :as committed. The i/stitutio/ of a crimi/al
actio/ ca//ot have the effect of i/terru)ti/& the i/stitutio/ of a civil actio/ based
o/ a 2uasi6delict.E
S#$"itte! $&: Estanis'ao( Ri1a'ino Jr.
C=ina Air Lines +s CA
A )asse/&er may /ot file a/ actio/ for 2uasi6delict a/d the/ cha/&e his
theory to breach of co/tract.
A/ airli/e ca/ /ot be held liable for the /e&li&e/ce of its tic;eti/& a&e/t
:hich is a/other airli/e.
S#$"itte! $&: Pa!'an( Ja& ;in*ent S.
Cit& of Mani'a +s. Teoti*o 99SCRA93>
>/der Article (1$, of the Civil Code! it is /ot /ecessary for the liability
therei/ established to attach that the defective road or street belo/&s to the
)rovi/ce! city or mu/ici)ality from :hich res)o/sibility is eacted. ?hat said
article re2uires is that the )rovi/ce! city or mu/ici)ality have either Fco/trol or
su)ervisio/G over said street or road.
S#$"itte! $&: A*osta( ;o'taire S.
8
CORLISS vs. MANILA RAILROAD COMPANY
G.R. # L-21291, March 28, 1969
Article 1173 of the 4e: Civil Code defi/es /e&li&e/ce as the omissio/ of
that dili&e/ce :hich is re2uired by the circumsta/ces of )erso/s! )lace a/d time.
5ailure of the victim to ma;e a full sto) at a railroad crossi/& des)ite the sire/
a/d si&/al of the trai/ co/stitutes crimi/al /e&li&e/ce! :hich )reve/ted victimHs
:ife to recover dama&es from the defe/da/t.
S#$"itte! $&: ;i''an#e+a( ;in*ent Ir+in P.
CRU? +s. NLRC
G.R. No. :89>5 O*to$er 98( 2::2
TortsD 7ther ty)es of tortsD 8udicial 9i&ila/ceD This decisio/ demo/strates
o/ce a&ai/ the te/der/ess of the Court to:ard the :or;er sub=ected to the
la:less e)loitatio/ a/d im)ositio/s of his em)loyer. I The domestic hel)er is
)articularly susce)tible to abuse because she usually :or;s o/ly by herself i/ a
)rivate household u/li;e other :or;ers em)loyed i/ a/ o)e/ busi/ess co/cer/
:ho are able to share a/d discuss their )roblems a/d bear or solve them
to&ether. The domestic hel)er is de/ied that comfort. She has /o com)a/io/s i/
her misery. She usually broods alo/e. There is /o o/e to tur/ to for hel). That is
:hy :e must carefully liste/ to her :he/ she is fi/ally able to com)lai/ a&ai/st
those :ho :ould rob her of her =ust re:ards a/d eve/ of her di&/ity as a huma/
bei/&.
S#$"itte! $&: Lo-e1( Jo=n
MARIA TERESA Y. CUADRA( ET AL. +s. ALFONSO MONFORT
G.R. No. L/97242
Se-te"$er 54( 2:>4
The u/derlyi/& basis of the liability im)osed by Article (17" is the fault or
/e&li&e/ce accom)a/yi/& the act or the omissio/! there bei/& /o :illful/ess or
i/te/t to cause dama&e thereby. ?he/ the act or omissio/ is that of o/e )erso/
for :hom a/other is res)o/sible! the latter the/ becomes himself liable u/der
Article (1$0! i/ the differe/t cases e/umerated therei/! such as that of the father
or the mother u/der the circumsta/ces above 2uoted. The basis of this vicarious!
althou&h )rimary! liability is! as i/ Article (17"! fault or /e&li&e/ce! :hich is
)resumed from that :hich accom)a/ied the causative act or omissio/. The
9
)resum)tio/ is merely )rima facie a/d may therefore be rebutted. This is the
clear a/d lo&ical i/fere/ce that may be dra:/ from the last )ara&ra)h of Article
(1$0! :hich states Ethat the res)o/sibility treated of i/ this Article shall cease
:he/ the )erso/s herei/ me/tio/ed )rove that they observed all the dili&e/ce of
a &ood father of a family to )reve/t dama&e.E
S#$"itte! $&: A#re( Gar& C.
CULION ICE( FIS)(ETC. +s. P)ILIPPINE MOTORS
?he/ a )erso/ holds himself out as bei/& com)ete/t to do thi/&s! he :ill
be held liable for /e&li&e/ce if he fails to ehibit the care a/d s;ill of o/e
ordi/arily s;illed i/ the )articular :or; that he attem)ts to do.
S#$"itte! $&: %arrios( Noe''e Ann E.
DAY@ALT +s. RECOLETOS( ET AL.
G.R. No. L/25646 Fe$r#ar& 7( 2:2:
?hatever may be the character of the liability :hich a stra/&er to a
co/tract may i/cur by advisi/& or assisti/& o/e of the )arties to evade
)erforma/ce! there is o/e )ro)ositio/ u)o/ :hich all must a&ree. This is! that the
stra/&er ca//ot become more ete/sively liable i/ dama&es for the
/o/)erforma/ce of the co/tract tha/ the )arty i/ :hose behalf he i/termeddles.
To hold the stra/&er liable for dama&es i/ ecess of those that could be
recovered a&ai/st the immediate )arty to the co/tract :ould lead to results at
o/ce &rotes2ue a/d u/=ust.
S#$"itte! $&: Ro,as( T=o"as Joseff Mari M.
DE GU?MAN +s. NATIONAL LA%OR RELATIONS COMMISSION
G.R. No. :4863 J#'& 95( 2::9
A )erso/ should be )rotected o/ly :he/ he acts i/ the le&itimate eercise
of his ri&ht! that is! :he/ he acts :ith )rude/ce a/d i/ &ood faithD but /ot :he/
he acts :ith /e&li&e/ce or abuse.
S#$"itte! $&: G#"a$a&( Ma. Nina 0atrina M.
10
Di*=oso +s. CA
Actual or com)e/satory dama&es ca//ot be )resumed! but must be duly
)roved! a/d )roved :ith reaso/able de&ree of certai/ty. A court ca//ot rely o/
s)eculatio/! co/=ecture! or &uess:or; as to the fact a/d amou/t of dama&es! but
must de)e/d u)o/ com)ete/t )roof that they have suffered a/d o/ evide/ce of
the actual amou/t thereof.
S#$"itte! $&: C=ristian Patri*A S. Ro!ri#e1
EPG Constr#*tion Co"-an& +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
924 SCRA 954
Acce)ta/ce of :or;s does /ot relieve co/tractor of liability for hidde/
defects.
S#$"itte! $&: Lo-e1( Jo=n
SA%INA EBCONDE +s. DELFIN CAPUNO( ET AL.
