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Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation

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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 1
Pre Pre- -blasting preparation blasting preparation
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 2
Rounding or smoothing of:
Sharp edges
Corners
Welds
Grinding of:
Laminations
Flame cut edges
Weld spatter
Pre Pre- -blasting preparation blasting preparation
involves the following activities involves the following activities
Notches minimum diameter: 30 mm
Inspected and approved before cleaning
See ISO 8501 Visual assessment of surface cleanliness
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 3
Remove using grinder
Undercuts exceeding classification ruling
should be repaired by welding and grinding.
Sharp profile peaks to be smoothed using
grinder
Lamination
Undercut
Manual weld bead
Pre Pre- -blasting preparation blasting preparation
Laminations, undercuts, welding seams Laminations, undercuts, welding seams
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 4
Steel preparation Steel preparation
Weld spatter, welding smoke Weld spatter, welding smoke
Weld
Weld
spatter
Areas at risk
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 5
A
B
Gas cut edge
A. Remove by grinder or disc sander.
B. Rolled steel sections normally have
round edges. Therefore can be
left untreated.
A. Remove visible spatter before grit-
blasting with grinder or chipping
hammer.
B. For spatter not readily removed,
remove using grinder/disc.
Sharp
edge
Weld
spatter
A
B
Steel preparation Steel preparation
Edges and weld spatters Edges and weld spatters
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 6
Grinding of sharp edges
Rounding of a sharp edge
Paint will not be able to
give adequate film
thickness over a sharp
edge
Rounding the edge
followed by stripe coating
gives an even film
thickness
This will improve the
lifetime of the paint
system
Pre-treatment: Grind_paint_edge1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 7
Cross section of
painted steel with a sharp edge
Paint applied with spray
Forms inferior coating thickness around the edge
Cd-4932-21
Steel
Paint
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 8
Cross section of painted steel construction
with well rounded edge
Paint applied by spray
Forms even thickness around the edge
Cd-4932-20
Steel
Steel
Paint
Paint
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 9
Grinding of sharp edges, welds etc.
Disc sander and disc grinder
Sander for removing mill
scale, paint and rust
Grinder for heavy grinding, such
as edges and weld beads
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 10
Steel support prior to
pre-blasting preparation
Sharp edges
Rust grade: A to B according to ISO 8501
Cd-4930-46
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 11
Disc grinding of a construction
Even a small construction may have a of sharp edges
Cd-4932-11
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 12
Edge rounded with disc grinder
A well rounded edge will ensure a sufficient paint film
over the entire construction
Cd-4932-12
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 13
Steel support after blast-cleaning to Sa 2
The sharp edges should have been rounded
prior to blast-cleaning
Cd-4930-47
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 14
Steel support after blast-cleaning to Sa 2
The sharp edges have been rounded prior to blast-cleaning: Good !
Cd-4930-48
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 15
Pre-blasting preparation
Grinding a small construction
Mark areas where
grinding are required
Remove weld spatters
Grind the welds
Grind the notches
Important to carry out
the grinding to improve
the life time of the paint
system
Pre-treatment: Grind_construction1
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 16
Early corrosion on sharp edge and spot welds
Paint has newly been applied
Exposed to wind and weather for approximately 2 weeks
Cd-4930-78
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 17
Insufficient pre-blasting preparation
Notch
Power tooling has been carried out
Sharp edge not grinded
Cd-4932-16
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 18
Grinding of notch with rotating file
Easy access with a rotating file
Cd-4932-18
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 19
Notch prior to
pre-blasting preparation
Construction with
notch must be
grinded
Welding flux has to
be removed
Sharp edges must
be rounded Cd-4932-17
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 20
Notches after
blast-cleaning to Sa 2
The sharp edges
of the notches
should have
been rounded
prior to blast-
cleaning.
Cd-4930-49
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 21
Notches after
blast-cleaning to Sa 2
The sharp edges
have been
rounded prior to
blast-cleaning:
Good !
Cd-4930-50
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 22
Small weld spatters
Even only one
small weld spatter
may be sufficient
to initiate corrosion
which with time
may lead to severe
problems
Cd-4930-45
NOTE:
Small failures
like this are
difficult to find
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 23
Cd-4930-39
Unacceptable weld.
