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Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________

TEKS 11B Understand the law of conservation of energy and the processes of heat
transfer.
TEKS Lesson 11B: Heat Transfer
What are the ways in which energy changes can occur?
Thermochemistry is the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes of
state. As you learned in TEKS Lesson 11A, every substance has a certain amount of chemical otential
energy. !uring a chemical reaction, a substance is transformed into another substance with a different
amount of chemical otential energy.
"hen gasoline is burned in a car#s engine, the chemical otential energy is transformed into useful wor$,
which is used to roel the car. At the same time, however, heat is also roduced, ma$ing the car#s engine
e%tremely hot. Energy changes occur as either heat transfer or wor$, or a combination of both.
Heat, reresented by q, is energy that transfers from one ob&ect to another because of a temerature
difference between the ob&ects. 'ne of the effects of adding heat to an ob&ect is an increase in its
temerature. (eat flows sontaneously from a warmer ob&ect to a cooler ob&ect. )f two ob&ects remain in
contact, heat will flow from the warmer ob&ect to the cooler ob&ect until the temerature of both ob&ects is
the same.
What happens to the energy of the universe during a
chemica or physica process?
*hemical reactions and changes in hysical state generally involve either the absortion or the release of
heat. )n studying energy changes, you can define a system as the art of the universe on which you focus
your attention. Everything else in the universe ma$es u the surroundings. )n thermochemical
e%eriments, you can consider the region in the immediate vicinity of the system as the surroundings.
Together, the system and its surroundings ma$e u the universe.
!onservation of Energy A ma&or goal of thermochemistry is to e%amine the flow of heat between the
system and its surroundings. The law of conservation of energy states that in any chemical or hysical
rocess, energy is neither created nor destroyed. !uring any chemical or hysical rocess, the energy of
the universe remains unchanged. )f the energy of the system increases during that rocess, the energy of
the surroundings must decrease by the same amount. Li$ewise, if the energy of the system decreases
during that rocess, the energy of the surroundings must increase by the same amount.
"irection of Heat #ow )n thermochemical calculations, the direction of heat flow is given from the
oint of view of the system. (eat is absorbed from the surroundings in an endothermic process. )n an
endothermic rocess, the system gains heat as the surroundings lose heat. )n the figure that follows, the
system +the body, gains heat from its surroundings +the fire,. (eat flowing into a system from its
surroundings is defined as ositive- q has a ositive value here.
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TEKS
!hemistry
Lesson 11B
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
An exothermic process is one that releases heat to its surroundings. )n an e%othermic rocess, the system
loses heat as the surroundings gain heat. )n the figure below, the system +the body, loses heat to the
surroundings +the ersiration on the s$in, and the air,. (eat flowing out of a system into its surroundings
is defined as negative- here, q has a negative value.
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TEKS
!hemistry
Lesson 11B
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
Sampe %ro&em: 'ecogni(ing Endothermic and E)othermic %rocesses
'n a sunny winter day, the snow on a roofto begins to melt. As the melted water
dris from the roof, it refree.es into icicles. Show that you understand the rocesses of
heat transfer by describing the direction of heat flow as the water free.es. )s this
rocess endothermic or e%othermic/
1. Analyze Identify the relevant concepts. (eat flows from a warmer ob&ect to a cooler ob&ect. An
endothermic rocess absorbs heat from the surroundings. An e%othermic rocess releases heat to the
surroundings.
2. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem.
0irst, identify the system and the surroundings.
System1 water
Surroundings1 air
!etermine the direction of heat flow.
)n order for water to free.e, its temerature must decrease.
(eat flows out of the water and into the air.
!etermine if the rocess is endothermic or e%othermic.
(eat is released from the system to the surroundings.
The rocess is e%othermic.
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TEKS
!hemistry
Lesson 11B
Name ___________________________ Class ________ Date ___________
Lesson !hec+
1, 'eview What are the ways that energy conversion can occur?
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$, 'eate !ause and Effect Fill in the blanks: When two objects of different temperatures come in
contact, heat flows from the object at the ____________ temperature to the object at the
____________ temperature.
*, -nderstand Energy and .ts #orms Demonstrate that you understand the law of conservation of
energy by describing what happens to the energy of the universe during a physical or chemical
process
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0, -nderstand the %rocesses of Heat Transfer ! container of melted wa" stands at room
temperature #how that you understand the processes of heat transfer by identifying the direction of
heat flow as the li$uid wa" solidifies %s the process endothermic or e"othermic?
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TEKS
!hemistry
Lesson 11B