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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 4, APRIL 2005

**Impedance, Bandwidth, and Q of Antennas
**

Arthur D. Yaghjian, Fellow, IEEE, and Steven R. Best, Senior Member, IEEE

**Abstract—To address the need for fundamental universally valid
**

deﬁnitions of exact bandwidth and quality factor ( ) of tuned antennas, as well as the need for efﬁcient accurate approximate formulas for computing this bandwidth and , exact and approximate expressions are found for the bandwidth and

of a general single-feed (one-port) lossy or lossless linear antenna tuned

to resonance or antiresonance. The approximate expression derived for the exact bandwidth of a tuned antenna differs from previous approximate expressions in that it is inversely proportional

to the magnitude 0 ( 0 ) of the frequency derivative of the input

impedance and, for not too large a bandwidth, it is nearly equal

to the exact bandwidth of the tuned antenna at every frequency

0 , that is, throughout antiresonant as well as resonant frequency

of

bands. It is also shown that an appropriately deﬁned exact

a tuned lossy or lossless antenna is approximately proportional to

0 ( 0 ) and thus this is approximately inversely proportional

to the bandwidth (for not too large a bandwidth) of a simply tuned

antenna at all frequencies. The exact of a tuned antenna is deﬁned in terms of average internal energies that emerge naturally

from Maxwell’s equations applied to the tuned antenna. These internal energies, which are similar but not identical to previously

deﬁned quality-factor energies, and the associated

are proven

to increase without bound as the size of an antenna is decreased.

Numerical solutions to thin straight-wire and wire-loop lossy and

lossless antennas, as well as to a Yagi antenna and a straight-wire

antenna embedded in a lossy dispersive dielectric, conﬁrm the accuracy of the approximate expressions and the inverse relationship between the deﬁned bandwidth and the deﬁned

over frequency ranges that cover several resonant and antiresonant frequency bands.

Index Terms—Antennas, antiresonance, bandwidth, impedance,

quality factor, resonance.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

**HE primary purpose of this paper is twofold: ﬁrst, to deﬁne
**

a fundamental, universally applicable measure of bandwidth of a tuned antenna and to derive a useful approximate

expression for this bandwidth in terms of the antenna’s input

impedance that holds at every frequency, that is, throughout the

entire antiresonant as well as resonant frequency ranges of the

antenna; and second, to deﬁne an exact antenna quality factor

independently of bandwidth, to derive an approximate expression for this exact , and to show that this is approximately

inversely proportional to the deﬁned bandwidth.

The average “internal” electric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric energies that we use to deﬁne the exact of a linear antenna are similar though not identical to those of previous authors [1]–[8]. The approximate expression for the bandwidth

Manuscript received October 2, 2003; revised September 14, 2004. This work

was supported by the U.S. Air Force Ofﬁce of Scientiﬁc Research (AFOSR).

The authors are with the Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA

01731 USA (e-mail: arthur.yaghjian@hanscom.af.mil).

Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TAP.2005.844443

**and its relationship to are both more generally applicable and
**

more accurate than previous formulas. As part of the derivation

of the relationship between bandwidth and , exact expressions

for the input impedance of the antenna and its derivative with respect to frequency are found in terms of the ﬁelds of the antenna.

The exact of a general lossy or lossless antenna is also re-expressed in terms of two dispersion energies and the frequency

derivative of the input reactance of the antenna. The value of

the total internal energy, as well as one of these dispersion energies, for an antenna with an asymmetric far-ﬁeld magnitude

pattern, and thus the value of for such an antenna, is shown

to depend on the chosen position of the origin of the coordinate system to which the ﬁelds of the antenna are referenced. A

practical method is found to emerge naturally from the derivations that removes this ambiguity from the deﬁnition of for a

general antenna.1 The validity and accuracy of the expressions

are conﬁrmed by the numerical solutions to straight-wire and

wire-loop, lossy and lossless tuned antennas, as well as to a Yagi

antenna and a straight-wire antenna embedded in a frequency

dependent dielectric material, over a wide enough range of frequencies to cover several resonant and antiresonant frequency

bands. The remainder of the paper, many of the results of which

were ﬁrst presented in [9], is organized as follows.

Preliminary deﬁnitions required for the derivations of the expressions for impedance, bandwidth, and of an antenna are

given in Section II.

In Section III, the fractional conductance bandwidth and the

fractional matched voltage-standing-wave-ratio (VSWR) bandwidth are deﬁned and determined approximately for a general

tuned antenna in terms of the input resistance and magnitude of

the frequency derivative of the input impedance of the antenna.

It is shown that the matched VSWR bandwidth is the more fundamental measure of bandwidth because, unlike the conductance bandwidth, it exists in general for all frequencies at which

an antenna is tuned. (Throughout this paper, we are considering

only the bandwidth relative to a change in the accepted power

and not to any additional loss of bandwidth caused, for example,

by a degradation of the far-ﬁeld pattern of the antenna.)

In Section IV, the input impedance, its frequency derivative,

the internal energies, and the of a tuned antenna are given in

terms of the antenna ﬁelds, and the relationship between bandwidth and is determined. In particular, the frequency derivative of the input reactance is expressed in terms of integrals of

the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the tuned antenna. These integrals of the ﬁelds are then re-expressed in terms of internal

Q

**1This ambiguity in the values of internal energy and
**

engendered by subtracting the radiation-ﬁeld energy of an antenna with an asymmetric far-ﬁeld

magnitude pattern is not mentioned or addressed in [1]–[8], probably because

these references concentrate on deﬁning the of individual spherical multipoles

which have far-ﬁeld magnitude patterns that are symmetric about the origin.

0018-926X/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE

Q

YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE, BANDWIDTH, AND

OF ANTENNAS

**energies used to deﬁne the
**

of the antenna and two dispersion energies: the ﬁrst dispersion energy determined by an integral involving the far ﬁeld and the frequency derivative of the

far ﬁeld of the antenna; and the second determined by an integral involving the ﬁelds and the frequency derivative of the

ﬁelds within the antenna material. The dependence in the value

of the far-ﬁeld dispersion energy on the origin of the coordinate system, and thus the ambiguity in (mentioned above),

is removed by the procedure derived in Section IV-E. An apparently new energy theorem proven in Appendix B is used to

derive a number of inequalities that the constitutive parameters

must satisfy in lossless antenna material. We ﬁnd that the Foster

reactance theorem, which states that the frequency derivative of

the reactance of a one-port linear, lossless, passive network is always positive, does not hold for antennas (whether or not the antenna is lossless because the radiation from the antenna acts as a

loss) [10, Sec. 8-4]. Although the general formula we derive for

the bandwidth of an antenna involves the frequency derivative

of resistance as well as the frequency derivative of reactance,

it is found that the half-power matched VSWR bandwidth of a

simply tuned lossy or lossless antenna is approximately equal

to

for all frequencies if the bandwidth of the antenna is not

too large. It is proven in Appendix C that the of an antenna

increases extremely rapidly as the maximum dimension of the

source region is decreased while maintaining the frequency, efﬁciency, and far-ﬁeld pattern—making supergain above a few dB

impractical. It is also shown in Appendix C that the quality factors determined by previous authors [1]–[3] are lower bounds

applied to electrically small antennas with

for our deﬁned

and

.

nondispersive

In Section V, we discuss how the internal energy, , and bandwidth of an antenna would be affected by the presence of mateor .

rial with negative values of

In Section VI, exact VSWR bandwidths are computed from

the magnitude of the reﬂection coefﬁcient versus frequency

curves obtained from the numerical solutions to tuned, thin

straight-wire and wire-loop lossy and lossless antennas ranging

in length from a small fraction of a wavelength to many wavelengths, as well as to a tuned Yagi antenna and a straight-wire

antenna embedded in a frequency dependent dielectric material.

for these antennas are computed from

The exact values of

the general expression (80) derived for the of tuned antennas.

The exact values of VSWR bandwidth and are compared to

the approximate values obtained from the derived approximate

formulas in (87) for VSWR bandwidth and . These numerical

comparisons conﬁrm that the approximate formulas in (87)

of a tuned antenna give much

for VSWR bandwidth and

more accurate values in antiresonant frequency ranges than the

conventional formula (81) (or its absolute value) commonly

used to determine bandwidth and quality factor.

Before leaving this Introduction, a few remarks about the usefulness of antenna may be appropriate. We can ask why the

concept of antenna is introduced when it is the bandwidth of

an antenna that has practical importance. One advantage of

is that the inverse of the matched VSWR bandwidth of an anis approximated by the value of

tenna tuned at the frequency

the of the antenna at the single frequency . The bandwidth

of some antennas may be much more difﬁcult to directly com-

1299

**Fig. 1. Schematic of a general transmitting antenna, its feed line, and its
**

shielded power supply.

**pute, measure, or estimate than the , which is fundamentally
**

deﬁned in terms of the ﬁelds of the antenna, is independent of

the characteristic impedance of the antenna’s feed line, and has

a number of lower-bound formulas derived in the published literature [1]–[3] (see Appendix C). The simple approximate, yet

accurate formulas for exact bandwidth and that are derived in

the present paper can be evaluated for an antenna and compared

to the lower bounds for to decide if the antenna is nearly optimized with respect to and bandwidth. It is often possible to

increase the bandwidth of electrically small antennas by simply

restructuring the antenna to reduce its interior ﬁelds and therefore its [11]. Moreover, because the of an antenna is determined by the ﬁelds of the antenna, Maxwell’s equations can

be used, as we do in Appendix C, to obtain fundamental limitations on the bandwidth of antennas. Finally, regardless of the

utility of the concepts of and bandwidth, it seems quite remarkable that at any frequency of most antennas, the , which

is deﬁned in terms of the ﬁelds of a simply tuned one-port linear

passive antenna, and the bandwidth, which is deﬁned in terms

of the input reﬂection coefﬁcient of the same antenna, are approximately inversely proportional (provided the bandwidth is

narrow enough) and that this approximate inverse relationship

is given by the simple formulas in (87) below.

II. PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS

Consider a general transmitting antenna (shown schematically in Fig. 1) composed of electromagnetically linear materials and fed by a waveguide or transmission line (hereinafter

referred to as the “feed line”) that carries just one propagating

frequency

. (The feed

mode at the time-harmonic

line is assumed to be composed of perfect conductors separated

by a linear, homogeneous, isotropic medium.) The propagating

mode in the feed line can be characterized at a reference plane

(which separates the antenna from its shielded power supply)

, complex current

, and complex

by a complex voltage

deﬁned as

input impedance

(1)

is the input resistance and the real

where the real number

is the input reactance of the antenna. The voltage

number

and current can also be decomposed into complex coefﬁcients

and

of the propagating mode traveling toward (incident) and away (emergent) from the antenna, respectively, such

that

(2)

It then follows that the normalization of the basis ﬁelds may be expressed as a nondimensional number equal to one. 2. with a series Assume the antenna is tuned at a frequency (as shown in Fig. APRIL 2005 (12) Fig. If the plane and refer to cona generator at quasistatic frequencies. the parameters . homogeneous. If an untuned antenna has . If the dimensional units of and are chosen as (meter) and they are consistent with Maxwell’s equations in the International System of mksA units. at . NO. . speciﬁcally (13) There may be evanescent modes on the feed line. pp. are in general functions of . a tuned antenna will not have equal to zero unless the chara reﬂection coefﬁcient acteristic impedance of its feed line is matched to the antenna at the frequency . itive series inductance where and are independent of frequency. deﬁnes a resonant frequency of the antenna which and an antiresonant frequency of the antenna if if . ventional circuit voltages and currents that do not serve as genuine modal coefﬁcients. Note that we are deﬁning a “tuned antenna” at the frequency as an antenna that has a total input reactance equal to zero at . its shielded power supply. and the characof the feed line can be chosen as a real teristic impedance positive constant independent of frequency with units of Ohms. we shall sometimes as simply the refer to the resonant or antiresonant frequency “tuned frequency”. one of the basis ﬁelds. are independent of frequency. Therefore. 4. 255–256]. its feed line. VOL. can always be made independent of frequency for feed lines composed of perfect conductors separated by linear. but the ﬁelds of these evanescent modes are assumed to be negligible on the reference plane . it is said to have a natural resonant frequency at if and a natural antiresonant frequency at if . with equal to the feed-line characteristic impedance. We shall use this fact in deriving (64) below. and can be deﬁned in terms of and as (3) The reﬂection coefﬁcient of the antenna is deﬁned as (4) As indicated. The frequency . 2) comprised of either a posreactance or a positive series capacitance . 255–256]. respectively. Schematic of a general transmitting antenna. the equations in (11) beequal to the internal recome deﬁnitions of and with sistance of the generator whose internal reactance is tuned to zero. which can be chosen to be independent of frequency [12. as well as . At the “resonant frequency” of a series RLC circuit with positive L and C. as well as the characteristic impedance . that is (6) Then the derivative of as with respect to Because the tuning inductor or capacitor is assumed lossless and in series with the antenna. the basis ﬁelds . X > 0 and at the “antiresonant frequency” of a parallel RLC circuit with positive L and C. The equations corresponding to (1)–(4) for the tuned antenna can be written as (9) (10) (11) is the unit normal (pointing toward the antenna) on where simply cuts two wire leads from the plane . and . X < 0. either or . pp. 2These deﬁnitions of resonance and antiresonance come from the behavior of the reactance of series and parallel RLC circuits. Also. and . For the TEM mode on a coaxial cable.1300 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. to make the total reactance (5) equal to zero at . 53. at their natural frequencies of oscillation. in addition to . . The tangential electric and magnetic ﬁelds on of the feed line can be written in terms the reference plane of the of real electric and magnetic basis ﬁelds and cursingle propagating feed-line mode with voltage rent . In that case. then has units of Volts.2 For the sake of brevity. that is (14) can be written (7) or simply as (8) at the frequency . and a series reactance X . Alternatively. isotropic materials [12. has units of Amperes.

the matched VSWR bandwidth does not suffer from these limitations. Deﬁning the radiation resistance and the loss resistance of the antenna as as .YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. we have . With the help of (9). the conductance may not possess a maximum and consequently the conductance bandwidth may not exist in these antiresonant frequency ranges. Moreover. A. AND OF ANTENNAS With the help of (14) we can determine various expressions accepted by the antenna for the total power 1301 deﬁnes what is commonly called the matched VSWR bandwidth. FORMULAS FOR THE BANDWIDTH OF ANTENNAS The bandwidth of an antenna tuned to zero reactance is often deﬁned in one of two ways. we Having tuned the antenna at where by taking the can ﬁnd the frequency frequency derivative of the expression for in (21) and setting it equal to zero to get (23) . unlike the conductance bandwidth. the functions With their derivatives can be expanded in Taylor series about (24a) (24b) (24c) (24d) which can be substituted into (23) to obtain for small III. The conductance bandwidth for an antenna tuned at a freis deﬁned as the difference between the two frequenquency cies at which the power accepted by the antenna. and a simple approximate expression for the conductance bandwidth can be found as follows. This means that and thus it is not zero at in general the conductance will not reach a maximum at the frequency . (As we shall show in Section III-B. is well-deﬁned for all frequencies at which the antenna is tuned to zero reactance. in antiresonant frequency ranges where both the resistance and reactance of the antenna are changing rapidly with frequency. the conductance will peak at a frequency much closer to than the bandwidth. Also. The radiation resistance is always equal because the power rato or greater than zero diated by the antenna is always equal to or greater than zero . Conductance Bandwidth (15) or (16) The superscript in (15) denotes the complex conjugate and in (16) is the input conductance of the antenna. namely. We shall show that the matched VSWR bandwidth. The ﬁrst way deﬁnes what is commonly called the conductance bandwidth and the second way and (25) or (26) . the conductance at a frequency of an antenna tuned at the frequency can be written as (21) We can immediately see from (21) that there is a problem with using conductance bandwidth.) Well away from the antiresonant frequency ranges of most is much smaller than antennas. so that . that the derivative of evaluated at equals (22) unless . the solid angle integration element equals with being the usual spherical coordinates of the position vector . we have (17) so that (18) The power radiated can also be expressed in terms of the far ﬁelds of the antenna (19) where is a surface in free space surrounding the antenna and its power supply. The impedance of free space is denoted by in (19) and is the unit normal out of . the loss resistance is equal to or greater if the material of the antenna is passive than zero . The power accepted by the antenna equals the power dissipated by the antenna in the form of power radiated by the antenna plus the power loss in the material of the of the antenna antenna. and the complex is deﬁned by far electric ﬁeld pattern (20) with being the speed of light in free space. is a given fraction of the power accepted at the frequency . BANDWIDTH. excited by a constant value of voltage .

shown at the bottom of the page. The value of the frequency ranges where constant . (an assumption that holds if . given by frequency under the additional assumption that the terms are negligible. (32) yields (27) (33) in the peak of the conductance That is. assuming Fante [3] for the half-power bandwidth . VOL. are zero at of the left-hand side of (30) about recasts (30) in the form has been of (31). APRIL 2005 In resonant frequency ranges well away from antiresonant ranges. in resonant frewhere use has been made of quency ranges we can assume that and. as discussed above. we are well within the resonant . in which because for replaced by well within resonant frequency ranges. We can re-express (29) as in (30). we can assume so that (26) reduces to . shown at the chosen bottom of the page. 4. whose left-hand side is more suitable to a than the left-hand side of (29) power series expansion about because the function . NO. Rhodes [13] postulates the “half-power bandwidth” of an “electromagnetic system” as (35) as the of the electromagnetic system and He then deﬁnes ﬁnds “stored electric and magnetic energies” that are consistent and (59) below. The expression (34) for the fractional conductance bandwidth of tuned antennas was derived previously by . and its . is assumed . is not contained in the denominator of (30). Since the conductance on the left-hand side of (30). a Taylor series expansion ﬁrst derivative. we ﬁnd the two frequencies the accepted power is times its value at is given from (21) as (29) provided. equivalently. In other words. therefore. which lies in the range . Moreover. the frequency shift of an antenna tuned at the frequency in a resonant freis given by the simple relationship quency range in (27) involving only the input resistance and the ﬁrst frequency derivatives of the input resistance and reactance of the antenna peaks at a at the tuned frequency . an assumption that is generally satisﬁed if . 53. (35) as well as (34) does not accurately approximate the bandwidth of tuned antennas in antiresonant frequency ranges (except at antiresonant frequencies ). which rapidly varies from its value of zero at . The shortcomings of this with this method are that (35) is postulated as the half-power bandwidth rather than of a general antenna and that is deﬁned as as a physical quantity determined independently of from the ﬁelds of the antenna. with B. is therefore The fractional conductance bandwidth given approximately by (34) (28) To determine the conductance bandwidth about the shifted at which peaks when the antenna is tuned frequency at which at . Again. Matched VSWR Bandwidth (32) The matched voltage-standing-wave-ratio (VSWR) bandwidth for an antenna tuned at a frequency is deﬁned as the (30) (31) .1302 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. which can always be satisﬁed if is chosen small enough). we ﬁnd under the assumptions that we are well within resonant frewhere and quency ranges and do not change greatly over the bandwidth or. Evaluating the second derivative in (31).

Then the half-power bandwidth extend over all these natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies even though there will be a resonant peak in at each natural resonant or antiresonant frequency that has (say its own bandwidth for some such that ). For half-power VSWR bandwidth. that is. at which the magnitude squared of the reﬂection coefﬁcient equals (the constant is assumed ). which can always be satisﬁed if alently. A comparison of (41) with (34) reveals that under their stated conditions of validity (42) exists. IV. exists at all frequencies (for small enough ). wherever the conductance bandwidth namely outside the antiresonant frequency ranges. A. and . The approximate formula for bandwidth in (41) should be applied judiciously to antennas that are designed to have a combination of two or more natural resonances and antiresonances at that are so close together that versus has closely spaced peaks the curve of equal to unity at these frequen. is reasonably well approximated at all tuned frequencies by the simple expression or are zero. . an explicit expression for in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁelds is not needed in the derivation of and its relationship to the bandwidth of a tuned antenna. (41) is a general result for antennas that has not been established previously. BANDWIDTH. determined by (37) unlike the conductance bandwidth. the matched VSWR bandwidth is a more fundamental. the evaluation of the fre. universally applicable deﬁnition of bandwidth for a general antenna than conductance bandwidth. if greatly over the bandwidth (which can always be satisﬁed if is chosen small enough). Bringing the denominator from the left-hand side of (37) to the right-hand side and rearranging terms to remove the rapidly from the denominator on the left-hand varying function side of (37) produces (38) Expanding the left-hand side of (38) in a Taylor series about we ﬁnd . Therefore. in terms of the elecquency derivative of the reactance. Field Expressions for Accepted Power and Input Impedance To obtain expressions for the input impedance of the antenna shown in Fig. The formula in (41) approximates the bandwidth of each of these individual minor resonant and antiresonant peaks with some that is less than . The matched has the distinct advantage over VSWR bandwidth the conductance bandwidth of existing at every (for small enough ). As a lead-in to the desired . (39) under the assumption that the terms are negligible. with respect to frequency evaluated at . equivbandwidth (conditions that hold if . apply the complex Poynting’s theorem [10. This means that the matched VSWR bandwidth. The This assumption is generally satisﬁed if are solutions to (39) for (40) so that the fractional matched VSWR bandwidth takes the simple form (41) which holds for tuned antennas under the sufﬁcient condiand do not change greatly over the tions that or. Then the magnitude the feed line equals squared of the reﬂection coefﬁcient can be found from (12) as (36) Both and its derivative with respect to are zero at . is chosen small enough). (1-54)] to the inﬁnite volume .YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. in addition to . we begin by deriving general expresexpression for of an antenna tuned at sions for the input impedance in terms of the ﬁelds of the antenna. for example. or negative (but not both and too close to zero). throughout both the antiresonant and resonant frequency ranges. that is. may cies. On the other hand. the derivative of impedance quires. that is. has a minimum at for all values of Consequently. or. tromagnetic ﬁelds of the antenna is crucial to the derivation of and its relationship to bandwidth. within both tuned frequency and antiresonant freresonant and do not change quency ranges. AND OF ANTENNAS 1303 difference between the two frequencies on either side of at which the VSWR equals a constant . at which the antenna is tuned the frequency and matched to the feed line . provided the characteristic impedance of chosen . (41) even in frequency bands where close to zero. As far as we know. As we shall see. Moreover. equivalently. FORMULAS FOR IMPEDANCE AND AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO BANDWIDTH The formula for matched VSWR bandwidth given in (41) re. 2 tuned at the frequency . .

that is. APRIL 2005 outside the volume of the shielded power supply. Sec. the permittivity dyadic. 4. [16. we ﬁnd from (43) that (48) Since for all values of and in passive material. (54) implies that a material is passive (lossy or lossless) if and only if its associated Hermitian “loss” matrix is positive semideﬁnite [14]. with rent density. Assuming the involume of the series tuning reactance tegral of the Poynting’s vector is zero over the shielded surface of the power supply and using (13)–(14). can be written as (53) in which the subscript “ ” on a dyadic denotes its transpose. and are the permeability dyadic. Since . spatially nondispersive constitutive relations (51) where . 53.1]. and are.1304 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. and [16. All the ﬁeld vectors as well as the real and imaginary parts . 5. that (57) If the material is reciprocal. respectively. the vector being the currespectively. . Sec. and are the permeability and permittivity of free where space and is the unit dyadic. tric and magnetic vectors are denoted by . VOL. functions of both frequency of and the spatial position vector . and the magnetoelectric dyadics. in general. With the constitutive relations in (51). a property that can be expressed symbolically as and (56) (49) Of course. 5. that is tuned frequency (50) In lossless material is and the loss matrix is zero. NO. The usual elecand . as in (17) (52) (44) and is given in terms of the ﬁelds by (19) The power radiated and the power loss is given as (45) in passive material.2]. it is assumed that the antennas are linear. . [15]. With the most general linear. where which equals the total power dissipated by the antenna. the reactance of the antenna is equal to zero at the . antenna material. the reactance in (49) and (50) of the antenna tuned at the frequency can be written as (43) where. composed of materials governed by linear constitutive relations that relate and to and . and in . The includes the volume of the antenna material that volume lies to the right of the feed-line reference plane . the volume includes the plane . Outside the volume of the . Then the power accepted. the power loss and power accepted in (45) and (46) become (46) The efﬁciency (54) of the antenna is deﬁned as (47) (55) which has a value equal to or less than unity. we ﬁnd Throughout the derivations in Sections II and III. Therefore. The closed surfaces of the volumes and have the feed-line reference in common.

