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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

CHAP. 8
MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY
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1.0 SULPHURIC ACID AND AMMONIA


Learning Outcome
1. Students able to write an equation for CONTACT PROCESS and HABER PROCESS
2. Able to mention the condition of reaction in CONTACT PROCESS and HABER PROCESS.
3. List out the uses of SULPHURIC ACID (H2SO4) and AMMONIA (NH3)
4. Explain how SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) causes environmental pollution.

1.1 SULPHURIC ACID


1.1.2 MANUFACTURED OF SULPHURIC ACID (CONTACT PROCESS)

SULPHUR OXYGEN Stage 1 : PRODUCTION OF SO2


Molten sulphur is burnt in excess oxygen (dry air) to
produce SULPHUR DIOXIDE.
S + O2  SO2

SULPHUR DIOXIDE
(SO2)

Stage 2 : PRODUCTION OF SO3


Sulphur dioxide and oxygen are pass through
VANADIUM (V) OXIDE (catalyst) to produce SULPHUR
TRIOXIDE (SO3)
2SO2 + O2  2SO3
o o
Temp: 450 C – 500 C Pressure : 2 – 3 atm
SULPHUR TRIOXIDE Catalyst : vanadium (v) oxide
(SO3)

Stage 3 : PRODUCTION OF H2SO4


SO3 is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form
OLEUM OLEUM.
(H2S2O7) SO3 + H2SO4  H2S2O7
OLEUM is mix with water (to dilute) to produce
concentrated sulphuric acid.
H2S2O7 + H2O  2H2SO4
SULPHURIC ACID
(H2SO4)

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

1.1.3 THE USES OF SULPHURIC ACID


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Metal Cleaning, 2% Acid, 2%


Dyes, 2%

Synthetic Fibre, 9% Fertilisers


Fertilisers , 32% Paint Pigment
Electrolyte, 10%
Other Chemicals
Detergents
Electrolyte
Synthetic Fibre
Dyes
Metall Cleaning
Detergents, 12% Acid
Paint Pigment, 15%

Other Chemicals, 16%

Fertilisers: Uses in school laboratories:


A large portion of sulphuric acid is used to As a strong acid
manufacture fertilisers such as: As a drying or dehydrating agent
Calcium hydrogen phosphate As an oxidising agent
Ammonium sulphate As a catalyst
Potassium sulphate

Detergent: synthetic cleaning agents.

Synthetic Fibres: Polymers (long chained


molecules), example: Rayon.

Electrolyte: use in car batteries

1.1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


SULPHUR DIOXIDE (release from factories or power station) to atmosphere.
SO2 dissolves in rain to form sulphurous acid (ACID RAIN)
EFFECT OF ACID RAIN
Corrodes the building
Increasing acidity in lake or pond that can cause aquatic organism die
Increasing the acidity of soil.

HOW TO PREVENT EFFECT OF ACID RAIN


Gas released from factories sprayed with limestone (calcium carbonate)

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

1.2 HABER PROCESS


1.2.1 MANUFACTURE D OF AMMONIA (HABER PROCESS)
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1ST STAGE
One volume of Nitrogen gas, N2 and three volume of pure dry Hydrogen gas, H2 are compressed to a
pressure between 200 – 500 atmosphere

2nd STAGE
The gas mixture (N2 and H2) are passed through a powdered iron at temperature of 450-550oC

3rd STAGE
The gas mixture (N2 and H2) are passed through a powdered iron at temperature of 450-550oC
N2 + 3H2  2NH3
Condition of reaction: Iron as a catalyst, Temp : 450-550oC, Pressure 200 atm

4th STAGE
Ammonia gas turned to liquid when the mixture is cooled in condenser.
The unreacted N2 and H2 will pump back to reactor and pass through the catalyst again.

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

1.2.1 USES AND PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA


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USES OF AMMONIA PROPERTIES


1. Manufactured ammonium sulphate,
ammonium nitrate and urea. 1. Colourless and Pungent gas.
a. Ammonium sulphate
2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4 2. Dissolve in water to form weak alkali.
b. Ammonium nitrate NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-
2NH3 + NH3  NH4NO3 Presence of OH- causes ammonia to
c. Urea become alkaline.
2NH3 + CO2  (NH2)2CO3 + H2O
3. Change moist litmus paper from red to
2. As a cooling agent in refrigerators. blue.

3. As raw material in OSTWALD PROCESS. 4. Neutralise any acid to form ammonium


OSTWALD Process is converted salt
ammonia into nitric acid using React with sulphuric acid to produce
PLATINUM as catalyst AMMONIUM SULPHATE
2NH3 + H2SO4  (NH4)2SO4
4. Can be converted to nitric acid for
making explosives.

