This UNIT focuses on:
Strategy, structure and style of presenting information
Use of transitional expressions and voice
The UNIT includes:
Practice exercises
Self checking to assess understanding of concepts at end of unit
“A visiting academic was giving a lecture at the university where I worked !hen I entered the room,
the lights had "een dimmed and the lecturer was reading from the screen I saw heads nodding and
people do#ing $e was on slide %& and had '' more to go( The audience had a handout on which each
of the slides was printed and num"ered and those still awake, read along with him !hy "other) There
was no interaction and people were discouraged from asking *uestions +ust pass out the handout and
go home”
Exercise 1
a, In pairs/groups, -IS.USS why the presentation went wrong.
", Work in groups to T$I/0 what you woul ha!e one to "ake the presentation
"ore interesting an interacti!e.
1aterials adapted from
%, 2orman et al in #oran, $$, %334 English %or &cae"ic 'urposes: a guide and resource "ook for teachers .am"ridge: .am"ridge
University Press
', http:55owlenglishpurdueedu5handouts5print5grammar5g6actpasshtml 7,
1. (trategy) (electing an organi*ing in%or"ation
In order to prepare and present information in an effective manner, you need to understand your
purpose and role as presenter: This involves knowing your audience, the expectations of your
audience 0nowing the audience will "e a critical determinant in what information is presented and
how it is presented As a teacher5presenter, you need to:
• tailor your message to the students and understand their needs, wants, knowledge level and
attitude toward the topic
• "ring the information on par with their level of understanding
• "e concrete, specific, practical, and relevant
+. (tructure) (e,uencing in%or"ation
:ou can;t assume that the information will speak for itself :our students are capa"le of hearing your
information in very different ways "ased on your organi#ation and presentation
The following lists some points to think a"out when
organi#ing your ideas
• "egin "y placing your topic in context< you
might want to provide an outline or a road map
• provide the intended outco"es
• organi#e the "ody of the presentation
logically = make it easy to follow = go from the
si"ple to the co"plex
• when appropriate, plan ways to encourage
stuent participation
• maintain credi"ility: discuss other
• conclude on a >high note> = include an
o!erall su""ary and how the information links
up with their next lecture
• incorporate !isual ais effectively
• anticipate unexpecte ,uestions and plan for contingencies
-. (tyle) 'resenting in%or"ation
The questions you need to focus on.
“Does the information yo are
!resentin" #in$ ! %ith %hat they
Do yo nee' to ma$e the information
#ess a(stra)t an' more )on)rete
thro"h e*am!#es et)&
+o% 'o yo %ant the st'ents to
assimi#ate the information yo are
)on,eyin"& “
?nce you know what you want to say, you need to consolidate the materials into a meaningful
.eeping the stuents/ interest
• use physical space and "ody
movement to enhance your message
• add stories, anecdotes, analogies,
• use humor appropriately
• eye contact is your primary tool for
esta"lishing audience involvement<
look at your students in random
rotating order
• use gestures naturally< do what is
natural to you: some gestures are
wrong = @ingling change in a pocket,
toying with notes, shifting from one
foot to the other< any repeated
Affective presenters recogni#e that communication is "oth intellectual and emotional ?rgani#ing your
ideas is part of the task The other is to gain and maintain attention The following lists some 0asic
techni,ues to maintain attention: =
• convey >controlled enthusiasm> for your su"@ect = the will pay more attention if the teacher is
genuinely enthusiastic
• pay attention to posture, tone B Unit: nonver"al communication,
• the students will mirror your attitude
• don;t confuse enthusiasm with loudness
• where appropriate, candidly discuss pros and cons< explain advantages first< present risks or
?nce you o"tain attention, you must retain it :ou need
to help the audience refocus periodically The following
are some examples:
• Transitions such as: Cnow that we have
analy#ed the pro"lem, we need to look at the
possi"le solutionsD
• 1onclusions: Cthe discussion so far leads to this
final thoughtD
• (traight%orwar 1onclusion:D if you enact
this program, three "asic "enefits will result C
Transitional words and phrases help to connect ideas within spoken as well as written language These
expressions explicate the relationship "etween ideas and act as signposts that help the reader5listener
