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# CONFIDENTIAL EC/APR 2007/ECW441

## UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FINAL EXAMINATION
COURSE
COURSE CODE
EXAMINATION
TIME
: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND FINITE ELEMENT
METHODS
: ECW441
: APRIL 2007
: 3 HOURS
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This question paper consists of five (5) questions.
2. Answer FOUR (4) questions only in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.
3. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.
4. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:
i) the Question Paper
ii) an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 2 EC/APR 2007/ECW441
QUESTION 1
a) Determine the root of the equation/(x) = -2x
2
+ 3x + 1.5 using Bisection method. Assume
the lower and upper initial values of x as 1 and 2 respectively and check that the
approximate percent relative error s
a
V* L. V
Given x, = and
new old
x
r
- x
r 100%
(12 marks)
b) For the same polynomial function as in (a) above, apply the Newton-Raphson method to
0
= 3 and do three iterations.
(13 marks)
QUESTION 2
a) Evaluate the integral of f(x) = 30-25x + 18x
2
+ 3x
3
- 0.5x
4
from a = 0 to b = 1.5
using;
i) the usual analytical method
ii) Simpson's 3/8 rule:
/ = ^ j [f(x
0
)+ 3/ K) + 3/(x
2
) + f{
Xl
)\ and h = (b-a)/3
Discuss the results.
(13 marks)
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 3 EC/APR 2007/ECW441
b) Solve the differential equation of = 12x
3
- 8x
2
+ 5.5x - 9
dx
i) Using Euler's method (without iteration) from x, = 0 at a step size of h = 0.5. The
initial condition at x = 0 is y = 1. Given that the new value of y is:
ii) Taking similar conditions as in (i) above compare the result using any known
modification of the Euler's method.
(12 marks)
QUESTION 3
For the following system of linear equations,
x -0. 25;; -0.25z = 50
-0.25x+ y- 0. 25z = 50
-0.25x+ z = 25
solve by using
i) Gauss Elimination method
ii) Gauss-Siedel Method
Carry out 3 iterations for the second method and discuss your results.
(25 marks)
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 4 EC/APR 2007/ECW441
QUESTION 4
a) With illustrations, explain the following terms with respect to Finite Element Methods :
i) Discretization
ii) Boundary condition
(10 marks)
b) A structural model shown in Figure Q4 is fixed at the ends and a concentric load of 80 kN
acts at point 2. By idealizing a truss element model having one degree of freedom acting
at each joint,
i) Sketch the finite element model,
ii) Develop the element stiffness matrix where F=k 8
iii) Determine the deflection value at point 2 and hence the reactions at points 1 and 3.
The geometrical properties of lengths (L) and cross sectional areas (A) are indicated
in the figure. Take Young's modulus, E = 200 kN/mm
2
.
, 80 kN
+ X
L, = 1.0m L
2
= 1.5m
Ai = 75 mm
2
A
2
= 1 00mm
2
Figure Q4
(15 marks)
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL EC/APR 2007/ECW441
QUESTION 5
a) State the differences between 2-dimensional truss and beam elements.
(5 marks)
b) Assemble the element stiffness matrix equations for the pin-jointed framework shown in
Figure Q5. The product AE for each member is 200 MN. Use finite element method.
Given that the stiffness matrix for element in global coordinates [K
e
\
G
is
c
2
cs
-c
2
-cs
cs
s
2
-cs
-s
2
-c
2
-cs
c
2
cs
-cs
-s
2
cs
s
2
where c = cos G and 5 = sin 0 and k is the stiffness property.
y
Figure Q5
END OF QUESTION PAPER
(20 marks)
Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL