SCHEME OF STUDIES M.Sc.

ZOOLOGY 2 YEARS PROGRAM CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY FACULTY OF LIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR

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DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR OBJECTIVES: Teaching, Research, Consultancy and Community Service MISSION: The Department of Zoology is committed to the production of well-rounded international standard graduates of, M. Sc., M. Phil and Ph. D level in areas of Zoology including Entomology, Parasitology, Fisheries, Microbiology and Biotechnology maintaining high level of integrity and responsibility at individual and departmental level; and conducting quality research, and producing well trained teachers and to participate in community development projects. VISION: To act as a leader of excellence and performance in its objectives in the country GOAL: To study, know, love and to serve the entire creation of the Creator Program Objectives: 1. To provide graduates who are familiar with basic and an advance level of Zoology and its various disciplines, which are exploited, in many fields of life 2. To provide theoretical and practical knowledge of various zoological aspects, their knowledge, which are required for professional activities in the field. 3. The graduates who are able to manipulate and utilize their training correctly and grasp a realistic approach to the conservation of animals as well as their habitats. 4. To prepare graduates with the skills and knowledge of all aspects of life. 5. To produce graduates with the skills to critically analyze samples of environmental and biological importance. 6. The graduate should be able to use the skills of analytical biological information in selecting and executing the appropriate biological analysis techniques in various fields of zoology.

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Program Outcomes: After completion of M. S. One year program, the graduate will 1. Have an overall knowledge of Zoology and its various disciplines. 2. Have sufficient idea for those biological methods, which are vital both in other courses as well as in any employment undertaking in the science. 3. Be able to use data interpretation in every aspect of future study of life science. 4. Have sufficient knowledge of the techniques studied, which are applicable in biological sciences. 5. Have necessary knowledge with all stages in the entire framework of environmental investigation and monitoring. 6. Be able to use the skills of biological instrumentations and laboratory techniques in the biological science. Section Mission: To promote the mission of the department and the promotion of various disciplines of Zoology in all of its aspects; like teaching, research and the organization of symposia/workshop on topics of interest to Zoologist/ Biologists; the development of activities which will promote the growth of Zoology; and the establishment of means for increasing the processional status and contacts between Zoologists. Section Vision: Their scientific thinking, skills, innovation and problem solving should recognize our graduate. Zoology old name with modern usage Zoology continues to be one of the most important scientific fields in the modern era. However, while there is a fundamental core to biological science, the rapid advances being made in many specific areas have led to a wide variety of different specialisations that can be studied in their own right. In the Department, we teach a broad range of biological science courses. Accordingly, we have designed this degree programme to be as flexible as possible, giving you the opportunity to explore main-interest subjects and allowing you to develop new interests and, if you wish, specialisations as you progress through the degree. At the end of two and half years, graduates have received a sound biological training, completed at least one major research project, and possibly developed a firm career direction as a result of specialised studies. For example, specialising in Parasitology will provide unrivalled training in both temperate and tropical diseases, enabling graduates to follow a career at home or overseas. Studying Ecology will interest those who wish to understand biodiversity and how organisms interact with each other and the environment. A wide range of courses from behavioural ecology to environmental impact assessment provides an excellent basis for a career in conservation or environmental management. Fisheries are another major strength. Students who wish to keep all options open and study a broad spectrum of subjects take the wider area of Biology itself. The breadth of courses available, coupled with a final year research project, ensures that you will be able to apply for a wide range of career openings with confidence. 3

Careers Microbiologists, Parasitologist, Entomologist and biotechnologists obtain employment in a variety of scientific, medical and veterinary laboratories and in the food, brewing, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. We expect that our graduates will play leading roles in the further development of biotechnology industries, which have enormous scope for the production of food, fuel, chemicals, health care products and diagnostic aids, and for recycling waste in a useful form. Successful graduation with a degree in Modern Zoology will open doors to a wide range of careers, for example: (i) pure and applied research in universities, government departments or industry, (ii) biomedically-oriented careers in Parasitology and molecular pharmacology, (iii) conservation and environmentally-related opportunities in pollution control and agriculture, (iv) postgraduate nursing, (v) education, including teaching at all levels and the development of materials in education, or (vi) scientific journalism, reporting and programme making within today's extensive media. Some students use their degrees as a basic training in scientific thought and method, and later enter careers not directly related to their field of study, such as accountancy, computing, personnel management, local government, business management, the forces, secretarial or library work.

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M.Sc (ZOOLOGY) 2 YEARS PROGRAMME CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM NEW SYLLABUS / SCHEME FOR M.Sc. PART I AND PART 2 (March, 2006) M.Sc . Part 1 (550) Paper 1 (Zool. 401/402/403) Paper II (Zool. 405/406). Paper III (Zool. 407/408). Paper IV (Zool. 409/410). Paper V (Zool. 411/412). M.Sc. Part 2 (650) Paper VI (Zool. 501/502). Biochemistry & Physiology (75+25+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25+25) Environmental Biology & Economic Zoology, Zoogeography and Wild life OF Pakistan Palaeontology & Evolution Genetics & Biostatistics Taxonomy & Animal Behavior Cell Biology & Developmental Biology (75+25) (75) (75+25+25) (75+50) (75+25+25)

Paper VII (Zool.503-E) Entomology-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-E) Entomology-B Or Paper VII (Zool.503-P) Parasitology-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-P) Parasitology-B Or Paper VII (Zool.503-F). Fisheries-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-F). Fisheries-B Paper IX (Zool. 506/507). Medical Microbiology and Biotechnology

Thesis 200 Or * IN LIEU OF THESIS A STUDENT CAN OPT ANY ONE OF THE SPECIAL PAPER WHICH INCLUDE PAPER I & II OF ENTOMOLOGY/ FISHERIES/ PARASITOLOGY Special Paper Paper VII (Zool.503-E) Entomology-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-E) Entomology-B Or Paper VII (Zool.503-P) Parasitology-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-P) Parasitology-B Or Paper VII (Zool.503-F). Fisheries-A Paper VIII (Zool.504-F). Fisheries-B (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) (75+25) 5

COURSE CONTENTS FOR M.Sc. (Part 1)