follow the movement of the discussion Use transitional expressions to help your students follow your
discussion more easily
Exa"ples o% Transitional Expressions
Expaning) and, also, "esides, finally, further, in addition, moreover, then
Exe"pli%ying) as an illustration, for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, thus
2uali%ying) "ut, certainly, however, to "e sure
(u""ari*ing) and so, finally, in conclusion, in short, in sum, this experiment shows, thus
$elating logically) as a result, "ecause, "y implication, for this reason, from this we can see,
if, since, so, therefore
1o"paring) also, as well, likewise, similarly
1ontrasting) "ut, even though, nevertheless, still, yet
$elating in Ti"e) after, "efore, "etween, earlier, later, longer than, meanwhile, since
$elating in (pace) a"ove, ad@acent to, "ehind, "elow, "eyond, in front of, next to, north of,
over, through, within
3i!ersion: "y the way incidentally
Exercise 1
$ea the %ollowing state"ents care%ully an %ill in the 0lanks with appropriate transitional
expressions %ro" the ta0le a0o!e)
• The *uality of the 1agna 'E cannot "e faulted===============that does not exclude future
• 66666666the latest research on this node suggests great potential and cross field applica"ility
and should "e the su"@ect of further investigation
• !e cannot ascertain the exact nature of damage the virus can cause66666666666 it is useless
to work on effective preemptive measures @ust yet
• So far we have discussed the nominal role played "y this agent
• 66666666, although it is not of direct concern here, it may "e of interest to you to know that a
new version of the programme is due for release at the end of the year
Understanding the use of active and passive constructions is important for "oth speakers and writers
Too much passivity can CdeadenD and make ponderous what the presenter is trying to say $owever,
the @udicious alternation of passive and active voice can help to introduce variety into a presenterDs
style as well as to enthuse the audience
In sentences written in active voice, the su"@ect performs the action expressed in the ver"< the su"@ect
• The researchers announced a new "reakthrough
• Sasha will present her paper at the conference
In each example a"ove, the su"@ect of the sentence performs the action expressed in the ver"
In passive voice the su"@ect receives the action expressed in the ver"< the su"@ect is acted upon
• A new breakthrough was announced by the researchers.
• A new breakthrough was announced.
• The paper will be presented by Sasha at the conference.
• The paper will be presented.
/ote: The su"@ect performing the action may appear in a >"y the > phrase or may "e omitted if the
su"@ect is not important
1hanging passi!e to acti!e
If you want to change a passive=voice sentence to active voice, find the agent in a >"y the> phrase, or
consider carefully who or what is performing the action expressed in the ver" 1ake that agent the
su"@ect of the sentence, and change the ver" accordingly Sometimes you will need to infer the agent
from the surrounding sentences which provide context
1hanging acti!e to passi!e
If you want to change an active=voice sentence to passive voice, consider carefully who or what is
performing the action expressed in the ver", and then make that agent the o"@ect of a >"y the> phrase
1ake what is acted upon the su"@ect of the sentence, and change the ver" to a form of be F past
participle Including an explicit >"y the> phrase is optional
Exercise +
a4 5isten to two separate seg"ents o% recore lectures. In pairs/groups, analyse the
presentation style o% the two presenters an note the use 6or non use4 o% transitional expressions.
&lso note whether the presenters "ake e,ual use o% acti!e an passi!e !oice or ha!e a tenency
to use one particular kin o% construction.
04 Each one o% you will 0e tape %or %i!e "inutes as you explain a concept o% your choice. 7nce
the tape is playe 0ack, collecti!ely analy*e the recorings an note e!ery course participant/s
use o% transitional expressions an acti!e an passi!e constructions. Using this in%or"ation as a
guie, 0rainstor" possi0le strategies to "ake your presentation style "ore e%%ecti!e in ter"s o%
!er0al 8signposting/ an !oice.
Exercise -) 'reparing an presenting in%or"ation
9ou will 0e re,uire to gi!e a short talk 6not longer than +: "inutes4 in the a%ternoon session. &
ti"e slot will 0e allocate 0y the instructor.
a, ;or this session, ini!iually select the three o% the 0iggest challenges pre experience
eucators are likely to %ace when they 0egin teaching. The orer o% the choices is not i"portant.
