Q.1. What is native mobile application?

Ans: A native application (native app) is an application program that has been developed for
use on a particular platform or device.
Because native apps are written for a specific platform, they can interact with and take
advantage of operating system features and other software that is typically installed on that
platform. Because a native app is built for a particular device and its operating system, it has
the ability to use device-specific hardware and software, meaning that native apps can take
advantage of the latest technology available on mobile devices such as a global positioning
system (GPS) and camera. This can be construed as an advantage for native apps over Web
apps or mobile cloud apps.
The term "native app" is often mentioned in the context of mobile computing because mobile
applications have traditionally been written to work on a specific device platform. A native
app is installed directly on a mobile device and developers create a separate app version for
each mobile device. The native app may be stored on the mobile device out of the box, or it
can be downloaded from a public or private app store and installed on the mobile
device. Data associated with the native app is also stored on the device, although data can be
stored remotely and accessed by the native app. Depending on the nature of the native app,
Internet connectivity may not be required.
Definition - What does Native Mobile App mean?
A native mobile app is a smartphone application that is coded in a specific programming
language, such as Objective C for iOS and Java for Android operating systems. Native
mobile apps provide fast performance and a high degree of reliability. They also have access
to a phone's various devices, such as its camera and address book. In addition, users can use
some apps without an Internet connection. However, this type of app is expensive to develop
because it is tied to one type of operating system, forcing the company that creates the app to
make duplicate versions that work on other platforms.

Q.2: Monetization for mobile application?
ANS: In Web development the term monetization is used to mean the ability to generate a
revenue thorough your Web site or blog. Monetization can be from affiliate
programs, electronic commerce,premium content, advertising or any form of revenue
There are several ways of monetizing your software, and the decision must be taken even
before launching the project, before taking substantial steps of implementation. Since a
mobile application is a highly individual and unique product, only you can figure out what’s
the best way for you. And we shall mention the most common ways to choose from.

Single payment
This is the most obvious way of monetizing your mobile efforts. You set the one-time charge
for the full version of your software from the very beginning. You must analyze the market
before setting an efficient price, which will make it reasonable for users to purchase your app.
Another extremely popular model that is widely used for various categories of apps. The
word consists of two parts, which disclose the meaning of the term: ‘free-’ means that you
allow users to download a basic version of your application for free and try it out, which is
great for making your app known. On the other side is ‘-mium’: there is a premium version of
your app that can be unlocked or downloaded through a payment. Freemium is good for
catchy, frequently used types of software products, and if you offer a really valuable upgrade
for your future power users.
That’s all about games. You can launch yours initially free, but it can become a good source
of revenues. In-app purchases can help you sell additional levels, features, packs, which will
make gaming experience even better.
Another model that deals with free downloads. But here you allow to download the fully-
featured app. What’s limited is the period of time the users will receive to use the application,
say, 30 days. After the trial period users would be able to purchase the product if they liked it.
Once, there were only subscriptions for printed media, newspapers and magazines. Now there
are subscriptions for digital media as well, as well as for SaaS-products. The app is free, but
you sell either content, or support/services, or, for the simplest example, extra memory
User base
It’s easier to grow a user base with a free app, and it requires much budget and efforts to
grow one. But when you have it, there are additional benefits that shouldn’t be neglected. The
point is selling access to your user base. But in doing so, make sure not to drive everyone
away from your own app – for example, placing third-party ad banners, which are often ugly
and irrelevant. Safer means are integrating third-party services and content into your app,
such as books, recipes, or music. Rich relevant content may attract even more users to your

Android Application:
Android is a Linux-based mobile phone operating system developed by Google. Android is
unique because Google is actively developing the platform but giving it away for free to
hardware manufacturers and phone carriers who want to use Android on their devices.
A modified version of Android is used in the Google TV, the Barnes & NobleNook eReader,
the Samsung Galaxy Tab, and countless other devices. Parrot makes both a
digitalphoto frame and a car stereo system powered by modified versions of Android.
Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and
key applications. Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin,
Rich miner, Nick sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google
in 2005. After original release there have been number of updates in the original version of
Features & Specifications
Android is a powerful Operating System supporting a large number of applications in Smart
Phones. These applications make life more comfortable and advanced for the users.
Hardwares that support Android are mainly based on ARM architecture platform. Some of
the current features and specifications of android are:

Android comes with an Android market which is an online software store. It was developed
by Google. It allows Android users to select, and download applications developed by third
party developers and use them. There are around 2.0 lack+ games, application and widgets
available on the market for users.

