= (14) 11
Traditionally, the metallic disc representing the Ioot is taken as a circular plate with a radius oI 0.08 m. 12
With only slight approximation, equations Ior Z
Th
can be obtained in numerical Iorm and expressed in 13
terms oI as Iollows. 14
Fortouchvoltageaccidentalcircuit 15
5 . 1 =
Th
Z (15) 16
AndIorstepvoltageaccidentalcircuit 17
0 . 6 =
Th
Z (16) 18
BasedoninvestigationreportedinDawalibi,Xiong,andMaB50;Meliopoulos,Xia,Joy,andCokkonides 19
B106;andThapar,Gerez,andKejriwalB144,Equation(15)andEquation(16)areconservativeinthe 20
sensethattheyunderestimatetheTheveninequivalentimpedanceand,thereIore,willresultinhigherbody 21
currents. 22
The permissible total equivalent voltage (i.e., tolerable touch and step voltage), using Equation (15) and 23
Equation(16),is 24
) 5 . 1 ( + =
B B touch
R I E (17) 25
and 26
) 0 . 6 ( + =
B B step
R I E (18) 27
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7.4 Effect of a thin layer of surface material 1
Equation(14)isbasedontheassumptionoIuniIormsoilresistivity.However,a0.080.15m(36in)layer 2
oIhighresistivitymaterial,suchasgravel, isoIten spreadontheearthssurIaceabovetheground gridto 3
increase the contact resistance between the soil and the Ieet oI persons in the substation. The relatively 4
shallow depth oI the surIace material, as compared to the equivalent radius oI the Ioot, precludes the 5
assumptionoIuniIormresistivityintheverticaldirectionwhencomputingthegroundresistanceoItheIeet. 6
However,Iorapersoninthesubstationarea,thesurIacematerialcanbeassumedtobeoIinIiniteextentin 7
thelateraldirection. 8
II the underlying soil has a lower resistivity than the surIace material, only some grid current will go 9
upwardintothethinlayeroIthesurIace material,andthe surIacevoltage willbe very nearlythe sameas 10
that without the surIace material. The current through the body will be lowered considerably with the 11
addition oI the surIace material because oI the greater contact resistance between the earth and the Ieet. 12
However, this resistance may be considerably less than that oI a surIace layer thick enough to assume 13
uniIormresistivityinalldirections.ThereductiondependsontherelativevaluesoIthesoilandthesurIace 14
materialresistivities,andonthethicknessoIthesurIacematerial. 15
The converse oI the derating principle is also true. II the underlying soil has a higher resistivity than the 16
surIace material, a substantial portion oI the grid current will go upward into the thin layer oI surIace 17
material. However, unlike the case described in the preceding paragraph, the surIace potentials will be 18
altered substantially due to the concentration oI current near the surIace. Thus, the eIIective resistivity oI 19
the surIace material should not be upgraded without taking into account this change in surIace potential. 20
Thisproblemcanbestbesolvedbyusingmultilayersoilanalysis(seeClause13). 21
An analytical expression Ior the ground resistance oI the Ioot on a thin layer oI surIace material can be 22
obtained with the use oI the method oI images (Sunde B130; Thapar, Gerez, and Emmanuel B142; 23
Thapar,Gerez,andKejriwalB143). 24
Equation(19)throughEquation(21)givethegroundresistanceoItheIootonthesurIacematerial(Thapar, 25
Gerez,andKejriwalB143). 26
s
s
f
C
b
R
(
=
4
(19) 27
( ) _
=
+ =
1
2
16
1
n
nh m
n
s
s
s
R K
b
C
(20) 28
s
s
K
+
= (21) 29
where 30
31
C
s
isthesurIacelayerderatingIactor 32
K isthereIlectionIactorbetweendiIIerentmaterialresistivities 33
s
is the surIace material resistivity in Om 34
is the resistivity oI the earth beneath the surIace material in Om 35
hs isthethicknessoIthesurIacematerialinm 36
b istheradiusoIthecircularmetallicdiscrepresentingtheIootinm 37
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Rm(2nhs) isthemutualgroundresistancebetweenthetwosimilar,parallel,coaxialplates, separated 1
by a distance (2nhs), in an inIinite medium oI resistivity, s, in Om 2