G.R. No. L/24257
J#ne 9:( 2:6>
The civil liability :hich the la: im)oses u)o/ the father! a/d! i/ case of his
death or i/ca)acity! the mother! for a/y dama&es that may be caused by the
mi/or childre/ :ho live :ith them! is obvious. This is /ecessary co/se2ue/ce of
the )are/tal authority they eercise over them :hich im)oses u)o/ the )are/ts
the Eduty of su))orti/& them! ;ee)i/& them i/ their com)a/y! educati/& them a/d
i/structi/& them i/ )ro)ortio/ to their mea/sE! :hile! o/ the other ha/d! &ives
them the Eri&ht to correct a/d )u/ish them i/ moderatio/E @Articles 1'4 a/d 1''!
S)a/ish Civil CodeA. The o/ly :ay by :hich they ca/ relieve themselves of this
liability is if they )rove that they eercised all the dili&e/ce of a &ood father of a
family to )reve/t the dama&e @Article 1,03! last )ara&ra)h! S)a/ish Civil CodeA.
This defe/da/ts failed to )rove
S#$"itte! $&: %o'os( Maria Gra*ia Patri*ia S.
11
G.R. No. 22229>. J#'& 93( 2::3
FA%RE +s. COURT OF APPEALS
Article (1$0
#es)o/deat Su)erior: The em)loyer is )resumed /e&li&e/t for the
/e&li&e/ce of their em)loyees.
3m)loyers are )resumed to be /e&li&e/t :he/ i/ the )erforma/ce of their
em)loyeesH duties the latter i/curred dama&es throu&h their /e&li&e/ce. This
)resum)tio/ is rebuttable by sho:i/& the de&ree of due dili&e/ce :hich is the
dili&e/ce of a &ood father of a family i/ the selectio/ a/d su)ervisio/ of their
em)loyees.
S#$"itte! $&: Men!o1a( %ar'eon R
FILAMER C)RISTIAN INSTITUTE +s. COURT OF APPEALS
G.R. No. >6229. O*to$er 23( 2::4
9icarious liability of em)loyers for acts or omissio/s of their em)loyees
S#$"itte! $&: Pa!'an( Ja& ;in*ent S.
First Ma'a&an Leasin an! Finan*e Cor-oration +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
94:SCRA334
#e&istered 7:/er #ule: #e&ardless of :ho the actual o:/er of a motor
vehicle mi&ht be! the re&istered o:/er is the o)erator of the same :ith res)ect to
the )ublic a/d third )erso/s! a/d as such! directly a/d )rimarily res)o/sible for
the co/se2ue/ces of its o)eratio/. Thus! i/ order for a tra/sfer of o:/ershi) of a
motor vehicle to be valid a&ai/st third )erso/s! it must be recorded i/ the -T7.
S#$"itte! $&: Men1on( %ra!for! %.
12
Fontani''a +s. Ma'ia"an( G.R.No.66:35( De*e"$er 2( 2:8:
The liability of the State has t:o as)ects! /amely: 1.+ts )ublic or
&over/me/tal as)ects :here it is liable for the tortious acts of s)ecial a&e/ts
o/ly. (. +ts )rivate or busi/ess as)ects @as :he/ it e/&a&es i/ )rivate
e/ter)risesA :here it becomes liable as a/ ordi/ary em)loyer.
The State assumes a limited liability for the dama&e caused by the tortious
acts or co/duct of its s)ecial a&e/t.
Article (1$0! )ara&ra)h " 4CC! the State has volu/tarily assumed liability
for acts do/e throu&h s)ecial a&e/ts. The StateHs a&e/t! if a )ublic official! must
/ot o/ly be s)ecially commissio/ed to do a )articular tas; but that such tas;
must be forei&/ to said officialHs usual &over/me/tal fu/ctio/s. +f the StateHs
a&e/t is /ot a )ublic official! a/d is commissio/ed to )erform /o/6&over/me/tal
fu/ctio/s! the/ the State assumes the role of a/ ordi/ary em)loyer a/d :ill be
held liable as such for its a&e/tHs tort. ?here the &over/me/t commissio/s a
)rivate i/dividual for a s)ecial &over/me/tal tas;! it is acti/& throu&h a s)ecial
a&e/t :ithi/ the mea/i/& of the )rovisio/.
S#$"itte! $&: Ro!ri#e1( C=ristian Patri*A S.
Ge'isan +s. A'!a&
267 SCRA 588
A re&istered o:/er of a )ublic service vehicle is res)o/sible for dama&es
that may arise from co/se2ue/ces i/cide/t to its o)eratio/ or that may be
caused to a/y of the )asse/&ers therei/.
S#$"itte! $&: Pa!or( Reo Ar'an %.
FLORENTINA A. GUILATCO +s. CITY OF DAGUPAN
G.R. No. 32623 Mar*= 92( 2:8:
+t is /ot eve/ /ecessary for the defective road or street to belo/& to the
)rovi/ce! city or mu/ici)ality for liability to attach. Article (1$, o/ly re2uires that
either co/trol or su)ervisio/ is eercised over the defective road or street.
S#$"itte! $&: Gatioan( E!ison
13
JARCO +s. CA
G.R. No. 29:>:9 De*e"$er 92(2:::
TortsD Buasi6%elictsD ?ords a/d PhrasesD F%octri/e of Attractive
4uisa/ce!G
3)lai/ed. I 7/e :ho mai/tai/s o/ his )remises da/&erous i/strume/talities or
a))lia/ces of a character li;ely to attract childre/ i/ )lay! a/d :ho fails to
eercise ordi/ary care to )reve/t childre/ from )layi/& there:ith or resorti/&
thereto! is liable to a child of te/der years :ho is i/=ured thereby! eve/ if the child
is tech/ically a tres)asser i/ the )remises. The )ri/ci)al reaso/ for the doctri/e
is that the co/ditio/ or a))lia/ce i/ 2uestio/ althou&h its da/&er is a))are/t to
those of a&e! is so e/tici/& or alluri/& to childre/ of te/der years as to i/duce
them to a))roach! &et o/ or use it! a/d this attractive/ess is a/ im)lied i/vitatio/
to such childre/.
@*idal&o 3/ter)rises! +/c.vs 1ala/da/! et al.! ,1 Phil.4$$! 4,0 J1,'(KA.
FAccide/t!G e)lai/ed. IA/ accide/t )ertai/s to a/ u/foresee/ eve/t i/
:hich /o fault or /e&li&e/ce attaches to the defe/da/t. +t is Fa fortuitous
circumsta/ce! eve/t or ha))e/i/&D a/ eve/t ha))e/i/& :ithout a/y huma/
a&e/cy! or if ha))e/i/& :holly or )artly throu&h huma/ a&e/cy! a/ eve/t :hich
u/der the circumsta/ces is u/usual or u/e)ected by the )erso/ to :hom it
ha))e/s.G
F4e&li&e/ce!G 3)lai/ed. I 4e&li&e/ce is the omissio/ to do somethi/&
:hich a reaso/able ma/! &uided by those co/sideratio/s :hich ordi/arily
re&ulate the co/duct of huma/ affairs! :ould do! or the doi/& of somethi/& :hich
a )rude/t a/d reaso/able ma/ :ould /ot do. 4e&li&e/ce is Fthe failure to
observe! for the )rotectio/ of the i/terest of a/other )erso/! that de&ree of care!
