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ABSTRACT
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a Meta heuristic combinatorial optimization technique. Ant Colony System (ACS) is the algorithm in the ACO. This is based on the behavior of ants. Many ants starts to search food from the nest and travel some distance. In that time some ants goes to search food in some ways. At last all ants reach the destination point that way will be the shortest path. This is done by the pheromone updating. The leading ant deposits the pheromone while moving, the upcoming ants follows the leading ant by the chemical where it is high. This process is repeated until an optimal combination of ant’s solution is reached. Based on this concept we implement the algorithm to solve the real time problems like routing, assignment, scheduling.
Keyword’s -Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), cloud computing, workflow scheduling.

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**ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 17
**

Workflow Scheduling in Cloud Computing Using Ant Colony

Optimization

J.Elayaraja

1

, S.Dhanasekar

2

PG Scholar

1

, Assistant Professor

2

,

Department of CSE, Info Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore-India

ABSTRACT

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a Meta heuristic combinatorial optimization technique. Ant Colony System (ACS) is the

algorithm in the ACO. This is based on the behavior of ants. Many ants starts to search food from the nest and travel some

distance. In that time some ants goes to search food in some ways. At last all ants reach the destination point that way will be

the shortest path. This is done by the pheromone updating. The leading ant deposits the pheromone while moving, the

upcoming ants follows the leading ant by the chemical where it is high. This process is repeated until an optimal combination

of ant’s solution is reached. Based on this concept we implement the algorithm to solve the real time problems like routing,

assignment, scheduling.

Keyword’s -Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), cloud computing, workflow scheduling.

I. INTRODUCTION

The ant colony optimization process can be explained

by representing the optimization problem as a multilayered

graph as shown in Fig. 1 where the number of layers is

equal to the number of design variables and the number of

nodes in a particular layer is equal to the number of discrete

values permitted for the corresponding design variable.

Thus each node is associated with a permissible discrete

value of a design variable. Figure 1 denotes a problem with

six design variables with eight permissible discrete values

for each design variable.

The ACO process can be explained as follows. Let the

colony consist of N ants. The ants start at the home node,

travel through the various layers from the first layer to the

last or final layer, and end at the destination node in each

cycle or iteration. Each ant can select only one node in each

layer. The nodes selected along the path visited by an ant

represent a candidate solution. For example, a typical path

visited by an ant is shown by thick lines in Fig. 1.1. This

path represents the solution (x12, x23, x31, x45, x56, x64).

Once the path is complete, the ant deposits some pheromone

on the path. When all the ants complete their paths, the

pheromones on the globally best path are updated using the

global updating rule. In the beginning of the optimization

process (i.e., in iteration 1), all the edges or rays are

initialized with an equal amount of pheromone. As such, in

iteration 1, all the ants start from the home node and end at

the destination node by randomly selecting a node in each

layer. The optimization process is terminated if either the

prespecified maximum number of iterations is reached or no

better solution is found in a prespecified number of

successive cycles or iterations. The values of the design

variables denoted by the nodes on the path with largest

amount of pheromone are considered as the components of

the optimum solution vector. In general, at the optimum

solution, all ants travel along the same best (converged)

path.

II. REVIEW OF ANT COLONY

OPTIMIZATION

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic

combinatorial optimization technique that mimics the

foraging behavior of Ants. As shown in Fig. 3, ACO starts

with initialization of parameters and ants along with

permissible range. Each ant and its permissible range are

processed to construct path. The constructed path is

explored to form different combination of possible discrete

values for the decision variable and the objective function is

evaluated. Check whether the optimum solution is reached

or not. If yes stop the process otherwise the best path is

chosen from the evaluated values and the pheromone

updating is carried out on the best path to form new set of

permissible ranges for the next iteration. Also at each

iteration, new set of ants are generated randomly. The

following issues are to be addressed while implementing

ACO for any combinatorial optimization problem.

III. ACO IMPLEMENTATION FOR

SCHEDULING WORKFLOW

While implementing ACO for any scheduling algorithm,

the following issues are to be addressed.

- Initialization of Pheromone

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 2 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014

ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 18

- Initialization of Heuristic information

- Random generation of Ants

- Mapping of Ant with path

- Evaluation of objective function

- Pheromone updating

The details of the above said issues are discussed in

subsections as below

++++++

Figure 1 Graphical representation of ACO process in

the form of multi-layered network

Working Principle of ACO

As shown in figure 1, ACO starts with initialization of

parameters and ants along with permissible range. Each ant

and its permissible range are processed to construct path.

