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1. Citing examples where possible, explain your understanding of personality.

What are the determinants of personality and how could knowledge of personality affect the role of a manager?

Introduction Personality appear from a word personal which means individual, so personality is a set of distinctive individual characteristic, motives, emotions, values, attitudes, and competencies in a person. Our society is full of different unique characteristic, and each person has his individual differences. Even twins, also have different personality. If each person has his own unique, with more than billion people in the world exist, can you imagine how fantastic human personality is?

Determinants of personality There are many factors why there so many kinds of personality, but in my opinion the main determinants of personality are Heredity, Environment, and Situation. First of all, Heredity is physical characteristics, gender, temperament, and biological rhythms which are influence by parents. Next, Environment is place and condition where we raised or growth. Human is a social creature, so it is obvious that environment forces also became one of the crucial factors influencing a personality. Finally, Environment is including culture, religious, norms in the family, groups, friends, social groups, and experiences in society. For example if a boy grown up in a broken family, his view about family might be bad and it will influence his family in the future or become afraid of marriage. Because he learns for what the environment teach. Then, situation also make

person changing their behaviour according to the situation they in. Various situations can demand different response and aspects of one’s personality. Example: A gangster is a fierce person, but when he decided to get married with a woman in a good family. He intends to be more polite in order to create a good image.

Knowledge of personality affects the role of manager Knowledge of personality is very useful as a role of a manager. As we know, manager’s job is to managing and directing people effectively in the organization so that they can work maximum with excellent result. Each person has their own interest, values, perception, thoughts, and emotion which affect the way they pursue goals. So in order to motivate them effectively to do the work persistence and seriously, first of all, a manager should recognize all their interest, values, perception, thoughts, and emotions by understanding each type of person personality. By understanding personality, a manager should know what to do and not to do in managing complexity of people in the organization. The way of manager treating employees according to their emotional reactions will make the work of manager would be much easier, more organize, controlled, and excellent.

Other importance of personality is help manager themselves to be a role model of the organization in order to get respect and trust between employees. It also helps manager to lead, communicate, handling, and motivate employees achieving the goal perfectly.

Conclusion and Examples A manager would be emotionally intelligence in understanding different kinds of situations and circumstances and be able to make effective decisions as to who should do what task so they can work more productively and resolve conflicts in the organization. For examples: If a person is good at presentation and friendly to everyone, his work would be a salesman who needs an attractive personality to sell things; comparable if a person is perfectionist, his perfect job would be accounting, because he can work tidy and accurately; but if a person is a dominant, he will be great in challenging type of work such as team leader, he will be able to lead his team excellently achieve the goal; then if a person is compromise and peace maker, it will be perfect to put him as a customer service, because of his patient in facing many kinds of clients. All of this knowledge can bring an organization success dramatically because of the psychological qualities, great teamwork and leadership of the manager.

2. What are the various types of organizational culture? And how do you think organization could sustain its culture? Explain! Support your explanation with relevant examples!

Introduction Culture in organization means how things are done or rule in a firm, including employees’ acceptable and unacceptable behaviours. Software is determinant of a computer, same as organization culture is determinant of an organization system. For examples: aggressiveness of organization in competing with other members will make all the employees staff competing one another; but if an organization culture is late, the staff will be late to work so the company will also belated. The interesting part is where every organization has their own ways in achieving their goal to success in various way of culture. Believe it or not, culture is an important thing for employees and the company itself as a group achieving the same goal. People are asset, so if employees don’t fit in the culture, is hard for them to bear with it. On the other hand, a successful firm will stand by on its own culture, because they are excellence in their own believed and perspective, why would they change for another one? So how employees can be fit within the culture?

Types of Organization culture Firstly, I want to explain types of Organization culture according to Jeffry Sonnefeld, there are Academy, Club, Baseball team, and Fortress. Academy type is recruiting fresh university graduates, train them, nurture, develop and guide them through different kind of special job within a particular function. For examples: Universities and

Hospitals. This type is potential for new employees to get experiences and knowledge before going to higher step. Next, Club type is a loyal and commitment organization. Such as Government departments, military, and some law firms. Its priority is about trust and loyalty of employees in the organization rather than hardworking employees. On the other hand, Baseball teams are more entrepreneurial in orientation which is daring to take for risks and innovators. This kind of organization needs talented people and offer huge salary and freedom. Software houses, consulting, investment banking, and advertising firms are the examples. The last one is Fortress type which is a survival organization type. By the word survival means that this organization type is likely ready to collapse every time, means bankrupt. The employees of this type are always worried and feel uncertainty about their lasting carrier. For example: Large car companies with lots of debts.

Sustaining Organization Culture As I mention before, a successful firm usually will stand by on its own culture which brings positive effect to the organization. In order to sustain a culture in the organization which has the major impact towards the firm, there are 3 ways: Selection, Top management, and Socializations. Firstly, is to select the right key person for the organization who has required skills, knowledge, abilities, and fit in the jobs culture. Picking the wrong person may negatively affect employees’ motivation, loyalty, commitment, and productivity of their work. So as the opposite, choosing the right person could sustain the culture and make the organization progress even greater than before. Then, Top management means is to adjust the employees’ actions, behaviours, and

establishment according to the norms by the top management impact upon the culture, so that the culture can be kept as the way it is. For example: the culture of a company is to reward an excellence employee of the month. So in order to get the reward, employees should perform their work excellently. By having this kind of rule reward, all employees are trying their best to fulfill the excellent criteria, so the culture will sustain. Lastly, Socializations is the process for employees to adapt new environment. Most of organizations provide orientation program to guide new employees according the culture of the organization, so they can easily copped with it. Their adaptation divided into 3 stages: Prearrival stage, Encounter stage, and Metamorphosis stage. The Prearrival stage is the first learning stage for new employees before joining the organization as an outsider point of view. Encounter stage is when the new employees seeing the organization culture and reveals whether they fit or not. The last stage is Metamorphosis stage; it is a process of employees adjusting their work values and norms. After all stage passed, employees will start to work productively according to the Organization Culture.

Conclusion Generally speaking, Culture is the most important part in the way of organization works and by developing culture the organization will also improve themselves. The stronger a culture is in organization would help employees easily blend into the organization and build their cohesiveness, loyalty, commitment, and performance of employees.