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Application of SR Motors

Application of SR Motors
George
George
Holling
Holling
Rocky Mountain Technologies Inc.
Rocky Mountain Technologies Inc.
PO 1595, Riverton, UT 84065 PO 1595, Riverton, UT 84065
ph.: (801) 446 ph.: (801) 446- -8403 8403
e e- -mail: mail: George.Holling@RockyMountainTechnologies.com George.Holling@RockyMountainTechnologies.com
Overview
Overview

The SR motor
The SR motor

physics and characteristics


physics and characteristics

Where to apply SR Motors


Where to apply SR Motors

Pittfalls
Pittfalls
when applying SR motors
when applying SR motors

The future
The future
The SR motor
The SR motor

the torque profile


the torque profile
The SR motor
The SR motor

the torque profile


the torque profile

at base speed
at base speed
The SR motor
The SR motor

the torque profile


the torque profile

at base speed
at base speed
efficiency 90.4% (above) efficiency 87.6% (below)
efficiency 90.4% (above) efficiency 87.6% (below)
The SR motor
The SR motor

the torque profile


the torque profile

changes with speed and load


changes with speed and load

changes with the motor geometry


changes with the motor geometry

rule of thumb: more phases less ripple


rule of thumb: more phases less ripple

4 phase vs. 3 phase motors


4 phase vs. 3 phase motors
The SR motor
The SR motor

audible noise
audible noise

audible noise and torque are related


audible noise and torque are related

reduced torque ripple


reduced torque ripple
-
-
> reduced audible noise
> reduced audible noise

more phases
more phases
-
-
> less noise
> less noise

short flux path


short flux path
-
-
> less noise
> less noise

reducing audible noise results in


reducing audible noise results in

reduced performance, or
reduced performance, or

increased cost
increased cost
The SR motor
The SR motor

size and geometry


size and geometry

it appears that SR motors require certain geometries to be


it appears that SR motors require certain geometries to be
efficient
efficient

length = diameter appears to be good geometry


length = diameter appears to be good geometry

pancake motors appear less desirable pancake motors appear less desirable

Very small diameter motor (<70mm) appear less desirable Very small diameter motor (<70mm) appear less desirable

low number of poles per phase appears to improve performance


low number of poles per phase appears to improve performance

exceptions exist exceptions exist

thermal considerations thermal considerations


The SR motor
The SR motor

efficiency
efficiency

the efficiency of the SR motor is maximized at its rated


the efficiency of the SR motor is maximized at its rated
load
load

while the SR motor will operate efficiently over a wide


while the SR motor will operate efficiently over a wide
speed range it will not do so over a wide load range
speed range it will not do so over a wide load range
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Advantages (perceived):
Advantages (perceived):
no magnets no magnets
cost cost
favors large motors favors large motors
contamination contamination
may not be significant in most applications may not be significant in most applications
internal and ambient temperature internal and ambient temperature
subject to magnet materials subject to magnet materials
sensorless sensorless SR motors can potentially operate in high temperature environme SR motors can potentially operate in high temperature environments nts
excitation waveform excitation waveform
no waveform shaping no waveform shaping
generic, simple, low cost control generic, simple, low cost control
hall/optical sensor are very suitable hall/optical sensor are very suitable
rugged, low cost solutions rugged, low cost solutions
hall sensors are more rugged that optical sensors hall sensors are more rugged that optical sensors
very good performance at high speeds very good performance at high speeds
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Advantages (perceived):
Advantages (perceived):

ease of
ease of
sensorless
sensorless
control
control

large inherent inductance changes large inherent inductance changes


efficient algorithms to determine efficient algorithms to determine sensorless sensorless position feedback position feedback

low cost low cost


cost of electronics less that sensors cost of electronics less that sensors
no sensor wiring no sensor wiring

no feedback devices on the motor no feedback devices on the motor


small size small size
high temperature environments high temperature environments

reliability reliability
no sensor wiring no sensor wiring
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Disadvantages (perceived):
Disadvantages (perceived):

small
small
airgap
airgap

contamination contamination

bearings and materials bearings and materials

assembly cost assembly cost

audible noise
audible noise

new technology
new technology

lack of infrastructure lack of infrastructure

lack of experience lack of experience

inherent risk inherent risk


Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

applications should focus on those areas where the SR is clearly applications should focus on those areas where the SR is clearly superior superior
high efficiency at rated loads high efficiency at rated loads
pumps pumps
compressors compressors
fans fans
ease of ease of sensorless sensorless feedback feedback
highly efficient, hermetically sealed compressors highly efficient, hermetically sealed compressors
high temperature ambient environments high temperature ambient environments
aerospace aerospace
drilling drilling
cost sensitive, large motors with high power density cost sensitive, large motors with high power density
traction drives traction drives
linear SR motors linear SR motors
good power density and efficiency at high speed good power density and efficiency at high speed
high speed compressors high speed compressors
turbine starter/generators turbine starter/generators
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Single phase SR motors


Single phase SR motors

Specialty applications
Specialty applications

generators
generators

electric assisted bike


electric assisted bike
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Two phase SR motors


Two phase SR motors

low starting torque


low starting torque

audible noise
audible noise

some patented technologies perform better


some patented technologies perform better

most suited for unidirectional operation


most suited for unidirectional operation

bi
bi
-
-
directional operation is possible under certain conditions
directional operation is possible under certain conditions

typical applications include


typical applications include

blower
blower

fan
fan

pump
pump

electric assist
electric assist
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Three phase SR motors


Three phase SR motors

variable speed applications


variable speed applications

bi
bi
-
-
directional operation
directional operation

personal note:
personal note:

least likely to succeed


least likely to succeed
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

Four phase SR motors


Four phase SR motors

fault tolerant operation


fault tolerant operation

aerospace
aerospace

fuel pump
fuel pump

drilling
drilling

low cost alternative


low cost alternative

traction drives
traction drives

high speed motor


high speed motor

generator
generator
Applying the SR motor
Applying the SR motor

More than four phase SR motors


More than four phase SR motors

Specialty applications
Specialty applications
Pittfalls
Pittfalls
when applying SR motors
when applying SR motors

operation with suboptimal firing angles


operation with suboptimal firing angles

power and efficiency can be significantly reduced


power and efficiency can be significantly reduced

audible noise can be significantly higher


audible noise can be significantly higher

heating losses can be significantly higher


heating losses can be significantly higher

feedback sensors
feedback sensors

Hall sensor can reduce performance


Hall sensor can reduce performance

duty cycle distortions reduce performance duty cycle distortions reduce performance

sensors and magnet wheels are subject to heat related failure sensors and magnet wheels are subject to heat related failure

Optical sensors can reduce performance


Optical sensors can reduce performance

duty cycle distortions reduce performance duty cycle distortions reduce performance

sensors and magnet wheels are subject to heat related failure sensors and magnet wheels are subject to heat related failure

sensors are subject to contamination sensors are subject to contamination


Pittfalls
Pittfalls
when applying SR motors
when applying SR motors

operation significantly below rated power


operation significantly below rated power

efficiency can be VERY poor


efficiency can be VERY poor

production variations
production variations

production variations can be significantly larger than


production variations can be significantly larger than
those of BLDC motors
those of BLDC motors

high quality motor steels and good production methods


high quality motor steels and good production methods
are mandatory
are mandatory
Examples of SR motors & drives
Examples of SR motors & drives
Sensorless SR drive
Examples of SR motors & drives
Examples of SR motors & drives
SR Production Motor
Examples of SR motors & drives
Examples of SR motors & drives
SR Traction Drive
The future of SR motors
The future of SR motors

SR motor applications are proliferating


SR motor applications are proliferating

many OEM develop custom SR products in


many OEM develop custom SR products in
-
-
house
house
due to lack of off the shelf components
due to lack of off the shelf components

SR motors will most likely penetrate selected


SR motors will most likely penetrate selected
niche applications at the OEM level
niche applications at the OEM level