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# Numerical study of the effect of velocity

perturbations on the mechanics of vortex
shedding in synchronized bluff-body wakes
S. BALABANI
1
E. KONSTANTINIDIS
1,2
C. LIANG
3
1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, King’s College London, WC2R 2LS, UK
2
Department of Engineering and Management of Energy Resources,
University of Western Macedonia, Kozani 50100, Greece
3
Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW, UK
Outline
Background and motivation
Computational details
Comparison with experiments
Observations from a typical simulation
Effect of excitation frequency
Summary and remarks
Wake and vortex shedding control
by periodic excitations
Rectilinear cylinder oscillations
Rotational cylinder oscillations
Flow pulsation
Acoustic forcing
Vibration of control rod in wake
Surface suction/blowing
Surface modulation/deformation
Question: are there any universal features
among the different methods?
Flow configuration
0.21 /
o m
f U d ≅ ⋅
Inflow with superimposed
periodic velocity oscillations
Circular cylinder
perpendicular to
the oncoming flow
( ) sin(2π )
m e
U t U U f t = + ∆
Main parameters:

e
m
A U
D f d
U
U

=

*
0
e
e
U
U
f d
f
f
=
UD
Re
ρ
µ
=
Forced oscillation studies (inline)
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
=
Flow Oscillations Cylinder Oscillations
Armstong et al. (1986), Re = 21

500 Griffin & Ramberg (1976), Re = 190
Barbi et al. (1986), Re = 3

000 Tanida et al. (1973), Re = 80
Barbi et al. (1986), Re = 40

000 Tanida et al. (1973), Re = 4

000
Konstantinidis et al (2003), Re = 2150 Tatsuno (1972), Re = 100
Konstantinidis et al (2005), Re = 2150 Nishihara et al (2004), Re = 17000
A ∆U
D 2π

f
e
D
fundamental
synchronization
region

f
e
/ f
o
Vortex-induced inline vibration
Okajima et al (2004) Eur J Mech B/Fluids 23: 115-125
Forced vs. free streamwise vibration
In the middle of the lock-on region associated with no excitation, i.e. zero
energy transfer from the fluid to the structure (Konstantinidis et al. 2005, JFM)
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20

2
nd
response
branch
1
st
response
branch
A
D
lock-on
region
f
e

/
f
o
U
*
= U/f
e
D
f
e
↔f
n
f
e
↔f
w
Objectives
Compare LES to PIV data at moderate
Reynolds numbers
Determine forces (magnitude and phase)
exerted on the cylinder within lock-on range
Determine sign of energy transfer
Improve understanding of flow physics for
this class of problems by generalization of the
results
Present simulations & previous experiments
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
PIV (Konstantinidis et al 2005) LES (present)

2
nd
response
branch
1
st
response
branch
A
D
lock-on
region

f
e

/
f
o
U
*
= U/f
e
D
Computational details
Unstructured collocated grid
(746,688 cells)
3D LES (standard
Smagorinsky model)
33 planes along span (L=πD)
Comp. Fluids
Flow statistics
Mean flow streamlines Mean vorticity
Streamwise mean velocity Reynolds stress
LES
PIV LES
Re 2150 2580
f
e
/f
o
1.87 1.88
∆u/U 0.045 0.050
PIV
Instantaneous flow
Simulation Experiment
3-D flow structure
Spanwise vorticity
ω
z
/UD = ±3
Streamwise vorticity (Mode B instability)
ω
x
/UD = ±1
Spanwise correlation of velocity
fluctuations in separating shear layer
Aspect ratio effects
experiment: 10D (end walls)
simulation: πD (periodic b. condition)
Typical simulation
0
1
2
3
-1
0
1
0 10 20 30 40
0
45
90
135
180
0 10 20 30 40
0
45
90
135
180

C
D
C
L

φ
drag
t /T
e
φ
lift

t /T
e
fe/fo =
1.88
Lissajous figures
1.0 1.5 2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0
2.09 2.00 1.88 f
e
/ f
o
= 1.77
C
D

C
L

Timing of vortex shedding
U(t)
fe/fo = 1.77
1.88
2.00
2.09
Force phase and energy transfer
1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3
0
60
120
180
E < 0
E > 0
φ
f
e
/f
o
φ
drag
(LES)
φ
lift
(LES)
φ
Vmax
(PIV)
U(φ)
V(φ)
Mean drag vs. excitation frequency
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
present LES, Re =2580
Nishihara et al, Re =17000
M
e
a
n

d
r
a
g
f
e
/f
o
Drag amplification vs amplitude
Flow forcing
Present study
Jarza & Podolski (2004)
Konstantinidis et al (2005)
Streamwise oscillations
Tanida et al (1973)
Nishihara et al (2005)
Transverse oscillations
Tanida et al (1973)
Sarpkaya (1978)
Gopalkrishnan (1993)
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15
Streamwise, A
x
/D Transverse, A
y
/D
1
+
8
.
2
(
A
x

/
D
)

C
D
m
a
x

/

C
D
o
1
+
2
.
1
(
A
y

/
D
)
A/D

A/D
Effect of velocity perturbation
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

C
D
m
a
x

/

C
D
o
∆U/U
o
Summary
Comparison between computations and experiments shows
agreement on
flow statistics
instantaneous flow structure
spanwise correlation
Simulations revealed
3-D flow structure (Mode B type)
primary vortices fully-correlated along span (πD)
vortex-induced drag in-phase with relative displacement (zero
energy transfer)
Equivalence between inline cylinder oscillations and inflow
fluctuations
lock-on limits
phase between induced forces and relative flow/cylinder oscillation
drag amplification
Closing remarks
Within lock-on region vortex shedding frequency is controlled by
the excitation frequency
Energy transfer between the fluid and the structure is controlled
by the timing of vortex shedding which is imposed by the
velocity perturbation
Zero-phase difference between force and relative displacement
when fe = 2fo for streamwise and fe = fo for transverse
oscillations
Drag amplification appears more pronounced in streamwise
than in transverse oscillations
Acknowledgement
Financial support from the ECLAT
group at King’s College London for
attending this conference