)recautio/ a/d vi&ila/ce :hich the circumsta/ces =ustly dema/d! :hereby such
other )erso/ suffers i/=ury.G
Accide/t a/d 4e&li&e/ce are i/tri/sically co/tradictory I o/e ca//ot eist
:ith the other. IAccide/t a/d /e&li&e/ce are i/tri/sically co/tradictoryD o/e
ca//ot eist :ith the other. accide/t occurs :he/ the )erso/ co/cer/ed is
eercisi/& ordi/ary care! :hich is /ot caused by fault of a/y )erso/ a/d :hich
could /ot have bee/ )reve/ted by a/y mea/s su&&ested by commo/ )rude/ce.
Test i/ %etermi/i/& 3iste/ce of 4e&li&e/ce. I The test i/ determi/i/& the
eiste/ce of /e&li&e/ce is e/u/ciated i/ the la/dmar; case of Picart vs. Smith!
thus: %id the defe/da/t i/ doi/& the alle&ed /e&li&e/t act use that reaso/able
care a/d cautio/ :hich a/ ordi/arily )rude/t )erso/ :ould have used i/ the
same situatio/L +f /ot the/ he is &uilty of /e&li&e/ce.
14
TortsD Buasi6%elictsD Childre/D Presum)tio/sD Childre/ belo: /i/e @,A
years old are co/clusively )resumed i/ca)able of co/tributory /e&li&e/ce. I
A/e/t the /e&li&e/ce im)uted to C*+343T*! :e a))ly the co/clusive
)resum)tio/ that favors childre/ belo: /i/e @,A years old i/ that they are
i/ca)able of co/tributory /e&li&e/ce. +/ his boo;! former 8ud&e Ce.ar S. Sa/&co
stated: +/ our =urisdictio/! a )erso/ u/der /i/e years of a&e is co/clusively
)resumed to have acted :ithout discer/me/t! a/d is! o/ that accou/t! eem)t
from crimi/al liability. The same )resum)tio/ a/d a li;e eem)tio/ from crimi/al
liability obtai/s i/ a case of a )erso/ over /i/e a/d u/der fiftee/ years of a&e!
u/less it is sho:/ that he has acted :ith discer/me/t. Si/ce /e&li&e/ce may be
a felo/y a/d a 2uasi6delict a/d re2uired discer/me/t as a co/ditio/ of liability!
either crimi/al or civil! a child u/der /i/e years of a&e is! by a/alo&y! co/clusively
)resumed to be i/ca)able of /e&li&e/ceD a/d that the )resum)tio/ of lac; of
discer/me/t or i/ca)acity for /e&li&e/ce i/ the case of a child over /i/e but
u/der fiftee/ years of a&e is rebuttable o/e! u/der our la:. The rule! therefore! is
that a child u/der /i/e years of a&e must be co/clusively )resumed i/ca)able of
co/tributory /e&li&e/ce as a matter of la:.
S#$"itte! $&: Di'i( Jose Ro!o'fo Man#e' )#o %.
L%C Air Caro +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
Do*trine of Last C'ear C=an*e - :here both )arties are /e&li&e/t! but
the /e&li&e/t act of o/e is appreciably later i/ time tha/ that of the other! or :he/
it is im)ossible to determi/e :hose fault or /e&li&e/ce should be attributed to the
i/cide/t! the o/e :ho had the last clear o))ortu/ity to avoid the im)e/di/& harm
a/d failed to do so is char&eable :ith the co/se2ue/ces thereof. Stated
differe/tly! the rule :ould also mea/ that a/ a/tecede/t /e&li&e/ce of a )erso/
does /ot )reclude the recovery of dama&es for su)erve/i/& /e&li&e/ce of! or bar
a defe/se a&ai/st the liability sou&ht by! a/other if the latter! :ho had the last fair
chance! could have avoided the im)e/di/& harm by the eercise of due
dili&e/ce.
S#$"itte! $&: A$a!( Cerni*A S.
Li'i#s +. Mani'a Roa! Co"-an&
6: P=i'. >68
2. Ne'ien*eC Rai'roa! Co"-an&C Da"aes D A railroad com)a/y
:hich does /ot i/stall a sema)hore at a crossi/& a/d does /ot see to it that its
15
fla&ma/ a/d s:itchma/ faithfully com)lies :ith his duty of remai/i/& at the
crossi/& :he/ a trai/ arrives! is &uilty of /e&li&e/ce a/d is civilly liable for
dama&es suffered by a motorist a/d his family :ho cross its li/e :ithout
/e&li&e/ce o/ their )art.
S#$"itte! $&: Aono&( Ciara
Li" +s. Pon*e !e Leon
33 SCRA 9::
#ecovery of actual a/d moral dama&es for violatio/ of co/stitutio/al ri&hts
a/d liberties from )ublic officer or em)loyee res)o/sible therefore. Pursua/t to
Articles 3( a/d ((1, of the 4e: Civil Code! a )erso/ :hose co/stitutio/al ri&hts
have bee/ violated or im)aired is e/titled to actual a/d moral dama&es from the
)ublic officer or em)loyees res)o/sible therefor.
FArticle 3(. A/y )ublic officer or em)loyee! or a/y )rivate i/dividual! :ho directly
of i/directly obstructs! defeats! violates or i/ a/y ma//er im)edes or im)airs a/y
of the follo:i/& ri&hts a/d liberties of a/other )erso/ shall be liable to the latter
for dama&es.
F
F@,A The ri&hts to be secure i/ o/eHs )erso/! house! )a)ers! a/d effects a&ai/st
u/reaso/able searches a/d sei.ures.
F
FThe i/dem/ity shall i/clude moral dama&es. 3em)lary dama&es may also be
ad=udicated.G
FArticle ((1,. Moral dama&es may be recovered i/ the follo:i/& a/d a/alo&ous
cases:
@"A +lle&al search
S#$"itte! $&: Gatioan( E!ison
MANUEL +s. CA
G. R. No. :3>82 O*to$er 2( 2::5
-ac; of driverHs lice/se of com)lai/a/tHs driver does /ot eem)t /e&li&e/t
driver from liability. I The evide/ce :ith res)ect to the issue that 5er/a/do
Abcede 8r. :ho :as /ot duly lice/sed! :as the o/e drivi/& the Scout car at the
time of the accide/t! could /ot sim)ly eem)t )etitio/ersH liability because they
:ere the )arties at fault for e/croachi/& o/ the Scout carHs la/e.
16
Moral dama&es may be recovered if they are the )roimate results of defe/da/tHs
:ro/&ful acts or omissio/.
S#$"itte! $&: Las.#e( Mer+in N.
