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IGCSE Revision Guide: Biology Photosynthesis

2.17: Describe the process of photosynthesis


and understand its importance in the conversion
of light energy to chemical energy.

1. Light energy is absorbed in the chlorophyll
2. That energy is used to make CO2 and water
into glucose.
3. Glucose is then used in respiration
4. Oxygen is also a product of this process.
2.19: Understand how varying carbon dioxide
concentration, light intensity and temperature
affect the rate of photosynthesis.

CO
2
If the level is decreased the rate of
photosynthesis will slow down.

Light If the level of light intensity is decrease
the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. This is
because of the energy provided is less, so the
reaction is slowed down.

Temperature If the temperature is decreased
the rate of photosynthesis wil decrease. If the
temperature is too high it will not be able to
photosynthesize.
2.18: Write the word equation and the balanced
chemical symbol equation for photosynthesis.

Carbon Dioxide + Water -> sunlightchlorophyll ->
oxygen + glucose

6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O -> 6O
2
+ C
6
H
12
O
6

2.20: Describe the structure of a leaf and how it is
adapted for photosynthesis.

Waxy Cuticle Found on the top of a leaf.
Prevent evaporation of water for the leaf
surface and to prevent microorganisms
for entering the leaf.

Upper Epidermis Top layer of cells in a
leaf. Cells are thin, flat and transparent
(no chloroplasts) to maximize
photosynthesis through light intensity.

Palisade Mesophyll Tightly packed and
contain many chloroplasts. Main job: to
photosynthesize.

Spongy Mesophyll Under the Palisade
Mesophyll. Loosely arranged and have
many air spaces, to allow CO
2
to diffuse
in to the cells and for Oxygen to diffuse
out of the cells (gas exchange).

Lower Epidermis Bottom layer of the
leaf, contains guard cells to open and
close the stomata. Open to allow gases in
and out. Closed at night to prevent water
loss.

Adaptions of the Leaf:

- Large Surface Area: More Sunlight
- Thin so gas exchange can happen
easily
2.21: Understand that plants require
mineral ions for growth and that
magnesium ions are needed for
chlorophyll and nitrate ions are needed
for amino acids.

Magnesium ions -> needed for
Chlorophyll
Nitrate ions -> needed for amino acids
2.22: Describe experiments to
investigate photosynthesis, showing
the evolution of oxygen from a water
plant, the production of starch and the
requirements of light.

Put pondweed underwater, change-
limiting factors count the bubbles or
oxygen displacement given off. Check
for starch using iodine.