• .oping with the workload
• Trying to remem"er the names of the students
• -esigning a sylla"us
• $aving to use a previously designed course
• Trying to develop an individual style of teaching
• Geing responsi"le for a class
• Trying to develop independent thinking in students
• 1eeting institutional expectations
• ?rgani#ing and using time efficiently
• The ad@usting of expectations to reality
• Preparing and presenting information
• Helations with colleagues
• Irading
• .ommunicating with the students
", <ase on the points you ha!e selecte, plan a short talk. 9ou shoul keep the %ollowing points
in "in.
Introduction :ou will need to a, introduce the general topic
", explain the structure of your talk Boverview,
.an you think of suita0le phrases for these stages)
Talk content 2or ease of reference, the points that you want to make should "e reduced
to key words only :ou should not read from your notes
Jisuals Use white"oard
.onclusion In order to make sure that your main points are clear, you might
summarise them at this stage and draw a general conclusion
c, 7nce you ha!e prepare your plan, use the strategies gi!en in this unit to present your talk
uring the a%ternoon session.
Head the article "elow and discuss the merit of the suggestions in your institutional and cultural context and
decide what kind of resources Btime, money etc, implementing any of these would re*uire
Communicating with Students
One of the most important tasks for a teacher is effective communication with students, namely
communication that is instructive, helpful, and timely. Much of this communication will take place in
class, but contacts and conversations outside of class, between class meetings, can be critical for
helping students engage with courses, and for helping teachers understand students’ problems,
concerns and interests.
Technology can help.
Office hours: This time offers you and your students a chance to communicate one-on-one outside
the formality of the classroom. Office hours can allow students to follow up on specific problems,
questions or interests, and can give teachers a chance to learn more about individual student
challenges and ideas. The internet offers you the option of adding virtual office hours, using various
types of communications software, to offer students an additional means of connecting outside the
classroom. sing email, instant messaging, or on-line !hat, you can communicate with students from
your office or home.
Advising" These same communication technologies can also be used to support purposeful
communication with individual students regarding such issues as progress in the course, questions
about curricular options, or personal academic problems that might otherwise require an
appointment time in your office or an after-class meeting.
Accommodating students with different communication needs"
#ome students have diagnosed disabilities that may make it difficult for them to get access to the
learning materials you provide in the classroom or on the internet. $or e%ample, visually impaired
students may need alternatives to graphs and images in order to understand concepts you present, or
they may require screen reader software to access web-based te%ts. #tudents with learning disabilities
may face challenges in processing the information presented on multimedia web sites. #ervices and
tools are available for helping teachers to use both technological and non-technological strategies to
accommodate these students’ needs and to plan for developing broadly accessible learning materials.
Making announcements" &s a teacher, you frequently need to communicate with your students
about administrative or e%tracurricular matters associated with your course. 'ou might need to alert
students to the availability of a particular resource, remind students of due dates, inform students of
changes in office hours, or encourage students to attend a campus event related to the course. 'ou
might need to inform them about changes in schedule, special assignments, or syllabus modifications.
Using tools like list servs, discussion forums, bulletin boards, and !hat rooms, teachers can quickly
get information to students. #ome of these tools also support real time conversation between students
and teacher or among students. These tools can be incorporated into web sites or used independently,
and are often components of course management systems like (lackboard.
students communicating with students…
'ou can also encourage and guide on-line class discussions and interactions using group
communication technologies. !areful planning is required to get students to actively and
meaningfully participate in on-line discussions. 'ou’ll need to attend to the dynamics of such group
conversations, but they can be a means of encouraging students to relate to each other as learning
resources and to actively engage with and apply course ideas and principles.
(E5; 1=E1.
%, I understand that presenting information re*uires planning, structuring and delivery
', I am clear a"out ver"al signposting and active and passive constructions
7, I am clear a"out which strategies to use for presenting information effectively
8, I understand how classroom interaction depends on effective communication "etween the
teacher and the students

:AS /?

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