(64) can be rewritten as and (62) wherein it can be noted that and must both be positive (or —a result that zero) in passive material to ensure that also follows from (57) and (58). 451] (58b) these equations for . Second. the expression for given in (63) is not needed in the derivation of the and its relationship to the bandwidth of the quality factor tuned antenna and thus such an exercise proves unnecessary. The values of and the integral over in (64) are both independent of the position of the origin of the coordinates. The expression in (64) was derived by Rhodes [13]. respectively. BANDWIDTH. On the other hand. . We do not want to do this.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. value because all the other terms in (64) are ﬁnite. AND OF ANTENNAS For the simple isotropic constitutive relations (58a) 1305 is derived in Appendix A (see (A. this expression cannot be used directly in the derivation of . we shall show in Section IV-E that the square-bracketed energy (“reactive energy”) and the last integral in (64) are each dependent on the position of the origin of the coordinate system in which the integrals are evaluated. Each of the two integral terms inside the square brackets of (64) approaches a posi. Using the general constitutive relations in (51). First. can be written from The derivative of the resistance. Field Expressions for the Frequency Derivative of Impedance and for Internal Energies The formulas for conductance bandwidth and matched VSWR bandwidth given in (34) and (41). at . however. antenna is crucial to the derivation of and its relationship to the bandwidth. in all of our numerical work (see Section VI) we have found that the inverse relationship between the exact deﬁned with this alternative reactive energy and the exact bandwidth does not hold accurately in the antiresonant bands of tuned antennas. the evaluation of the frequency derivative of the . there is little physical justiﬁcation for including this integral as part of the average reactive energy. [17] in the less general form given with the isotropic permeability and permittivity in the constitutive relations (58). the one in. subtracts the inﬁnite energy in the radiation ﬁelds volving from the inﬁnite energy in the total ﬁelds to leave a ﬁnite average “reactive energy” involving “static” and “induction” ﬁelds. The volume radius surrounding the antenna system. For antennas with asymmetric far-ﬁeld magnitude patterns. as we shall see below. A more useful expres- (65) . As the second integral term inside the square brackets. that is. and the subscripts “ ” indicate that the input current at the reference plane in the feed line of the antenna is held constant with frequency during the indicated is capped by a sphere of differentiations. but together they approach a ﬁnite tive inﬁnite value as .15)) by comsion for bining Maxwell’s equations with the frequency derivative of Maxwell’s equations to get with complex permeability and permittivity given by [10. however. the frequency derivative of holding the feed-line current constant with frequency and evaluated at the tuned frequency . The ideal choice of the origin of the coordinate system is discussed in Section IV-E. and thus the sum of the square-bracketed energy plus the last integral in (64) is independent of the position of the origin of the coordinates. that is. for two reasons. and become (59) (60) (64) (61) The primes indicate derivatives with respect to evaluated at the tuned frequency . (48) as (63) in which . require the derivative of impedance with respect to frequency evaluated . The expression corresponding to (64) for perfectly conducting lossless antennas was derived by Levis [18] and Fante [3]. B. We could have combined the entire last integral in (64) with the square brackets of (64) to get an alternative “reactive energy” that is independent of the chosen origin for all antennas. However. in (63) to The expression (55) or (62) can be inserted for in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁelds of the tuned get antenna. in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁelds of the reactance. p. Unfortunately. Taking the frequency derivative of (52) and setting obviously produces an expression for in terms of the antenna ﬁelds.

in addition. however. Sec. Nonetheless. However.1306 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. a property expressible symbolically as (70a) (71) This equation implies that the frequency derivative of the reactance (actually ) of a lossless and nonradiating antenna is equal to the “internal energy.3]. VOL. 84]. The last part of Appendix B proves that in a lossless medium. electric. treating . 88] and Landau et al. they would equal the amounts of energy one could quasistatically extract from these magnetic and electric ﬁelds. 275] for our purposes. 4. p. (69) reduces (65)–(67) to (68) if and the contributions to and from and are negligible (so that and ). and as internal energies of the antenna in order to deﬁne a quality factor for the antenna. Equation (71) remains valid if the tuned is replaced by any frequency at which the anfrequency tenna is lossless and nonradiating but untuned. NO. the formula in (52) for the reactance at any frequency can generally only be rewritten in terms of these ﬁnite energies as The inequalities in (70) and thus (69) can also be proven from the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations in a manner analogously to the proofs in [15] and [19. [19. and ] at any frequency can be gies [ deﬁned by the formulas (67a)–(67c) evaluated at any frequency instead of . and magnetoelectric energies of the tuned antenna. MoreFor lossless antenna material. . p. we shall ﬁnd the satisfying result that provided the bandwidth of the antenna is narrow enough. and The energies in (65) and (67d)–(67e) denoted by are dispersive quantities (in that they depend on the frequency derivative of the ﬁelds) associated with the power dissipated by . the left-hand side of (69) equals the average reversible kinetic plus potential energy of the charge carriers in a ﬁnal time-harmonic ﬁeld that . then (69) which is equivalent to the associated Hermitian susceptibility energy matrix being positive semideﬁnite [14]. it is conceivable that negative for certain lossy antennas. (57) shows that over. the antenna may contain dispersive materials. it is possible to have negative values of the ﬁrst could be integral in (71) and. energy relations are used in Appendix B to prove that if the antenna material is lossless in a frequency window about . respectively. we shall refer to . tracted from them. they are not just quasistatic energies and. and as the average “internal” magnetic. that is. In lossy media.” which is greater than or and thus always greater equal to than or equal to zero (Foster reactance theorem for lossless nonradiating antennas or purely reactive one-port passive terminations [21. 4. They are ﬁnite and have dimensions of and have the far-ﬁeld radiation energies subenergy. If in addition to the antenna being lossless in a frequency window about . In reality. electric. is built up gradually from a zero magnitude at Using the terminology of Brillouin [20. 53. thus. Sec. APRIL 2005 with (66) The energy relations in Appendix B also reveal that the real parts of the elements of lossless (in a frequency window about ) constitutive parameters obey the inequalities and (70b) (67a) (67b) (67c) (67d) (67e) Note that the ﬁnite magnetic. it is also nonradiating. and magnetoelectric ener. constitutive parameters that are strongly frequency dependent. and if they were the energies in quasistatic ﬁelds in free space or nondispersive media.

that Because . at a natural of an antenna that can be modeled by resonant frequency negligible but and an RLC series circuit with nonnegligible (because the inductor and capacitor is and . however. 18 and 19). In (75). reduce to (73) are regardless. the energy expressions in (67a)–(67d) become (72a) (72b) (72c) (72d) The inequalities in (70). Unlike the power loss and power radiated (each of which cannot be negative). If the diameter or resistivity of the wire varies along the wire. the primes indicate differentiation means that with respect to frequency and the subscript the frequency derivative is taken with the input current that feeds the antenna held constant (independent of frequency). However. In [9] we deﬁned and and the associated in (78) below without these in (78) that derivative terms. BANDWIDTH. the Foster reactance theorem. is the current density at the surface of the wire and where is the radial distance from the center of the wire. (43)].YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. ﬁlled with a material that has a nonnegligible respectively) (77a) of an antenna Similarly. which says that a one-port linear. in which case (71) holds. will be a function of . For example. (75) is replaced by (76) The formula in (75) is used in Section VI to numerically evaluate for lossy wire antennas. For that in (76) and since . the energies . incidentally. For thin-wire . lossless. . and . the dispersion energy ductivity of the wire material and in (72d) reduces to 1307 is the total current ﬂowing in the wire at the position along the wire. the energy equal when . As usual. Therefor fore. The need to include the derivative terms in the used to deﬁne is conﬁrmed in the Numerical Results Section VI-D for a straight-wire antenna embedded in a frequency dependent dielectric material (see Figs. and . If were deﬁned without the and terms included in . antennas would not include the derivatives of and the would not closely approximate the inverse of . then for these RLC and . The material-loss dispersion energy given by (67d) or (72d) requires a knowledge of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in the material of the antenna. respectively. the sum of these “dispersion energies” can be negative as well as positive or zero and in (65) can be negative as well as positive or zero. It then follows from (64) that must be deﬁned as shown in (67a)–(67c) with the derivative terms included. which hold in material that is lossless in a frequency window about . where is the conlossy antennas with . the tuned antenna resonant frequency ranges can usually be approximated by a series RLC circuit. it follows approximation. unless the antenna does not hold for antennas even if is not only lossless but does not radiate. at a natural antiresonant frequency that can be modeled by an RLC parallel circuit with negligible but and nonnegligible (74) If the cross section of the wire is circular and the “skin depth” of the current density is much smaller than the diameter of the wire. include the derivative terms with . AND OF ANTENNAS the antenna as power loss and power radiated . eq. and are missing from the expression for (Because both in [5.) with With the simple isotropic constitutive relations in (58). of whether the values of positive or negative. Within . (74) further reduces to (75) under the approximation . is the resistance per unit length of wire and (77b) For the parallel RLC circuit. in order to deﬁne a is proportional to the inverse of the matched VSWR fractional must bandwidth given approximately in (41). If the current were uniform across the wire as in a lumped circuit resistor carrying a current . given by (67e) can be The far-ﬁeld dispersion energy evaluated from the antenna’s complex far electric ﬁeld pattern deﬁned in (20). and (76) is applied in Appendix D to lumped resistors in series and parallel RLC circuits. it is mistakenly concluded in [5] that the Foster reactance theorem holds at all frequencies for antennas . and . within resonant frequency ranges. and are negligible. passive network is always positive.