Android applications are written in java programming language. Android is available as open
source for developers to develop applications which can be further used for selling in android
market. There are around 200000 applications developed for android with over 3 billion+
downloads. Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security,
memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. For software
development, Android provides Android SDK (Software development kit). Read more
about open source software.
These are the basics of Android applications:
• Android applications are composed of one or more application components (activities,
services, content providers, and broadcast receivers)
• Each component performs a different role in the overall application behavior, and each
one can be activated individually (even by other applications)
• The manifest file must declare all components in the application and should also declare
all application requirements, such as the minimum version of Android required and any
hardware configurations required
• Non-code application resources (images, strings, layout files, etc.) should include
alternatives for different device configurations (such as different strings for different

Google, for software development and application development, had launched two
competitions ADC1 and ADC2 for the most innovative applications for Android. It offered
prizes of USD 10 million combined in ADC1 and 2. ADC1 was launched in January 2008
and ADC 2 was launched in May 2009. These competitions helped Google a lot in making
Android better, more user friendly, advanced and interactive.

Wix Platform and services:
Wix is already a powerful design and promotional tool that users worldwide are using to
build successful and marketable websites. Building a website should be as effortless as
everything else the web now offers, and Wix is about giving you the freedom to design the
website you want with great looking results. It’s your personality, with a professional quality.
Wix.com is a cloud-based web development platform that allows users to create
professional HTML5 websites and mobile sites, through the use of their online drag and
drop tools.
Users can add functionalities such as social plug-ins, eCommerce, contact
forms, email marketing, and community forums to their websites using a variety of Wix-
developed and third-party applications.

Wix is built on a freemium business model, earning its revenues through premium upgrades.
Users must purchase premium packages in order to connect their sites to their own domains,
remove Wix ads, add e-commerce capabilities, buy extra data storage and bandwidth and

Move to HTML5[edit]
In March 2012, Wix launched a new HTML5 site builder, replacing the Adobe
Flash technology; existing sites built in Flash were still supported, but all new customers
were directed to the new HTML5 platform.

In February 2013, Wix reported that the move to HTML5 was highly successful, helping to
attract 25 million users and generating annual revenues of $60 million in 2012.
[10][not in citation

As of August 2013, the Wix platform is being used by over 35 million Internet users to create
their online presence.