MC0EE( ET AL. ;S. IAC ET AL.(
G.R. NO. L/38249( 23 JULY 2::9
>/der 3mer&e/cy rule i/ co//ectio/ :ith the %octri/e of -ast Clear
Cha/ce! o/e :ho sudde/ly fi/ds himself i/ a )lace of da/&er! a/d is re2uired to
act :ithout time to co/sider the best mea/s that may be ado)ted to avoid the
im)e/di/& da/&er! is /ot &uilty of /e&li&e/ce! if he fails to ado)t :hat
subse2ue/tly! a/d u)o/ reflectio/ may a))ear to have bee/ a better method!
u/less the emer&e/cy i/ :hich he fi/ds himself is brou&ht about by his o:/
/e&li&e/ce lasque, mervin’s digest).
S#$"itte! $&: Men!o1a( %ar'eon R.
E. MERRITT +s. GO;ERNMENT OF T)E P)ILIPPINE ISLANDS
EG.R. No. 22267. Mar*= 92( 2:23.F
The 0over/me/t of the Phili))i/e +sla/ds i/ o/ly liable for the /e&li&e/t
acts of its officers! a&e/ts! a/d em)loyees :he/ they are acti/& as s)ecial
a&e/ts :ithi/ the mea/i/& of )ara&ra)h ' of article 1,03 of the Civil code! a/d a
chauffeur of the 0e/eral *os)ital is /ot such a s)ecial a&e/t.
S#$"itte! $&: Aono&( Ciara
M)P Gar"ents( In*. +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
953 SCRA 99>
?here a :arra/tless search a/d sei.ure is co/ducted des)ite the fact that
there is sufficie/t time to a))ly for a =udicial :arra/t! the )erso/s :ho )artici)ate
therei/ ta;e ris; of a suit for dama&es i/ case the sei.ure :ould be )roved to
violate the ri&ht a&ai/st u/reaso/able search a/d sei.ure.
Private )erso/s :ho i/sti&ate a/ ille&al :arra/tless search a/d sei.ure
may be held liable for dama&es.
Private )erso/s :ho i/itiate a/ ille&al :arra/tless search a/d sei.ure!
accom)a/y the raidi/& team a/d sta/d by duri/& the o)eratio/! a))are/tly
asse/ti/& thereto! are liable for dama&es to the same ete/t as the )ublic
officers themselves.
17
S#$"itte! $&: Pa!or( Reo Ar'an %.
JUAN F. NA0PIL & SONS ;S. T)E COURT OF APPEALS
G.R. No. L/7>835 O*to$er 5( 2:83
7/e :ho /e&li&e/tly creates a da/&erous co/ditio/ ca//ot esca)e liability
for the /atural a/d )robable co/se2ue/ces thereof! althou&h the act of a third
)erso/! or a/ act of 0od for :hich he is /ot res)o/sible! i/terve/es to )reci)itate
the loss.
S#$"itte! %&: Da&o( Jes#s Fre!eri*A D.L.
Nationa' PoGer Cor-oration +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
H232 SCRA 556I
+f u)o/ the ha))e/i/& of a fortuitous eve/t or a/ act of 0od! there
co/curs a corres)o/di/& fraud! /e&li&e/ce! delay or violatio/ or co/trave/tio/ i/
a/y ma//er of the te/or of the obli&atio/ as )rovided for i/ Article 1170 of the
Civil Code! :hich results i/ loss or dama&e! the obli&or ca//ot esca)e liability.
S#$"itte! $&: Da*ana&( Jan Ja*o$
Pantran*o + %aesa 2>: SCRA 5::
5or the doctri/e to be a))licable! it is /ecessary to sho: that the )erso/
:ho alle&edly had the last o))ortu/ity to avert the accide/t :as a:are of the
eiste/ce of the )eril or should! :ith eercise of due care! have bee/ a:are of it.
7/e ca//ot be e)ected to avoid a/ accide/t or i/=ury if he does /ot ;/o: or
could /ot have ;/o:/ the eiste/ce of the )eril.
S#$"itte! $&: TeJano( Fran*is Jo=n L.
Pe*son +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
977 SCRA 74>
18
1y its clear la/&ua&e! Article 44$ refers to a la/d :hose o:/ershi) is
claimed by t:o or more )arties! o/e of :hom has built some :or;s! or so:/ or
)la/ted somethi/&. The buildi/&! so:i/& or )la/ti/& may have bee/ made i/
&ood faith or i/ bad faith. The rule o/ &ood faith laid do:/ i/ Article '(" of the
Civil Code shall be a))lied i/ determi/i/& :hether a builder! so:er or )la/ter had
acted i/ &ood faith
S#$"itte! $&: ;i''an#e+a( ;in*ent Ir+in P.

P)ILIPPINE MATC) CO.( LTD +s. CITY OF CE%U
G.R. No. L/54>76 Jan#ar& 28( 2:>8
TortsD 7ther ty)es of tortsD %erelictio/ of %utyD Article (7 of the Civil Code
)rovides that Ea/y )erso/ sufferi/& material or moral lose because a )ublic
serva/t or em)loyee refuses or /e&lects! :ithout =ust cause! to )erform his
official duty may file a/ actio/ for dama&es a/d other relief a&ai/st the latter!
:ithout )re=udice to a/y disci)li/ary admi/istrative actio/ that may be ta;e/.E. I
Article (7 )resu))oses that the refuse or omissio/ of a )ublic official is
attributable to malice or i/ecusable /e&li&e/ce. +/ this case! it ca//ot be said
that the city treasurer acted :ilfully or :as &rossly /e&li&e/t i/ /ot refu/di/& to
the )lai/tiff the taes :hich it )aid u/der )rotest o/ out6of6to:/ sales of matches.
The record clearly reveals that the city treasurer ho/estly believed that he :as
=ustified u/der sectio/ , of the ta ordi/a/ce i/ collecti/& the sales ta o/ out6of6
to:/ deliveries! co/sideri/& that the com)a/yMs bra/ch office :as located i/
Cebu City a/d that all out6of6to:/ )urchase order for matches :ere filled u) by
the bra/ch office a/d the sales :ere duly re)orted to it.
S#$"itte! $&: Da&o( Jes#s Fre!eri*A D.L.
P=oeni, Constr#*tion( In*. +s. Interne!iate A--e''ate Co#rt
H278 SCRA 565I
A.A The im)ro)er )ar;i/& of truc; created a/ u/reaso/able ris; for a/yo/e
drivi/& o/ that street for :hich the truc; driver should be held res)o/sible as the
/e&li&e/ce of a car driver bum)i/& that truc; :as /o more tha/ a forseeable
co/se2ue/ce of the ris; created by the truc; driver.
1.A %octri/e of last clear cha/ce i/ commo/ la: ca//ot be a))lied as a
&e/eral rule i/ /e&li&e/ce cases i/ our civil la: system.
19
S#$"itte! $&: A$a!( Cerni*A S.
Pi*art +. S"it=
5> P=i'. 825
2. Do*trine of Last C'ear C=an*e D ?here both )arties are &uilty of
/e&li&e/ce! but the /e&li&e/t act of o/e succeeds that of the other by a/
a))reciable i/terval of time! the o/e :ho has the last reaso/able o))ortu/ity to
avoid the im)e/di/& harm a/d has to do so i/ char&eable :ith the
co/se2ue/ces! :ithout refere/ce to the )rior /e&li&e/ce of the other )arty.
