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**St. Paul University Philippines
**

Tuguegarao City

CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION

• Unlike the normal and Student-t

distribution, the Chi-Square distribution is

not symmetric.

• The values of the Chi-Square distribution

can be 0 or positive, but they can not be

negative.

• The Chi-Square distribution is different for

each number of degrees of freedom.

CHI-SQUARE DISTRIBUTION

• The Goodness-of-fit test is used to test the

hypothesis that an observed frequency fits

(or conforms ) to some claimed theoretical

distribution.

• The Test Statistic for Goodness-of-Fit Tests

is χ

2

= Σ (O - E)

2

/ E

EXAMPLE 1

• A study was made of 147 industrial accidents

that required medical attention. The sample

data are summarized in the table below. Test

the claim that accidents occur with equal

proportions on the 5 workdays.

Day Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri

Observed

Accidents

31 42 18 25 31

SOLUTION

The solution of solving problems in Chi

Square is by following the six steps in

hypothesis testing sequencially. This is

similar to Z – test , T – test and F- test. For

the tabular value or critical value of Chi

Square, refer to any statistics books usually

located in the appendix.

Solution

1. Ho: The accidents occur with equal

proportions on the 5 work days..

P

1

=P

2

=P

3

=P4=P

5

Ha: At least one of the proportions is

different from the others.

2. α = .05 since the significance level is not

specified

3. chi(x

2

) – test

4. To find the tabular value

Degrees of freedom = Number of categories(

c ) – one (1)

C = 5, since there are 5 workdays

df = c-1 = 5-1=4

tabular value = 9.488 with α = .05 (found in

the appendix of chi square table)

5. Computation

A. Compute for the expected frequency (fe)

Formula

fe = total frequency(n) x proportion(p)

fe = np

n = 31+ 42+ 18 + 25 + 31 = 147

p = 1/5 0r 20%, since the probability of an

accident in any given workday is 1/5 or 20%

fe = (147)(1/5) = 29.4 in each workday

Value of fe

Expected

Accidents

29.4 29.4 29.4 29.4 29.4

Day Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri

Observed

Accidents

31 42 18 25 31

X

2

value

B. Compute for the X

2

value

Formula:

χ

2

= (observed frequency – expected frequency)

2

/ expected

frequency

χ

2

= Σ (O - E)

2

/ E

χ

2

= (31-29.4)

2

/ 29.4 + (42-29.4)

2

/ 29.4 + (18-29.4)

2

/ 29.4

+ (25-29.4)

2

/ 29.4 + (31-29.4)

2

/ 29.4

χ

2 =

10.65

6. Decision

Since the computed value 10.65 is

greater than the tabular value 9.488

reject Ho.

Example2

• Mars, Inc. claims that its M & M candies are distributed

with the color percentages of 30% brown, 20% yellow,

20% red, 10% orange, 10% green and 10% tan. A

classroom exercise resulted in the observed frequencies

listed in the table below. At the 0.05 significance level, test

the claim that the color distribution is as claimed by

Mars, Inc.

Brown Yellow Red Orange Green Tan

Observed

Frequency

84 79 75 49 36 47

Solution

1. Ho: The observed percentage color distribution

is not significantly different from the expected

percentage color distribution . P

1

=P

2

=P

3

=P4=P

5

=

P

6

Ha: At least one of the percentage color

distribution is different from the others.

2. α = .05 since the significance level is not specified

3. chi(x

2

) – test

4. To find the tabular value

Degrees of freedom=Number of categories(c)

– one (1)

C = 6, since there are 6 different colors

df = c-1 = 6-1=5

tabular value = 11.071 with α = .05 (found

in the appendix of chi square table)

5. Computation

A. Compute for the expected frequency (fe)

Formula

fe = total frequency(n) x proportion(p)

fe = np

n = 84+ 79+ 75 + 49 + 36 + 47 = 370

fe = (370)(.30) = 111 for color brown

fe = (370)(.20) = 74 for color yellow

5. Computation

fe = (370)(.20) = 74 for color red

fe = (370)(.10) = 37 for color orange

fe = (370)(.10) = 37 for color green

fe = (370)(.10) = 37 for color tan

Observed frequency with the

corresponding expected

frequency

Observed

frequency

84 79 75 49 36 47

Expected

frequency

111 74 74 37 37 37

X

2

value

B. Compute for the X

2

value

Formula:

χ

2

= (observed frequency – expected frequency)

2

/

expected frequency

χ

2

= Σ (O - E)

2

/ E

χ

2 =

13.541

6. Decision

Since the computed value 13.541 is

greater than the tabular value 11.071

reject Ho.