Too rough and full of pinholes / pores
Weld spatters
close to weld
Re-welding and
grinding must
be carried out
prior to
reblasting and
painting
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 24
Remaining weld beads after removal of supports
welded on to the structure
Prior to pre-
treatment these
must be grinded
away to form an
acceptable
substrate for the
paint system
Cd-4932-04
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 25
Remaining weld beads after removal of
supports welded on to the structure
Prior to pre-
treatment
these must be
grinded away
to form an
acceptable
substrate for
the paint
system
Cd-4932-05
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 26
Disc grinding of weld beads, sharp edges etc.
by means of a disc grinder.
Other types of
discs are
available.
Some of them
will reduce the
amount of
sparks.
Cd-4932-06
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 27
Paint on a very poor weld. Pinholes and holidays
visible after second stripe coating
Neither re-welding nor grinding have been carried out
prior to application
Remedial Actions: Reblasting, re-welding, grinding and
blast -cleaning: COSTLY
Cd-4930-41
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 28
Paint applied on a very poor weld.
Pinholes and holidays visible after application
Neither re-welding nor grinding have been carried
out prior to application
Remedial Actions: Reblasting, re-welding, grinding
and blast -cleaning: COSTLY
Cd-4930-40
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 29
Weld with pinhole.
Visible through the paint system
Will lead to initiation of corrosion
Remedial actions: Remove the paint, re-weld and grind.
Apply paint
Cd-4930-42
NOTE:
Such defects may
be difficult to find
during inspection
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 30
Severe corrosion due to a
combination of several effects
Sharp edges
Rough welds
(not grinded)
Missing stripe
coating
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 31
Early corrosion of welds in a
water ballast tank
Rough weld seams.
Should have been
grinded
Probably in
combination with
poor stripe coating
Mud can be seen,
particularly on the
bottom
Cd-4930-75
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 32
Inside a tank after pre-blasting
and paint application
Pre-blasting
preparation
and application
of the paint
have been
carried out well
Cd-4930-51
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 33
Steel support after pre-blasting
and paint application
Pre-blasting
preparation
and application
of the paint
have been
carried out well
Cd-4930-52
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 34
Inside a tank after pre-blasting
and paint application
Pre-blasting
preparation
and
application of
the paint have
been carried
out well
Cd-4930-53
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 35
Not
recommended
solution for
exposure to
severe /
aggressive
environments
Spot welding leads to crevices
which are susceptible to corrosion
Cd-4930-36
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 36
Sharp edge an spot welds.
Early corrosion attack
Construction newly
painted
Exposed to humid
atmosphere
Corrosion initiates
after a short
period of time on
weak areas: Sharp
edges, crevices
and spot welds
Cd-4930-38
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 37
Spot welds after painting
Paint is unable to fill
gap between the
parts welded together
These area may be
susceptible to
corrosion
Not recommended for
exposure to severe /
aggressive
environments
Cd-4930-37
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 38
Pre-treatment
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 39
Plan the job thoroughly
Remove grease, oil, salt, fouling
Remove old, loose paint and
thick layers of rust
Pre-treatment
Remove dust (vacuum-cleaning)
Apply paint
Maintenance Maintenance
General surface treatment routine General surface treatment routine
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 40
Surface preparation includes removal of:
Salts
Deposits of oil.
Grease.
Foreign matter (other contaminants)
This is achieved by
UHPWJ.
Steam cleaning
Washing with detergent.
Other methods agreed upon.
Surface cleanliness Surface cleanliness
Important to remove all contaminants Important to remove all contaminants
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 41
Welding smoke and other contaminants have not
been removed prior to application
Small steel units welded on to a deck construction
Welding seams has been wire brushed
Welding smoke will result in osmotic blistering
CD 4934 no. 99
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 42
Vinkel sliper - olje
0589 - 13
4226 - 79
Equipment Contaminating the Surface
Oil contamination
from grinder
Reasons may be:
Oil leaking out of
equipment
Equipment has been
stored with oil
Lack of oil trap. (Air from
compressor contains oil)
Must be removed prior
to surface preparation
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 43
The surface shall be dry before application of cleaners
Apply the cleaner from below and upwards
Work systematically on all surfaces
Let the cleaner react, normally 1-5 minutes
Wash off from below and upwards
Final rinse from above and down
Degreasing by wiping the surface with
solvents and rags is not recommended.