where R can be a funcin Appendix D for tion of . namely. as bandwidth ( in (34). It is also shown in Appendix C that the quality factors determined by previous authors [1]–[3] are lower bounds for our deﬁned applied to electriand . one ﬁnds (87) and do not change greatly over the bandprovided width of the antenna (assumptions that hold if the bandwidth is narrow enough. see in Fig. 53. in the previous subsection) with Formulas for in terms of ﬁelds are given by means of (66)–(67) and formulas for the power accepted by the antenna are given by means of (15)–(19) and (55). the formula (80) rather same value of than (78) is used to compute the exact values of for various antennas because it is easier to numerically compute for these antennas than to numerically evaluate the integrals in used in (78). we assume the power loss and power radiated can both be approximated by ohmic loss in a resistor of a series RLC circuit. because of the term . Fante [3] assumes that (80) is a valid expression for if . yet they are exact and thus produce the . In particular. efﬁciency. since quency ranges away from antiresonant fre- (83) (80) The expressions on the right-hand sides of (78) and (80) are very different in form. (67a)–(67c) that deﬁne Especially note that the in (80) differs from both the conventional formula for the quality factor [1] At an antiresonant frequency .) As noted in (35). Comparing the approximate formula for the quality factor in (86) with the approximate formula for the matched VSWR fractional bandwidth in (41). Furantennas. Away from antiresonant frequency ranges of tuned and usually . and far-ﬁeld pattern. VOL. that is. neither accurately approximates the exact in (78) and (80) of tuned antennas in antiresonant frequency ranges. we assume that tuned antennas can be approximated by a tuning inductor or capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit. NO. In Section VI. . in general. An evaluation of in Appendix D for such a tuned parallel RLC circuit reveals that (84) so that (81) and from Rhodes’s formula in (35) above. Evaluating such a series RLC circuit reveals that it’s value is small enough to make the second term on the right-hand side of (80) negligible compared to the ﬁrst. 19. and for half-power matched VSWR bandwidth) in (81) nor of tuned antennas. within resonant frequency ranges (79) so that can be expressed as and Its Relationship to (82) or. Such an expression does not produce an accurate approximation to and bandwidth in antiresonant frequency bands (except at antiresonant frequencies with ). as well as are negligible. equal .) The formula in and (81) is commonly used to determine the quality factor and the for half-power conductance bandwidth. 4. . Rhodes [13] deﬁnes by the expression in (87) with replaced by (and ). away from antiresonant frequency ranges. holds for all . of an antenna inIt is proven in Appendix C that the creases extremely rapidly as the maximum dimension of the effective source region is decreased while maintaining the frequency. APRIL 2005 C. In general. Deﬁnition and Exact Expressions of Q The quality factor reactance at the frequency as for an antenna tuned to have zero can now be deﬁned (78) in the deﬁnition Absolute value signs are placed about in (78) to allow for hypothetical antennas (mentioned of . cally small antennas with nondispersive (85) Inserting (85) into (80) yields (86) which. combined with (83). for the sake of evaluating .1308 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. in (80) to get an approximate expression for that can be immediately related to the bandwidth of the tuned antenna. . This implies that supergain above a few dB is impractical. and can be written from (65) as D. (Rhodes [13] assumes (mistakenly) that the right-hand side of (80) is not a valid expression for because it does not. Approximate Expression for Bandwidth We can estimate the total dispersion energy. Therefore. thermore.

is independent of the origin of the coordinate system. into . In the following Section IV-E. In this derivation. the approximations in (86) and (87) have exhibited high accuracy throughout both resonant and antiresonant frequency ranges. As discussed the for antennas with asymmetric in Section IV-B. of course. the with frequency to make derivation of (86) breaks down if or in the RLC series and parallel circuit antenna models of Appendix D become too large and one would not expect the exact to be a highly accurate approximation to the inverse of the exact bandwidth. the value of far-ﬁeld magnitude patterns depends on the position of the origin of the coordinate system. Consequently. and tuned by a linear passive circuit. it is emphasized that not every tuned antenna has to obey the inverse relationship between bandwidth and given in (87). If the magnitude of the far-ﬁeld pattern is symmetric about the origin. E. Then. respectively. BANDWIDTH. which is independent of the origin of the coordinates. If the antenna contains nonlinear or active materials and tuning elements. has a serious limitation. passive. the bandwidth could conceivably be appreciably widened without decreasing commensurately the internal energy and (as deﬁned in (78)) of the antenna. the value of the last integral in (64). as well as the ambiguity in with respect to the chosen origin for the 1309 far-ﬁeld pattern of the antenna. Thus. Nonetheless. These spurious contributions to the exact that create discrepancies between the exact value of in (78) or (80) and the approximate value in (86). Increases in internal energy and without a change in the input impedance can also occur using “surplus” capacitors and inductors [23. a simpler alternative method is given in the last paragraph of Section IV-E for obtaining an approximate value of the associated with the ideal origin at each tuned frequency . Then be displaced by an amount the far-ﬁeld pattern (at frequency ) with respect to this new coordinate system is given by (88) and. and thus the square-bracketed energy in (64). to choose the origin of the coordinates at the center of the imaginary spherical surface that circumscribes the source region of the antenna. To prove this.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. that is. it is reasonable. the choice of the origin of the coordinate system is . by Also. in replacing with a contribution to . In all our numerical simulations to date with practical antenna models. and may depend on the choice of the origin of the coordinates to which the far-ﬁeld pattern is referenced. If (second integral in the square brackets of (64)) that subtracts from the total-ﬁeld energy (ﬁrst integral in the square brackets of (64)) may either overcompensate or undercompensate for the radiation energy if the origin is too far from the center of the source region of the antenna. The input impedance and bandwidth of such an RLC circuit is independent of the length of this transmission line. can be removed by the simple procedure given in the last paragraph of Section IV-E. of the antenna [see (47)] and The quality factor is most often determined for antennas whose maximum linear dimensions are on the order of a wavelength or less because it is these relatively small antennas that usually determine the bandwidth of a one-port antenna system. This nonuniqueness in reactive energy and of an antenna arises because of the need to subtract the inﬁnite energy in the radiation ﬁelds from the inﬁnite energy in the total ﬁelds of the antenna to obtain ﬁnite values of reactive and internal energies. though not necessarily ideal. The derivation of (41) and (86) assumes that the antenna is linear. which turn out to depend on the point to which . the derivation of (86) approximates in resonant frequency ranges. however. Nonetheless. Therefore. Determination of the Ideal Location for the Origin of the Coordinates and the Associated The values of . we shall give a practical method for determining approximately such an ideal location for the origin of the coordinates at each tuned frequency . In general. Moreover. the derivation of (86) in Appendix D that uses series and parallel RLC circuits to model antennas in their resonant and antiresonant frequency ranges. Kuester [22] has pointed out that an RLC circuit can be constructed with an arbitrary value of by separating the resistor from the inductor and capacitor by a length of transmission line whose characteristic impedance is equal to the resistance of the resistor that terminates this line. where is the efﬁciency . thus (89) Inserting and into the last integral in (64). The above derivathe far ﬁeld is referenced if changes with a shift tion shows that the amount that in the origin is less than . that is. then the change given in (90) is zero. (for example. if is symmetric about If the origin). whereas the internal energy and as deﬁned by (78) or (80) will increase with the length of this transmission line. the bandwidth of a reﬂector antenna or an array . AND OF ANTENNAS In concluding this section. the approximation (86) could be inaccurate in a resonant frequency range if the resistivity of the antenna changed rapidly enough . the radiation resistance of the antenna is lumped into the antenna’s resistive loss so that term is replaced by a contribution to . (41). then the radiation-ﬁeld energy irrelevant. 176]. let the origin of the coordinate system with respect to the antenna. p. we ultimately have to live with the fact that our deﬁned reactive and internal energies of an antenna (like that of previous authors [1]–[8]) and thus its deﬁned in (78) depends to some degree on the choice of the origin of the coordinate system relative to the antenna (unless ). (86). For example. shows that the change in this integral caused by a displacement of the origin of the coordinates is given by (90) which has a magnitude that is less than or equal to . and the inverse relationship between bandwidth and would not necessarily hold. it is implicitly assumed that the antenna’s is either independent of the origin or that the origin is chosen to of the antenna approximately equal to the of the make RLC circuit that is used in Appendix D to model the antenna.

[For tuned frequencies between 0 and the lowest natural resonant or antiresonant frewhere is the smallest quency .1310 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. at can be adjusted by an At other frequencies. As discussed in the previous subsection. Even if an unambiguous exact sible to directly compute is desired. Also. or if then the location that maintains the relaof the origin is chosen to produce a tionship (86) and thus (91). From (67e) it is seen that this that means that at a natural resonant frequency one should choose the position of the origin of the coordinate system to make (93) If we know the far ﬁeld pattern of the antenna. If the location of the origin is chosen . NO. the linear extrapolation can be formed between and the adjustment at . In Section VI-C. (93) and (94) are used to nuand for merically evaluate the ideal origin positions a Yagi antenna at two natural resonant and two natural antiresonant frequencies. The numerical results show that with these origins. (Note from can be used (90) that any vector perpendicular to without changing the value of . To ﬁnd numerically from (94). the approximation in (86) and (91) hold with considerable accuracy throughout the resonant and antiresonant frequency bands. in particular. namely (91) .) of the untuned anAt a natural antiresonant frequency and . The formulas in (87) are the ones that are convenient and useful in numerical practice provided it is pos. in (72) it is not . Once this origin of the circumscribing sphere is chosen. so that is independent of the that either location of the origin. and antiresonant frequencies (that is. an adjustment of zero at This simple procedure can be used independently of the value to deﬁne an exact that will reasonably comof pensate for both a nonideal origin and spurious contributions to mentioned in the last paragraph of Section IV-D. 4. We emphasize that this procedure for ﬁnding the ideal location of the origin for determining an unambiguous exact of anis given for the sake of academic tennas with completeness and for comparing the approximate formulas in (87) with an exact .a tion of the origin if reasonable exact can be found from (78) or (80) by choosing the origin as the center of the sphere that circumscribes the dominant sources of the antenna. APRIL 2005 fed by one element is usually determined mainly by the bandwidth of the feed element. VOL. it can be found from (78) or (80) using any posi. This can be done either by directly computing the derivative of the input reactance of the antenna or by indirectly from the ﬁelds of the antenna computing the derivative of in expressions (52) or (59). Nonetheless. that is. thus. the value to shift of at a natural resonant frequency is usually negligible. the value of must be determined. and are found at the natural resoOnce the origins nant and antiresonant frequencies and of the untuned antenna. the values of amount equal to the linear extrapolation of the adjustments at the adjacent natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies. it no more than about would be desirable to determine an ideal criterion for choosing the origin of the coordinate system. then (86) such that (86) remains valid when and (80) imply (92) At a natural resonant frequency of an untuned antenna and . we tenna where also have (so that ) and (92) along with (67e) imply that makes Thus. If . V. one can ﬁnd the position of the origin in (94) equal to in (94). it is assumed in the derivation of (86) and thus in the derivation of the ﬁrst equation in (87). Therefore. For . it is straightforward to evaluate the integral in (93) for different positions that makes of the origin to ﬁnd an origin at a natural resonant frequency . an even better exact Q can be obtained by adjusting the values of to equal at the natural resonant or ). this simple procedure is applied to the Yagi antenna mentioned in the previous paragraph to obtain an alternative exact curve that agrees reasonably well with the exact Q curve obtained by shifting the origin of the coordinates. one can use (with equal to if is isﬁes a natural resonant frequency or if is a natural antiresonant frequency). one can linearly extrapolate between the positions of these origins to obtain approximate values of the ideal position of the origin at every frequency. Fortunately. Choosing the origin near the center of the dominant radiating sources of an antenna that is not much of no larger than a wavelength across involves an ambiguity more than about a wavelength and.] In Section VI-C. (92) implies ural resonant frequency when should be . for frequency (either a resonant or antiresonant frequency) that sat. 53. in order for (86) and (91) to hold at a nat. the results of Sections IV-C and IV-D reveal such a criterion that we can be used to specify a practical way to choose a reasonable position of the origin for each tuned frequency . NEGATIVE VALUES OF (94) AND Our deﬁnitions of the internal energy and quality factor of antennas are quite general and. an ambiguity in of . we where have shown (see Sections IV-B and IV-D) that .