Wix provides hundreds of website templates and a drag and drop HTML5 website builder
which includes Apps, graphics, image galleries, fonts and more. Everything on Wix’ website-
templates is customizable so users can choose function, style, color, text, background, buttons
that match their needs [13] or opt to create their websites from scratch.
App Market
On October 2012, Wix launched an app market for selling of third-party applications built
with the company's automated Web development technology. Wix’s software development
kit lets app developers create and offer web apps to Wix’ millions of users around the
globe.[14] Wix App Market offers both free and subscription-based applications, with a
revenue split of 70 percent for the developer and 30 percent for Wix.
The App Market enables customers to integrate third-party applications into their own
websites and includes solutions, such as: photo feeds, blogging, music playlists, online
community, e-mail marketing, and file management.
The App Market offers applications from providers such as Google, Instagram, LiveChat and
 News:
Two Years After Launch, Wix's HTML5 Platform is a Massive Success With 46 Million
Users and Over 10 New Production Deployments a Day
Company Accelerates Development to Deliver the Power of HTML5 With Over 7,500
Platform Deployments, New Features, Apps and More in Just Two Years
TEL AVIV, Israel, April 9, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Two years since launching its
HTML5 website editor, Wix.com (Nasdaq:WIX) announced today that due to a massive and
continuous development cycle of over 7,500 deployments to production to date, it has
exponentially grown its platform's capabilities. The two-year milestone is also marked with a
new suite of HTML5 design, animation and interactive features that has just been released,
allowing Wix users to add a dynamic new dimension to their websites.
Pivoting from its original Flash-based website creation toolset, which in April 2012 already
had over 20 million users, Wix rapidly expanded its product suite in industry-leading
directions that would not have been possible prior to the transition to HTML5. The leap in
Wix's technological offering has been the driving force behind the company's ability to more
than double its user base, attracting over 46 million users worldwide.
"Once we were certain an HTML5 platform would have the capability to deliver and exceed
what we created on Flash, we set out to develop it. The core value of Wix has always been to
simplify the web creation process for everyone, but the transition to HTML5 enabled us to do
so much more: create an all-inclusive platform that lets anyone run their entire business
online," said Avishai Abrahami, Wix Co-founder and CEO. "While it was a challenging and
technologically complex move, we succeeded in creating a robust web development
environment without taking anything away from the beautiful and professional end result that
our users have come to expect from Wix."
A software company at its core, over the last two years Wix has released a steady flow of
new features and capabilities to its HTML5 platform, with the goal remaining to constantly
improve its products and services. Highlights include:
 The leading HTML5 WYSIWYG editor on the market
 Powerful design features including 3D galleries, animations, an image editor, page
transitions and text and shape effects
 Unique "Beyond Responsive" mobile optimization solution
 A curated App Market offering seamless integration of over 190 Wix developed and
party apps
 1-click integration of branded email via Google Apps
 490+ fully customizable HTML5 templates across all business verticals
 Enhanced eCommerce capabilities through a native solution or 3
party service
 A Site History feature enabling users to view or restore a prior version of a website at
any point
The company's rapid and ambitious development roadmap is supported by an R&D
methodology where developers, who represent 50% of the total employee base, have
complete ownership and ongoing responsibility for monitoring and improving the new
features they create. This work methodology further enables Wix to stay on top of a
constantly changing technological landscape and quickly commoditize the continuous
innovation in web design and interaction into new features offered to users.
About Wix.com Ltd.
Wix.com is a leading cloud-based web development platform with over 46 million registered
users worldwide. Wix was founded on the belief that the Internet should be accessible to
everyone to develop, create and contribute. Through free and premium subscriptions, Wix
empowers millions of businesses, organizations, professionals and individuals to take their
businesses, brands and workflow online. The Wix Editor and highly curated App Market
enable users to build and manage a fully integrated and dynamic online presence. Wix's
headquarters are in Tel Aviv with offices in San Francisco, New York, Vilnius and

Enter HTML5 structural elements
The HTML4 way of doing things is all well and good, but semantically it could be so much better:
 Humans can tell the different content apart, but machines can't — the browser doesn't see the
different divs as header, footer, etc. It sees them as different divs. Wouldn't it be more useful if
browsers and screen readers were able to explicitly identify say, the navigation menu so a
visually impaired user could find it more easily, or the different news items on a bunch of blogs so
they could be easily syndicated in an RSS feed without any extra programming?
 Even if you do use extra code to solve some of these problems, you can still only do it reliably for
your web sites, as different web developers will use different class and ID names, especially
when you consider the international audience — different web developers in different countries
will use different languages to write their class and id names.
It therefore makes a lot of sense to define a consistent set of elements for everyone to use for the
common structural blocks that appear on so many web sites, and this is exactly what is defined in
The new HTML5 elements we will cover in this article are:
 <header>: Used to contain the header content of a site.
 <footer>: Contains the footer content of a site.
 <nav>: Contains the navigation menu, or other navigation functionality for the page.
 <article>: Contains a standalone piece of content that would make sense if syndicated as an
RSS item, for example a news item.
 <section>: Used to either group different articles into different purposes or subjects, or to define
the different sections of a single article.
 <aside>: Defines a block of content that is related to the main content around it, but not central
to the flow of it.
we will discuss these in more detail a little later on, but for now, let's look at how our example could
look when structured using HTML5 elements:

Figure 4: The example site, with appropriate HTML5 elements indicated for different major structural
In code, this looks like so:

