You are on page 1of 2

1. Tiberius Gracchus and the Question of Land.

Primary sources:
Appian, Civil Wars 1.1-20
Plutarch, Life of Tiberius
Diodorus 34-35.5-7 & 24-27, 28a, 29
ILLRP 467-475 [Translated in Stockton, D.L., From the Gracchi to Sulla: sources for Roman History, 133-80
B.C. (1991)] 14 f 2/1

Agraria of 111, no.2 in Roman Statutes I (Crawford 1996), pp. 113-180. 14 b 27/18

Cicero de lege agraria II; ad Atticum 19.4.

Secondary Literature:
Badian, E (1962) From the Gracchi to Sulla Historia 11, 195-245 [A useful summary of the trends in
scholarship over the previous 20 years]

Politics:
*Badian, E (1972) Tiberius Gracchus and the Beginning of the Roman Revolution in Aufstieg und
Niedergang der Rmischen Welt i.1, 668-731.
Briscoe, J (1974), Supporter and Opponents of Tiberius Gracchus JRS 64, 125-35.
Brunt, P.A. (1971), Italian Manpower 225 B.C. A.D. 14, 15-25.
Lintott, A (1992) Tiberius Gracchus, CAH IX
2
pp. 62-76.
*Millar, F., 1986, Politics, persuasion, and the people before the Social War (150-90 BC), JRS, 76, 1-11.
Rich, J.W. (1983) The supposed Roman Manpower Shortage of the Later Second Century B.C. Historia
32, 287-331.
Richardson, J.S. (1980) The Ownership of Roman Land: Tiberius Gracchus and the Italians JRS 70, 1-11.
Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68, 1-32 (on Tiberius
Gracchus)
Schochat, Y. (1980) Recruitment and the Program of Tiberius Gracchus pp. 45-98.
*Stockton, D.L. (1979) The Gracchi, 6-69, 206-216.
Taylor, L.R. (1962) Forerunners of the Gracchi JRS 52, 19-27.

On Agrarian issues:
de Light, L (2006) The Economy: Agrarian Change during the Second Century, in A Companion to the
Roman Republic, edd. Rosenstein & Morstein-Marx, 590-605
Linott, A (1992) Judicial Reform and Land Reform in the Roman Republic: A New Edition, with Translation and
Commentary, of the Laws from Ubrino, pp.3-9, 34-58.
Crawford, M (1996) Roman Statutes vol.I, pp. 113-180 (pp.113-140 Latin text; pp. 141-152 translation; 153-
80, commentary).

On the Urban Plebs:
Yavetz, Z. (1958) Living conditions of the plebs Latomus 500ff
Scobie, A. (1986) Slums, sanitation and morality Klio 68, 399-443.
Brunt P. The Roman Mob in M.I. Finley (ed) Studies in Ancient Society no. 4.
Millar, Fergus, (1998) The crowd in Rome in the late republic. 14 q 17/7
Boren (1969) The Urban Side of the Gracchan Economic Crisis in Seager (ed.) The Crisis of the Roman
Republic.

Themes and Issues:
Take into consideration the growing need to administer an empire, strain on manpower for the army, the
role of the plebs...
What did Roman/Italian relationships look like in this period?
How did foreign developments, such as the bequeath of Attalus, affect Roman politics?
Is it right to lump all agrarian legislation together?
Why were the issues not resolved by the time of Cicero?
Why was Tiberius killed?

Try to reach a plausible balance of significance among all the contributing factors.

Question: What conditions led to the Gracchan agrarian legislation and ensuing
turmoil?