3
ForthedeterminationoIR
m(2nh
s
)
, considerathincircularplate,D1,inthexyplanewiththezaxispassing 4
throughitscenter.TheradiusoItheplateisb anditdischargesacurrentI inaninIiniteuniIormmediumoI 5
resistivity,
s
. Using cylindrical coordinates, the potential at any point (r,z) is given by the Iollowing 6
equations(JacksonB88): 7
2 2
y x r + = (22) 8
s
nh Z 2 = (23) 9
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
+ + + +
2 2 2 2
1
,
2
sin
4
z b r z b r
b
b
I
V
s
z r
t
(24) 10
Consideranothersimilarplate,D2,placed parallel and coaxial to the circular plate, D1, and at a distance 11
(2nh)Iromit.ThepotentialproducedonD2canbedeterminedbyevaluatingtheaveragepotentialoverthe 12
surIaceoItheplate.Itisgivenby 13
( )
}
=
b
z r D
dx V x
b
V
0
,
2
2
2
1
t
t
(25) 14
15
Themutualgroundresistance,R
m(2nh
s
)
,betweenthetwoplatesisgivenby 16
I
V
R
D
nh m
s
2
) 2 (
= (26) 17
Comparing Equation (14) and Equation (19), C
s
can be considered as a corrective Iactor to compute the 18
eIIectiveIootresistanceinthepresenceoIaIinitethicknessoIsurIacematerial.BecausethequantityC
s
is 19
rathertedioustoevaluatewithouttheuseoIacomputer,thesevalueshavebeencalculatedIorb 0.08m 20
andaregivenintheIormoIgraphsinFigure11. 21
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1
Figure 11 C
s
versus h
s
2
Computer models have also been used to determine the value oI C
s
(Dawalibi, Xiong, and Ma 3
B50;Meliopoulos,Xia,Joy,andCokkonidesB107).ThereisaclosematchinthevaluesobtainedIrom 4
thesecomputermodelswiththevaluesgiveninFigure11. 5
TheIollowingempiricalequationgivesthevalueoIC
s
.ThevaluesoIC
s
obtainedusingEquation(27)are 6
within5oIthevaluesobtainedwiththeanalyticalmethod(Thapar,Gerez,andKejriwalB143). 7
09 . 0 2
1 09 . 0
1
+


.

\

=
s
s
s
h
C
(27) 8
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8. Criteria of tolerable voltage 1
8.1 Definitions 2
NOTETheIollowingdeIinitionsarealsolistedinClause3,butrepeatedhereIortheconvenienceoIthereader. 3
Ground potential rise (GPR): Themaximumelectricalpotentialthatasubstationgroundgrid may 4
attainrelativetoadistantgroundingpointassumedtobeatthepotentialoIremoteearth.Thisvoltage, 5
GPR,isequaltothemaximumgridcurrenttimesthegridresistance. 6
NOTE Undernormalconditions,thegroundedelectricalequipmentoperatesatnearzero groundpotential.Thatis, 7
thepotentialoIagroundedneutralconductorisnearlyidenticaltothepotentialoIremoteearth.DuringagroundIault 8
the portion oI Iault current that is conducted by a substation ground grid into the earth causes the rise oI the grid 9
potentialwithrespecttoremoteearth. 10
Mesh voltage: ThemaximumtouchvoltagewithinameshoIagroundgrid. 11
Metaltometal touch voltage: ThediIIerenceinpotentialbetweenmetallicobjectsorstructures 12
withinthesubstationsitethatmaybebridgedbydirecthandtohandorhandtoIeetcontact. 13
NOTEThemetaltometaltouchvoltagebetweenmetallicobjectsorstructuresbondedtothegroundgridisassumed 14
to be negligible in conventional substations. However, the metaltometal touch voltage between metallic objects or 15
structuresbondedtothegroundgridandmetallicobjectsinternaltothesubstationsite,suchasanisolatedIence,but 16
not bonded to the ground grid may be substantial. In the case oI a gasinsulated substation (GIS), the metaltometal 17
touchvoltagebetweenmetallicobjectsorstructuresbondedtothegroundgridmaybesubstantialbecauseoIinternal 18
Iaultsorinducedcurrentsintheenclosures. 19
Inaconventionalsubstation,theworsttouchvoltageisusuallyIoundtobethepotentialdiIIerencebetweenahandand 20
theIeetatapointoImaximumreachdistance.However,inthecaseoIametaltometalcontactIromhandtohand or 21
IromhandtoIeet,bothsituationsshouldbeinvestigatedIorthepossibleworstreachconditions.Figure12andFigure 22
13illustratethesesituationsIorairinsulatedsubstations,andFigure14illustratesthesesituationsinGIS. 23
Step voltage: ThediIIerenceinsurIacepotentialexperiencedbyapersonbridgingadistanceoI1mwith 24