<!-- header content goes in here -->

<!-- navigation menu goes in here -->

<section id="sidebar1">
<!-- sidebar content goes in here -->

<section id="main">
<!-- main page content goes in here -->

<!-- aside content goes in here -->

<!-- footer content goes in here -->

Let's explore some of the HTML5 elements in more detail.
The <section> element is for containing distinct different areas of functionality or subjects area, or
breaking an article or story up into different sections. So in this case:
 "sidebar1" contains various useful links that will persist on every page of the site, such as
"subscribe to RSS" and "Buy music from store".
 "main" contains the main content of this page, which is blog posts. On other pages of the site, this
content will change.
It is a fairly generic element, but still has way more semantic meaning than the plain old <div>.
<article> is related to <section>, but is distinctly different. Whereas <section> is for grouping
distinct sections of content or functionality, <article> is for containing related individual standalone
pieces of content, such as individual blog posts, videos, images or news items. Think of it this way - if
you have a number of items of content, each of which would be suitable for reading on their own, and
would make sense to syndicate as separate items in an RSS feed, then <article> is suitable for
marking them up.
In our example, <section id="main"> contains blog entries. Each blog entry would be suitable for
syndicating as an item in an RSS feed, and would make sense when read on its own, out of context,
therefore <article> is perfect for them:
<section id="main">
<!-- first blog post content goes here -->

<!-- second blog post content goes here -->

<!-- third blog post content goes here -->
Simple huh? Be aware though that you can also nest sections inside articles, where it makes sense to
do so. For example, if each one of these blog posts has a consistent structure of distinct sections,
then you could put sections inside your articles as well. It could look something like this:
<section id="introduction">

<section id="content">

<section id="summary">
<header> and <footer>
as we already mentioned above, the purpose of the <header> and <footer> elements is to wrap
header and footer content, respectively. In our particular example the <header> element contains a
logo image, and the <footer> element contains a copyright notice, but you could add more
elaborate content if you wished. Also note that you can have more than one header and footer on
each page - as well as the top level header and footer we have just discussed, you could also have
a <header> and <footer> element nested inside each <article>, in which case they would just
apply to that particular article. Adding to our above example:

<section id="introduction">

<section id="content">

<section id="summary">

The <nav> element is for marking up the navigation links or other constructs (eg a search form) that
will take you to different pages of the current site, or different areas of the current page. Other links,
such as sponsored links, do not count. You can of course include headings and other structuring
elements inside the <nav>, but it's not compulsory.
you may have noticed that we used an <aside> element to markup the 2nd sidebar: the one
containing latest gigs and contact details. This is perfectly appropriate, as <aside> is for marking up
pieces of information that are related to the main flow, but don't fit in to it directly. And the main
content in this case is all about the band!
Other good choices for an <aside> would be information about the author of the blog post(s), a band
biography, or a band discography with links to buy their albums.

Tag Description
<header> Defines a header for the document or a section
<nav> Defines navigation links in the document
<section> Defines a section in the document
<main> Defines the main content of a document
<article> Defines an article in the document
<aside> Defines content aside from the page content
<footer> Defines a footer for the document or a section
<details> Defines additional details that the user can view or hide
<summary> Defines a visible heading for a <details> element
<figure> Defines self-contained content, like illustrations, diagrams, photos, code listings, etc.
<figcaption> Defines a caption for a <figure> element
<mark> Defines marked or highlighted text
<time> Defines a date/time
<bdi> Defines a part of text that might be formatted in a different direction from other text outside it
<wbr> Defines a possible line-break
<dialog> Defines a dialog box or window
<meter> Defines a scalar measurement within a known range (a gauge)
<progress> Defines the progress of a task
<ruby> Defines a ruby annotation (for East Asian typography)
<rt> Defines an explanation/pronunciation of characters (for East Asian typography)
<rp> Defines what to show in browsers that do not support ruby annotations

Java Platform, Micro Edition, or Java ME, is a Java platform designed for embedded
systems (mobile devices are one kind of such systems). Target devices range from industrial
controls to mobile phones (especially feature phones) and set-top boxes. Java ME was formerly
known as Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME).
Java ME was designed by Sun Microsystems, acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2010; the
platform replaced a similar technology, PersonalJava. Originally developed under the Java
Community Process as JSR 68, the different flavors of Java ME have evolved in separate JSRs.
Sun provides a reference implementation of the specification, but has tended not to provide free
binary implementations of its Java ME runtime environment for mobile devices, rather relying on
third parties to provide their own.
As of 22 December 2006, the Java ME source code is licensed under the GNU General Public
License, and is released under the project name phoneME.
As of 2008, all Java ME platforms are currently restricted to JRE 1.3 features and use that
version of the class file format (internally known as version 47.0). Should Oracle ever declare a
new round of Java ME configuration versions that support the later class file formats and
language features, such as those corresponding to JRE 1.5 or 1.6 (notably, generics), it will
entail extra work on the part of all platform vendors to update their JREs.