5. To prevent coagulation of latex

6. Raw material in produce synthetic fiber


and nylon

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

2.0 ALLOY
Learning Outcome
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1. State the meaning of ALLOY


2. Draw the arrangement of atoms in pure metal and ALLOY
3. Explain why ALLOY stronger than pure metal
4. Design an experiment to investigate the hardness of metal and ALLOY
5. List examples, composition and properties of ALLOY.

ALLOY is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition. The main component in the
mixture is a metal.

WHY ALLOY?
a) Pure metal are ductile and maleable.
b) Because pure metals is made up of one type of atoms(same size atoms).
c) When force is applied, layer of atoms slide easily.

Force
applied

ALLOY harder than pure metal? Why?

a) Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements.


b) So atom of another metal that are present in alloy can be bigger or smaller than the size of atoms in
pure metal.
c) The presence of different size of atoms disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms, the result it will
reduces the layer of atoms from sliding easily.
d) Thus, ALLOy is STRONGER and HARDER than its pure metal
BRONZE STEEL

Tin Iron

Copper Carbon

So PURE METAL are ALLOYED before used because:


1. To increase the strength and hardness of pure metals
2. To increase the resistance to corrosion of pure metals
3. To enhance the appearance of pure metal.

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

EXPERIMENT TO COMPARE THE HARDNESS BETWEEN ALLOY AND PURE METAL.


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1 kg weight

Ball bearing

Copper block

Aim : To compare the hardness between copper(pure metal) and bronze(alloy)


Problem Statement : Does bronze metal is harder than copper?
Hypothesis : Bronze is harder tha copper

Variables
Manipulated : Different type of materials (bronze or caooper)
Responding : Diameter of dent / Hardness of block
Controlled : Height of weight, ball bearing diameter, mass of weight.

Materials : Copper block, bronze block, cellophane tape


Apparatus : Retort stand, 1 kg weight, meter rule, steel ball bearing and thread.

Procedure :
1. A steel ball bearing is taped onto the copper block using cellophane tape
2. 1 kg weight is hung at the height of 50 cm above the copper block as shown in diagram.
3. Drop the 1kg weight onto the ball bearing.
4. Measured the diameter of the dent formed on the copper block.
5. Repeat experiment twice on other parts of the block to obtained the average diameter of the dent.
6. Step 1 to 5 are repeated using ab bronze block to replace the copper block.
7. The reading are recorded in the table below.

Results

Diameter of the dent (mm)


Block
1 2 3 Average
Copper Block

6
Bronze Block

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

COMPOSITION OF ALLOY , USES AND PROPERTIES


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Alloy Composition Properties Uses


Building statue or
COPPER 90% Hard, Strong, Shiny Surface monuments, medal,
BRONZE
Tin 10% and Does not Corrodes swords and artistic
materials
Making musical
COPPER 70% Hard and strong, does not
BRASS instrument and
Zinc 30% corrodes easily
kitchenware.
Construction of buildings,
IRON 99%
STEEL Hard and strong bridge, body of car and
Carbon 1%
railway tracks
IRON 74% Shiny, Strong and does not
Making a surgical
STAINLESS STEEL Carbon 8% rust
instrument and cuttelery
Chromium 18%
ALUMINIUM 93%
Copper 3% Building of aeroplane
DURALUMIN Light and Strong
Magnesium 3% body and bullet train
Manganese 1%
TIN 93%
PEWTER Copper 3% Luster, Shiny and strong Making of souveniers
Antimony 1%

** BOLD item is the main component in ALLOY

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

3.0 POLYMER
Learning outcome
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Student ables to state the meaning of POLYMERS


List naturally and synthetic POLYMERS
Uses of POLYMERS
Environmental effect cause by POLYMERS

Definition

POLYMERS
Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating monomers which are joined
together by covalent compound

MONOMERS
Monomer is small identical repeating units in POLYMER

POLYMERISATION
Polymerisation is a process by which the monomers are joined together into chain like molecule
called POLYMERS

POLYMERISATION PROCESS (FORMATION OF POLYMER)

Polymerisation Process

MONOMERS POLYMER

H H H H n is a big
| | Polymerisation Process | | number shows
n C = C C C
|
|
|

how many
| | | |
H H H H n monomers are
joined together.
Monomers Polymers
(Ethene) (Polythene)

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

Exist in living things in nature.