Paper 1 (Zool. 401/402/403) ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY, ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY, ZOOGEOGRAPHY AND WILD LIFE OF PAKISTAN Part I: (Zool-401) Environmental Biology Aims, Objectives and Outcomes: The aim of this course is to make the students aware that all the living organisms including human beings are part of the environment, which consists of biotic and abiotic factors. The abiotic factors consist of all the physical factors while biotic factors include all the living things. However with the increase in population densities increase in productivity is also needed. High technology measures used for this purpose have caused various problems like pollution. Theory The scope of Ecology. Concept of the Ecosystem. Energy in ecological systems. Biogeochemical cycles, Limiting factors and physical environment. Population dynamics. Populations and communities. The systems approach and mathematical models in Ecology. Environmental Pollution: Air Pollution sources: Origin, dispersion and impact on human, crops and forests eg. Carbon monoxide & CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons); Noise pollution; Water pollution, Composition and properties of water pollutants, Domestic and industrial effluents, Heavy metals and their impact on aquatic life, Water purification in nature, Waste water treatment.Land Pollution; Pesticides (pollutants made to kill); Radioactive pollution, Radioactivity leakage from nuclear reactor. Conservation of natural resources in general. Mineral resources. Agriculture, Forestry, Wildlife management. Range management and use. Contemporary environmental themes: (ozone depletion, acid rain, green house effect and global warming, desertification, deforestation, exotic and invasive species Books Recommended (latest editions): 1. Odum, E. P., (latest edition) Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B.Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 2. Nobel, B. G., (1981) Environmental Science. Prentice Hall inc. 3. Smith, R.L., (1996) Ecology and Field Biology Harper and Raw Publisher, NW Evanston, London. 3. Robert, T. J., (1991) The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 1. Oxford. 4. Robert, T. J., (1992) The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. 2. Oxford. 5. Robert, T. J., (1972) The Mammals of Pakistan, Ernest Benon LTD, London. 6. Chapman and Reiss, 1997. Ecology. Cambridge University Press. 7. Molles Ecology: Concepts and applications .(1999). WCB/McGraw Hill, New York 8. McKinney, M.L.Environmental Science: System and Solution (1999). Jones & Bartlett Publication, Boston 9. Lloyd, R.Pollution and Freshwater (1992). Fishing News Books 10.Odum, E.P. Ecology: A Bridge between science & society. (1996).W.B.Saunders Co. Philadelphia. Practical : Environmental Biology marks 25 6

Study and demonstration of instruments (Altimeter, Hygrometer, Soil Thermometer, Psychometer (Max./ Minim., Dry/ Wet), Rain gauge, Atmometer etc). Study of fresh water ecosystem, Animal adaptation. Distribution of animals. Pattern of distribution, estimation of densities of different population of animals. To measure the rate of development of organism at different humidity and temperature. Field study of different organisms.

Part II: (Zool-402) Economic Zoology Aims, Objectives And Outcomes: The aim of this course is to transfer knowledge about the economic importance of animals, their various diseases, commercial value and their by products. This course provides the practical and market oriented view of the zoology. Theory: Diseases of animal origin. Shell fishery. Animal product and by products. Apiculture. Sericulture. Lac culture. Aquaculture. Game animal and animal resources of Pakistan. Book Recommended: Theobald F.V. (1999). Economic Zoology. Printwell Publishers, Jaipur, India Part III : (Zool-403) ZOOGEOGRAPHY & WILD LIFE OF PAKISTAN Aims Objectives and outcomes: This course provides information on the distribution of animals and their associations in the past; thus, to rationalize their relationship in the present time. ZOOGEOGRAPHY Branches of Zoogeography (Descriptive, chorology, Faunistics, systematic, biocoenotic, causal, ecological, historical, experimental and applied zoogeography). Animal distribution (Cosmopolitan distribution, discontinuous distribution, isolation distribution, bipolar distribution and endemic distribution) Barriers and dispersal (Barriers and means of dispersal in marine, fresh water and terrestrical environments). Zoogeographical regions (division, geographic ranges, physical features, climates, faunas and affinities of Holarctic (Palaearctic and Nearctic regions), Oriental, Ethiopian, Australian, and Newtropical Regions.) Insular fauna [Continental islands (British Isles, Borneo, Java, Japan, Formosa and Philippines, and Sri Lanka islands)] [Oceanic Islands, (Azores, Bermuda, Galapagos, St. Helena and Karakatau Islands) Ancient Islands (New Zealand and Madagascar Islands)] Palaeogeography (Theories of permanence of continents, Land bridges, Continental drift and Plate tectonics. Note: The teacher is suggested to provide blank maps of Pakistan in the theory class to the students to indicate the distribution of the animals. Similar blanks maps should be attached with the question paper, if distribution of animals is asked from the student in the theory paper. Books recommended 1. Jafri, Land Zoogeography of World, 1977. 7

2. Ali, S.S. (1999). Zoogeography, Palaeontology and Wild life management. Naseem book Hyderabad.

depot.

3. DeBeaufort, L.F. (1975). Zoogeography of the Land and Inland Water. Sidgwick and Jackson , London. 4. Darlington, P.J. (1981). Zoogeography. The Geographical Distribution of Animal. John Wiley N.Y. 5. Lillies, (1974). Introduction to Zoogeography London. 6. Muller, P.(1974). Aspects of Zoogeography. W.Junk Publication. Hague. 7. Parker, Hesse,Allee and Schmidt, (1993). Ecological Animal Geography. John Wiley N.Y. 8. Quadry, A. ( 1997). Pakistan ka Haivani jughrafia (In Urdu) Central Urdu Board Lahore. WILDLIFE OF PAKISTAN Aims, Objectives and Outcomes: This course will provide in depth knowledge of biodiversity of world as well as various animals found in Pakistan and NWFP. The students would be enable to understand the animal fauna of Pakistan as well as NWFP, along with the conservation and importance of animals. Theory: Wildlife of Pakistan, identification, distribution, status, conservation and management (population estimate technology) of fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals of major importance in Pakistan. Philosophy and significance of wildlife conservation. Biodiversity and sustainability of wildlife. Wildlife rules and regulations in Pakistan. National and International agencies involved in conservation and management of wildlife. Sanctuaries, Game Reserves and National Parks in Pakistan. Ramsar convention, wetlands, endangered species of Pakistan. Books Recommended (Latest Edition) 1. Bailey, J.A., 1986. Principles of Wildlife Management, John Wiley. 2. Ali S. & Ripley S.D., 1973. A Handbook of Birds of India & Pakistan, Oxford University Press, London. 3. Roberts, T. J., 1998. The Birds of Pakistan, Vol. II. Oxford. 4. Roberts, T. J., 1992. The Birds of Pakistan, (Vol. II), Oxford. 5. Roberts, T.J., 1977. Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benon Ltd, London, 6. Robinson, W.L. and Bolen, E.G., 1984. Wildlife Ecology and Management. McMillan, Cambridge. 7. Magon, C.F. 1988. Biology of freshwater pollution. Longman and Scientific Publication. Boyd, C.E. 1981. Water quality in warm water fish ponds. Craft Master Printers Incorporation, Alabama.

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Paper II (Zool. 404/405). PALAEONTOLOGY & EVOLUTION Part I. (Zool-405) Paleontology Aims Objectives and outcomes: The course impart knowledge and concepts of evolution is mainly based on the past fossil records. The fossil records also provide the information regarding the distribution of animals in the past eras. Theory: Significance of fossils. Rock, types of rocks (lgneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks) Fossil, types and uses of fossils. (Nature of fossils). Processes of fossilization. Geological time scale. Pre-cambrian life. Postcambrian life (Palaeozoic life, Mesozoic life, Cenozoic life). A brief history of the Siwaliks. Geochronometry (Uranium/Lead dating, radiocarbaon dating, Fission track dating and palaeomagnetism) Evolutionary histories of camels, horse, elephants and man. Books Recommended: 1. Ali, S.S. (1999). Zoogeography, Palaeontology and Wild life management. Naseem book depot. Hyderabad. 2. Brouwer, A. (1967). General Palaeontology. Oliver and Boyd, London. 3. Colbert, E.H., (1961).Evolution of Vertebrate. John Wiley.N.Y. 4. Dunbar, C.O. (1943). Historical Geology. John Wiley.N.Y. 5. Moody, P. A. (1970) Introduction to Evolution. Harper and Row Publishers, New York, Evanston and London. 6. Romer, A. S. (1958). Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd Ed.. Chicago Press, Chicago and London 7. Singh H. (1990) An introduction to Paleontology. Anmol Publication New Delhi. 8. Shrock, R. A. and Twenhoefel. W.W. (1953). Principles of Invertebrates Paleontology . McGrawHill 9. Book Company,London, New York and Toronto. 10.Stanley, S.M. (1999). Earth system history. W.H. Freeman and Co. Part II: (Zool-406) Evolution Aim, Objectives and Outcomes: The course is designed to provide in depth knowledge of origin of life, and about forces responsible for evolutionary changes with the passage of time and development of modern day animals and life. Theory: History of Evolution. The nature and origin to life. Evidences of evolution. Theories to explain the diversity of life - Lamarckism, Darwinism and Special Creation. The present status of these theories, Modern synthetic theory. Factors initiating elementary evolutionary changes (micro-evolution) by changing gene frequencies, mutation pressure, selection pressure, immigration and crossbreeding, genetic drift. Role of isolation in evolution. Factors of large evolutionary changes (macro-evolution) - allometry, orthogenesis, adaptive radiation. Modern concept of Natural Selection: Levels of selection, selection patterns, laboratory and field example regarding action of Natural Selection. Action of Natural Selection leading to convergence, 9

