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APPROVAL SHEET

Supervisor Name: Prof. Dr. Nasir Shah
Designation: Head of Prosthodontic Department
in Sardar Begum Dental College

Signature:

Submitted By: Dr. Gul Rukh saba shah.
MPH Student
Kabir Institute of Public Health.


Submitted To: PROF. DR. NUZHAT HUMA
Designation Professor of Community Medicine
Kabir Medical College.
Signature



Dedication















I dedicate this humble effort to my parents, whose love and encouragement
enabled me to achieve so much of success and whose countless efforts enable
me to fulfill this task in a peaceful way. I would like to dedicate thesis to my
husband who suffer great hardships during this time duration.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the most Gracious and most Merciful Alhamdulillah, all
praises to Allah for the strengths and his blessing in completing this thesis.
I would like to express my deep Gratitude to professor Dr Nasir Shah head of
prosthodontic department (Sardar begum dental college and hospital Peshawar)
for his professional guidance, valuable support and for useful constructive
recommendations on this project.
Sincere thanks to Dean of KIPH Dr. Nuzhat Huma, to all my friends, teachers and
to all those who indirectly contributed in this research, your kindness means a lot
to me.
I would like to thanks to the principal of Sardar begun dental college and hospital
and Khyber college of dentistry for permission to conduct study on association
between smoking and periodontal disease with different level of oral hygiene
status.
Last but not the least I wish to thanks my parents, my sisters and husband for
their support and encouragement throughout my study.






TABLE OF CONTENTS

























LIST OF TABLE





S.No Title Page No

1.
Shows number of cases and controls.


2.
Shows age wise distribution.


3.
Shows number of smokers and non-smokers.


4.
Shows education wise distribution.


5.
Shows area wise distribution.


6.
Shows periodontal disease with age.


7.
Shows periodontal disease with education.


8.
Shows periodontal disease with location.


9.
Shows the association between age and smoking.


10.
Shows the association between smoking and periodontal disease.


11.
Shows the different level of oral hygiene status with smokers and non-
smokers.

12.
Shows the periodontal disease with different level of smoking.






ABSTRACT.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Smoking is the known risk factors for periodontal disease. In Pakistan periodontal disease and
poor oral hygiene is the major public health problem. These problems can be resolved by
smoking cessation and by oral hygiene practice. There is need for preventive strategies to stop
the periodontal disease among individuals.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of the study was to determine the association between smoking and periodontal
disease with different level of oral hygiene status and association between periodontal disease
with different level of smoking.
METHODOLOGY:
It was a case control study, conducted in the O.P.D of two dental hospitals Peshawar. Sample
size was 300 patients from 20 to 50 years. The sample was stratified into two groups cases from
age 20 - 50 year had periodontal disease visiting to the O.P.D of Sardar Begum Dental College and
Hospital and Khyber College of Dentistry. Controls were from 20- 50 years who did not have the
periodontal disease visiting to the O.P.D of Sardar Begum Dental College and hospital and
Khyber College of dentistry. Patients were clinically evaluated by measuring the PDI scores
between the two groups. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Chi sq test was applied to
find out the statistical significance of results.
RESULTS:
0ut of 300 patients 150 were cases and 150 were controls. There were (43.3%) smokers and
(56.6%) non-smokers among the study group. There were 57.3% smokers and 42.6% with
periodontal disease. The result was significant P = 0.0001 while 29.3% smokers and 70.6% non-
smokers did not have the periodontal disease. The oral hygiene status was poor among
smokers in 23.1% while 2.9% among non-smokers, the result was significant p= 0.0001. There
was an association between periodontal disease with different level of smoking the result was
significant p= 0.0001.
CONCLUSIONS:
The conclusions of the study were that there was an association between smoking and
periodontal disease with different level of oral hygiene status and there was association
between periodontal disease with different level of smoking.