theIeetwithoutcontactinganyothergroundedobject. 25
Touch voltage: ThepotentialdiIIerencebetweenthegroundpotentialrise(GPR)andthesurIace 26
potentialatthepointwhereapersonisstandingwhileatthesametimehavingahandincontactwitha 27
groundedstructure. 28
Transferred Voltage: AspecialcaseoIthetouchvoltagewhereavoltageistransIerredintooroutoIthe 29
substationIromortoaremotepointexternaltothesubstationsite. 30
31
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1
Figure 12 Basic shock situations 2
3
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Figure 13 Typical situation of extended transferred potential 20
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure 14 Typical metaltometal touch situation in GIS 12
8.2 Typical shock situations 13
Figure 12 and Figure 13 show Iive basic situations involving a person and grounded Iacilities during a 14
Iault.ForaIoottoIootcontact,theaccidentalcircuitequivalentisthatoIFigure9,anditsdrivingvoltage 15
U isequaltoE
s
(stepvoltage).ForthethreeexamplesoI handtoIeetcontactFigure12 applies,andU is 16
equal to E
t
(touch voltage), E
m
(mesh voltage), or E
trrd
(transIerred voltage), respectively. The accidental 17
circuitinvolvingmetaltometalcontact,either handtohandorhandtoIeet,isshowninFigure14 where 18
U isequaltothemetaltometaltouchvoltage,E
mm
. 19
During a Iault, the earth conducts currents that emanate Irom the grid and other permanent ground 20
electrodesburiedbelowtheearthssurIace. The resulting potential gradients have a primary eIIect on the 21
valueoIU. 22
In the case oI conventional substations, the typical case oI metaltometal touch voltage occurs when 23
metallicobjectsorstructureswithinthesubstation siteare notbondedtothe groundgrid.Objectssuchas 24
pipes,rails, orIencesthatarelocatedwithinornearthesubstationgroundgridarea,andnotbondedtothe 25
ground grid, meet this criteria. Substantial metaltometal touch voltages may be present when a person 26
standingonortouchingagroundedobjectorstructure comesintocontactwithametallicobjectorstructure 27
within the substation site that is not bonded to the ground grid. Calculation oI the actual metaltometal 28
touch voltage is complex. In practice, hazards resulting Irom metaltometal contact may best be avoided 29
bybondingpotentialdangerpointstothesubstationgrid. 30
Typically,thecaseoItransIerredvoltageoccurswhenapersonstandingwithinthesubstationareatouches 31
a conductor grounded at a remote point, or a person standing at a remote point touches a conductor 32
connected to the substation ground grid. During Iault conditions, the resulting potential to ground may 33
equalorexceedtheIullGPRoIagroundgrid dischargingtheIaultcurrent,ratherthantheIractionoIthis 34
total voltage encountered in the ordinary touch contact situations (see Figure 13). In Iact, as discussed in 35
Clause 17, the transIerred voltage may exceed the sum oI the GPRs oI both substations, due to induced 36
voltages on communication circuits, static or neutral wires, pipes, etc. It is impractical, and oIten 37
impossible,todesignagroundgridbasedonthetouchvoltagecausedbytheexternaltransIerredvoltages. 38
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HazardsIromtheseexternaltransIerredvoltagesarebestavoidedbyusingisolatingorneutralizingdevices 1
andbytreatingandclearlylabelingthesecircuits,pipes,etc.,asbeingequivalenttoenergizedlines. 2
8.3 Step and touch voltage criteria 3
The saIety oI a person depends on preventing the critical amount oI shock energy Irom being absorbed 4
beIore the Iault is cleared and the system deenergized. The maximum driving voltage oI any accidental 5
circuitshouldnotexceedthelimitsdeIinedasIollows.Forstepvoltagethelimitis 6
( )
B f B step
I R R E 2 + = (28) 7
IorbodyweightoI50kg 8
( )
s
s s step
t
C E
116 . 0
6 1000
50
+ = (29) 9
IorbodyweightoI70kg 10
( )
s
s s step
t
C E
157 . 0
6 1000
70
+ = (30) 11
Similarly,thetouchvoltagelimitis 12
B
f
B touch
I
R
R E


.