Example
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NATURAL POLYMERS Protein, Cellulose, Wool, Silk, Starch,


Natural Rubber and DNA
POLYMERS

Produce through chemical proceses


SYNTHETIC Example
POLYMERS Polystyrene, Polythene, PVC, Nylon
and Plastic

NATURAL POLYMERS

Name Of POLYMER Monomer


Protein Amino Acid

Starch (Carbohydrate) Glucose

Rubber (Polyisoprene) Isoprene

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
Name Of Polymers Monomer Properties Uses
Durable, light, impermeable, Shopping bags, plastic
Polythene Ethene
insulator cup and plate, toys

Durable, light, impermeable, Bottles, furniture, pipes


Polypropene Propene
can be moulded and coloured and toys
Disposable cup and plate,
Heat insulator, light can be
Polystyrene Phenylethene packaging materials, heat
moulded and permeable
insulators.
Pipes, pipe fittings, wire
Low softening temperature,
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Chloroethene and cable coating and
elastic and durable
casing, raincoats.
Methyl-2- Glass replacement.
Perspex Transparent, strong and light
methylpropenoate Lenses and optical fibre

WHY SYNTHETIC POLYMERS CAN CAUSE HOW TO AVOID OR REDUCE POLLUTION


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION? CAUSED BY SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
1. Synthetic Polymers are not easily 1. Reduce the usage of Synthetic
BIODEGRADABLE. Polymers
2. The waste by synthetic polymers 2. Recycle the synthetic Polymers
(plastics, food container) will block the 3. Use BIODEGRADABLE Polymers
drainage system. 4. Find alternative to Synthetic
3. The burning synthetic polymer produce Polymers
poisonous gas like Carbon Monoxide,
Hydrogen Chloride, Sulphur Dioxides
and Hydrogen Cynide gas.

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

4.0 GLASS & CERAMICS


Learning Outcome
List type of glass and their properties.
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State properties of Ceramics


List uses of Glass and Ceramics

GLASS
GLASS is an organic non-metalic material that does not have crystalline structure. Glass is not
classified as solid but as SUPERCOOLED LIQUID.

Main component of GLASS is SILICON DIOXIDE, SiO2, which exist naturally in SAND.

Transparent Chemically unreactive


Hard but Brittle PROPERTIES OF GLASS Easy to clean
Non Permeable High melting point
Heat Insulators Electric Insulators

Types of Glass Composition Properties Uses

Great purity, optocally Laboratory glassware,


Fused Glass Silica / silicon dioxide transparent, chemically lenses, telescope mirror,
inert, high melting point optical fibres.

Silicon dioxide, boron Heat resistant and Cookware, laboratory


Borosilicate Glass (Pyrex) dioxide, sodium oxide chemical durability, high glassware, automobile
and aluminium oxide melting point head lights.

Silicon dioxide, sodium High density and optically Tableware, crystal


Lead Crystal Glass
oxide and lead (II) oxide transparent glassware and art object

High thermal expansion Windows pane, electrical


Silicon dioxide, sodium
Soda-lime glass coefficient, Chemical bulbs, all kind glass
oxide or calcium oxide
durability containers, mirror.

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

CERAMICS
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CERAMICS are made from CLAY such as KAOLIN.


Kaolin is rich in KAOLINITE (hydrated aluminosilicate, Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O)

Hard and Strong Electric Insulator


Brittle PROPERTIES OF High melting point
Chemically inert CERAMICS Resist Compression
Heat Insulator Do not Corodes

Properties Uses Examples

Hard and Strong As construction materials Tiles, Cement and Bricks


Cooking pots, Porcelain plates,
Chemically Inert As Kitchenware and Ornamental art
bowls and vases
Electric Plugs, calbe, oven and
Electrical and Heat Insulators As insulator in electrical equipment
toasters

Non Compressible As Medical and Dental apparatus Artificial teeth and bones

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CHAPTER 8 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

5.0 COMPOSITE MATERIALS.


Learning Outcome
State the meaning of COMPOSITE MATERIALS
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State the examples of COMPOSITE MATERIALS


Compare and contrast the properties of COMPOSITE MATERIALS with those of their origional component

COMPOSITE MATERIALS

COMPOSITE MATERIALS are structural materials that are formed by combining two or more
different materials such as metals, alloys, glass, ceramics and polymers.

COMPOSITE MATERIALS have properties that are SUPERIOR than those of the original components

Type of Composite
Component Properties Uses
Materials
Concrete and steel wires, Construction of building,
Reinforced Concrete steel bars and polymer Very strong, Tough bridges, oil platforms and
fibres airport runners
Alloys of metal Transformers, Computer
Capable conduct electricity
Superconductors compounds or ceramics part, magnetically
without resistance
of metal oxides levitated train

Strong and high tensile Water storage tanks,


Fibre Glass Polyster and glass fibres
strength, Low density helmets, boats
Glass becomes darker
Photochromic substance Optical lenses, car
when exposed to sunlight
Photochromic Glass (silver chloride or silver windshields, camera
and transparent again
halide crystals) lenses
when the light dim
High transmission capacity Transmit data, voive and
Glass thread surrounded
Fibre Optic without distortion and images in digital format
by glass cladding
interference over long distance.

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