9. Criterion for !eter"inin e,isten*e of ne'ien*e D ?ould a )rude/t
ma/! i/ the )ositio/ of the )erso/ to :hom /e&li&e/ce is attributed! foresee harm
to the )erso/ i/=ured as a reaso/able co/se2ue/ce of the course about to be
)ursued. +f so! the la: im)oses a duty o/ the actor to refrai/ from that course or
to ta;e )recautio/ a&ai/st its mischievous results! a/d the failure to do so
co/stitutes /e&li&e/ce.
S#$"itte! $&: Da*ana&( Jan Ja*o$
PLDT +. CA 2>8 SCRA :7
A )erso/ claimi/& dama&es for the /e&li&e/ce of a/other has the burde/
of )rovi/& the eiste/ce of such fault or /e&li&e/ce causative thereof. The facts
co/stitutive of /e&li&e/ce must be affirmatively established by com)ete/t
evide/ce.

?hosoever relies o/ /e&li&e/ce for his cause of actio/ has the burde/
i/ the first i/sta/ce of )rovi/& the eiste/ce of the same if co/tested! other:ise
his actio/ must fail.
S#$"itte! $&: C=en( Ro& E.
RCPI +s. CA
G.R. No. >:698( Mar*= 25( 2::2
#CP+Hs claim of &ood faith )redicated o/ the ehaustio/ of social
co/dole/ce forms is of /o mome/t. 0ross /e&li&e/ce or careless/ess ca/ be
20
attributed to defe/da/t for /ot su))lyi/& its radio statio/s :ith ade2uate social
co/dole/ce forms.
S#$"itte! $&: Mori( Pa#' 0rian AAira
Sa'+osa +s. IAC
The )hrase used i/ Article (1$0 so lo/& as the Jstude/tsK remai/ i/ their
custody mea/s the )rotective a/d su)ervisory custody that the school a/d its
heads a/d teachers eercise over the )u)ils a/d stude/ts for as lo/& as they are
at attendance in the school! i/cludi/& recess time.
S#$"itte! $&: TeJano( Fran*is Jo=n L.
Se*#rit& %anA +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
97: SCRA 943
>/der Article 11$( of the Civil Code! a co/ditio/al obli&atio/ shall be void
if its fulfillme/t de)e/ds u)o/ the sole :ill of the debtor. +/ the )rese/t case! the
mutual a&reeme/t! the abse/ce of :hich )etitio/er ba/; relies u)o/ to su))ort
its /o/6liability for the i/creased co/structio/ cost! is i/ effect a co/ditio/
de)e/de/t o/ )etitio/er ba/;Ms sole :ill! si/ce )rivate res)o/de/t :ould /aturally
a/d lo&ically &ive co/se/t to such a/ a&reeme/t :hich :ould allo: him recovery
of the i/creased cost.
S#$"itte! $&: Gatioan( E!ison
SOLIMAN +s. TUA?ON
G. R. No. 3394> Ma& 28( 2::9
The duty to observe the /e&li&e/ce of a &ood father of a family i/ the
selectio/ of the &uards ca//ot i/ the ordi/ary course of eve/ts be dema/ded
from the clie/t :hose )remises or )ro)erty are )rotected by the security &uards.
I as a &e/eral rule! a clie/t or customer of a security a&e/cy has /o ha/d i/
selecti/& :ho amo/& the )ool of security &uards or :atchme/ em)loyed by the
a&e/cy shall be assi&/ed to itD the duty to observe the dili&e/ce of a &ood father
of a family i/ the selectio/ of the &uards ca//ot! i/ the ordi/ary course of eve/ts!
be dema/ded from the clie/t :hose )remises or )ro)erty are )rotected by the
21
security &uards. The fact that a clie/t com)a/y may &ive i/structio/s or
directio/s to the security &uards assi&/ed to it! does /ot by itself re/der the clie/t
res)o/sible as a/ em)loyer of the security &uards co/cer/ed a/d liable for their
:ro/&ful acts or omissio/.Those i/structio/s or directio/s are ordi/arily /o more
tha/ re2uests commo/ly e/visa&ed i/ the co/tract for services e/tered i/to :ith
the security a&e/cy.
CertiorariD #es)o/de/t trial =ud&e :as i/ serious error :he/ he su))osed
that )etitio/er could have /o cause of actio/ other tha/ o/e based o/ Article
(1$0 of the civil code. I
+/ the PS1A case! the trial court had de/ied the schoolHs motio/ to dismiss the
com)lai/t a&ai/st it! a/d both the Court of A))eals a/d this Court affirmed the
trial courtHs order. +/ the case at bar! the court a 2uo &ra/ted the motio/ to
dismiss filed by res)o/de/t Colle&es! u)o/ the assum)tio/ that )etitio/erHs
cause of actio/ :as based! a/d could have bee/ based! o/ly o/ Article (1$0 of
the Civil Code. As PS1A! ho:ever! states! acts :hich are tortious or alle&edly
tortiuos i/ character may at the same time co/stitute breach of a co/tractual! or
other le&al! obli&atio/. #es)o/de/t trial =ud&e :as i/ serious error :he/ he
su))osed that )etitio/er could have /o cause of actio/ other tha/ o/e base o/
Article (1$0 of the Civil Code. #es)o/de/t trial =ud&e should /ot have &ra/ted
the motio/ to dismiss but rather should have! i/ the i/terest of =ustice! allo:ed
)etitio/er to )rove acts co/stituti/& breach of a/ obli&atio/ e co/tractu or e
le&e o/ the )art of res)o/de/t Colle&es.
S#$"itte! $&: C#&*o( 0ate J#ris Pr#!en*e C.
Da+i! Ta&'or +. Mani'a E'e*tri* Rai'roa! an! Li=t Co"-an&
%ifficulty seems to be a))rehe/ded i/ decidi/& :hich acts of the i/=ured
)arty shall be co/sidered immediate causes of the accide/t. The test is sim)le.
%isti/ctio/ must be made bet:ee/ the accide/t a/d the i/=ury! bet:ee/ the eve/t
itself! :ithout :hich there could have bee/ /o accide/t! a/d those acts of the
victim /ot e/teri/& i/to it! i/de)e/de/t of it! but co/tributi/& to his o:/ )ro)er
hurt. ?here he co/tributes to the )ri/ci)al occurre/ce! as o/e of its determi/i/&
factors! he ca/ /ot recover. ?here! i/ co/=u/ctio/ :ith the occurre/ce! he
co/tributes o/ly to his o:/ i/=ury! he may recover the amou/t that the defe/da/t
res)o/sible for the eve/t should )ay for such i/=ury! less a sum deemed a
suitable e2uivale/t for his o:/ im)rude/ce.
22
S#$"itte! $&: A*osta( ;ot'aire S.