Leads to spreading of a thin film of oil over a wider area
and increases risk of fire / explosion
Cleaning procedure Cleaning procedure
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 44
Apply the cleaner from
below and upwards
Work systematically on all
surfaces
Let the cleaner react,
normally 1-5 minutes
Wash off from below and
upwards
Final rinse from above and
down
Cleaning procedure Cleaning procedure
Pre-treatment / cleaning_container1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 45
Degreasing side bottom with emulsifying detergent to
remove oil, grease etc.
Should always be carried out before blast-cleaning
The detergents must be removed by Low pressure
water cleaning, LPWC (Around 250 - 300 bar)
CD 4932 no. 23
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 46
Removal of marine growth, salts and
loose paint by Low Pressure Washing
Important to start
the washing as
soon as the ship is
in the dry-dock
Usually pressures of
minimum 250 bar
at the nozzle
Some of the Self
Polishing
Antifoulings may be
removed
CD 4932 no. 25
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 47
Source:
- Drinking water
- Lake or river
- De-salination plants
Addition of inhibitors
Re-circulation
Cleaning, filtering
Certificates or analysis
The water quality can be The water quality can be
influenced by several factors influenced by several factors
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 48
Salts
Contaminations
Particles
Potential content Potential paint failures
Osmotic
blistering
Dust after drying
Loss of adhesion
Water quality: Water quality:
Potential risks from unknown sources Potential risks from unknown sources
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 49
Osmotic blistering
Osmotic blistering occurs when paint
has been applied on a surface contaminated
with water soluble salts
Paint technology \ Osmosis1
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 50
CD-1183 no.90
CD-1183 no.89
Formation of blisters as a function of salt Formation of blisters as a function of salt
concentration on substrate concentration on substrate (1 of 2) (1 of 2)
Salt: 0 mg/ m
Film: 150 microns
Salt: 60 mg/ m
Film: 150 microns
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 51
CD-1183 no.92
CD-1183 no.91
Formation of blisters as a function of salt Formation of blisters as a function of salt
concentration on substrate concentration on substrate (2 of 2) (2 of 2)
Salt: 100 mg/ m
Film: 150 microns
Salt: 200 mg/m
Film: 150 microns
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 52
Welding smoke is water soluble and
can only be removed by water
Solvents will not
remove the
welding smoke
completely
If not removed,
osmotic blistering
may occur.
Welding smoke
Area washed
with water
CD 0589 no. 11
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 53
Blisters close to weld, probably due to
welding smoke remaining on the the steel
Welding smoke is resoluble in water and will
create osmotic blistering
Galvanic difference between steel plate and
weld may aggravate the attack
CD 4934 no. 79
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 54
Tools and methods must be selected acc. to:
Paint specification
Area to be repaired
Degree of damage on surface
Existing paint system and pre-treatment
Tools available
Paint system to be applied
Required lifetime
Maintenance: Pre Maintenance: Pre- -treatment. treatment.
Selection of equipment and method Selection of equipment and method
See also ISO 8501 - 2
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 55
Portable blast-cleaning unit
Vacuum blasting equipment
Air-powered grinding equipment
(Available with and without vacuum unit)
Air-powered wire-brush
Needle gun
(Available with and without vacuum unit)
Air-powered chisel
Scraper with interchangeable hard metal
shears
Pre Pre- -treatment. treatment.
Recommended equipment Recommended equipment
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 56
Pre Pre- -treatment treatment
Production rates for various methods Production rates for various methods
Method
Time *
min/m
Achieved
standard
Blast cleaning
Power chiseling/wire brushing
Manual scraping / wire brushing
Power grinding
Manual scraping + power wire brushing
Power hammer / wire brushing
Power needle hammer / wire brushing
6
9
13
15
15
25
37
< Sa 3
< St 2
< St 2
< St 3
< St 3
< St 3
< St 3
Water jetting, UHPWJ 6 - 8
* Only time required for the pre-treatment itself is given
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 57
Example on a disc:
Non-woven type
Particularly used on
surfaces which can not be
blast-cleaned
Excellent for feathering of
paint edges
Will not polish the surface
as a mechanical wire
brush
Surface tolerant Mastic
paints are recommended
on such substrates
CD 4932 no. 50
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 58
The tool can be used as grinder and sander,
depending on the disc. Here: Disc-sander
Particularly used on
surfaces which can not
be blast-cleaned
May be difficult to
reach narrow spaces
and inside corners
Surface tolerant Mastic
paints are
recommended on such
substrates
CD 4932 no. 49
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 59
Pre-treatment of a tank.