Java ME devices implement a profile. The most common of these are the Mobile Information
Device Profile aimed at mobile devices, such as cell phones, and the Personal Profileaimed at
consumer products and embedded devices like set-top boxes and PDAs. Profiles are subsets
of configurations, of which there are currently two: the Connected Limited Device Configuration
(CLDC) and the Connected Device Configuration (CDC).

There are more than 2.1 billion Java ME enabled mobile phones and PDAs.
It is popular in sub
$200 devices such as Nokia's Series 40. It was also used on the Bada operating system and
on Symbian OS along with native software. Also, there are implementations for Windows
CE, Windows Mobile, Maemo, MeeGo and Android available for separate download.

J2ME Introduction
What is J2ME? Cut away the hype and the excess fat and you are left with
yet another (set of) Java APIs. Since these APIs cannot run on a traditional Java
Virtual Machine (JVM), due to the limited size of mobile devices in regards to memory
and resource availability, J2ME defines a limited version of the JVM as well. In
a nutshell:
J2ME combines a resource constrained JVM and a set of Java APIs for
developing applications for mobile devices.
Do you, as a developer, have to install this JVM and the APIs on mobile devices?
No. Device manufacturers install and prepackage their devices with this JVM
(and associated APIs). As a developer, you only need to develop applications
targeting these devices and install them. Easier said than done!
J2ME can be divided into three parts, as shown in Figure 1: a configuration,
a profile, and optional packages. A configuration contains the JVM (not the traditional
JVM, but the cut-down version) and some class libraries; a profile builds on
top of these base class libraries by providing a useful set of APIs; and optional
packages, are well, an optional set of APIs that you may or may not use when creating
your applications. Optional packages are traditionally not packaged by the device
manufacturers, and you have to package and distribute them with your application.
The configuration and profile are supplied by the device manufacturers and they
embedded them in the devices.

Figure 1. The J2ME stack
The most popular profile and configuration that Sun provides are the Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP)
and Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC), respectively. As the name suggests,
CLDC is for devices with limited configurations; for example, devices that have
only 128 to 512KB of memory available for Java applications. Consequently,
the JVM that it provides is very limited and supports only a small number of
traditional Java classes. (This limited JVM is actually called the KVM.) Its
counterpart, the Connected Device Configuration (CDC) is for devices with at
least 2MB of memory available and supports a more feature-rich JVM (but still
not a standard JVM).
The MID profile complements the CLDC configuration very well because it minimizes
both the memory and power required for limited devices. It provides the basic
API that is used for creating application for these devices. For example, it
provides the javax.microedition.lcdui package that allows us to
create the GUI elements that can be shown on a (limited) device running the
MID profile on top of a CLDC configuration. Note that MIDP cannot be used with
CDC devices. CDC devices get their own set of profiles, like the Foundation
and Personal profiles. However, I will not cover these profiles or the CDC here,
and will concentrate on using MIDP and CLDC only.
The latest versions of MIDP and CLDC are 2.0 and 1.1, respectively. Not many devices
currently support these versions, but the list is growing rapidly. Sun maintains
a list of devices according to version.
Acquiring and Installing the J2ME Development Kit
Getting started with developing applications (henceforth called "MIDlets") for
the J2ME platform is easy. Although device manufacturers install and prepackage their devices with this JVM
(and associated APIs), you still need to install the J2ME
Wireless Toolkit 2.2 on your development machine. Before that, however, you
must also have the Java Development Kit (JDK), version 1.4.2 or greater, installed.
Warning: I had problems getting the Wireless Toolkit to work properly with
JDK 5.0. If you don't need the latest features in version 5.0, it is best
to stick to any 1.4.2 version. I have used 1.4.2_05 for all examples in this
You need this Toolkit because it contains tools that are important in generating
MIDlets. This Toolkit provides
the development environment for the MIDP 2.0 and CLDC 1.1 (and for MIDP 1.0
and CLDC 1.0, since these parameters are backwards compatible), and it provides
the optional packages required for the optional libraries, like 3D and Mobile
Media applications. Lastly, it provides the ability to sign your MIDlets so
that they can be authenticated before installation on a remote mobile device.
Once you download the installation package for the Toolkit, install it in the
directory of your choice. The default, on Windows, is C:\WTK22, and this will be the
installation directory for the examples in this series as well. I will not explain
the directories created under this folder just now. Before I do that, let us try and
understand the process of generating a MIDlet from scratch.