radiation, regression and extinction, Batesian mimicry, Mullerian mimicry. Sexual selection: Darwin’s concept, Fisher’s view, Zahavi’s handicap theory. Trend and rates in evolution. Books Recommended: 1. Ridley, M., 1993. Evolution. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 2. Dobzhansky, T., Ayala, F.J., Stebbins, G.L. and Valentine, J.W., 1973. Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Company. 3. Dobzhansky, T., 1970. Genetics of the Evolutionary Process, Columbia University Press, New York. 4. Sheppard, P.M., 1958. Natural Selection and Heredity, Hutchison University Library, London. 5. Dobzhansky, T. Genetics and the Origin of Species, Columbia University Press, New York. 6. Mayr, E. Populations, Species and Evolution, Harvard University Press. 7. Moody, P.A., 1989. Introduction to Evolution, Harper and Row Publishers, New York. 8. Cain, A.J. 1963. Animal Species and their Evolution, Hutchinson's University Library, London. 9. Westoll, T.S. The Evolution of Living Things. 10. Ross, H.H. Understanding Evolution. 11. Simpson, G.G., 1961. Meaning of Evolution, Yale University Press. Paper III (Zool.407/ 408). GENETICS and BIOSTATISICS

Part I. (Zool-407) GENETICS Aims, Objectives and Outcomes: The continuity of the life from one generation to other generation is based on the mechanisms involving nucleus, chromosomes and genes etc. The process of continuity not only transfers the traits of the parents but also imparts variations that render the generations sustainable in changing environment. These concepts will be imparted to the students in this course. Theory: Cellular division and chromosomes. Critical review of Mendellian principles (segregation and Lethality; independent assortment). Gene interaction and modification of Mendelian ratios. Multiple alleles and blood group systems. Sex determination and Sex – linked inheritance. Maternal effects and Cytoplasmic heredity. Chromosomal aberrations (variation in number and changes in chromosome’s structure). Linkage and Recombination, Gene mapping in Diploid, Gene concept and structure. Genetic code. Gene mutation and mutagens. Gene expression and regulation of gene expression, Common genetic disorders (diseases) in humans. Population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law (gene frequencies, changes in gene frequencies and equilibrium). Inbreeding and Heterosis. Books Recommended: 1. Strickberger, M.W. (1998). Genetics: an introduction. Macmillan publications Ltd., New York. 10

2. Gardener, E. J. (1972) Principles of Genetics. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 3. Sinnot, E. W., Dunn, L. C. & Dobzhansky, T. Principles of Genetics. International Student Edition. McGraw-Hill. Tokyo. 4. Burns, G.E. (1983) The Science of Genetics: An introduction to Heredity. 5th edition. Macmillan. New York. 5. Nicholl, D. S. T. (1994), An introduction to genetic engineering. Cambridge University Press, UK. 6. Brown T.A. (1989). Gene Cloning: an introduction. Van-Nostrand Reinhold International, UK Practical: Genetics 25 marks

Experiments based on Mendelian Principles, and demonstration of an application of the laws. Solving important representative numerical problems given as exercises in text book. Testing of blood groups. Maintenance of Drosophila and mosquito cultures in the laboratory. Dissection and study of salivary gland chromosomes from larvae of Drosophila, Chironomid or mosquitoes. Study of Mitosis and Meiosis in Tradescantia Pollen Cells. DNA extraction techniques. Human Genome Maps, Single Gene traits in human. Pedigree analysis for monogenic traits. Part II (Zool-408) BIOSTATISTICS Aims, Objectives and Outcomes: To understand the data, its analysis and impact and application in biological fields, and future assumptions. Theory: Basic concepts, Introduction and brief history of statistics, uses and misuses of statistics, development of Biostatistics. Probability rules and distributions: addition rules, multiplication rules and basic probability sampling. Presentation of data: the arithmetic mean, other means, the median, and the mode. Computations using ungrouped and grouped data. Measure of dispersion: Range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation. Sample statistics and parameters. Discrete probability distribution, binomial distribution, Poisson distribution. Continuous probability distribution: The normal distribution. Hypothesis testing. Interval estimation of the mean (confidence intervals). The student’s t distribution, Chi-square distribution. F distribution (analysis of variance), Simple regression and Correlation analyses. Practical: 1. Applications and verifications of various statistical Hypothesis and Laws. 2. Probability. 3. Sampling methods and their evaluations. Books Recommended: 1. Chao, L. L. (1974) Statistics: Methods and Analysis. 2nd ed. McGraw –Hill. N. York. (Reproduced by National Book Foundation). 2. Sokal, R. R. & Rohlf, F.J. (1987) Introduction to Biostatistics. 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman, N. York. 3. Walpole, R. E. (1982) Introduction to Statistics. 3rd ed. Macmillan, London. (International edition). 4. Bailey, N. T. J. (1981) Statistical Methods in Biology. English University Press Ltd., London. 5. Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1989) Statistical Methods. 8th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. 11

6. Sanders, D. H. (1990) Statistics -- A Fresh approach. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 7. Steel, R. G. and Torrie, J. H. (1980) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill (International edition), Auckland, Singapore, London. Paper IV (Zool. 409/ 410). Taxonomy and Animal Behaviour (75+50)

Aims, Objectives and outcomes: The students will be taught basic rules and regulations about the identification and naming of organisms. Part I: (Zool-409) Taxonomy (Systematic Zoology) Contribution of systematics to Biology: History of Taxonomy (Downward classification, upward classification, impact of the origin of species, population systematics, current trends); Microtaxonomy, phenon, Taxon; Taxonomic categories: specific category, infraspecific category, higher categories; species concepts (Typological concept; nominalistic concept, Biological concept, evolutionary concept), species mate recognition concept; non-dimensional species concept; Multidimenstional species concept; Cohesion species concept; Difficulties in the application of biological species concepts; polytypic species, subspecies, superspecies, sibling species; study of major type of variation within a single population. Macrotaxonomy; different kinds of taxonomic characters; Taxonomic collection and identification; definitions of Synonym, Homonym, Keys; Evolution of the theory of Nomenclature; interpretation and application of the code (stability, priority, first revisor principle) range of authority of code; concept of availability, type method formation of specific names. Books Recommended: 1. Mayer, E. (1963) Principles of Systematic Zoology Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company Inc London. 2. Mayer, E. and Ashlock, P. D. (1991) Principles of Systematic Zoology Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company 3. Ross, H.H. (1974) Biological Systematic. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. London. 4. Simpson, G.G. (1990) Principle of Animal Taxonomy. Columbia University Press New York