Contingency Tables

• A contingency table (or two-way table) is a

table in which frequencies correspond to

two variables. (One variable is used to

categorize rows, and a second variable is

used to categorize columns). A test of

independence tests the null hypothesis that

the row variable and column variable in a

contingency table are not related.

ASSUMPTIONS

• When working with data in the form of a

contingency table, we test the null

hypothesis that the row variable and the

column variable are independent and the

following assumptions apply:

– the sample data are randomly selected.

– For every cell in the contingency table, the

expected frequency E is at least 5

Test Statistic for a Test of

Independence

• χ

2

= Σ (O - E)

2

/ E

• Critical Values

– Tests of independence with contingency tables

involve only right-tailed critical regions.

– In a contingency table with r rows and c

columns, the number of degrees of freedom is

given by df = (r - 1) (c - 1)

Expected Frequency for a

Contingency Table

(row total)(column total)

Expected Freq. E = --------------------------------

grand total

Example

Test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between

the sex of employees and their job satisfaction level if in a certain

company in Makati, the following results were obtained.

Job Satisfaction level

Sex low medium high total

male 45 60 55 160

female 9 10 10 129

Total 54 70 65 189

Solution

1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between

sex and job satisfaction level of 189 employees.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between sex

and job satisfaction level of 189 employees.

2. α = .05 since the significance level is not specified

3. chi(x

2

) – test

4. To find the tabular value

Degrees of freedom = (row classification - 1)

(column - 1)

df = (r - 1) (c - 1)

r= 2, since sex is classified as male or

female

c= 3, since job satisfaction level is

classified low medium and high

df = (2 - 1) (3- 1) = 2

4. To find the tabular value

tabular value = 5.99 with α = .05 (found in

the appendix of chi square table)

5. Computation

A. Compute for the expected frequency (fe)

Formul

(row total) (column total)

Expected Freq. E = --------------------------------

grand total

fe (45)=(160)(54)/189 = 45.71

fe (9)=(129)(54)/189 = 8.29

fe (60)=(160)(70)/189 = 59.26

fe (10)=(129)(570)/189 =10.74

fe (55)=(160)(65)/189 = 55.03

fe (10)=(129)(65)/189 = 9.97

Observed frequency with the

corresponding expected

frequency

Observed

frequency

45 9 60 10 55 10

Expected

frequency

45.71 8.29 59.26 10.74 55.03 9.97

X

2

value

B. Compute for the X

2

value

Formula:

χ

2

= (observed frequency – expected frequency)

2

/ expected

frequency

χ

2

= Σ (O - E)

2

/ E

χ

2 =

0.13

6. Decision

Since the computed value is 0.13 less

than the tabular value 5.99 accept Ho.

This means the that there is a significant

relationship between sex and job

satisfaction level of 189 employees.

ASSIGNMENT # 4

Solve the following problem by

following the steps sequencially.

ASSIGNMENT # 4

It is a common belief that more fatal car crashes occur

on certain days of the week such as Friday or

Saturday. A sample of motor vehicle deaths in

Metro Manila is randomly selected for a recent

year. The number of fatalities for the different days

of the week are listed below. At the .01 significance

level, test the claim that accidents occur with equal

proportion on the different days.

ASSIGNMENT # 4

Days Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

Number

of

accidents

31 20 20 22 22 29 36

ASSIGNMENT # 4

2. Test the hypothesis if

hypertension is related to the

drinking habits among 200 male

respondents in a certain locality

as shown below.

ASSIGNMENT # 4

Non -

Drinkers

Moderate

Drinkers

Heavy

Drinker

s

Total

With

hypertension

22 42 54 118

Without

hypertension

45 22 15 82

Total 67 64 69 200

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