Disc sanding of substrate
Part of a tank
Nice St 2
standard,
almost St 3
CD 0589 no. 99
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 60
Manual and rotating wire brushes
St 2 and St 3 can be
achieved
Manual wire brushing is
heavy work
Rotating wire brushes
speed up the production
rate
Risk of having a polished
surface
A polished substrate will
give poor adhesion to the
paint system
Pre-treatment: Wirebrush1
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 61
Wire brushing by hand to achieve given standards
according to ISO 8501
Production rate is slow: High cost
The quality is not as good as blast-cleaning or disc grinding
The surface tolerant Mastic paints are recommended on wire
brushed surfaces
CD 4932 no. 40
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 62
Steel substrate treated by hand and
mechanical power tool cleaning equipment
Hand wire brush,
approximately St 2
Mechanical wire brush
approximately St 3
CD 4932 no. 47
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 63
Hand wire brushed surfaces
Surfaces treated approximately to the
given standards according to ISO 8501
St 2 St 3
CD 4932 no. 41
CD 4932 no. 42
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 64
Different
Power tool cleaning methods
Reciprocating impact tools
Rotary impact or scarifying tools
Grinders or sanders
Available as:
Portable, hand-held or walk-behind models.
Vacuum assisted power tools, due to
environmental concerns
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 65
Equipment: Hand and power tool cleaning
Mechanical
rotating wire
brush
Needle gun
Hand Wire
brush
CD 4932 no. 39
Vibration white finger:
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 66
Rotary impact or scarifying tools
Peening flaps (Roto-Peen)
- Creates a surface profile, 25 to 75 microns
Rotary hammers - cutters
Nylon non-woven abrasive wheels
Rotary impact tools is a good choice
for removing coatings
Equipment with rotating abrasive head
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 67
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 68
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 69
Used on
main deck
of FPSO,
near
sensitive
equipment
Vacuum
attachment
collects
dust and
debris
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 70
Hand held rotary impact tool Roto - Peen
Rotating abrasive head: Peening flaps (Roto-Peen)
Creates a surface profile, 25 to 75 microns
What about deep pits ?
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 71
Blast cleaning is the best alternative.
Use mechanical cleaning only when
blast cleaning is not possible
Rotating wire brushes and disc-sanders
may give a polished surface
Selection of pre Selection of pre- -treatment method treatment method
Mechanical cleaning vs. blast cleaning Mechanical cleaning vs. blast cleaning
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 72
Correctly carried out, blast cleaning
gives an ideal surface for painting.
Blast cleaning is time saving
compared with mechanical cleaning
Surface preparation Surface preparation
Major advantages with blast cleaning Major advantages with blast cleaning
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 73
Pre Pre- -treatment treatment
Illustration of various blasting methods Illustration of various blasting methods
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 74
Introduction to blast-cleaning
Gives a good
surface profile
Several blasting
standards can be
achieved
Does not remove
salts from the
substrate
Pre-treatment: Blast-cleaning1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 75
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 76
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 77
Dry blasting
Benefits and limitations
Advantages
Surface remains dry
Good anchor pattern
for paint
No pre-rusting profile
Disadvantages
Does not remove salt
Does not remove oil
Creates dust
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 78
Reduced dust, but: restricted light, increased
humidity, reduced work space
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 79
Well equipped blast- cleaner
Hood with visor
Correct gloves for
blast-cleaning
Protective overall
Blast-cleaning nozzle
with a spot light
CD 4932 no.53
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 80
ED.-O-Matic
Vacuum Blasting EDUCT-O-MATIC
Equipment for small
repairs
Several types of nozzles
can be used. Makes it
possible to obtain all steel
profiles.
All types of abrasives can
be used
Possible to recycle the
abrasives
Handy size
Slow production rate
Environmentally friendly
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 81
Vakuum blser dekk
3 - 8
HWA
Vacuum Blasting on Deck
Equipment for
large, flat areas
High investment
costs
Heavy equipment
Environmentally
friendly
Soft profile due to
recycling of the
abrasives (Steel
shot)
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 82
Slurry and wet blasting
Benefits and limitations
Advantages
Surface profile is
achieved
Removes salt
Creates no dust.
Disadvantages
Flash rust may develop
on surface
Clean-up job
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 83
Wet Blasting: Mixture of water and sand
None, or very
limited, formation of
dust
Removes salt
Flash rust may form
on the steel
structure
May be necessary to
remove remaining
abrasives by hosing
down.
