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2011-10370

Essentials of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 1

EXPERIMENT 1

D.C. and Resistance Measurements

1. The method used in determining the

internal resistance of the milliammeter is

just an approximation. Discuss how the

value of the resistor R1 affects the

accuracy of the measurement.

Determination of the internal resistances of

instruments used in measuring certain

quantities in a circuit is a crucial part of any

electrical analysis. A meter or any measuring

instrument extracts energy from the circuit

itself. This causes loading of the circuit.

Error (e) due to this is dependent on the

ratio of the internal resistance of the

instrument and the resistance of the circuit.

The following set-up was used to get Rm, the

internal resistance of the 1mA movement.

To fully state the dependence of the accuracy

of the measurements to the value of R1, the

relationship between R1 and Rm was sought

first.

Since the method utilized in this part is the

half-scale deflection method, one can assume

that the following relationship holds true.

(1)

Therefore,

(

)

(2)

The expression above shows the relationship

of R1 and the accuracy of the measurements.

2. Based on the meter resistance of your

1mA movement, predict the accuracy

that you should obtain for each of the

measurements made in Procedure B.

Compare these figures with the actual

accuracy of your measurements.

Account for any differences.

3. Show how you computed for the value

of Rs to be used to convert your 1mA

movement into a 10-V voltmeter. What

is the internal resistance of your 10-V

voltmeter?

To convert the 1mA movement into a 10-

V voltmeter, the value of Rs was

calculated to be 10,000 Ω. This is from

the Ohm’s Law, V=IR.

(

) (

)

Now, let Im be the full scale current

circulating through the circuit. According

to Ohm’s Law,

(3)

Since the milliammeter and the resistor

are connected in series,

(4)

Substituting Equation (4) to (3) and

rearranging yields,

(

)

(5)

From Equation (5), the internal resistance

of the 10-V voltmeter is zero.

4. Discuss the linearity and accuracy of

the 10-V voltmeter you constructed

based on the calibration points given

to you in Table 2. What are the

possible sources of error?

The 10-V voltmeter constructed gave

sufficiently accurate measurements for the

calibration points as seen in Table 2. The

measurements’ relative deviations from

the true values do not exceed 0.10 or

10%. A factor that might have

contributed to the accurate measurements

was its internal resistance being 0, which

means that the “loading” effect in the

circuit was minimized if not totally

abolished.

Though the voltmeter yielded high

accuracy readings, errors are still

inevitable in the experiment, as for any

analyses. Parallax errors might be present

when taking the measurements, also, as

what is mentioned in the above

paragraph, loading effect might also gave

rise to errors.

5. Based on the internal resistance of

your 10-V voltmeter, predict the

accuracy that you should obtain for

each of the measurements made in

Procedure D. Compare these figures

with the actual accuracy of your

measurements.

It was already mentioned that the internal

resistance is directly proportional to the

error obtained in the experiment. Since

the value of the internal resistance of the

10 V voltmeter is very low (approaching

zero), one can expect very accurate

voltage measurements.

6. Show that the relationship between

unknown resistance Ru and deflection

D for the series ohmmeter circuit of

Figure 5 is given by Ru = Ro (1 - D)/D.

In our case, what is Ro?

Since the resistor with unknown

resistance, Ru, is connected in series with

the potentiometer, the current, I, flowing

across the two devices are equal. From

the experiment, it was found that I is

equal to the %deflection (D) multiplied

by 1mA. Doing a KVL analysis on the

circuit gives,

10 kΩ(I) + Ru(I)=10

10 D + RuD = 10

RuD= 10D-10

(

()

)

The equation above follows the pattern of

our desired equation,

(

( )

)

Therefore, Ro is equal to 10 kΩ.

7. Compare the computed resistance in

Procedures E and F with the actual

values of Ra, Rb, and Rc given by

your instructor. Account for any

differences.

The theoretical values of Ra, Rb and Rc are

100 kΩ, 4700 kΩ and 2,200 kΩ,

respectively.

From the data obtained in Procedures E

and F, we can conclude that Procedure F

yielded values which are closer to the

theoretical ones. However, deviations are

still observed. Deviations noticed for

Procedure F were positive, that is, the

calculated resistance is greater than the

theoretical resistance and for Procedure E

were negative.

These deviations came from (1) mistakes

committed in reading the voltage and

current measurements, (2) loading effect

due to the internal resistances of the

equipment, and (3) ammeter insertion

effect, which tends to decrease the

current in the circuit, that is, the current

being read is less than the current

expected.

8. Given the two possible arrangements

for making resistance measurements

using the voltmeter-ammeter method,

when should one method be used

instead of the other if the resistance is

to be taken as the voltage reading

divided by the current reading?

Configuration I

Configuration II

For Configuration I, the voltmeter reads

the true voltage required but the ammeter

yields a lower measurement (than the

theoretical value). Here, the current is

equal to the current passing through the

resistor minus the current flowing

through the voltmeter. In turn, the

resistance calculated is lower than the

theoretical value. This explains why

negative deviations were observed for

Procedure E. Consequently, for

Configuration II, the ammeter reads the

true current but the voltage read is higher

than expected. This causes the positive

deviations observed for Procedure F.

In the voltmeter-ammeter method,

internal meter resistances should be taken

in consideration. In reality, voltmeters are

usually made with high internal

resistances. Because of this, nearly all the

current flows through the resistor.

Therefore, the current passing through

the voltmeter is negligible. Considering

the effect of the internal meter

resistances, Configuration I should be

used if the resistance to be calculated is

small and Configuration II is used when

the resistance is large.

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