antenna’s feed-point impedance with evaluated from (8). therefore. However. see Section VI-D. and complex far-ﬁeld pattern. Thus. the exact matched VSWR bandwidth is obtained by tuning the antenna with a lossless series inat the desired operating frequency is used to tune the ductor or capacitor. For each 1311 of these tuned antennas. The numerical analysis of all but the last of these antennas is performed using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code. Version 4 (NEC) [29]. These numerical solutions are determined over a wide enough range of frequencies to allow the antenna to vary in size from a small fraction of a wavelength to several wavelengths across. the tuned anative. and can be less than For lossy materials. the fractional matched VSWR bandwidth is then with . The second term on the right-hand side of (80). respectively. and a lossless capacis used to tune the antenna’s initial reactance to zero itor if is greater than zero. the antiresonances in deﬁned in terms of lossy media that produce negative values of or would likely have such narrow bandwidths or high loss that they would make the antenna impractical if they contributed signiﬁand . that is. thereby setting the current to 1 A at all frequencies. The frequency derivative and integral in (67e) are evaluated numerically for each observation angle and frequency as necessary to accurately compute the frequency derivative with a ﬁnite difference. an antenna with ) a low-loss series inductor or capacitor (having reactance ﬁlled with either a or material that can be positive or neg. is evaluated directly from the (80). regardless of whether the and are positive or negative (assuming the values of material is large enough to signiﬁcantly amount of this affect the bandwidth of the antenna). BANDWIDTH. low-loss circuit elements. and it is conceivable that negative enough in the antenna material to produce a negative (but not a negative value of . For low-loss materials (73) shows that and even if and are negative [25]–[28]. and far-ﬁelds of these antennas over a wide range of operating frequencies. This is accomplished in NEC by feeding the antenna with a voltage source having a voltage equal to the antenna’s input impedance at each frequency. It follows from (41). the inverse relationship (87) between bandwidth and quality factor is conﬁrmed for each of the tuned antennas at every frequency. respectively. As deﬁned in Section III-B. is evaluated directly The far-ﬁeld dispersion energy from (67e). the was evaluated from material-loss dispersion energy (75). it seems reasonable to assume deﬁned by (78) with the given in (66) that the and (72a)–(72c) remains valid for low-loss materials with and . cantly to Finally. that is. the expressions for the exact bandwidth and quality factor as well as for the approximate bandwidth and quality factor derived in Sections III–V are evaluated numerically for representative lossless and lossy tuned antennas. Tretyakov et al. . that the bandwidth of an electrically small capacitive or inductive antenna cannot be dramatically increased by tuning with a negative capacitance or inductance instead of a positive inductance or capacitance. For the lossy antennas. The exact matched VSWR bandwidth about the tuned frequency is computed for a speciﬁc value of the VSWR by ﬁnding the frequency range in which the VSWR is less than or equal to . The approximate formulas for and negative in (87) and the inverse relationship between them and change may become less accurate the faster over the bandwidth of the antenna. . Once the antenna is tuned at the desired operating frequency. the VSWR of the tuned antenna is determined for all frequencies under the condition that the characteristic feed-line is equal to the antenna’s tuned impedance at impedance . a three-element directive Yagi antenna. is evaluated numerically from the antenna’s current. [28] conclude that the bandwidths of radiating electric or magnetic line currents cannot be increased by covering them with electrically thin lossless dispersive materials having negative permeability or negative permittivity. NUMERICAL RESULTS In this section. VI. the circular wire-loop antenna. as long as the capacitors and inductors are linear. conductivity. which is value of ). A lossless inductor to zero antenna’s initial reactance if is less than zero. These quantities are calculated with the input (feed) current held at a constant value independent of frequency. Since (73) implies from (71) that tenna has a reactance derivative . input impedance. which is capable of determining the current. The antennas considered here are the thin straight-wire antenna. with inductive antenna. consider tuning an electrically small capacitive or . passive. close agreement is found between the numerically computed exact and approximate formulas for the bandwidth and quality factor over the full range of frequencies. zero near antiresonances of the material where the loss is very or could be large. the exact matched VSWR bandwidth deﬁned by is converted to an equivalent quality factor [see (87)] (95) In our numerical examples. AND OF ANTENNAS assumed that the values of the real parts of the permeability and of the antenna material are greater permittivity than or equal to zero. the exact of the antenna is VSWR bandwidth found using (80). Moreover. is given The approximate conventional quality factor in (81) and we shall designate the newly derived approximate . The ﬁrst term on the right-hand side of . Using the computed impedance data from NEC. In addition to determining the inverse of the exact matched . and a straight-wire antenna embedded in a frequency dependent dielectric material. the bandwidth VSWR is given by . To compare the inverse of the exact matched VSWR bandwidth with the antenna’s exact and approximate quality factor.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE.

the antenna’s input impedance will undergo successive alternating regions of natural resonances and antiresonances. and Q (1. however. and for the in value. from (86) (96) where and are the resistance and reactance of the untuned antenna. lossless straight-wire antenna. A comparison of the exact tuned antenna over this frequency range is given in Fig. tuned. the reasonable agreement that exists between the exact and the conventional approximation at low frequencies and in resonant frequency ranges. 53. while at frequencies near the natural antiresonances. 4. 5 for a frequency range of 450 MHz through 2000 MHz. We can rewrite Q Fig. determined from the frequency derivative of the antenna’s reactance. the equivalent obtained from the exact bandwidth. it is relatively high . Fig. VOL. are evaluated using the antenna’s impedance and compared to the exact values of and . 3. untuned. Q . that the conventional approximate quality does not provide an accurate estimate of the exact factor or inverse bandwidth in antiresonant frequency ranges. 5. which demonstrates excellent agreement between the exact . 4.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the center-fed. Fig. lossless straight-wire antenna having a total length of 1 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm. These latter three quality factors are determined in signiﬁcantly different manners. At very low frequencies. 4. quality factor in (86) by and (8) as . the inverse of the exact VSWR bandwidth A. and the disagreement between the exact and in antiresonant frequency ranges. which is re-expressed in (96). Input impedance to higher frequencies of the center-fed. Input impedance of the center-fed. APRIL 2005 Fig. yet they remain in excellent agreement throughout the entire frequency range. where . Bandwidth and Quality Factor of the Lossless Straight-Wire Antenna The ﬁrst antenna we consider is the lossless. for a bandwidth VSWR of . NO. straight-wire antenna that has an overall length of 1 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm. and remain it can be seen that the values of exact in excellent agreement over the full frequency range. 3 for a frequency range covering the ﬁrst natural resonance and antiresonance. The NEC-calculated impedance of this untuned antenna is given in Fig. to Fig. Considering the form of the exact expression in (80). These approximate expressions for the quality factors given by the conventional formula (81) (and/or its absolute value) and by our newly derived formula (86). and for the tuned A comparison of the exact lossless straight-wire antenna is shown in Fig. Beyond the antenna’s ﬁrst natural resonant and antiresonant frequency ranges. lossless straight-wire antenna having a total length of 1 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm. Q . does not provide a reasonable estimate or the inverse of the antenna’s exact matched of the exact for frequencies about the natural anVSWR bandwidth tiresonance. 4 also reveals that the conventional approximation the quality factor. center-fed. At frequencies near the natural resonances. 6. the antenna’s input resistance is relatively low in value. as seen in Fig. untuned. we can conclude the following. Comparison of the exact .1312 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. the exact matched VSWR bandwidth was calculated . Using the calculated feed-point impedance of the corresponding tuned antenna. and the approximate obtained from the frequency derivative of the quality factor antenna’s input impedance. 6 reveals again. where the antenna is .

One of the important differences to note in comparing the impedance of the circular-loop antenna to that of the straight-wire antenna is that the circular-loop antenna undergoes a natural antiresonance (at approximately 66 MHz) prior to the frequency where it undergoes its ﬁrst natural resonance. Again the exact . Using in width 1313 Fig. equals the ﬁrst natural resonant frequency of the straight-wire antenna discussed above.348 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the center-fed. Also. 9 compares the exact less circular-loop antenna.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the center-fed. Bandwidth and Quality Factor of Lossless and Lossy Circular-Loop Antennas The lossless and lossy circular wire-loop antennas considered here have a total wire length of approximately 2.18 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm such that the ﬁrst natural resowhere nant frequency of the circular-loop. The approximate quality factor over the full range of frequencies replaced by . namely. 6. Fig. 8.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. . Q . Q . B. was calculated using (81) with . 9. the dominant factor in determining the quality factor of the tuned an. Q . electrically small. lossless straight-wire antenna over a wider range of frequencies. in these resonant frequency regions. which equals pared with the exact . tuned. and in resonant frequency ranges. and the approximate exact matched VSWR bandwidth . As mentioned in Section IV-C. Comparison of the . Comparison of the Q. MHz. Fig. and Q (1. the frequency derivative of the antenna’s input reactance is less can be signiﬁcant. Q . Rhodes [13] has appropriately should be used instead of in the suggested that conventional approximation (81) for the quality factor in order to increase its accuracy in antiresonant frequency ranges. and the dominant. the ﬁrst and . not provide an accurate estimate of the exact or inverse bandin antiresonant frequency ranges. Other than right does at the natural antiresonant frequencies of the antenna. that is. the magnitude of and become imporvalues of the dispersion energies tant in determining the quality factor of the antenna. tuned. the inverse of the . 8. The input impedance of the lossless circular-loop calculated with NEC is plotted in Fig. 7. BANDWIDTH. lossless straight-wire antenna. lossless circular-loop antenna with a radius of . and in Fig. and for the lossFig. In antiresonant frequency regions. Q . and Q (1. (81) provides an accurate approximation to the exact and inverse bandwidth right at the natural antiresonant frequencies and of the antenna because at these frequencies. Comparison of the Q. is comThis approximate quality factor. lossless circular-loop antenna. AND OF ANTENNAS Q Fig. Input impedance of the untuned. and Q (1. 7. jQ j. the value of is relatively small. tenna is the frequency derivative of its input reactance This implies from (80) that the values of the dispersion enerand are close to zero in these resonant frequency gies regions.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the tuned.