The constructed path is explored to form different

combination of possible discrete values for the decision

variable and the objective function is evaluated. Check

whether the optimum solution is reached or not. If yes stop

the process otherwise the best path is chosen from the

evaluated values and the pheromone updation is carried out

on the best path to form new set of permissible ranges for

the next iteration. Also at each iteration, new set of ants are

generated randomly. The following issues are to be

addressed while implementing ACO for any combinatorial

optimization problem.

Fig. 2. Flowchart of ACO

I nitialization of control Parameters

The most common parameters used in ACO

algorithm are given below

Number of Variable - D

Number of Permissible Value - P

Number of Ants - N

Pheromone decay factor - ρ (lies bw 0 and 1)

Pheromone error factor - σ (lies bw 0 and 1)

Min. Pheromone value -

0

t (lies bw 0 and 1)

Number of Iteration - I

Pheromone decay factor (ρ) is used to reduce the

current pheromone value on each path after each ant tours

using local pheromone updating rule. Minimum Pheromone

value (

0

t ) is used to find the minimum pheromone value

among the all paths. Pheromone error factor (σ) is used to

add some error while updating the pheromone in global

pheromone updating rule.

Start

Initialization of control

parameters

Pheromone initialization

Calculation of probability value

Calculation of permissible ranges

(path construction)

Random generation of ants

Mapping of Ant with Path

Forming of combination

Pheromone updating

Selection of best path

Evaluation of objective function

Converged?

Stop

No

Yes

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 2 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014

ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 19

A. I nitialization of Pheromone

For each design variable, pheromone matrix is initialized.

The number of pheromone value in a pheromone matrix

depends on the number of permissible value ‘P’ for the

design variable. For example if x1 is the design variable and

it takes any value from 1 to 4 means, then the number of

pheromone value is also 4 and each pheromone value is

initialized to 1 in the pheromone matrix

makespan

makespan

max_

min_

0

= t (1)

0

t t =

ij

.

i

m j n i s s s s 1 , 1 (2)

(a) Calculation of probability value

ij

p

For each design variable, probability matrix is

constructed from the pheromone matrix by using the

equation (4).

The number of probability value in a probability

matrix depends on the number of permissible value ‘P’

for the design variable.

B. Calculation of Permissible Range/Path Construction

For each design variable, permissible range (PR)

matrix is constructed from the probability matrix by using

the following procedure.

The number of permissible ranges for each design

variable is equal to the number of permissible values of the

design variable. Each permissible range represents the path

to be explored by the ant for its food.

.

C. Random Generation of Ants

Ants for each design variable are randomly generated

between the overall ranges of a permissible range matrix as

given in Eq. (3). The number of ants for each design

variable is taken arbitrarily depending on nature of the

problem. To obtain better solution, colony size (number of

ants) must be at least greater than or equal to the number of

permissible range.

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

=

P j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

p

j i

PR

,

...

1 , ,

.

.

2 , 1 , ,

1 , ,

.

.

.

1 , ,

,

,

0

,

(3)

Where,

¿

=

=

P

j

ij

ij

ij

p

1

t

t

i = 1, 2….D j=1,2,…P (4)

D. Mapping of Ant with Path / Path I dentification

For each design variable, each ant value is mapped with

its permissible range value for identifying the path. Once a

path is identified, its corresponding index value is taken as

candidate value for the design variable. The number of

candidate value for each deign variable is equal to the

number of ants.

E. Forming of Combinations

The candidate values of each design variable found

during path identification are formed as different

combination and are used for evaluating the objective

function. If ‘N’ is the number of ants, and ‘D’ is the number

of design variable then ‘N

D

’ combinations are formed.

F. Evaluation of Objective function

The combination value chosen for the design variables

is used to evaluate the objective function. All such possible

combinations are evaluated to give its objective value

+

G. Selection of best path

After evaluating the objective function, the value which

gives optimum objective value is selected and its associated

permissible range value is selected as best path and

pheromone updating is carried out and the updated

pheromone value is used to update the probability value

which in turn will update the permissible range value.