U"a'i +s. %a*ani
3: SCRA 935
The test to determi/e the eiste/ce of /e&li&e/ce! as e/u/ciated i/ Picart
v. Smith is this: F%id the defe/da/t i/ doi/& the alle&ed /e&li&e/t act use that
reaso/able care a/d cautio/ :hich a/ ordi/arily )rude/t )erso/ :ould have used
i/ the same situatio/L +f /ot the/ he is &uilty of /e&li&e/ce.
+/ this case! the court fou/d out that a series of /e&li&e/t acts :ere committed by
the defe/da/t a/d his em)loyees.
S#$"itte! $&: Ro!ri#e1( C=ristian Patri*A S.
;e'a&o +s. S=e'' Co"-an& of t=e P=i'i--ine Is'an!s
244 P=i'. 283
A moral :ro/& or i/=ury! eve/ it does /ot co/stitute a violatio/ of a/y
statute or la:! should be com)e/sated by dama&es.
S#$"itte! $&: C=en( Ro& E.
;ERGARA ;S. COURT OF APPEALS
G.R. No. >>3>:( Se-te"$er 54( 2:8>
The o:/er of the car ca//ot be faulted because he lost co/trol of his car
:he/ i/ order to avoid a head6o/ collisio/ :ith a )asse/&er bus :hich sudde/ly
s:erved i/to his la/e! he veered his car to the shoulder of the hi&h:ay a/d
collided :ith a )rivate =ee)
S#$"itte! $&: Mori( Pa#' 0rian AAira
;esti' +s. IAC
23
Article (1$3 of the Civil Code holds the )ossessor liable eve/ if the a/imal
should Fesca)e or be lostG a/d so be removed from his co/trol. A/d it does /ot
matter either that the do& :as tame a/d :as merely )rovo;ed by the child i/to
biti/& her. The la: does /ot s)ea; o/ly of vicious a/imals but covers eve/ tame
o/es as lo/& as they cause i/=ury.
S#$"itte! $&: G#"a$a&( Ma. Nina 0atrina M.
Air Fran*e +s. CA
+t is also esse/tial before a/ a:ard of dama&es that the claima/t must
satisfactorily )rove duri/& the trial the eiste/ce of the factual basis of the
dama&es a/d its causal co//ectio/ to defe/da/tMs acts. Mere refusal to accede
to the )asse/&erMs :ishes does /ot /ecessarily tra/slate i/to dama&es i/ the
abse/ce of bad faith. To our mi/d! res)o/de/t has failed to sho: :a/to/!
malevole/t or rec;less misco/duct im)utable to )etitio/er i/ its refusal to re6
route.
S#$"itte! $&: Aono&( Ciara
Co#ntr& %anAers Ins#ran*e Cor-oration +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
G.R. No. 86232
As a &e/eral rule! i/ obli&atio/s :ith a )e/al clause! the )e/alty shall
substitute the i/dem/ity for dama&es a/d the )ayme/t of i/terest i/ case of /o/6
com)lia/ce. This is s)ecifically )rovided for i/ Article 1((" @1A! 4e: Civil Code.
*o:ever! there are ece)tio/s to the &e/eral rule. They are the follo:i/&:
a.A :he/ there is a sti)ulatio/ to the co/traryD
b.A :he/ the obli&or is sued for refusal to )ay the a&reed )e/altyD
c.A :he/ the obli&or is &uilty of fraud.
S#$"itte! $&: Leasto( ;anessa G.
@Da+i'a +s P=i'i--ine Air Lines CaseI
In!e"nit& of !eat= of -assener is P29(444. I )ursua/t to curre/t
=uris)rude/ce o/ the i/dem/ity due to the heirs of the deceased :ho :as the
victim of a tortious act! the amou/t should be i/creased to P1(!000.
24
Nor"a' 'ifes-an of t=e !e*ease! G=o Gas sin'e an! 54 &ears o'!
G=en =e !ie! is 55/2<5 &ears. )oGe+er( *ir*#"stan*es re'atin to =is
-=&si*a' *on!ition "a& re!#*e t=is to 96 &ears. I At the a&e of 30 years!
o/eHs /ormal life e)ecta/cy is 3361N3 years accordi/& to the formula ado)ted by
this Court i/ 9illa #ey Tra/sit vs CA @31 SC#A '11A o/ the basis of the America/
3)ecta/cy Table of Mortality or the Actuarial of Combi/ed 3)erie/ce Table of
Mortality. *o:ever! althou&h the deceased :as i/ relatively &ood health! his
medical history sho:s that he had com)lai/ed of a/d bee/ treated for such
ailme/ts as bac;aches! chest )ai/s! a/d occasio/al feeli/& of tired/ess. +t is
reaso/able to ma;e a/ allo:a/ce for these circumsta/ces a/d co/sider! for
)ur)oses of these case ! a reductio/ of his life e)ecta/cy to (' years.
KEarnin Ca-a*it&L #n!er Arti*'e 9943 in re'ation to Arti*'e 2>37 of
t=e NeG Ci+i' Co!e "eans ross earnins 'ess ne*essar& e,-enses for
!e*ease!Ms oGn 'i+in. I The amou/t recoverable by the heirs of a victim of tort
is /ot loss of the e/tire ear/i/&s! but rather the loss of that )ortio/ of the ear/i/&s
:hich the be/eficiary :ould have received. +/ other :ords! o/ly /et ear/i/&s! /ot
&ross ear/i/&s! are to be co/sidered! that is! the total of the ear/i/&s less
e)e/ses /ecessary i/ the creatio/ of such ear/i/&s or i/come a/d less livi/&
a/d other i/cide/tal e)e/ses. +/ the case at bar! the deceased ear/i/&s from
three sources of i/come :as P1'!000.00 a year @as radio statio/ ma/a&er!
la:yer6)ractitio/er! a/d farmerA. A deductio/ of P"00.00 a mo/th co/sideri/&
that the e)e/ses i/cide/tal to the &e/eratio/ of such i/come :ere /ecessarily
more tha/ if he had o/ly o/e source! is reaso/able. The amou/t of P7!$00 /et
yearly i/come multi)lied by (' years! or P1,'!000.00 is the amou/t :hich should
be a:arded to the )lai/tiffs.
@=en e,e"-'ar& !a"aes not J#stifie!. I >/der Article ((3( of the
Civil Code! the court may a:ard eem)lary dama&es i/ co/tracts a/d 2uasi6
co/tracts if the defe/da/t acted i/ a :a/to/! fraudule/t! rec;less! o))ressive! or
malevole/t ma//er. The failure of the defe/da/t here to eercise etraordi/ary
dili&e/ce! as re2uired by la:! does /ot amou/t to a/yo/e of the circumsta/ces
co/tem)lated i/ the said )rovisio/.
S#$"itte! $&: ;i''an#e+a( ;in*ent Ir+in P.
DE LEON +s. COURT OF APPEALS
G.R. No. L/52:52 A##st 52( 2:88
Torts a/d %ama&esD %ama&esD Moral %ama&esD Moral dama&es i/clude
)hysical sufferi/&! me/tal a/&uish! fri&ht! serious a/iety! besmirched re)utatio/!