11 and 12. [4] bound quality factor (97) Q Fig. the terms in (80) comprising the expression for exact are shown separately to illustrate the signiﬁcance of the and terms in calculating the exact . Comparison of different methods for computing the quality factor in the ﬁrst antiresonant region of the tuned. It is obvious from Figs. Loss was included in the NEC model of the circular wire-loop by specifying a ﬁnite copper-wire con(Ohm-m) ). the lower bound in (97) is multiplied by the NEC-computed radiation efﬁciency of each antenna [30]. APRIL 2005 Fig. is included in the calculation of exact . For a lossy antenna. it does not produce an accurate approximation to and inverse of bandwidth in antiresonant frequency ranges. Note that the summation of these two terms does not give an accurate calculation of the exact . where is the free-space wave number and is the radius of an imaginary sphere circumscribing the electrically small dipole antenna. This discrepancy between the lower bound and actual quality factors implies that the contribution to the from the electric and magnetic ﬁelds inside the circumscribing sphere of radius is the dominant contribution to the total even as.5 mm. two techniques were described that allow us to reasonably remove the ambiguity in determining the exact that may arise from the value of depending upon the chosen position of the origin of the coordinates with respect to the antenna. and especially as. The wire diameter was ductivity ( reduced from 1 mm to 0. The curve labeled by and the far-ﬁeld dispersion-energy of exact using only term . To demonstrate the signiﬁcant contribution from the mateto the exact of a lossy anrial-loss dispersion-energy term tenna. both having wire diameters of 0. NO.) To far-ﬁeld magnitude patterns satisfying . In Figs. Q Fig. 10. the quality factors (as approximated by ) for the lossless and lossy straight-wire and circular wireloop antennas. quality factor computed from (96) are in excellent agreement over the whole frequency range. as well as the far-ﬁeld dispersion-energy term . 53. Once the material-loss dispersion-energy term . VOL.5 mm) compared to the Collin-Rothschild lower bound for a magnetic-dipole antenna.5 mm) antennas compared to the Collin-Rothschild lower bound for an electric-dipole antenna. lossless and lossy straight-wire (wire diameter equal to . 11 and 12 that the lower bounds on are dramatically lower than the actual for lossless and lossy straight-wire and circular wire-loop antennas at these frequencies below the ﬁrst resonance or antiresonance. 10. the electrical size of the antennas becomes small. This loweris given by [2]. 10 in the frequency range around the ﬁrst antiresonance. (This ambiguity does not exist for antennas having . are compared to the Collin-Rothschild lower bounds on quality factor for the tuned electric or magnetic dipole antenna. lossy circular-loop antenna with a radius of .5 mm. close agreement is obtained with the inverse of the matched VSWR bandwidth and with the approximate quality factor determined from (96). 4. However. The convenequals the ﬁrst term of the exact in tional quality factor in Fig. C.5 mm to increase the resistance of the . 11.348 m and a wire diameter of . Quality factors (as approximated by ) for the tuned. 10 is a calculation (80). Quality factors (as approximated by ) for the tuned. Bandwidth and Quality Factor of Lossless Yagi Antenna In Section IV-E. In Fig. The conventional quality computed from (81) gives accurate results at low frefactor quencies and in resonant frequency ranges. The exact and computed for the lossy circular-loop antenna are presented in Fig.1314 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. and the approximate quality factors wire. lossless and lossy circular-loop antennas (wire diameter equal to . 12. the quality factor and bandwidth of the lossy circular-loop antenna were computed.

Comparison of the Q. 3-element Yagi antenna. 15 determined from shows that the approximate quality factor determined in (95) from the inverse of the exact (96) and the Fig. Fig. OF ANTENNAS Schematic of a 3-element. As explained in Section IV-E.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the tuned. The shifted origin origin that results in a calculated for each natural antiresonant frequency is found by computing the location of the coordinate origin that results in a calculated . frequency ranges using (41). We emphasize. BANDWIDTH. whether or not one computes an exact . 15. Fig. however. Its untuned impedance is plotted in Fig. The shifted origin for each natural resonant frequency is found by computing through trial and error the location of the coordinate . 3-element Yagi antenna with the coordinate origin shifted for each frequency by an amount determined from the shifts at the natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies. Q . that one can approximate the exact bandwidth of a tuned antenna through all . 15. 14. lossless. 13. where it is designed to operate with a directive radiation pattern. lossless. lossless Yagi antenna. it has a directive radiation pattern and. the exact of a lossless Yagi antenna is determined and compared with the obtained from the inverse of the exact matched equivalent VSWR bandwidth. frequencies. the exact determined from (80) might not accurately predict the inverse of the exact bandwidth of the antenna.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. The Yagi antenna considered here consists of three perfectly conducting elements as shown in Fig.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the tuned. For this reason. . quencies. Once the positions of the shifted origins are determined at the natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies. illustrate the effectiveness of these techniques. Input impedance of the untuned. where the Yagi antenna is designed to operate. AND Fig. 3-element Yagi antenna with the coordinate origin placed at the center of the driven element. matched VSWR bandwidth are in excellent agreement at all freis inaccurate in the antiresonant regions. and Q (1.) Fig. Q . lossless. 14 over a frequency range that covers two natural resonant and two natural antiresonant frequencies. 13. The center of the feed element is chosen as the coordinate origin for the calculation of the exact from (80). 1315 Q Fig. 16. is generally not equal to zero at these as a result. using the inverse of if the impedance of the antenna is known. and Q (1. whereas reveals that near the Yagi’s Comparing the exact with ﬁrst natural resonance. Q . a linear interpolation between these shifted origins is performed to compute the appropriate shifted origins for frequencies between each natural resonance and antiresonance. that is. To illustrate these points the inverse of the exact bandwidth and the exact and approximate quality factors are plotted in Fig. the agreement is relatively poor. At frequencies near its ﬁrst natural resonance. 16 . Comparison of the . (Since the Yagi is lossless. one can improve the agreeand the inverse of bandwidth ment between the exact by shifting the origin of the coordinate system with respect to the antenna to make at the natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies.

compares the exact computed with these shifted origins to and . center-fed. As an alternative and error to obtain the proper value of to this shifted-origin technique. To conﬁrm that these derivative terms should indeed be included as part of the energy used to deﬁne . as pointed out in Section IV-D. the ambiguity can be corrected at the natural resonant and antiresonant frequenat each of these natural frequencies. scribed in Section VI-A in a lossy dispersive dielectric material with Lorentz permittivity given by (98) for through the ﬁrst resonant frequency of the antenna. and Q (1. we embed the lossless. the major improvement in accuracy of the shifted-origin exact in Fig. Bandwidth and Quality Factor of a Straight-Wire Embedded in a Lossy Dispersive Dielectric Our deﬁnitions of internal energies in (67a)–(67c) or (72). 19 demonstrates the close agreement between the inverse and the approximation for the of the exact bandwidth inverse of the bandwidth of the tuned antenna. and permittivity constant Hz. 3-element Yagi antenna with the coordinate origin placed at the center of the driven element. Thus. 19 is the quality where factor (99) . This allows us to compute a corrected exact having to determine the far ﬁelds and their frequency derivatives at each frequency for different coordinate origins. lossless. lossless straight-wire antenna having a total length of 1 m and a wire diameter of 1 mm. Fig. NO. where the electric susceptibility constant . The drawback of this shifted-origin technique is the large computer time required to calculate the frequency derivative of the far ﬁeld of the antenna at each natural resonant and antiresonant frequency as the origin of the coordinates is shifted by trial . In the frequency range from about 30 to 70 MHz. untuned. Ohms). the Lorentz antiresonant frequency MHz. the exact does not agree (or with the well with the inverse of the exact bandwidth ) because the antenna material is both highly approximation lossy and dispersive—so dispersive. Most noteworthy in Fig. Q . The efﬁciency of this antenna is less than 5% for frequencies less than 80 MHz and thus it is not a practical antenna throughout about the ﬁrst half of the frequency range shown in Fig. 18. the loss constant . APRIL 2005 Q Fig. VOL. As one might expect. straight-wire antenna de- Fig. 18. Fig. we can ﬁrst compute an initial exact using an origin near the center of the imaginary sphere that circumscribes the antenna. and thus include terms involving the frequency derivatives of the constitutive parameters.1316 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. 17 shows that the resulting interpolated and as well as with exact compares favorably with the shifted-origin exact shown in Fig. 16 over the feed-element-origin exact in Fig. as well as the failure in the antiresonant region of the conventional expression for the quality factor of the tuned antenna. and embedded in a lossy dispersive dielectric. in fact. which agrees closely with the impedance (not shown) computed with the NEC code. If the cies knowing differences between the exact calculated with the origin near the center of the circumscribing sphere and are taken as corrections at the natural frequencies. 16. we can interpolate these corrections between the natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies to arrive at a full set of corrections for all frequenwithout cies. that the value of can become negative to make equal to zero at frequencies near 40 MHz and 60 MHz. 53. one would not expect the exact to be a highly accurate approximation (in this frequency range) to the inverse of the exact bandwidth. This exact will be calculated knowing that an ambiguity exists associated with the speciﬁed location of the coordinate origin. 4. 15 occurs near the ﬁrst natural resonance of the Yagi antenna. Input impedance of the center-fed. Comparison of the . However. 17. but with the exact Q at each frequency determined by interpolating between its values at the natural resonant and antiresonant frequencies. D. The and of the untuned embedded antenna impedance is shown in Fig. 18.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth) for the tuned. we can model this embedded For frequencies antenna by a constant inductance ( henrys) in series with a frequency dependent “radiation” resistance ( Ohms) and a lossy capacitance ( farads. This interpolation technique was applied to the values of the exact initially calculated with the center of the feed element as the reference coordinate origin. the offset relative .

In deﬁning in (78). all our comparisons to date for practical antennas indicate that the simple . over all space to compute the exact In Section VI-D. and thus will the value of the internal energy depend upon the position of the origin of the coordinate system with respect to the antenna (because of the radiation ﬁelds that are subtracted to yield a ﬁnite value for the internal energy). Q (1. In fact.5) . a matched VSWR fractional bandwidth of the antenna can be deﬁned that exists at every frequency . For antennas with asymmetric far-ﬁeld magnitude patterns. for antennas bandwidth that contain materials with frequency dependent constitutive parameters. 19.5:1 matched VSWR bandwidth). and the values of the for constitutive parameters may even be negative. a simple procedure is given at the end of Section IV-E for eliminating this ambiguity and determining .4) Subtracting (A. AND OF ANTENNAS Q Fig. however.3) Similarly. the antenna’s input reactance is tuned to a value of zero at any frequency by means of a series inductor or capacitor.1) to get (A. then subtract the two resulting equations to get (A. over frequency ranges that cover several resonant and antiresonant frequency bands. it may be prohibitive by means of in numerical practice to evaluate the exact this direct volume integration. except for the last antenna in a frequency range where the efﬁciency was less than 5% (rendering the antenna impractical in this frequency range). Each of these integrations is much less demanding than integrating the ﬁelds of the antenna . the inclusion of these frequency-derivative terms alto remain inversely proportional to the fractional lows . In all cases. 18 and 19.3) from (A. Moreover. speciﬁcally computable. Q . the inverse of the matched VSWR bandwidth is so accurate that it makes the evaluation of the exact and exact bandwidth practically unnecessary unless the frequency derivative of the input .1) by then subtract the two resulting equations to get (A. equation in (A. an alternative expresis given in (80) in terms of the fresion for the exact quency derivative of the input reactance of the antenna and two “dispersion energies. A reasonable choice for the origin of the coordinate system is the center of the sphere that circumscribes the dominant sources of 1317 the antenna. as expressed in (87). by integrating the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the antenna throughout all space. Q .1) by . in (87) for and approximation. is not readily impedance of the antenna. Therfore. of the same general one-port The internal energy is deﬁned in (66)–(67) in linear antenna tuned at a frequency terms of an integration of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the antenna.2) Scalar multiply the ﬁrst equation in (A. This internal energy excludes the radiation ﬁelds but includes terms involving the frequency derivative of the conas stitutive parameters. 01 which is the amount that the is reduced by the omission of the derivative term in the ﬁrst integral of (72b). this alternative expression in (80) for the is evaluated numerically for straight-wire and wireexact loop lossy and lossless antennas. this fractional bandwidth. as well as for a Yagi antenna and a straight-wire antenna embedded in a lossy dispersive dielectric. Comparison of the exact . APPENDIX A DERIVATION OF EXPRESSION IN (64) FOR To derive the expression (64) for .2) by and the ﬁrst equation in (A. begin by taking the frequency derivative of Maxwell’s equations (A. 19 shows that would produce a much less accurate the omission of this value of the exact quality factor over the frequency range where . . the term contributes signiﬁcantly to VII. lossless straight-wire antenna embedded in a lossy dispersive dielectric. tuned.2) by and the complex conjugate of the second equation in (A. see Figs. CONCLUSION The input reactance of a general one-port linear antenna can vary over a large range of negative and positive values as the frequency of the antenna sweeps through successive natural resonances and antiresonances of the antenna. scalar multiply the complex conjugate of the second . is given approximately by the simple formula in (41) for any frequency at which the antenna is tuned. Nonetheless. Although it is not impossible to have a negative value.” One of the dispersion energies requires an integration of the far-ﬁeld and the other requires an integration of the ﬁelds over the portions of the antenna material that exhibit loss. the exact agreed closely with the inverse of the exact computed bandwidth and with the approximate formula for the quality factor and inverse bandwidth given in (87). BANDWIDTH. it is proven that the internal energy density in lossless antenna material is always greater than or equal to zero. If.4) yields (A.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. Fig. a well-deﬁned “exact value” of Although the value of and thus can be determined. see (69). and Q Q for the center-fed. in principle.