H. Pheromone updation

The initial pheromone matrix is updated on the selected

best path to direct future ants more strongly toward better

solution. There are two kinds of pheromone updating. The

local pheromone updating rule is given in equation.

¿

=

=

P

j

ij

ij

ij

p

1

t

t

i = 1,2….D j=1,2,…P

(1)

0

) 1 ( µt t µ t + ÷ =

ij ij

i = 1,2….D j = 1,2…..P

(2)

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 2 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014

ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 20

The importance of global pheromone updating is, it

distinct the best path with other paths by adding extra

pheromone. It tends the future ants to select the path once

again.

These steps will be repeated until we gets the accurate

values for the problem.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

This section presents the details of simulation carried out

using a sample workflow that has two tasks. Seven instances

are assigned to task1 and six instances are assigned to task2.

The details of instances along with the values of QoS

parameters such as time, cost and budget are shown in Table

1. The values are randomly generated by following the rule

that for the same task, a service instance with higher

reliability or shorter execution time may cost more money

and vice versa.

TABLE I

DETAILS OF SERVICE INSTANCES AND QOS PARAMETERS

Instances Task 1 Task 2

Time Cost Budget Time Cost Budget

Instance 1

165 2000 10500 480 850 9000

Instance 2

350 1500 9000 410 1300 7500

Instance 3

408 1750 1100 210 710 6000

Instance 4

200 1650 10800 190 1100 8890

Instance 5

170 1800 600 185 1500 1200

Instance 6

185 1500 1200 162 1600 10500

Instance 7

162 1600 10500

*** *** ***

In Eq. (1), the pheromone values are initialized using the

maximum and minimum values of makespan taken from

task 1 and task 2. The initial pheromone value is assigned to

all service instances available in the both task and heuristics

values are calculated for each service instance as discussed

in Section .2..

This paper proposes four different heuristics in the

algorithm including TG, CG, SB, and TC. Heuristics are

also selected based on pheromone values. Heuristics

selection of the ant followed by path constructed of the

proposed ACO algorithm is pictorially shown in the Fig.3

Experiments are conducted to compare the performance

of these heuristics schemes and the results are shown in Fig.

4. The colony of size of this algorithm must be greater than

or equal to the number of permissible path we have taken.

The convergence of the optimal solution is much faster

when increase the colony size in the algorithm.

Fig. 4. Performance of different heuristics in case of

Makespan optimization

This paper has applied the user constraints budget and

deadline in order to optimize the makespan. The optimal

results were obtained with Colony Size: 30, Budget: 3300,

and Deadline: 800.

Fig. 5 reveals the most attractive heuristic type in

different stage of the algorithm. For example, in the

makespan optimization under tight deadline constraints, at

the beginning stage of the algorithm, heuristic 2 is able to

find feasible solutions that satisfy the deadline constraints

quickly. At later stages, the attraction of the heuristics

selection has been changing due to the constraints. Finally,

the cost heuristic takes hold in finding the optimal solution

as shown in Fig. 4.

TG

CG

SB

TC 1

1

q

m

q

S

1

1

q

S

2

2

q

S

2

2

q

m

q

S

1

2

q

S

2

3

q

S

3

3

q

m

q

S

1

3

q

S

…

…

….

Fig. 3. Procedure of an ant to build a solution

schedule

2

1

q

S

1

q

T

2 q

T

qn

T

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Generations

HEURISTICS

TG

CG

SB

TC

))) 1 /( 1 ( ( ) 1 ( + + + ÷ = fbest

ij ij

o t µ t i=1,2….D

j=1,2…..P (3)

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 2 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014

ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 21

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3

Generations

H

e

u

r

i

s

t

i

c

s

Fig. 5. Heuristics type adopted by most ants

The convergence behavior of the proposed ACO is

shown in Fig. 6. From Fig. 6, it is found that the proposed

ACO has converged in the first five iterations itself.

Fig. 6. Convergence of ACO

From the Table 2, it is found that, execution of instance 3 of

task 1 followed instance 3 of task 2 is n optimal schedule of

executing the chosen two task application in cloud

computing platform.

TABLE II

BEST SCHEDULE IN THE APPLICATION

V. CONCLUSION

This paper has proposed ACO approach for scheduling

workflows in computational clouds. The proposed approach

is implemented for a sample workflow application based on

service oriented architecture. Two workflows with seven

and six tasks are considered for simulation. QoS parameters

considered in the simulation are time, cost, and budget and

the optimization is based on user-defined QoS parameter.

