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You are on page 1of 8

Time Scale Hierarchy of

Trac Problems

The relevant time scales span a vast

range of over 13 decades!

Each time scale poses of its particu-

lar type of problems.

In the following, we will deal with

the three lowest layers, starting

from the cell or packet level, going

through the burst level up to call of

ow level.

AIKASKAALAHIERARKIA

VERKON SUUNNITTELU

JA RAKENTAMINEN

vuosia

VERKON DYNAAMINEN

KONFIGUROINTI

tunteja

KUTSUTASO

minuutteja

PURSKETASO

ms ... s

SOLUTASO

us

/

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 2

HOL blocking in an input buered ATM switch

2

3

1 2

7

1

2

3

N

HOL = Head of Line

Only one of the cells in HOL position heading to the

same output port can be sent, the others have to wait

Discrete time (slotted time) system

Time slot = transmission time of a cell

The destination addresses distributed evenly among

the output ports

Very large oered trac; input buers always full

Throughput per output port p = probability that a

randomly chosen slot on the output line is occupied

by a cell

HOL blocking: output port 1 free, but the cell in the lowest input queue destined for

output port 1 is blocked by another cell, which cannot be sent because of the contention

for output port 2

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 3

HOL queues

HOL queue i comprises of the cells in the HOL posi-

tion which are destined for output port i.

In each slot, precisely one cell is sent from each non-

empty HOL queue,

of course, no cell can be sent from an empty queue.

In each time slot, N p cells on the average depart

from the switch;

when N , the number of departing cells

equals, in relative terms, more and more exactly

N p.

The same number of cells are transferred to the HOL

position, i.e. arrive as new cells to the HOL queues.

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 4

Distribution of the number of cells arriving at a HOL queue

Denote M = N p, i.e. N = M/p.

Each of these M cells is intended for output i with the probability 1/N.

The number of cells joining queue i obeys the distribution Bin(1/N, M)=Bin(p/M, M).

As the size of the switch grows, N , then also M .

At this limit, the number of arriving cells is distributed as Poisson(p).

Each HOL queue has the same queue length distribution as a continuous time M/D/1

queue with load p:

the queue length of a continuous time queue can be determined at embedding points separated

by one service time D (the distribution at the embedding points is the same as at a random

point of time)

the queue at the embedding points obeys the rule given before for the discrete time queue: if

the queue at the embedding point is non-empty, then precisely one customer will depart until

the next embedding point; and if the queue is empty, then no customer will depart before the

next embedding point

the number of new arrivals from a Poisson process between the embedding points is Poisson

distributed with mean = D (here denoted by p)

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 5

Maximum throughput limited by the HOL blocking

Since each HOL queue behaves as an M/D/1 queue with load p, the mean queue length

of each is given (by the PK formula)

the mean length of a HOL queue = p +

1

2

p

2

1 p

There are N HOL queues in total (one per each output port).

In a heavily overloaded system, none of the input buers is empty; thus the N HOL

queues together always ll all the N HOL places. It follows that

The mean queue lengths of each HOL queue equals 1

From this condition one can solve p

p +

1

2

p

2

1p

= 1

1

2

p

2

= (1 p)

2

2

p = 1 p

p =

2

1+

2

= 2

2 0.586

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 6

HOL blocking in a nite 3x3 switch

3 x 3

We can dene three states of the HOL cells (colour

denotes the output port):

1. all cells have the same colour

2. cells are of two dierent colours

3. cells are of three dierent colours (all cells have

dierent colour)

In state 1, only one HOL cell can be forwarded; it is replaced by a new cell, which is of

the same colour as the others with the probability 1/3 and of dierent colour with the

probability 2/3.

In state 2, two cells will be forwarded; they are replaced with two new ones, which have

the same colour with the remaining cell with the probability 1/9; all have dierent colour

with the probability 2/9; otherwise, with the probability 6/9, after the replacement the

HOL cells are again of two dierent colours.

In state 3, all three cells are forwarded and replaced by new ones; these have the same

colour with probability 1/9, all have dierent colour with the probability 2/9, and with

the probability 6/9 they are of two dierent colours.

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 7

Throughput of a 3x3 switch (continued)

1 2

3

2/9

2/3

2/9

1/9

2/3

2/3

1/3

1/9

The state of the HOL cells constitutes a Markov chain

with the state transition diagram shown in the gure.

The transition probability matrix is

P =

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3

9

6

9

0

1

9

6

9

2

9

1

9

6

9

2

9

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

The equilibrium probability vector = (

1

,

2

,

3

) can be solved from the balance equa-

tion of the Markov chain = P, i.e.

_

_

9

1

= 3

1

+

2

+

3

9

2

= 6

1

+ 6

2

+ 6

3

9

3

= 0 + 2

2

+ 2

3

The normalized solution is = (

3

21

,

14

21

,

4

21

).

The throughput per output port is p =

1

3

(

1

1 +

2

2 +

3

3) =

43

63

0.683.

J. Virtamo 38.3141 Teletrac Theory / HOL blocking 8

The throughput limited by the HOL blocking for switches of dierent sizes

1 x 1 1.0

0.75

0.683

0.586 = 2-2

2 x 2

3 x 3

x

HOL = Head of Line

Only one of the cells in HOL position heading to the

same output port can be sent, the others have to wait

Discrete time (slotted time) system

Time slot = transmission time of a cell

The destination addresses distributed evenly among

the output ports

Very large oered trac; input buers always full

Throughput per output port p = probability that a

randomly chosen slot on the output line is occupied

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

1/n

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

p

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