10) yields (A.16) .10) is zero for in the part of antenna material (that is.13) into obtained from (A. APRIL 2005 Integrate (A. which is real.15) (A. and taking Then substituting the imaginary part of (A.5) over the volume between the shielded power supply and a sphere of radius that surrounds the antenna system. shows that (A.7) If the frequency derivatives in (A. Orthogonality of the vector spherical modes then demands that this result also holds for the complete sum of vector spherical modes.6) The left-hand side of (A. for the total ﬁelds of the antenna.14) which when substituted into (A.8) Taking the frequency derivative of . NO.13) (A.11) (A.1318 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION.6) produces where is the speed of light in free space. This can be proven by expanding the ﬁelds of the antenna (outside an enclosing sphere) in a complete set of vector spherical wave functions [32. apply the divergence theorem.8) can be rewritten as (A.12) and by taking the derivative with respect to frequency of (A. that is.14) does not appear in (A. we evaluate the integral in (A.6) are taken while holding constant with frequency. for each vector spherical mode. This implies from the frequency derivative of (14) that (A.6). Therefore. 4. outside ).11) to get in (A. The term in (A.11–7. [33.9) an expression equal to (64) if . 53. Speciﬁcally and thus (A. Lastly. and take the limit to get as where we have used the fact that the real part of the last integrand that lies outside the in (A. Secs.10) (A. 9] (see Appendix C) and noting that each of the spherthat is 90 degrees out of phase with ical modes has a .10) in terms of the deﬁned in (20) by expanding far electric ﬁeld pattern and in a Wilcox series [31] (A.12) and using a number of vector identities gives (A.6) results from (13)–(14) and the fact mentioned in Section II that one of the basis ﬁelds in the feed line of the antenna can always be made independent of frequency. .15) because it integrates to zero.) Crossing from (A. ch. (Recall that . on the left-hand side of (A. VOL. 7.14].

In a spatially nondispersive macroscopic distribution of and . .17) we have used the asymptotic property.1) or.17) where in (A. and potential energy plus the irreversible frictional energy loss for a model with col(in the “springs”) per unit volume at lisionless carriers bound by lossy “springs”. the charges and dipoles in each differential volume eleare assumed unconnected to the charges and dipoles in ment all the other differential volume elements.3) that (B. Furthermore. spatially nondispersive medium. eq. Then the constitutive relations in (51) can be rewritten as simply . the self electro[12. that is. where and are the corresponding frequency-domain ﬁelds and (B. integrating from each ﬁxed .2) Expressing this electromagnetic power as a time derivative at .4) to prove the inequalities in (69)–(70) of the main text for a linear. SUSCEPTIBILITY AND INTERNAL ENERGIES ARE The power per unit volume supplied to a macroscopic distribution of time dependent current and polarizadensities by electromagnetic ﬁelds tion is given by [12. for three reasons: 1) The carriers drift so that the ones that reside at at 1319 are not the same carriers that reside at at ansome time other time .4) stated or proven elsewhere in the published literature. and that reside at the tential energy of the carriers of position and time plus the irreversible energy lost by the carriers to frictional forces (ohmic losses) and radiation. the energy radiated by of macroscopic sources approaches zero a volume element faster than . BANDWIDTH.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. and the remote past from (B. we can assume a macroscopic model of the medium in which the carriers are “bound” by inﬁnitesimal restoring “springs” (which can be lossy) to a rigid lattice such that the carrier drift is negligible. 2) the kinetic energy of the carriers can be transferred through collisions with each other and with the material lattice. spatially nondisperdistribution of bound and represents the reversible kinetic sive medium.4) as are six component vectors. Thus. spatially nondispersive medium of bound carriers and we can conclude from (B. lossless. (2. Moreover. that is.2) gives inserting (B. 46] magnetic force-power approaches zero faster than and reason 3) is not an issue. for a macroscopic in a passive. To do this ﬁrst write the . even assuming a passive medium. in this passive. If. passive. we can assume a model in which the bound carriers do not collide (or collide only with a rigid lattice) and. We have not found this inequality (B. In general. in general. that and . since and (B. thus. Consequently. riers (charged and polarized particles or molecules) of and in the remote past when these carriers are at rest with and the ﬁelds are assumed equal to zero. to the present time (at each ). APPENDIX B PROOF THAT LOSSLESS. 5.17) proves that for the total ﬁelds of the antenna. p.5) . .16) and (A. AND OF ANTENNAS and (A. is.174) ] (B. is not equal to the per unit volume reversible kinetic and po.4) is the electromagnetic energy absorbed per unit volume in a “reversible” lossless medium. where and integrand of (B. We shall now use the inequality in (B.3) can be considered equal to the rest energy of the carwhere . in addition.1]. Sec.4) for all . and 3) the total electromagnetic force-power on classical moving charges and dipoles includes the self electromagnetic force-power on these charges and dipoles and thus the total electromagnetic force-power cannot. although Tonning [35] concludes that the integral alone in (B. Equating the terms on the right-hand sides of (A. never be negative. reason 2) does not apply. tion that this energy is zero in the remote past begins at a value of zero and equals Since (for this model) the total reversible energy change plus frictional can energy loss per unit volume of the carriers. under the assump). of the ﬁelds of vector for each degree spherical modes and order . be equated to the time rate of change of the mechanical (kinetic plus potential) momentum-energy of these particles [34. the conduction current is zero.

14).6b).12) and are arbitrary constant real vectors. and divide by two to obtain (B.13) or. shows that. each of the elements satisﬁes the inequalities given by (B.7)–(B.6b) Next choose the time dependence of as which expand to (70b) in the main text. and from (B. it is sufﬁcient that the frequency dependent constitutive parameters can be obtained with the idealized model for (B.14) would .8) into (B. to . the left-hand side of (B. by deﬁning the complex six-vector “susceptibility energy” is greater than zero .1320 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. 81]. and letting produces the integrations from which expands to (69) in the main text with given in (B.4)3 can be rewritten in as terms of and as (after integration by parts) Choosing such that reduces (B. NO.6a). VOL. For and . APPENDIX C INCREASES RAPIDLY WITH DECREASING ANTENNA SIZE From (78) and (47) can be written as (C. 53.8) wherein primes indicate differentiation with respect to and the subscripts “ ” and “ ” indicate the real and imaginary parts of a with complex variable. p. APRIL 2005 In a passive lossless medium (57) holds and can be rewritten . 4.5). and and taking the Fourier later approach zero. and .10) (B. that the (B. dividing Averaging (B.4) to apply. and then taking the inverse Fourier transform produces as an inequality that holds for all values of shows that Letting .13) and by .9) 3A passive lossless medium with constitutive relations F = 1 G at every frequency is a spatially nondispersive linear medium that can be modeled by bound collisionless carriers. its metric dyadic time derivative. can be viewed as the per unit volume so that to in the kinetic and potential increase from energy of the carriers as the sinusoidal ﬁelds are built up in a to their lossless medium from an amplitude of zero at . Use has been made of being a symmetric dyadic and being an antisymin lossless media. Although the actual medium may not conform to this idealized model. With no dispersion.10) for all . and letting (B.14) reduces to the inequality given in [36. applying the dyadic constitutive relations. Letting in (B.9) by integrating from also produces the result (B. ﬁnal amplitude at PROOF THAT (B.6a) with the 6 6 dyadic an inequality that holds for all values of the real six-vectors and .7) (B.9). is the where is a decay parameter that will unit step function. Replace with and with in (B. the inequality in (B.1) .11) (B. Inserting . for lossless media in the complex -plane about expanding . performing to . The energy inequality in (B.9) to (B. Multiplying by transform of (B. because is symmetric. add the resulting inequality to the original inequality in (B. (B.7). the per unit volume “average reduce to reactive energy” minus the “average energy stored in the ﬁelds”.9). and in (B.14) (B. then letting for all .

shown at the bottom of the page.14].5) (and the magnetic ﬁeld on the right-hand side of the corresponding ) in a complete set of vector spherical waves equation for [32.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. We can also write . p.4) where (C. (and ) by It is a simple matter to prove that expanding the electric ﬁeld on the right-hand side of (C. and Equation (10.5) with . energies outside the sphere of radius deﬁned by Fante [3]. is given by (C. [33.3). and far-ﬁeld pattern (C.8) with and interchanged. AND OF ANTENNAS where is the efﬁciency of the antenna and is the power radiated by the antenna.3) (C. Use has been made of the orthogonality relations for the vector spherical waves and . as the radius of the antenna is decreased while maintaining its frequency.10) and the integration over the far ﬁeld squared is given by .9) Spherical Hankel functions of the second kind (recall that time dependence is assumed) are denoted by and associated Legendre polynomials by .8) converges (although this is proven implicitly by (64) as well) and (C.1.6) Moreover. efﬁciency. the radial integration in (C.1) can be expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of the antenna by (C. Similarly.2). the in (C. 255.) We can also write (C. It can be shown and from [38. respectively.8) with . 9] wherein (C. With the help of from (19) and from (66)–(67c). The volume has been divided into and where is the radius of the smallest spherical surface that is centered on the origin of the coordinate system and encloses the volume of the antenna and and thus excludes its power supply. BANDWIDTH.11) (C. where 1321 with (C.2) .7) to obtain [37] (C.27) in [39] implies that both are monotonically decreasing functions of increasing such that and for all and both and decay as as . ch. where the three terms on the right-hand side of this equation equal the corresponding three terms on the right-hand and are the electric and magnetic reactive side of (C. 7.11–7. Consequently.5) and similarly for by replacing in (C. (Recall that the volume of the power supply. Sec. (4)] that the integrals are equal to Fante’s and . The coefﬁthe integration variable has been inserted for and are deﬁned as cients (C.