Heuristics considered in the simulation are Time, Cost,

Budget and Total Cost and an adapted scheme is included to

make the artificial ant to select heuristics based on

pheromone value. Simulation results show the effectiveness

of the proposed approach. In future, the same approach is

planned to enhance it for more QoS parameters and

Heuristics.

REFERENCES

[1] Hamid Mohammadi Fard, Radu Prodan, and Thomas Fahringer, “A

Truthful Dynamic Workflow Scheduling Mechanism for Commercial

Multicloud Environments” IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed

Systems, Vol. 24, No. 6, June 2013.

[2] Wei-Neng Chen, Stud Mem, Jun Zhang “An Ant Colony

Optimization Approach to a Cloud Workflow Scheduling problem

With Various Qos Requirements” IEEE Trans. on sys.,Man ,Cybern-

Part C: Appl & Reviews, vol.39, no.1, Jan 2009.

[3] R. Buyya, D. Abramson, and J. Giddy, “A case for economy cloud

architecture for service oriented cloud computing,” presented at the

10

th

Heterogeneous Comput. Workshop (HCW’ 2001), San Francisco,

CA, Apr.

[4] F. Neubauer, A. Hoheisel, and J. Geiler, “Workflow-based cloud

applications,” Future Gen. Comput. Syst., vol. 22, pp. 6–15, 2006.

[5] Z. Shi and J. J. Dongarra, “Scheduling workflow applications on

processors with different capabilities,” Future Gen. Comput. Syst.,

vol. 22, pp. 665–675, 2006.

[6] L. Chunlin and L. Layuan, “QoS based resource scheduling by

computational economy in computational cloud,” Inf. Process. Lett.,

vol. 98, pp. 119–126, 2006.

[7] H. XiaoShan and S. XiaoHe, “QoS guided min-min heuristic for

cloud task scheduling,” J. Comput. Sci. Technol., vol. 18, no. 4, pp.

442–451, 2003.

[8] M. M. Lopez, E. Heymann, and M. A. Senar, “Analysis of dynamic

heuristics for workflow scheduling on cloud systems,” in Proc. 5th

Int.Symp. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (ISPDC’06), IEEE, Jul., pp. 199–

207.

[9] M. Maheswaran et al., “Dynamic mapping of a class of independent

tasks onto heterogeneous computing systems,” J. Parallel Distrib.

Comput., vol. 59, pp. 107–131, 1999.

[10] H. Topcuoglu, S. Hariri, and M.-Y. Wu, “Performance-effective and

low complexity task scheduling for heterogeneous computing,” IEEE

Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 260–274, Mar. 2002.

[11] L.Wang, H. J. Siegel, V. P. Roychowdhury, and A. A. Maciejewski,

“Task matching and scheduling in heterogeneous computing

environments using a genetic-algorithm-based approach,” J.Parallel

Distrib. Comput., vol. 47, pp. 8–22, 1997.

[12] J.-K. Kim, et al., “Dynamically mapping tasks with priorities and

multiple deadlines in a heterogeneous environment,” J. Parallel

Distrib. Comput., vol. 67, pp. 154–169, 2007.

[13] S. Zheng,W. Shu, and L.Gao, “Task scheduling using parallel genetic

simulated annealing algorithm,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Service

Operations Logist. (SOLI’06), pp. 46–50.

[14] D. Merkle, M. Middendorf, and H. Schmeck, “Ant colony

optimization for resource-constrained project scheduling,” IEEE

Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 333–346, Aug. 2002.

Task Instance Time Cost Budget

Task1 Instance 3 408 1750 1100

Task 2 Instance 3 210 710 6000

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

1.26

1.28

1.3

1.32

1.34

1.36

1.38

1.4

Generations

Fitness

Best

Average

International Journal of Computer Science Trends and Technology (IJCST) – Volume 2 Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014

ISSN: 2347-8578 www.ijcstjournal.org Page 22

[15] M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization

by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.

B, Cybern., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 29–41, Feb. 1996.

[16] M. Dorigo, V. Maniezzo, and A. Colorni, “Ant system: optimization

by a colony of cooperating agents,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.

B,Cybern., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 29–41, Feb. 1996.

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