:ou/ded feeli/&s! moral shoc;! social humiliatio/ a/d similar i/=ury. Thou&h
25
i/ca)able of )ecu/iary com)utatio/! moral dama&es may be recovered if they
are the )roimate result of the defe/da/tMs :ro/&ful act or omissio/. I The fili/&
of the case a&ai/st res)o/de/t bei/& u/fou/ded a/d maliciously )rosecuted
satisfactorily )roves the eiste/ce of the factual basis for moral dama&es a/d the
causal relatio/ to )etitio/ersM acts.
S#$"itte! %&: Manotara( Ais=a M.
EASTERN SIPPING LINES, INC. !S. CO"RT O# APPEALS
2$% SCRA &9
+. ?he/ a/ obli&atio/! re&ardless of its source! i.e.! la:! co/tracts! 2uasi6
co/tracts! delicts or 2uasi6delicts
28
is breached! the co/trave/or ca/ be held
liable for dama&es.
2:
The )rovisio/s u/der Title O9+++ o/ E%ama&esE of the Civil
Code &over/ i/ determi/i/& the measure of recoverable dama&es.
94
++. ?ith re&ard )articularly to a/ a:ard of i/terest i/ the co/ce)t of actual
a/d com)e/satory dama&es! the rate of i/terest! as :ell as the accrual thereof!
is im)osed! as follo:s:
1. ?he/ the obli&atio/ is breached! a/d it co/sists i/ the )ayme/t of a
sum of mo/ey! i.e.! a loa/ or forbeara/ce of mo/ey! the i/terest due should be
that :hich may have bee/ sti)ulated i/ :riti/&.
92
5urthermore! the i/terest due
shall itself ear/ le&al i/terest from the time it is =udicially dema/ded.
99
+/ the
abse/ce of sti)ulatio/! the rate of i/terest shall be 1(P per annum to be
com)uted from default! i.e.! from =udicial or etra=udicial dema/d u/der a/d
sub=ect to the )rovisio/s of Article 11",
95
of the Civil Code.
(. ?he/ a/ obli&atio/! /ot co/stituti/& a loa/ or forbeara/ce of mo/ey! is
breached! a/ i/terest o/ the amou/t of dama&es a:arded may be im)osed at
the discretion of the court
97
at the rate of "P per annum.
96
4o i/terest! ho:ever!
shall be ad=ud&ed o/ u/li2uidated claims or dama&es ece)t :he/ or u/til the
dema/d ca/ be established :ith reaso/able certai/ty.
93
Accordi/&ly! :here the
dema/d is established :ith reaso/able certai/ty! the i/terest shall be&i/ to ru/
from the time the claim is made =udicially or etra=udicially @Art. 11",! Civil CodeA
but :he/ such certai/ty ca//ot be so reaso/ably established at the time the
dema/d is made! the i/terest shall be&i/ to ru/ o/ly from the date the =ud&me/t
of the court is made @at :hich time the 2ua/tificatio/ of dama&es may be
deemed to have bee/ reaso/ably ascertai/edA. The actual base for the
com)utatio/ of le&al i/terest shall! i/ a/y case! be o/ the amou/t fi/ally
ad=ud&ed.
26
3. ?he/ the =ud&me/t of the court a:ardi/& a sum of mo/ey becomes
fi/al a/d eecutory! the rate of le&al i/terest! :hether the case falls u/der
)ara&ra)h 1 or )ara&ra)h (! above! shall be 1(P per annum from such fi/ality
u/til its satisfactio/! this i/terim )eriod bei/& deemed to be by the/ a/ e2uivale/t
to a forbeara/ce of credit.
S#$"itte! $&: Da*ana&( Jan Ja*o$
Jison +. CA 237 SCRA 5::
+/ obli&atio/s :ith a )e/al clause! the =ud&e shall e2uitably reduce the
)e/alty :he/ the )ri/ci)al obli&atio/ has bee/ )artly or irre&ularly com)lied :ith
by the debtor
S#$"itte! $&: Man'a-a1( 0at=erine Gra*e R.
FERNANDO LOPE?( ET AL.( +s. PAN AMERICAN @ORLD AIR@AYS
Moral dama&es a/d eem)lary are recoverable for breach of co/tract of
carria&e i/ bad faith. 1ad faith mea/s a breach of a ;/o:/ duty throu&h some
motive of interest or ill6:ill. Self6e/richme/t or frater/al i/terest! a/d /ot )erso/al
ill6:ill! may :ell have bee/ the motiveD but it is malice /evertheless.
S#$"itte! $&: %OLOS( MARIA GRACIA PATRICIA S.
G.R. No. >8426 De*e"$er 22( 2:8>
MALAYSIAN AIRLINES +s. COURT OF APPEALS
+/ a:ard of dama&es! the i/ordi/ate amou/t &ra/ted to a )arty calls for a
moderati/& ha/d of the court. Such im)rovide/t &e/erosity is li;ely to raise
eyebro:s! if /ot outri&ht challe/&e to the motives of some of our courts! a/d
should therefore be scru)ulously avoided at all times! i/ the i/terest of
mai/tai/i/& )o)ular co/fide/ce i/ the =udiciary.
27
S#$"itte! $&: S#$"itte! $&: %ARRIOS( NOELLE ANN E.
DIOSDADO OCTOT +s. JOSE R. Y%ANE?
G.R.No. L/78375 Jan#ar& 28( 2:89
Thus! our =uris)rude/ce sets certai/ co/ditio/s :he/ eem)lary dama&es
may be a:arded! as follo:s:
5irst: They may be im)osed by :ay of eam)le or correctio/ o/ly i/
additio/! amo/& others! to com)e/satory dama&es! a/d ca//ot be recovered as
a matter of ri&ht! their determi/atio/ de)e/di/& u)o/ the amou/t of
com)e/satory dama&es that may be a:arded to the claima/t.
Seco/d: The claima/t must first establish his ri&ht to moral! tem)erate!
li2uidated or com)e/satory dama&es.
Third: The :ro/&ful act must be accom)a/ied by bad faith! a/d the a:ard
:ould be allo:ed o/ly if the &uilty )arty acted i/ a :a/to/! fraudule/t! rec;less!
o))ressive or malevole/t ma//er.
S#$"itte! %&: Da&o( Jes#s Fre!eri*A D.L.
P=i'i--ine Air'ines( In*. +s. Co#rt of A--ea's
H286 SCRA 224I
5or the settleme/t of the issue at ha/d! there are e/ou&h a))licable la:s
a/d =uris)rude/ce. >/der Article 17"4 a/d Article ((0" @1A of the Civil Code! the
a:ard of dama&es for death is com)uted o/ the basis of the life e)ecta/cy of
the deceased! /ot of his be/eficiary.
S#$"itte! $&: AURE( GARY C.
RAFAEL PATRICIO( -etitioner( +s. T)E )ONORA%LE OSCAR LE;ISTE(
JUDGE( CFI CAPI?( %RANC) II an! %IEN;ENIDO %ACALOCOS(
res-on!ents.