the with equivalent surface currents on that ﬁelds outside except for the magnetic or elecproduce zero ﬁelds inside tric ﬁelds within a tuning inductor or capacitor depending on is greater than or less than . we consider antennas with nondispersive . so that .6) to converge for all r > r . as in the case of equal energy tively [40]. the functions and in (C. we shall lump the radiation resistance of the antenna into a series RLC circuit for a resonance or into a parallel RLC circuit in or capacitor for an anseries with a tuning inductor tiresonance.1) for tuned series and parallel RLC circuits. as the radius of the antenna is reduced to a value smaller . respecwhether . as well as . Unlike the ordinary RLC series circuit. this still allows a reactance that is frequency dependent.1322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Hypothetically. Therefore. becomes enormously large as the radius of the antenna is reduced below (assuming does not grow negatively the value of at the same rate). For speciﬁed ﬁelds outside a closed reaches its lower bound by generating the surface . and The current simply is ﬂowing through and (76) becomes (D. Moreover. The enormously high reactive ﬁelds with rapid spatial variation responsible for the enormously large prevent the practical realization of supergain above a few dB. APPENDIX D EVALUATION OF FROM (80) FOR RLC SERIES.3) (C. the lower bounds on quality factor given by Chu [1] and Collin and Rothschild [2] are approximately equal to the lower bound of Fante [3]. because the same far-ﬁeld pattern large in size if could be obtained by another antenna with a much smaller rawithout signiﬁcantly increasing the reactive dius ﬁelds. the resistance is allowed to be a function of frequency.4). to imagine that an antenna with could be that was highly negpractical even if the antenna had a ative because of the dominance of lossy materials with negative internal energy density.12) As becomes less than . 53. NO. provided the efﬁciency and the coefﬁcients and stay the same. see Section VI-D. Approximating a tuned antenna at a resonant frequency by a series RLC circuit with elements . Most antennas do not have extremely high reactive ﬁelds and . we have (D. Since the radiation resistance of the tuned antenna is lumped into the RLC circuit resistance. an antenna is probably unnecessarily . truncate the inﬁnite summations over to a maximum value that is large enough to make the far ﬁelds produced by the remaining spherical modes negligible.4) would be less than . as they (the coefﬁcients) will. if the frequency and far-ﬁeld pattern of the antenna is kept the and same. implies that however. 4.1) Thus the task of this Appendix reduces to evaluating the righthand side of (D. the quality factors and become than much greater than 1.) Although the inductance and capacitance in these RLC circuits are assumed independent of frequency for the antenna tuned at . for electrically small persive antennas. This. (Adding the tuning capacitor or inductor explicitly to the series RLC circuit model for a resonance is unnecessary because the resulting circuit is still an RLC series circuit. this implies that . one could conceive of an extremely overso much greater than that sized tuned antenna with in (C.9) increase in value extremely rapidly. the quality factors and increase extremely fast. models. and . the values of the coefﬁcients A and B and thus j j and j. Moreover.2) (C. so that (C. To prove this. and the radiated ﬁelds of an RLC in (80) is negligible for these circuit circuit are negligible. Then we can write and thus the larger of is the greatest lower .AND PARALLEL-CIRCUIT ANTENNA MODELS in (80) To determine an approximate expression for the for a tuned antenna at a resonant or antiresonant frequency . the lower bound bound for our deﬁned on quality factor given by Fante [3] is indeed the lower bound to our deﬁned exact for electrically small antennas with nondisand . In other words.8) can be written as4 (C.13) For electrically small antennas . no tuning inductor or capacitor would be required inside . If electric and magnetic dipole ﬁelds outside a sphere. In view of (C. however.14) 4In order for the spherical wave expansion in (C. and Lastly. is negative. APRIL 2005 . Therefore. VOL. It is difﬁcult. in (80) is given approximately by (D. In addition. the rate of increase of with decreasing grows rapidly with . of course. so that with and .

4) . Because the frequency derivative of with with frequency is identically zero. we have (D. that is.1) held constant . j have to grow small extremely rapidly for l greater than a ﬁnite value because the values of jh (x)j increase extremely rapidly as l grows larger than x. and thus from (D.

J. Koivisto. IEEE AP-S Int.: Oxford Univ. 953–960. “Dispersion relations. C. [15] H. 84.14) evaluates to (D. Oct.” in Dig. 1. pp. 302.10) With the current ﬂowing through mula (76) becomes denoted by . 1999.-E. C. as well as two anonymous reviews. bandwidth. “The performance properties of an electrically small folded spherical helix antenna. Tretyakov of Helsinki University of Technology. An Introduction to Linear Algebra. Antennas Propag. pp.-E. Antennas Propag. that is. BANDWIDTH. led to important additions and changes to this paper. R.16) after inserting from (D. pp. Kurss. S. Phys. pp. 189–195. pp. 829–837. 48. Oxford. Sten. 26. Fante.9).15) [1] L.8) and (D. vol. “Evaluation of antenna Q. and Y.” J. 1960. Antennas Propag. Antennas Propag. and P.” IEEE Trans. S. [7] J.. 1964. Antennas Propag. 501–504. 4. Harrington. [3] R. Geyi. and (D. [2] R.. no. Antennas Propag. Sept. and .. 672–676. vol. The Franklin Institute. pp. 1968. [14] L.” J. 1–12. Dec. F. A comparison of (D. Rhodes. REFERENCES (D.7) Especially note from (D. E. The “approximately equal” signs ( will hold under the condition that sufﬁce). Mirsky.17) that where is the antiresonant frequency of the untuned parallel RLC circuit.” Electrical Engineering. vol.11) Since (D. P.9) From (D. elements we ﬁnd (D. D. and Q of antennas.5) 1323 which when substituted into (D. A. Mar. vol. Apr. pp. [11] S. bandwidth.” IEEE Trans. 2. [13] D. Jan.16) and (D. 2000. OH. where is the quality factor of the untuned parallel RLC circuit.13) and from (D. vol. F. “Observable stored energies of electromagnetic systems.9).11) (D. pp. “Quality factor of an electrically small antenna radiating close to a conducting plane.5)–(D. Columbus. AND OF ANTENNAS Next approximate the tuned antenna at an antiresonant frewith the tuning reactance of an quency inductor or capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit with . the quality factor at the antiresonant . 5. 5. [5] W. K. For most antennas ACKNOWLEDGMENT (D. vol. vol. McLean. no.YAGHJIAN AND BEST: IMPEDANCE. “Physical limitations of omni-directional antennas.. [4] J. “Impedance. “A re-examination of the fundamental limits on the radiation Q of electrically small antennas. E.10). [9] A. Jan. “Quality factor of general ideal antennas.” J. pp. R.9) we ﬁnd Discussions with Prof. “Notes on the quality factor and bandwidth of radiating systems. B.14) With the aid of (D.17) (D.9). AP-12. 225–237. 2003. Symp. Plane-Wave Theory of Time-Domain Fields: Near-Field Scanning Applications. (D. Hujanen. no. [6] J.” IEEE Trans. Math. and efﬁciency. F. 52. Jun. 64D. 1948. vol. stored energy. Rothschild. vol. “The Foster reactance theorem for antennas and radiation Q. Jarmuszewski. May 2001.. pp.10) reveals the relationship (D.” IEEE Trans. Nat. no. Press. 151–155. the for- (D.” IEEE Trans. 2002. 2004.6) (D. no. pp. Appl. no. 23–27. 1955. Kuester of the University of Colorado and Prof. and group velocity for anisotropic electromagnetic media. Best. Chu. 1969. Res. vol. vol.. (D. U. Harrington. Best. Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields.8) (D.1) yields (D.12) where is the voltage across the parallel RLC circuit.. L.” Quarterly Appl. May 1996. For this tuned parallel RLC circuit. [8] R. Taking the derivative of these expressions with respect produces under the same conto frequency and setting dition (D. 1163–1175. [10] R. 49.18) except for . Collin and S. Mar.. Yaghjian. we have (D.” IEEE Trans. Hansen and A.. R. AP-17. 1976. [12] T. 1. 3. Hujanen. 19. 44. Qi. “Effect of antenna size on gain. D. pp. Bureau Stand.K. 373–387. vol. Sten and A. Yaghjian and S. NJ: IEEE/Wiley. A. New York: McGraw-Hill. frequency of the untuned antenna. 401–408. . 1961. Piscataway..

in 1983 and 1988. CA. 79. Appl. Yaghjian. Levis. Lifshitz. Incorporated. Kuester. he joined Chu Associates. Smith. He has served as an Associate Editor for the IEEE and International Scientiﬁc Radio Union (URSI). vol. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. [19] L. NO. and high-frequency methods for predicting and measuring the near and far ﬁelds of antennas and scatterers. UCRL-MA-109 338 Pt. 1–5. A. the development of exact. Yaghjian. 1957. vol. NH. IRE. D. “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity. he taught mathematics at Tougaloo College. He presently works as an independent Consultant in electromagnetics. Lond. Marcuvitz. [33] J. 4. Eds. New York: McGraw-Hill. 28. [34] A. A. [26] D. 353. D. Antenna Propagat. “The inﬂuence of complex material coverings on the quality factor of simple radiating systems.–Feb. F.” IEEE Trans.1324 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. [18] C. where he was employed as a Research Scientist until 1996. He is the author or coauthor of over 80 papers in various journal. pp. Yaghjian (S’68–M’69–SM’84–F’93) received the B. Polishchuk.. 6–5. [31] C. Simovski. 1966. he cofounded Parisi Antenna Systems.. R. [17] D. pp. In August 1987. [38] Y. I. pp. Plane-Wave Scattering-Matrix Theory of Antennas and Antenna-Antenna Interactions. New York: Academic Press. [22] E. and Ph. R. MA: Allyn and Bacon. 1996. vol. Maslovski. He has over 17 years of experience in business management and antenna design engineering in both military and commercial markets. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of New Brunswick. vol. no. 2003. 10. In June 1996. Padilla. Network Theory: Analysis and Synthesis. [27] R. 10. Arthur D. .” IRE Trans. vol. New York: John Wiley. Integrals of Bessel Functions. Antennas Propag. pp. New York. Providence. “The Q-factor and energy center of antennas. 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Rhodes. 53. Phys. Sochaya. Radiation and Scattering of Waves. Boulder. NB. New York: McGraw-Hill. 9. Oct.. he took an eight-month leave of absence to accept a Visiting Professorship in the Electromagnetics Institute of the Technical University of Denmark. [28] S. APRIL 2005 [16] D. 1992. Washington. Best is a Member of Sigma Xi and the Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES). Steven R.K. In 1989. Luke. R. His research in electromagnetics has led to the determination of electromagnetic ﬁelds in continuous media. Math. “A reactance theorem. H. Tretyakov. Veselago. Oxford. McGraw-Hill. Kerns. M. Tonning. M. as a Senior Design Engineer where he worked on the design of numerous HF.. [23] S. Relativistic Dynamics of a Charged Sphere: Updating the Lorentz-Abraham Model. AP-8. R. Electromagnetic Theory. 1984. DC: U. C. Yaghjian. 1984. 115–134. 1128–1134. pp. Best and A.Sc. 1994. 6.” Radio Eng. 3. Brillouin. After receiving the Ph. Abramowitz and I.S. NIST. Wilcox. VHF..S. and in 1971 he joined the research staff of the Electromagnetics Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2003. Classical Electrodynamics. vol. 3rd ed. He is a Member of Sigma Xi. Schultz. He is currently with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/SNHA) at Hanscom AFB. M. Ziolkowski and A. 965–970. J. Jan. degrees in electrical engineering from Brown University. Government Printing Ofﬁce. New York: Springer-Verlag. conformal antennas. CO.” Soviet Physics Uspekhi. [25] V. VA. RI. [35] A. 1977. B. 51. [20] L. 1941. H. conference and industry publications. Burke. military. New York: McGraw-Hill. no. Karni. private communication. “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneous negative values of and . DC: U. Dr. MA. “The lower bounds on Q for lossy electric and magnetic dipole antennas. where his areas of interest include electrically small antennas. Felsen and N. 509–514. Boston. he taught mathematics and physics for a year at Hampton University. [32] J. 2626–2640. 1956. vol. pp. Jan. Landau. 1981. MS.” Communications on Pure and Appl. Manchester.” J.. A. Lab.” IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. New York: IEEE Press. [29] G. Hanscom AFB.” Proc. [39] M. 1999. S. respectively. Kipple. wideband radiating elements. 1960. and AFRL. Aug. vol.: Butterworth-Heinenann. Phys. [40] Antenna Engineering Handbook. MA. Washington. 1964. “Sampling criteria for resonant antennas and scatterers. Lett. A. pp.. In 1990. Canada. R. pp. and commercial applications. Elect. “Application of double negative materials to increase the power radiated by electrically small antennas. G. numerical. vol. 1966. 428–434. as Director of Engineering and was subsequently appointed to the position of company President in August 1997. 1–10. “An expansion theorem for electromagnetic ﬁelds. Collin. Antenna Propagat. Johnson and H. He received the B. pp. MA.S. 314–316. 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