PhoneGap (Cordova)
Original author(s) Joe Bowser, Michael Brooks, Rob Ellis, Dave
Johnson, Anis Kadri, Brian Leroux, Jesse MacFadyen,
Filip Maj, Eric Oesterle, Brock Whitten, Herman
Wong, Shazron Abdullah
Developer(s) Adobe Systems
Stable release 3.4.0 / March 4, 2014
Development status Active
Written in JavaScript, HTML5,CSS3, Java, C++, C# andObjective-
Operating system iOS, Android, webOS,Symbian, BlackBerry,Ubuntu
Touch, Windows Phone, Windows 8
Available in English
Type mobile development framework
License Apache 2.0 License


Website www.phonegap.com
PhoneGap is a mobile development framework produced by Nitobi, purchased by Adobe
Systems in 2011.
It enables softwareprogrammers to build applications for mobile devices
using JavaScript, HTML5, and CSS3, instead of device-specific languages such as Objective-
The resulting applications are hybrid, meaning that they are neither truly native (because all
layout rendering is done via web views instead of the platform's native UI framework) nor purely
web-based (because they are not just web apps, but are packaged as apps for distribution and
have access to native device APIs). From version 1.9 onward it is even possible to freely mix
native and hybrid code snippets.
The software underlying PhoneGap is Apache Cordova.
The software was previously called
just "PhoneGap", then "Apache Callback".
Apache Cordova is open source software.
Design and rationale[edit]

This section
requires expansion.(October 2011)
The core of PhoneGap applications use HTML5 and CSS3 for their rendering, and JavaScript for
their logic. Although HTML5 now provides access to underlying hardware such as the
accelerometer, camera and GPS, browser support for HTML5-based device access is not
consistent across mobile browsers, particularly older versions of Android. To overcome these
limitations, the PhoneGap framework embeds HTML5 code inside a native WebView on the
device, using a foreign function interface to access the native resources of the device.

PhoneGap is also able to be extended with native plug-ins that allow for developers to add
functionality that can be called from JavaScript, allowing for direct communication between the
native layer, and the HTML5 page. PhoneGap includes basic plugins that allow access to the
device's accelerometer, camera, microphone, compass, file system, and more.
However, the use of web-based technologies leads many PhoneGap applications to run slower
than native applications with similar functionality.
Adobe Systems warns that applications built
using PhoneGap may be rejected by Apple for being too slow or not feeling "native" enough
(having appearance and functionality consistent with what users have come to expect on the

corona (software development kit)

Corona SDK
Developer(s) Corona Labs Inc.
Stable release 2013.2100 / 7 December 2013
Operating system
 Mac OS (creation)
 Windows (creation)
 iPhone/iPad (deployment)
 Android (deployment)
 Kindle Fire (deployment)
 Nook (deployment)
Type Software development kitGame engine
Website www.CoronaLabs.com
Corona SDK is a software development kit (SDK) created by Walter Luh, Founder of Corona
Labs Inc.. Corona SDK allows software programmers to build mobile applications for iPhone,
iPad, and Android devices.
Corona lets developers use integrated Lua, layered on top of C++/OpenGL, to build graphic
applications. The SDK does not charge per-app royalty or impose any branding requirement, and
has a subscription-based purchase model.
Major features[edit]
The SDK exposes features such as audio and graphics, cryptography, networking, as well as
device information such as accelerometer information, GPS, and user input.

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