Practical Taxonomy:

50 marks

General survey of major groups (invertebrates and vertebrates) from Museum specimens. Collection & identification of invertebrates / vertebrates up to family level. Preparation and study of skeleton of Vertebrates (e.g. Fish, Birds, Mammals). Techniques in taxidermy, Preparation of keys for the identification of specimens. Part-II: (Zool-410) Animal Behavior

Aims, Objectives and Outcomes: To understand animal and human behavior and its responses to various environmental, chemical, sexual and social stimuli. Theory: 12

Introduction to ethology, Perception. Taxes. Reflexes. Integration and storage of information, Learning and its classification- Habituation, Conditioned or reflex learning, instrumental learning, latent learning, Insight learning, Imprinting. Instincts according to ethnologists, psychologists and physiologists. Instinctive behabiour in three spined male fish. Sexual behaviour, action of pituitary and reproductive hormones on sexual iologychemical signals. Evolution of behaviour. Social behaviour. Books Recommended: 1. Manning W. G. (1998) An introduction to Animal behaviour. The English Language Book Society and 2. Edward Arnold Ltd. 3. Ridley, M. (1986) Animal Behaviour. Black well Scientific Publications, London Paper V (Zool. 411/ 412). Cell Biology & Developmental Biology (75+25+25) Part I: (Zool-411) Cell Biology Aims & Objectives and Outcomes: Objectives of the course are to impart knowledge about the animal cell and its complex organization of architecture and the unified role it plays for the ultimate sustainability of the organisms. The various ultra-structural, molecular and functional aspects of the cells will be communicated in this course. Theory: Ultra structure of the cell. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells. Detailed study of the cell including structures, functions and chemical composition of cell organelles: - Plasma membrane, Exchange of materials across plasma membrane, Intercellular Junctions, Cytoskeleton, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex. Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Mesosomes, Ribosome and Mitochondria. Energy cycle, cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, Nuclear membrane and chromosomes, cell division. DNA- Structure and replication. Protein synthesis.

Books Recommended: 1. De Robertis, E.D.P. and De Robertis, Jr. E.M.F. (1995) Cell and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, Lea and Febiger. 2. DeRobertis, Nowinski & Saez. (1970) Cell Biology, 5th Ed.W.B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, London 3. Avers , Cell Biology (1976), D Von Nostrand Co. 4. Karp, G. (1984), Cell Biology. Mc Graw Hill Book Company New York. Practical: Cell Biology 25 marks

Study of structure of Cells. Study of Protozoa from live materials and prepared slides. 13

Simple staining for whole mounts. Histological study – fixation, dehydration, staining of tissues after microtomy and preparation of permanent slides, study of histological slides. Techniques for the demonstration of Blood cells. Study of mitosis and meiosis Part II: (Zool-412) Developmental Biology (Dr.Shah)

Aims, Objectives and outcomes: The course will provide detailed knowledge about the principal features of development, cellular basis of morphogenesis, mechanisms of cellular differentiation and concepts of induction in development. It will provide understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis, factors controlling growth and organogenesis. The concept related to the theory in Developmental Biology will be practically demonstrated in this course. In the continuity of the animals during reproduction following the union of the traits from the parents in their gametes, the zygote proceeds through enormous phenomena of development up to their emergence resembling to the parents. The concepts of all these developmental mechanisms will be communicated to the students in this course. Theory: Historical review of embryology. Uses of modern molecular techniques in developmental biology. Origin of germ cells (gametogenesis). Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis, Structure and organization of male and female gametes. Fertilization: Chemistry of fertilization, Molecular biology of fertilization, surface changes in the egg and sperm surface, In vitro Fertilization (test tube technology). Mono- & Di-zygotic Twinning , Parthenogenesis, Uses of Transgenic animals in Developmental biology, Cleavage, Blastulation, Fate maps and their preparation, Morphogenetic movements and Gastrulation in Amphioxus, mammals, chick and frog. Stem cells technology and its uses in developmental biology: with special reference to the uses of totipotent, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic adaptations (fetal extra-embryonic membranes) and Placentation, Umbilical cord, Parturition (birth) and its stages. Regeneration and regenerative powers of vertebrates. Aging Books Recommended: 1. Balinskey, B.I. (1984). An introduction to Embryology 6th Ed. Saunders College Publishing Co., New York. 2. Patten, B.N. (2004). Foundation of Embryology. McGraw Hill Books Company, Inc, New York, London. 3. Rao, K.V. (2003). Developmental biology: A modern synthesis. Oxford is publishing Co. Ltd., Delhi. 4. Oppenheiner, S.B & Lefevre, G. (1984). Introduction to Embryonic Development.. Allen and Bacon Publishers, New York. 5. Saddler, T. W. (1995). Langmans Medical embryology. Library of congress Cataloguing-inPublication Data. Williams & Wilkins Publishers, USA. 6. Carlson, B.M. (2001). Patten’s Foundations of Embryology (6th Edition). McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, London, Tokyo, Sydney. Latest Publications 1. Cell signaling in ovarian follicle: intra-follicular survival of ova. Johnson. (2003). Animal reproduction science. 78:185-201 2. Morphological Changes in mouse egg at fertilization. Grey et al. (2004). Current 14

biology.14: 397-405 3. Transgenic animals in Developmental biology: Outlook for the future. Wheelers et al. (2003). Animal reproduction science. 79: 265-279 4. Mono- & Di-zygotic Twinning. Hall. (2003). The Lancet. 362(1). 735-43 5. Reproductive biotechnology & Aging. Seidel Jr. (2000). Theriogeneiology.53: 187-194 6. Yashimora (2004). Oogenesis in Hen. Anim.Scie.J. 75:183-193 7. Embryonic stem cells in cell therapy. Garcia et al. (2005). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 57:1935– 1943 8. Embryonic stem cells: Understanding their history, cell biology and signalling. Frieal et al. (2005). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 57:1894– 1903 9. Stem cells. Vats et al. (2005). The lancet.366:2-11 Practical : Developmental Biology 25 marks

Study of model eggs of different invertebrates and vertebrates. Dactylography, and its uses in embryology. Isolation, identification and culture of various developmental stages of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human/ Neoascaris vituolarum eggs from cattle dung (kept for 3 weeks at 240C in desiccator) by using Telman’s centrifugation technique. Study of prepared slides for the development of Amphioxus, mammals, frog and chick. Semen analysis by using improved Neubar Hemocytmeter, Use of dactylography in developmental biology, Peripheral blood smear (abnormal erythrocyte morphology eg., target cells, microcyte, macrocytes, slit cell, acanthocytes & tear drop cells as screening procedure for thalassaemia diagnosis. English COURSE CONTENTS FOR M.Sc. PART 2