G.R. No. L/62859 A-ri' 93( 2:8:
Article ((1, of the 4e: Civil Code states that:
28
A#T. ((1,. Moral dama&es may be recovered i/ the follo:i/& a/d
a/alo&ous cases
@1A A crimi/al offe/se resulti/& i/ )hysical i/=uriesD
@(A Buasi6delicts causi/& )hysical i/=uriesD
@3A Seductio/! abductio/! ra)e! or other lascivious
acts.
@4A Adultery or co/cubi/a&eD
@'A +lle&al or arbitrary dete/tio/ or arrestD
@"A +lle&al searchD
@7A -ibel! sla/der or a/y other form of defamatio/D
@$A Malicious )rosecutio/D
@,A Acts me/tio/ed i/ article 30,D
@10A Acts a/d actio/s referred to i/ articles (1! ("! (7!
($! (,! 30! 3(! 34! a/d 3'.
Also! moral dama&es may be recovered i/ cases :here a defe/da/tMs
:ro/&ful act or omissio/ has caused the com)lai/a/t )hysical sufferi/&! me/tal
a/&uish! fri&ht! serious a/iety! besmirched re)utatio/! :ou/ded feeli/&s! moral
shoc;! social humiliatio/ a/d similar i/=ury.
Cor)oratio/s or those :ith =uridical )erso/ality ca//ot claim for moral
dama&es for they ca//ot feel or they do/Ht e)erie/ce such emotio/al a/d
)sycholo&ical sufferi/&s.
S#$"itte! $&: Leasto( ;anessa
Peo-'e +s O#i'aton
A*t#a' or Co"-ensator& Da"aesC T=e "ore i"-ortant +aria$'es
taAen into a**o#nt in !eter"inin t=e *o"-ensa$'e a"o#nt of 'ost
earnins are H2I t=e n#"$er of &ears for G=i*= t=e +i*ti" Go#'! ot=erGise
=a+e 'i+e!C an! H9I t=e rate of 'oss s#staine! $& t=e =eirs of t=e !e*ease!. I
The more im)orta/t variables ta;e/ i/to accou/t i/ determi/i/& the com)e/sable
amou/t of lost ear/i/&s are: @1A the /umber of years for :hich the victim :ould
have other:ise livedD @(A the rate of loss sustai/ed by the heirs of the deceased.
+/ 9illa #ey Tra/sit! +/c. vs Court of A))eals ! the Court com)uted the first factor!
i.e. life e)ecta/cy! by a))lyi/& the formula @(N3 J$06a&ee at deathKA ado)ted i/
the America/ 3)ecta/cy Table of Mortality or the actuarial Combi/ed
3)erie/ce Table of Mortality. That formula :as follo:ed by the Court i/ cases
subse2ue/t to 9illa #ey Tra/sit! e.&. Phili))i/e Airli/es vs Court of A))ealsD
Peo)le vs %a/ielD a/d %a/&:a Tra/s)ortatio/ Co.! +/c. vs Court of A))eals. The
Court /otes that the formula used i/ 9illa #ey Tra/sit :as based o/ a table
29
derived from actuarial e)erie/ce )rior to 1,70 :he/ the decisio/ i/ 9illa #ey
Tra/sit :as )romul&ated. Actuarial e)erie/ce subse2ue/t to 1,70 has!
ho:ever! cha/&ed a/d i/dicates a lo/&er life e)ecta/cy i/ the Phili))i/es due
to co/ditio/s i/cludi/&! amo/& other thi/&s! adva/ces i/ medical scie/ce!
im)roved /utritio/ a/d food su))ly! diet co/scious/ess! a/d health mai/te/a/ce.
The 1,70 mortality table :as u)dated i/ 1,$0 to reflect the cha/&es of the
co/ditio/s.
Mora' Da"aesC t=e *o#rt in t=e e,er*ise of its !is*retion *onsi!ers
it a--ro-riate an! reasona$'e to aGar! t=e a"o#nt of P94(444.44 to t=e
=eirs of Ro'an!o Mana=an $& Ga& of "ora' !a"aes. I 5i/ally. The Court i/
the eercise of its discretio/! co/siders it a))ro)riate a/d reaso/able to a:ard
the amou/t of P(0!000.00 to the heirs of #ola/do Ma/aha/ by :ay of moral
dama&es. #ube/ Ma/aha/! brother of #ola/do Ma/aha/! testified that their
mother suffered a mild stro;e u)o/ lear/i/& of #ola/do Ma/aha/Hs slayi/&D this
eve/tually resulted i/ the motherHs semi6)aralysis.
S#$"itte! $&: Man'a-a1( 0at=erine Gra*e R.
P)ILIPPINE NATIONAL %AN0 +s. UTILITY ASSURANCE & SURETY CO.(
INC.
CAS3 %7CT#+43: The 4e: Civil Code )ermits recovery of attor/eyMs fees i/
eleve/ cases e/umerated i/ Article ((0$! amo/& them :here the court deem it
=ust a/d e2uitable that attor/eyMs fees a/d e)e/ses of liti&atio/ should be
recovered or :he/ the defe/da/t acted i/ &ross a/d evide/t bad faith i/ refusi/&
to satisfy the )lai/tiffs )lai/ly valid! =ust a/d dema/dable claim.
S#$"itte! $&: Manotara( Ais=a M.
REFORMINA ;S TOMOL 25: SCRA 932
Ce/tral 1a/; Circular 4o. 41" :hich too; effect o/ 8uly (,! 1,74 :as issued a/d
)romul&ated by the Mo/etary 1oard )ursua/t to the authority &ra/ted to the
Ce/tral 1a/; by P.%. 4o. 11"! :hich ame/ded Act 4o. ("''! other:ise ;/o:/
as the >sury -a:! :hich raised the le&al rate of i/terest from "P to 1(P )er
a//um a))lies o/ly to forbeara/ces of mo/ey! &oods! credit a/d court =ud&me/ts
thereo/! but /ot to court =ud&me/ts for dama&es arisi/& from i/=ury to )erso/s
a/d loss of )ro)erty :hich does /ot i/volve a loa/ i/ :hich cases the rate
remai/s at "P.
30
S#$"itte! $&: Gatioan( E!ison
?AM%OANGA +s. %UAT
G. R. No. 244627 Mar*= 9:( 2::6
Moral dama&esD Moral %ama&es are recoverable o/ly :here the dismissal
of the em)loyee :as atte/ded by bad faith or fraud! or co/stituted a/ act
o))ressive to labor! or :as do/e i/ a ma//er co/trary to morals! &ood customs
or )ublic )olicy. I Private res)o/de/t is /ot e/titled to the recovery of moral
dama&es si/ce these are recoverable o/ly :here the dismissal of the em)loyee
:as atte/ded by bad faith or fraud! or co/stituted a/ act o))ressive to labor! or
:as do/e i/ a ma//er co/trary to morals! &ood customs or )ublic )olicy @S)arta/
Security < %etective A&e/cy! +/c. v. /atio/al -abor #elatio/s Commissio/! (13
SC#A '($ J1,,(KA.
31