CD 4932 no. 26
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 84
Blast cleaning with Metallic or
Non-metallic abrasives to specified:
Cleanliness acc. to ISO 8501 - 1 or 2
Roughness acc. to ISO 8503
Surface preparation Surface preparation
Metallic or non Metallic or non- -metallic abrasives. metallic abrasives.
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 85
Chilled iron grit (angular)
High-carbon cast steel grit and shot (angular or round)
Low-cast cast steel snot (round)
Cut steel wire (cylindrical)
Natural abrasives: Garnet, Olivine, Staurolite
Slags: Copper refinery
Nickel refinery
Coal furnace
Fused aluminium oxide
Iron furnace
Abrasives: Two main groups Abrasives: Two main groups
1. Metallic abrasives
2. Mineral and slag abrasives
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 86
Metallic abrasives and Carborundum and Al.oxide) can
be recycled and are usually used more than once.
For stationary plants
Mineral and slag abrasives are generally
used only once.
For open blast-cleaning
Metallic / mineral abrasives Metallic / mineral abrasives
Re Re- -use use
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 87
Abrasives and Blast Profiles
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 88
Abrasives Abrasives
Initial particle shape Initial particle shape
Designation and initial
particle shape
Symbol
Shot - round S
Grit - angular, irregular G
Cylindrical - sharp-edged C
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 89
Type Abbreviation
Initial particle
shape Comparator 1)
Cast iron Chilled M/CI G G
Cast steel
High-carbon M/HCS S or G S
2)
Low-carbon M/LCS S S
Cut steel
wire
- M/CW C S
2)
Metallic (M) blast-cleaning abrasives
1) Comparator to be used when assessing the resultant surface profile. The method
for evaluating the surface profile by comparator is described in ISO 8503-2.
2) Certain types of abrasive rapidly change their shape when used. As soon as this
happens, the appearance of the surface profile changes and becomes closer to that
of the shot comparator
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 90
ISO 8504-2:1992 (E)
Non-metallic, natural abrasives
Type
Abbreviation
Initial particle
shape
Comparator
Silica sand
N/Si
Olivine sand N/OL
G G
Starolite N/ST S G
Garnet N/GA G G
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 91
Non-metallic (N) synthetic abrasives.
Iron furnace slag (Calcium silicate slags) N/FE
Copper refinery slag (Ferrous silicate slags)
N/CU
Nickel refinery slag
N/NI
Coal furnace slag (Aluminium silicate slags) N/CS
Fused aluminium oxide N/FA
G
G
G
G
G
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 92
Silica free :
Particle size :
Water soluble salts :
Hardness :
No oil :
< 1 % free silica
Size and dispersion
ISO 11127-2
25mS/m= 250 S/cm
Minimum 6 Moh
Check with water
Abrasives Abrasives
Important points to check Important points to check
Non - metallic abrasives
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 93
Productivity is directly proportional to:
Pressure at Nozzle
Capacity of the air compressor
Pressure at Nozzle 7 kg/cm = 100% productivity
Pressure at Nozzle 5,6 kg/cm = 66% productivity
Pressure at Nozzle 4,2 kg/cm = 50% productivity
Blast cleaning Blast cleaning
Factors influencing the production rate Factors influencing the production rate
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 94
Nozzle
Nozzleholder
Air
Blast Blast - - cleaning cleaning
Measure the air pressure at the nozzle Measure the air pressure at the nozzle
Rubber hose
Pressure
gauge
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 95
The blast hose shall have an opening
which is 3-4 times bigger than the
orifice of the nozzle.
Blast Cleaning Blast Cleaning
Rule of thumb: To avoid loss of pressure Rule of thumb: To avoid loss of pressure
Hose opening Nozzle opening
3 - 4 times
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 96
Standard nozzle abrasive speed: 300 Km/h at 7 bar
. ..
.
Venturi nozzle abrasive speed: 700 km/h at 7 bar
Blast cleaning: Blast cleaning: Venturi Venturi nozzles increase nozzles increase
the speed of the abrasives the speed of the abrasives
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Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 97
Corroded area. Subsequent spot blasting
Solid coating
Feathered required
Impact by abrasives
(SOURCE: Munger, C.G. Practical aspects of Coating Repair.