Paper VI (Zool. 501/502). PHYSIOLOGY and BIOCHEMISTRY (75+25+25) Part-1. (Zool-501) PHYSIOLOGY Aims & Objectives and Outcomes: The basic functional expression in animals is the membrane irritability understood in the form of nerve impulse. This course particularly imparts the concepts and mechanisms of integration in the different functional systems of the animals. These mainly constitute the mechanisms of nervous system and the hormonal system for the coordination. The motility and locomotion also contributes in the integration of the animal to its environment, therefore, also included in this section. Theory: Nutrition: Modes of nutrition, food substances, vitamins, feeding and digestion, collection of food, filter feeding, selective feeding, mechanical digestions movement, chemical digestions, extra cellular digestion, enzymes, absorptive phagocytosis, assimilation of food stuffs. Excretion: Nature and sources of substances excreted, excretory organs –cell membrane, contractile vacuoles, storage cell, excretory tubules-nephridia, malphighian tubules, nephrones, urine composition, nitrogen balance, physiology of excretion-nephron function, ionic and osmotic balance. Respiration: Type of respiration: 15

Integumentary respiration, branchial respiration-external gills and internal gills, from aquatic to aerial breathing lungs, air sacs, tracheal air tubes. Mechanisms of respiration: transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Internal fluid environment and its circulation: Vascular fluids: Open vascular system and closed vascular system, tissue fluids, lymph, blood and hemolymph, respiratory pigments, blood compositions, phagocytic cells, lymphogenous organs, nephrophagocytosis, reticulo-endothelial system, plasma proteins, RBCs & WBCs, platelets, coagulation of blood in invertebrates and vertebrates, clothing diseases. Temperature: Regulation of body temperature, heat production, heat loss, role of respiration in temperature regulation, poikilothermy and homeothermy. Nervous system: Components and brief comparative account of nervous system, structure and types of neuron nerve impulse, synapse and neurotransmitter Receptors: Sensory receptors, reflex arc and reflex action, specialized receptors, chemoreception, smell and taste, mechano-reception pressure receptors, communication based on mechano receptors, echoorientation auditory receptors, hearing apparatus and phenoreception, photoreception, photoreceptors in invertebrates and vertebrates, specialized visual function, vertebrate retina and arthropod ratina, phototopic and scotopic eyes, chemistry of vision, color vision. Muscles and muscles contraction: Introduction to muscles, principals’ types, structure of skeletal muscles, mechanism of muscle contraction and relaxation. Harmones: Harmones of different endocrine glands, their biological actions, hormonal interrelationship and their role in physiological homeostasis. Reproduction: Reproductive cycles, parturition and lactation. Books Recommended: Hoar, W. S. General and comparative physiology. Prentice Hall Inc/New 2nd Ed. Guyton, A. C. Text Book of Medical Physiology.W. B. Sunder Company Professor, C. l. and Brown, F. A. Comparative Animal Physiology W. B. Sunders Company Schmidt-nielsen,k Animal physiology :Adaptaion & environment. Cambridge university press, Newyork U.S.A Verma,P.S ;Tyagi,B and Agrawal,V.k{1995}. Animal physiology S.chand and company New Dehli

Physiology Practical:

25 marks

Blood: Determination of blood groups, Rh factor and hemoglobin percentage, preparation of serum, blood smears and their staining; Determination of coagulation and bleeding time. Measurement of blood pressure by using sphygmomanometer. Urine: - Complete analysis of normal and subnormal constituents of urine. Part-II. (Zool-502) BIOCHEMISTRY Aims Objectives and outcomes: The course will provide indepth knowledge about the polymerized organic compounds of life. The dynamism of the life proceeds with inter-conversion of the chemicals from feeding to the 16

liberation of energy for work. It will deal with the inter-conversion is performed by various tools called as enzymes. Thus, in this course the concepts of the chemical basis of life and all the mechanisms involved in harvesting of energy for growth, duplication etc., are given. BIOCHEMISTRY: Basic Physico-Chemical aspects. General introduction to the Chemistry including structure, classification, properties and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic acids, Vitamins, and Enzymes. General metabolism of carbohydrates (Glycolysis, Crab cycle), Lipids (Oxidation path) and Protein (urea cycle and biochemical reactions of amino acids). Energy metabolism and energy utilization. Books Recommended: Ahmad, M. Essential of Medical biochemistry. (1999) Vol. 1 and Vol. 11.National book foundation Pakistan Alexander, R. R. and Griffiths, J. M., (1992) Basic Biochemical Methods, John Wiley & Sons. Champe, P. C. and Harvey, R. A. (1994) Biochemistry J. B. Lippincott Company Marray, R. K., Granner, D. K., Mayes, P. A. and Rodwell, V. W. (1996) Harper’s Biochemistry 24th edition. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. Stryer. L., (1995) Biochemistry, W. H. Freeman & Co., New York. Voet, D. and Voet, J. G. (1995) Biochemistry (2nd edition) John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York. Wilson, K., and Goulding, K. H., (1987) A Biochemical guide to Principles and Techniques of Practical of Biochemistry. Edward and Arnold. Zubay, G. L., (1994) Biochemistrry. McMillan Publishing Co. Practical Biochemistry: 25 marks

Preparation of different types of solutions, pH, buffer systems, diffusion and active transport; Chromatography. Properties and qualitative determination of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Enzyme activity in various tissues, protein digestion in the presence of enzyme pepsin. Paper VII (Zool.503-E) Entomology (Special paper A) OPTIONAL DICIPLINE ENTOMOLOGY (75+25) Aims Objectives and outcomes: This course will contribute in the understanding towards the role of insects in the transmission of different pathogens to man, agriculture and livestock. The course further enhances the knowledge of their identification, breeding biology and control measures. Theory Part I: Morphology and Physiology: An introduction of Entomology with a brief description of different classes of Arthropods. Complete morphology of an insect. Anatomy and Physiology of various systems with special reference to digestive, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, excretory and reproductive system. Development and metamorphosis. Hibernation and diapause. 17

Part II: Insect Taxonomy and Ecology Classification of insects up to orders. Insect ecology with special reference to factors effecting the population, population estimations. Insect societies. Books Recommended: Imms, A.D. (1957) A General Textbook of Entomology. 9th ed. Revised by O. W. Richards and R. G. Davies, (1957) Reprinted with minor corrections, 1960. Methuen & Co. London. 886 pp. Richards, O. W. and Davies, R. G. (1977) Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology. Vol. 1. 10th ed. Chapman & Hall. Reprinted in India in 1993. 418 pp. Borror, D. J. & Delong, D. M. (1971) An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 2nd ed. Hold, Rinehart and Winston, N. York. 812 pp. Ross, H. H. (1965) A textbook of Entomology. John Wiley and sons, New York. Snodgrass, R. E. (1935) Principles of Insect Morphology. Mc Graw Hill New York. Wigglesworth, V. B. (1972) The Principles of Insect Physiology. 7th ed. (Low-priced). English Language Book Society and Chapman & Hall, London. Reprinted 1979. Patton, R. L. (1963) Introduction to Insect Physiology. Saunders, London. Practical 25 marks

Part I: Morphology and Physiology Dissection of insects cockroach, grasshopper, red cotton bug, butterfly, honey bee, yellow wasp, house fly and mosquito, to expose their internal anatomy. Preparation of mouth parts, antennae, wings, legs and genitalia of different insects. To study the whole mounts of Collembola, silverfish, thrips, aphids, lice and fleas. Part II: Insect Taxonomy and Ecology Preparation of killing bottles, preservation, pinning and setting of insects. Study of metamorphosis and different types of insects’ larvae and pupae. Life history of an insect. Classification and identification of insects. Paper VIII (Zool. 504-E) Entomology (Special paper B) Marks:(75+25)

Theory: Part I: Principles of apiculture, sericulture and lac culture. Study and identification of pests of agriculture, stored grain and house holds. General characteristics, life cycles and habits of insects of medical and veterinary importance. Study of various insect-borne diseases. PartII: Pest management 18

The principles of pest control/management viz., physical, mechanical, culture, legislative biological, genetic, chemical and integrated control. Relative merits of various types of insect control. Pest’s management practices in Pakistan- oriental review. Books Recommended: Atwal, A. S. (1984) Agricultural pests of India and South East Asia. Kalyani Publishers Delhi Imms, A.D. (1957) A General Textbook of Entomology. 9th ed. Revised by O. W. Metcalf, G. L. & Flint, W.P. (1962) Destructive and useful insects. Mc Graw Hill New York. Ross, H. H., Herms, W. E. & Janes, M. T. (1982) A text book of Entomology.John Wiley and sons, New York Herms, W. E. & Janes, M. T. Medical Entomology. The Macmillan Co. New York Pfadt, R. E. Fundamental of applied Entomology. The Macmillan Co. New York Carter, W.Insects in relation to plant diseases. Green, M. B. Hartley, G.S. & West, T.P. Chemicals for crop protection and pest control, Pergamon Press, New York De Bach, P. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Chapman and Hall, London. Matheson, R. (1950). Medical Entomology. Comstock Publishing Associates, N.Y. Practical B: Applied Entomology 25 marks

Collection, identification and preservation of different pests and other insects of medical and veterinary importance. Study of sericulture and apiculture. Operation of various types of sprayers. Dusters, fumigation emulsions. Preparation of insecticide emulsions in different concentration. The record of laboratory and fieldwork will be maintained and presented at the time of examination. OPTIONAL DICIPLINE PARASITOLOGY Paper VII (Zool.503-P) PARASITOLOGY (Special paper A) (75+25) Aims Objectives and outcomes: This course aims to provide knowledge regarding different modes of transmission of parasites of medical and veterinary importance along with their pathology, host parasite relationship and control measure. Theory Part I : Protozoology Systematic, geographical distribution, habitats, biology, pathogenesis, important symptoms, mode of transmission laboratory methods of diagnosis, and control of protozoa of medical and veterinary importance. Part II: Pathology and Immunity 19 75 marks

The cell and cell injury and its relationship to disease. Acute and chronic inflammations, wound healing, disorders of growth, benign and malignant tumors in case of infections immunity, and hypersensitivity in case of parasitic diseases. Books Recommended: Barriga, O.O., (1981). The Immunology of Parasitic infection . University of Park Press, Baltimore. Chandler, A.C. and Read, C.P., (1961). Introduction to Parasitology. Int.Ed. Wiley Poppan, New York. Chandrasoma , P. and Taylor, C.R.(1997). Concise Pathology. Prentice Hali International Inc. New Jercy USA. Dixon, M. E. Aid to Pathology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London and New York. Facust, E. C. and Russell, P. F. (2001). Craig and Faust’s clinical Parasitology. Lea and Febiger, 8th edition London Levine, N. D. Protozoan Parasites of domestic animals and of man. Durgers publishing Burgers publishing Co: Minnesota. Markell, E.K. Mo. Vogo. (1999). Medical Parasitology. W. B. Sundress Co: Philadelphia. Noble, E.R and Noble, G.A. (1982). Parasitology: the biology of animal parasites. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Olsen, O. W. (1974). Animal Parasites: their life cycle and ecology. University Park Press Baltimore Peters, W and Gills, H.M. (1989). A color atlas of Tropical medicine and Parasitology. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd., Netherlands. Robbins, S. L. Basic Pathology. W. B. Saunders Co: London, Toronto. Roberts,L.S. and Jonovy ,J.Jr., (2005). Foundation of Parasitology. W. Brown Publishers, Chicasgo, USA. Soulsby: E. J. L. (1981). Textbook of veterinary clinical Parasitology Vol: 1 Blackwell Scientific Publication, London. Schmidt, G. D. and Robbert, T. S. (2001). Foundation of Parasitology. The C.V. Mosby Company, Saint Louise . Smyth, J. D. (1994). Introduction to Animal Parasitology, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Thomson, A.D. and Cotton, R.E. (1980). Lecture Notes on Pathology. Blackwell Publication, Oxford London. Wakelin, D., (1984). Immunity to Parasite . Edward Amold, London. Walter, J.B. and Israel, M.S. (1979). General Pathology . Charchill Living Stone Edinburgh , London and New York. 20

Practical

25 marks

A study of parasitic Protozoa of medical veterinary importance with special reference to differential morphological features. Preparation of permanent mounts of parasitic Protozoa. Examination of human feces and from domesticated animals by using standard laboratory techniques. Techniques and study of blood parasite study of different types of pathological tissues from prepared slides. Paper VIII (Zool.504-P) PARASITOLOGY (Special paper B) (75+25)

Helminthology and Host-Parasite Relationship (Dr.Shah) Part I: Helminthology Theory: Basic principles and concepts in Parasitology, Taxonomy, etiology, biology, epedemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and treatment of Digenetic Trematodes: Schistosoma mansoni, S.japonicum, S.japonicum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciolopsis buski, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Paragonimus westermani, Colonorchis sinensis, Heterophyes heterophyes, Monogenetic trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Gyrodactylus, Diplozoon paradoxum and Polystoma integrrimum., Cestodes: Diphyllobothriam latum, Sparganosis, Taenia saginata, T.solium, Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis, Hymenolepis nana, Dipylidium caninum, Moniezia expansa., Nematodes: Trichuris trichiura, Capillaria hepatica, Trichenella spiralis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus., Creeping eruption: Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Anisakis spp., Heterakis gallinarum, Enterobius vermicularis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa and Dracunculus medinensis.

Books Recommended: Robberts, L. Sand Janovy John Jr. (2005). Foundation of Parasitology. 7th edition. The C.V. Mosby Company, Saint Louise . Smyth, J. D. (1994). Introduction to Animal Parasitology, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Peters, W and Gills, H.M. (1989). A color atlas of Tropical medicine and Parasitology. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd., Netherlands. Noble, E.R and Noble, G.A. (1982). Parasitology: the biology of animal parasites. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Olsen, O. W. (1974). Animal Parasites: their life cycle and ecology. University Park Press Baltimore Markell, E.K. Mo. Vogo. (1999). Medical Parasitology. W. B. Sundress Co: Philadelphia. Facust, E. C. and Russell, P. F. (2001). Craig and Faust’s clinical Parasitology. Lea and Febiger, 8th edition London 21

Soulsby: E. J. L. (1981). Textbook of veterinary clinical Parasitology Vol: 1 Blackwell Scientific Publication, London. Advances series CONDER, G. A. & CAMPBELL, W. C. (1995). Chemotherapy of nematode infections of veterinary importance, with special reference to drug resistance. Advances in Parasitology 35, 1-84. WHO publications WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. (1995). Onchocerciasis and its Control. WHO Technical Report Series No. 852. WHO, Geneva. Part II: Host Parasite Relation ship