Materials Performance, Vol. 19, No 2 p. 46 (1980)
Blast cleaning
Impact damages may destroy overlapping zone
Originally
corroded area
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 98
Blast cleaning
Abrasives will damage the coating
Cracks due to direct
impact by abrasives
3-Coat paint
Corroded and
blast cleaned
Area with
reduced adhesion
Steel
Area require
feathering
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
50
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 99
Loose edges resulting from spot-blasting
carried out some time ago
Edges have not been feathered prior to application of the paint
The edges are weak points in the paint film
Corrosion attack initiates on such areas
CD 4934 no. 80
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 100
Rustkanter A/F
0589 - 76
Ship Side
Underwater Hull
Spot blasted hull
Thick old paint
creates sharp
edges
Loose edges has
lifted
Blistering, flaking
and corrosion has
developed shortly
after maintenance
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
51
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 101
Spot blasted ship side.
Many small spots gives many loose edges.
Untreated edges will usually result in corrosion.
Every edge of the old paint must be feathered.
Marking out a larger
area for complete
blasting, instead of
many small spots near
each other, gives fewer
edges and no damaged
paint between individual
spots (and perhaps a
better blast-standard?)
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 102
Spot blasting might be a cause
for future paint damages
Blast-cleaning destroys
the edges of the intact
paint film around the
damage
This results in poor
adhesion
Damaged paint edges
must be feathered
prior to application of
the new paint
Pre-treatment: Spotblasting1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
52
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 103
Blast-cleaning of welding seams and damaged shop
primer to Sa 2
The remaining shop
primer will be
accepted as Sa 2
if not anything else
is specified
Sweep blasting of
remaining shop
primer may be
required to have
sufficient anchor
pattern
CD 4932 no. 65
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 104
Only the corroded parts of the area
have been spot blasted (1 of 2)
This kind of blasting
is not
recommended
It was requested to
blast larger areas
to reduce the
number of loose
edges. (See next
photo)
CD 4932 no. 68
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
53
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 105
Originally spot blasted areas gives pitted
steel after further blasting. (2 of 2)
Pitted steel turn black
due to salts in the
pittings
The dark spots must be
washed with water to
remove salts and then
reblasted
Area originally covered
by intact paint show no
pitting and will remain
grey and keeps the
standard for a longer
period of time )
CD 4932 no. 69
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 106
Surfaces blast - cleaned
to various standards
Plate was originally partly rusty and partly painted.
Blast-cleaned approximately to the given standards
Sa 1 Sa 2 Sa 2
CD 4932 no. 61
CD 4932 no. 62
CD 4932 no. 63
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
54
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 107
Rust - 4 blst felt S/B
Test areas: Blasting Agreement
It may be a problem to
evaluate a surface
according to a
standard
Test areas are often
put up on the site to
make sure that the
actual standard
specified is followed
Agreement before the
work starts will help to
avoid later discussions
and disagreements
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 108
Maintenance blast-cleaning
of a ships side in a dry-dock
Full blast-
cleaning from
top side and
down is
required
Blast-cleaning
to the standard
Sa 2
CD 4932 no. 64
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
55
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 109
Pitted and corroded steel
after blast-cleaning
Corrosion has been
going on too long
The steel shows deep
pits, sharp edges and is
very uneven
Only seen after blast-
cleaning completed
Difficult for a paint
system to give
satisfactory protection
CD 4930 no. 82
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 110
Blast clean limited areas at a time
Remove all dust and abrasive residue
Protect with a quick drying
holding / blast primer
Continue treating the next area
Blast cleaning Blast cleaning
How to protect blasted areas How to protect blasted areas
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
56
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 111
Untreated or poorly treated welds
suffering early corrosion
Probably wire brushed without washing with fresh water
In addition, the paint film was too thin
CD 4930 no. 79
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 112
Corrosion due to back burning
Hot work on the
back side of the
painted surface
Premature rust
due to:
Insufficient pre-
treatment and
paint
application
CD 4930 no. 73
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
57
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 113
Scaffoldings must be completely cleaned
from grit before application
Grit may blow or fall into the wet paint and give a rough surface
and, at a later stage, initiation of corrosion
CD 4932 no. 77
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 114
Scaffoldings have not been cleaned well and
grit contaminate the paint film
The surface is not acceptable
Weak points in the film will lead to early corrosion
The adhesion is reduced
CD 4932 no. 78
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
58
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 115
Surface has not been well cleaned
Overpainting grit or foreign matters
Weak point in paint film
Entrapped air
Less adhesion
Corrosion will develop rapidly
CD 4932 no. 79
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 116
Water-jetting is an alternative
to blast cleaning.
Water-jetting has:
- Environmental
- Technical
- Practical
.benefits and drawbacks
Water jetting Water jetting
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
59
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 117
Low Pressure Water Cleaning (LPWC)
Less than 34 MPa (340 bar/5 000 p.s.i.)
High Pressure Water Cleaning (HPWC)
From 34 to 70 MPa
(340 to 680 bar/5 000 to 10 000 p.s.i.)
High Pressure Water Jetting (HPWJ)
From 70 to 170 MPa
(680 to 1 700 bar/10 000 to 25 000 p.s.i.)
Ultra-High Pressure Water Jetting
(UHPWJ)
Above 170 MPa (1700 bar/25 000 p.s.i.)
Water Water- -jetting jetting
NACE No. 5 / SSPC SP. 12 NACE No. 5 / SSPC SP. 12
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 118
An introduction to Ultra High
Pressure Water Jetting (UHPWJ)
High water pressures
(up to 2500 bar)
Manual equipment:
Heavy work
Different types of
nozzles can be
included in one
rotating nozzle unit
Removes water soluble
salts
Pre-treatment: Wj_equipment1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
60
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 119
Salt level on steel surface drastically reduced.
No dust produced.
No grit cost (water is usually cheaper).
Grit blasting uses 55 kg/m, costing 63,-/ton =
3,46/m.
Ultra High Pressure Water Jetting, UHPWJ needs 130
l/m, costing 0,80/ton = 0,10/m).
Close working of other trades possible.
Abrasives can be introduced if improved surface profile
is required.
Lower noise level than with grit blasting.
Water Water- -jetting jetting
Advantages Advantages
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 120
Removes water soluble salts
UHPWJ UHPWJ
Major technical advantage Major technical advantage
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
61
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 121
Flash Rusting.
Capital cost of equipment.
No additional surface
roughness (but will reveal
existing anchor pattern)
Equipment may be bulky for
narrow spaces (ballast tanks).
Water quality and availability
Water freeze below 0C
Water Water- -jetting jetting
Disadvantages: Disadvantages:
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 122
Limits for acceptable levels are not well
documented
Still: Flash rust is preferred to moisture /
Water
Flash rust will make inspection more difficult
Removal of salt reduces extent of flash rust
formation.
Flash rust may develop Flash rust may develop
on UHPWJ surfaces on UHPWJ surfaces
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
62
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 123
UHPWJ / Flash Rust (very light)
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 124
Formation of flash rust is less than expected.
The steel temperature increases.
Flash rust formation
depends on several
factors
Some times the
degree of flash rust
is less than expected
The water jet
supplies energy to
the steel
The temperature
increases and the
evaporation of water
will be quicker
Pre-treatment: Waterblast_flashrust1
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
63
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 125
Short water jetting gun,
only 40 cm long
Capacity 2000 Bar and 20 l / min
Almost no recoil. Is easily operated with only one hand
Rotating nozzle consisting of several individual nozzles
In many places not
allowed:
A short gun
represents a
larger hazard for the
operator
CD 4932 no. 34
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 126
Rotating nozzle for UHPWJ equipment. Up
to 2500 bar
Nozzles can be tailor
made to fit the
substrate to be cleaned
Angle and capacity of
the nozzles can be
varied
CD 4932 no. 35
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
64
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 127
Water jetting equipment suspended in a
wire connected to a reel
Less exhausting for
the operator:
Increased production
rate
This unit is designed
to clean flat areas
Four rotating nozzles
CD 4932 no. 36
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 128
UHPWJ Rotating head
with four individual nozzles
Bristles at the
circumference
restrict water and
debris from
spreading and
contaminating
adjoining areas
Vacuum unit
collects water &
debris
May be suspended
in a wire
CD 4932 no. 38
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
65
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 129
Dockmaster 3000
3 rotating
heads, each
with 4 clusters
of nozzles
Mounted on an
hydraulic arm
Vacuum
attachment
collects water
and debris
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 130
Dockmaster 3000
The hydraulic arm is mounted on a self-propelled vehicle
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
66
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 131
Dockmaster 3000 in action
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 132
Dockmaster 3000: good standard
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
67
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 133
Painting the UHPWJed area
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 134
UHPWJ robotic crawler: Joy-stick operated
On a ship in drydock
Tank farm:
externally on
storage tank
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
68
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 135
Hammelmann Spiderjet
Use vacuum force to attach to the hull
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 136
Types of Rust-converters
Phosphoric acid based (Layer of iron
phosphate on substrate)
Tannin based (Layer of iron tannate on
substrate)
Penetrating oils
Systems transforming rust to Magnetite
Systems incorporating corrosion
inhibitors
Other types may be available
Rust converters: Rust converters:
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
69
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 137
Surface preparation and painting
Light wire brushing is recommended for a
majority of the products.