Host parasite relationship as associative organization between two organisms. Structural aspects of the association interface. Nutrient exchanges in associations. Physiological and regulatory interactions between associates. Behavioral aspects of organism associations. Ecology and evolution of intimate associations. Anthelmintic resistance detection methods. Detection and characterisation of parasites causing emerging zoonoses. Vaccination against Schistosomaisis; DNA micro arrays in Parasitology Recent Publication 1. Anthelmintic resistance detection methods. An excellent Review By Taylor et al. (2002). Veterinary Parasitology 103: 183–194 Detection and characterisation of parasites causing emerging zoonoses. Morgan. (2002). International Journal for Parasitology.30: 1407-1421 Vaccination against Schistosomaisis & Malaria. McManus & Bartley. (2004). Parasitology International .53:163-173 Pouniotis et al. (2004). Trends in Parasitology: 1-3 Programmed cell death (Apoptosis) in Parasitic Protozoa (Trichomonas & Giardia spp.) lacking Mitochondria. Chose et al. (2004). Trends in Parasitology: 1-7 Recent advances in chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis & Intestinal Protozoa. I. Croft & Coombs. (2003). Trends in Parasitology. 19(11): 602-608 Petri Jr. (2003). Trends in Parasitology. 19(11): 523-526 Microbial strategy to multiply in the macrophages. Swanson & Fernandez-Moreia. (2006). Traffic. 3:170-177 Carruthers. (2002). Acta Tropica.81: 111-122 DNA micro arrays in Parasitology. Bothryd et al. (2005). Trends in Parasitology. I Current usage of Nomenclature for the vector bore Parasitic diseases. Ashford. (2002). Medical & Veterinary Entomology.15: 121-125 El Nino, La Nina & Malaria. Kovats. (2003). The Lancet.362 (1). 381-89 Books Recommended: 22

Canning, E. U. & Wright, C. A. (1986). Behavioral aspects of parasite. Linean Society of London. Kennedy, C. R. (1981). Ecological aspects of Parasitology. North Holland Publishing Co: Amsterdam Taylor, A.E.R & Muller, R. (1987). Genetic aspects of host parasite relationships. Symposium of the British Society for Parasitology. . Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford Whitfield, P. J. (Recent edition). The biology of parasitism; an introduction to the study of association organisms. Edward Arnold. Publishers, UK SMYTH, J. D. (1994). Introduction to Animal Parasitology, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Day, P. R. (1998). Genetics of host-parasite interaction. W.H. Pressman & Co: San Francisco. Chapters in books GRENFELL, B. T., DIETZ, K. & ROBERTS, M. G. (1995). Modeling the immuno-epidemiology of macroparasites in naturally fluctuating host populations. In Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Natural Populations (ed. Grenfell, B. T. & Dobson, A. P.), pp. 362-383. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Practical 25 marks

Stage and ocular micrometry for measurement of helminths. Preparation of temporary and permanent mounts of parasites from the following animals: a. Fish b. Frog/toad c. Fowl/Pigeon d. Rat/Mouse. Study of helminths from prepared slides. Study of eggs/larvae from feces and prepared slides. Diagnosis of medically important parasites in fecal specimen by using: Tillman’s centrifugation technique, by Lugol’s iodine staining technique

OPTIONAL DISCIPLINE-

FISHERIES

Aims Objectives and outcomes: The aim of this course is to enable students in obtaining complete understanding about freshwater as well as marine fishes in general and freshwater culturable fishes in particular. It comprises morphology, anatomy, classification and some understanding about various feeding groups found in different water bodies. After having complete knowledge of above, students will be able to practice independently.

Paper VII (Zool. 503-F) PAPER A:

FISHERIES-A

Marks: (75+25) (75 Marks) 23

ICTHYOLOGY Brief history, Taxonomy, Biology of commercial food fishes of Pakistan (morphology, anatomy, ecology and distribution) Scales in fishes (structure, types, importance in identification, classification and age determination); Physiology of digestion (food, feeding habits, absorption, conversion.); Respiration (structure of gills, other types of respiration.); Excretion & Osmoregulation (renal, gill, differences between fresh water & marine fishes.); Reproduction (development of ovary and testes, sex differences, sexual maturity, fecundity, breeding habits, parental care.); Fish migration.; Fish ecology (effects of different factors on fish development and distribution especially the effects of temperature, light etc.) PRACTICAL: ( 25 Marks )

Identification of common fishes of Pakistan /N.W.F.P. with the help of keys; Learning vernacular (local) and scientific names of common fishes of Pakistan /N.W.F.P.; Dissection of a common fish to study major anatomical features (digestive system, respiratory system, reproductive system, afferent and efferent vessels, cranial nerves.); Fish Collection; Preparation and study of fish skeleton and scales Books Recommended: Lagler, K.F.et.al.1977. Ichthyology, John Wiely & Sons, New York. Pillay, T.V.R. Jobling, M. Evans, D.H. 1993 Aquaculture, Principles & Practices. Fishing News Books, Oxford 1995 Environmental Biology of Fishes. Chapman & Hall, London.

1997 The Physiology of Fishes, 2nd ed. CRC Press, N.Y.

Wootton, R.J. 1990 Ecology of Teleost Fishes. Chapman & Hall, London . Paper VIII (Zool.504-F) FISHERIES (Special paper II) APPLIED FISHERIES (75 Marks)

(75+25)

History and significance of aquaculture; Study of management techniques and habitat improvement; Designing, construction, fertilization, manuring, stocking and harvesting of a fish pond; Study of native and exotic fishes of Pakistan; Shellfish &fin fish; Fishing gears and crafts/nets used in Pakistan; Fish ways; construction & importance. . Bye products of fish industry; Methods of processing fish such as drying, salting smoking, curing, freezing etc; Study of fish parasites, common diseases and enemies of fishes. Pollution and its effect on fish population; Methods of population estimation by direct count, catch effort, mark re-capture method, tagging of fish; Artificial propagation induced spawning techniques; Marketing strategies; transport of fish and seed; Major problems of fishermen in Pakistan; PRACTICAL ( 25 Marks )

Collection & identification of common zooplanktons; Study of gut contents of fish; Statistical analysis of fish growth, length-weight relationship; Study of farm fishes of N.W.F.P.; Visit to a fish 24

farm/hatchery to study installations/methods of breeding; Prepared slides of fish parasites; Analysis of physical properties (temperature, light, colour, turbidity, conductivity etc.) and chemical properties (pH, oxygen, carbon dioxide, salinity, dissolved solids/salts) of water; General methods of age growth studies; reading of age from scales, opercula, otolith and back calculation from bones; Study of larvae, fry and fingerlings of a common fish. Regulation of fishing, enactment of fishery legislation. Recommended Readings: Ali S.S. Hyderabad, Pakistan. Rath, R.H. Delhi,India. 1999 Freshwater Fishery Biology, Naseem Book Depot, 1993 Freshwater Aquaculture, Scientific Publishers,

Rounsefell, G.A.& Everhart, W.H. 1953 Fisheries Science, John Wiely & Sons, New York Mirza, M.R.& Bhatti, M.N. 1993 Pakistan ki Machlian aur Mahi Parwari Ferozsons, Lahore