Better surface preparation improves the
performance
Wash the substrate before applying the
paint (Otherwise: Excessive acids not
removed)
Many types of coatings may be used on top
Thicker paint films improve service life
Rust converters: Rust converters:
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 138
Experience
Rust may be only partly converted
(Thick rust layers)
Some of the acids may remain one the surface.
Salts in the rust will not be removed
(Washing with fresh water is required !)
In some cases, poor adhesion to the coating.
Blast cleaning or wire brushing give better
performance of the paint system than rust
converters
Rust converters: Rust converters:
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
70
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 139
CONCRETE
Surface preparation
The surface preparation is a critical factor to achieve a
long lasting performance.
The pre-treatment is perhaps even more important than
the application of paint.
Always start the pre-treatment procedure by removing
loose contaminants.
Apply a penetrating primer coat, essential for a good
result!
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 140
Concrete floors
The laitance has to be removed, using:
Blast cleaning
Grinding
High pressure water jet
Wash with acid, followed by fresh water
rinsing
This method contains a number of hazards, for which
reason we are reluctant to recommend it unless it is
carried out by an experienced professional contractor
Concentrated hydrochloric acid (33%)+ 1-2 parts of
water. CAUTION! Add acid to water
Rinsing + drying
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
71
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 141
The benefit of using water jetting
Low Pressure Washing (LPW)
<34 MPa (340 bar/5000 p.s.i. )
No dust produced
No need for rinsing with fresh water
Make imperfections in the surface visible
Skilled, trained professional personnel is needed
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 142
Laitance - What is it?
In particular during and after the molding
of concrete floors, lots of the lightweight
aggregates within the mixture floats to the
top and create a milky white / greyish
porous layer of a brittle material
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
72
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 143
Before pre-treatment
Laitance
(steel trowelled /
smoothed)
After pre-treatment
Laitance
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 144
Laitance
Typical example of a new
concrete floor: the whiter
the appearance, the worse
the laitance
On both sides of the
vacuum blasted area are
clear visible signs of
laitance
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
73
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 145
Vacuum-blast
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 146
Milling / Grinding
Frosio course handout: Section 06 Surface preparation
74
Frosio 06 Surface preparation slide # 147
1
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Rustgrades
A Steel surface largely covered
with adhering mill scale but
little, if any, rust.
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Rustgrades
B Steel surface which has begun
to rust and from which the
mill scale has begun to flake
2
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Rustgrades
C Steel surface on which the
mill scale has rusted away or
from which it can be scraped,
but with slight pitting visible
under normal vision
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Rustgrades
D Steel surface on which the
mill scale has rusted away and
on which general pitting is
visible under normal vision
3
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Blast-cleaning, Sa
Sa 1 Light blast cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease
and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill
scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign
matter.
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Blast-cleaning, Sa
Sa 2 Thorough blast cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease
and dirt, and from most of the mill scale,
rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any
residual contamination shall be firmly
adhering.
4
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Blast-cleaning, Sa
Sa 2 Very thorough blastcleaning
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease
and dirt, and from mill scale, rust, paint
coatings and foreign matter. Any remaining
traces of contamination shall show only as
slight stains in the form of spots or stripes.
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Blast-cleaning, Sa
Sa 3 Blast cleaning to visually clean steel
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease
and dirt, and from mill scale, rust, paint
coatings and foreign matter. It shall have a
uniform metallic color.
5
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Hand and power tool cleaning, St
St 2 Thorough hand and power tool
cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease
and dirt, and from poorly adhering mill
scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter.
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Hand and power tool cleaning, St
St 3 Very thorough hand and power tool
cleaning
As for St 2 but the surface shall be treated
much more thoroughly to give a metallic
sheen arising from the metallic substrate
6
COATING ADVISOR ACADEMY
Hand and power tool cleaning, FI
FI Flame cleaning
When viewed without magnification, the
surface shall be free from mill scale, rust,
paint coatings and foreign matter. Any
remaining residues shall show only as a
discoloration of the surface.