Theory Paper IX (Zool. 506/ 507). Medical Microbiology and Biotechnology Part-1. (Zool-506): MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Dr.Shah) Aims and objectives and outcomes: Aims of this course is to let the students know about the science of microbiology, to work with microorganisms, their pathogenecity, and various diseases and problems caused by microorganisms. The course may also initiate their interest in agricultural, industrial and/or environmental microbiology. The course will enable the students to identify specific areas in practical life where the science of microbiology is being applied. Thus they can seek different job in various organizations such as clinical, industrial and environmental microbiology sections. (75+25+25)

Theory Morphology and fine structure of bacteria: Size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cells, Flagella and motility, Pili, Capsules, sheaths and stalks, structure and chemical composition of cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, the cytoplasm, nuclear material. Microbiology and Medicine, antimicrobial agents, mode of action. Bacterial pathogens and associated diseases. Infective syndromes and diagnostic procedures. Strategy of antimicrobial therapy. Prophylactic immunization for the following organisms. 25

Staphylococcus aureus skin and wound infections. Streptococcus, sore throat, scarlet fever, glomerulonephritis Streptococcus pneumoniae, S.viridans (Halitosis). Pneumococcus, respiratory infections. Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Anthrax bacillus i.e., Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium tetani, C.perfringens (Gas gangrene), C.botulinum, Listeria monocytogenes, Cornyebacterium diphtheriae, Diphtheria. Mycobacterium tuberculosi, M.leprae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brucella: Bordetella pertussis, Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhae, Shigella. Klebsiella, Herpes simplex viruses. H5N1 avian influenza virus, Rubella virus and Hepatitis viruses. Practicals Basic techniques.( Staining of microorganisms: Simple stains, positive staining; negative staining. Demonstration of special structures by stains: Spore stain, Flagella stain. Differential stains: Gram stain, Metachromatic Granule stain, Acid fast stain. Culturing of microorganisms: Preparation and sterilization of culture media, agar slope, agar slab, streak plates, pour plates methods. Isolation of a bacterial culture. Quantitative plating methods) Widal test. Laboratory diagnosis and control of infections: Streptococcus. Corynebacterium, Listeria, Mycobacterium. The Entero bacteriaceae: Salmonella. Escherichia, Klebsiella and Clostridium. Blood tests: TLC, DLC, RBC. Books Recommended (Latest editions) Patrick R. Murry, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Medical Microbiology, 5th edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005. MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY P.K. Murray, Ph.D., K.S. Rosenthal, Ph.D., G.S. Kobayashi, Ph.D., and M.A. Pfaller, MD, 4th Edition, Mosby, Inc. 2002. ISBN #0323012132 SHERRIS MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION TO INFECTIOUS DISEASES C. George Ray, Editor; McGraw-Hill/Appleton and Lange 5th edition, McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange, 2003. ISBN#0838585299 MICROBIAL APPLICATIONS (complete version) LABORATORY MANUAL IN GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 1994. Benson, H.J. WMC Brown Publishers, England. MICROBIOLOGY, 1986. Pelczar Jr., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, M.R. McGraw Hill, London. BROCK BIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS, 1997. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. Prentice-Hall, London. Cruickshank, R, Duguid, J.P., Hermion, B.P. and Swain, R.H.A., (2003). Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone, N.Y. THE MICROBIAL WORLD, 1986. Stainier, R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis, M.L. and Painter, R.R. Prentice Hall, London. Foundations in Microbiology. (1998). Talaro & Talaro. WCB Publishers, New York.

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MICROBIOLOGY: A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE , 2001. Eugene W. Nester, Denise, G., Anderson, Martha, T., Nester, C., Evans Roberts, Nancy, N. McGraw Hill Higher Education. MICROBIOLOGY PRINCIPLES AND EXPLORATIONS, 2001. Jacquelyn, G.G. Wiley John & Sons Inc.

Latest Publications
Kamal et al. (2006). Anti-tubercular agents. Benzothiadiazine as a novel scaffold therapy against Mycobacterium. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry :14: 650–658 Girard et al. (2005).A review of vaccine research and development: Tuberculosis: Vaccine: 23: 57255731 Andre and Godell (2005).Multicellular organization in bacteria as a target for drug delivery. Ecology letters: 8: 800–810 Books Recommended (Latest editions) for Practical MICROBIAL APPLICATIONS (complete version) LABORATORY MANUAL IN GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 1994. Benson, H.J. WMC Brown Publishers, England. MICROBIOLOGY, 1986. Pelczar Jr., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, M.R. McGraw Hill, London. BROCK BIOLOGY OF MICROORGANISMS, 1997. Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. Prentice-Hall, London. Cruickshank, R, Duguid, J.P., Hermion, B.P. and Swain, R.H.A., (2003). Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone, N.Y. THE MICROBIAL WORLD, 1986. Stainier, R.Y., Ingraham, J.L., Wheelis, M.L. and Painter, R.R. Prentice Hall, London. Foundations in Microbiology. (1998). Talaro & Talaro. WCB Publishers, New York. MICROBIOLOGY: A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE , 2001. Eugene W. Nester, Denise, G., Anderson, Martha, T., Nester, C., Evans Roberts, Nancy, N. McGraw Hill Higher Education. MICROBIOLOGY PRINCIPLES AND EXPLORATIONS, 2001. Jacquelyn, G.G. Wiley John & Sons Inc. Latest Publications Kamal et al. (2006). Anti-tubercular agents. Benzothiadiazine as a novel scaffold therapy against Mycobacterium. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 14 (2006) 650–658 Girard et al. (2005).A review of vaccine research and development: Tuberculosis: Vaccine 23: 572531 Andre and Godell (2005).Multicellular organization in bacteria as a target for drug delivery. Ecology letters: 8: 800–810 27

Part II. (Zool-507) FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Aims Objectives and outcomes: This course is intended to realize the importance of biotechnology in different fields of life. The course describes role of bacteria, their action as well as chemical reactions in transformation of various foods, drugs, beverages and their commercial and industrial importance. Theory: Historical Background, Biotechnology- an interdisciplinary pursuit, scope and application. Basic principles of Genetic Engineering,: Tools of Genetic Engineering, Techniques of Genetic Engineering, Applications of Genetic Engineering , In Vitro Culture Techniques of Plants Cell and Tissue Culture, Microbial Biotechnology: Fermentation, Growing culture of Microorganisms, Metabolic Pathways in Microorganisms, Microbial Products, Primary and Secondary Metabolites. Enzyme Technology, Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein, Biofertilizers, Biomass, Bioenergy . Practical: Growing culture of bacteria, processing and synthesis of various food products: Yoghurt, Cheese, Beverages, Mushroom Culture, Preparation of solutions of various strength, Preparation of various media etc. Books Recommended 1. Cruickshank, R, Duguid, J.P., Hermion, B.P. and Swain, R.H.A., (2003). Medical Microbiology, (Vol. 1 & Vol. Churchill Livingstone, N.Y. 2. Turk, D.C. and Poster, I.A., (2004). A Short Textbook of Medical Microbiology, Hodder and Stoughton. 3. Collins, C.H. and Lyne P.M. (2003) Microbiological Methods. 4. MICROBIAL APPLICATIONS: LAB MANUAL IN GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY, 1994. Benson, H.J. WMC Brown Publishers, England. 5. R.C.Dubey . A text book of Biotechnology Ist Edition, 1993 / 2nd Edition , 2006. S.Chand & Company Ltd., India.

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