\

+ =
2
(31) 13
IorbodyweightoI50kg 14
( )
s
s s touch
t
C E
116 . 0
5 . 1 1000
50
+ = (32) 15
IorbodyweightoI70kg 16
( )
s
s s touch
t
C E
157 . 0
5 . 1 1000
70
+ = (33) 17
where 18
19
E
step
isthestepvoltageinV 20
E
touch
isthetouchvoltageinV 21
C
s
isdeterminedIromFigure11orEquation(27) 22
s
is the resistivity oI the surIace material in Om 23
t
s
isthedurationoIshockcurrentinseconds 24
25
IInoprotectivesurIace layerisused,thenC
s
1and
s
. 26
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The metaltometal touch voltage limits are derived Irom the touch voltage equations, Equation (32) and 1
Equation(33).Metaltometalcontact,bothhandtohandandhandtoIeet,willresultin
s
0.ThereIore, 2
thetotalresistanceoItheaccidentalcircuitisequaltothebodyresistance,R
B
. 3
WiththesubstitutionoI
s
0intheIootresistancetermsoIEquation(32)andEquation(33),themetalto 4
metaltouchvoltagelimitis 5
IorbodyweightoI50kg 6
s
touch mm
t
E
116
50
=
(34) 7
IorbodyweightoI70kg 8
s
touch mm
t
E
157
70
=
(35) 9
where 10
11
E
mm
is the metaltometal touch voltage in V 12
13
The actual step voltage, touch voltage, or metaltometal touch voltage should be less than the respective 14
maximum allowable voltage limits to ensure saIety. Hazards Irom external transIerred voltages are best 15
avoided by isolation or neutralizing devices and labeling these danger points as being equivalent to live 16
lines. 17
8.4 Typical shock situations for gasinsulated substations 18
InthegroundinganalysisoIGIS,thetouchvoltageconsiderationspresentseveraluniqueproblems.Unlike 19
conventional Iacilities, the GIS equipment Ieatures a metal sheath enclosing gasinsulated switchgear and 20
inner highvoltage buses. Each bus is completely contained within its enclosure and the enclosures are 21
grounded.BecauseavoltageisinducedintheoutersheathwheneveracurrentIlowsinthecoaxialbusbar, 22
certain parts oI the enclosure might be at diIIerent potentials with respect to the substation ground. To 23
evaluate the maximum voltage occurring on the bus enclosure during a Iault, it is necessary to determine 24
the inductance oI the outer sheath to ground, the inductance oI the inner conductor, and the mutual 25
inductancesIoragivenphaseconIigurationoIindividualbuses. 26
A person touching the outer sheath oI a GIS might be exposed to voltages resulting Irom two basic Iault 27
conditions 28
a) An internal Iault within the gasinsulated bus system, such as a Ilashover between the bus 29
conductorandtheinnerwalloItheenclosure. 30
b) AIaultexternaltotheGISinwhichaIaultcurrentIlowsthroughtheGISbusandinducescurrents 31
intheenclosures. 32
Becausethepersonmaystandonagroundedmetalgratingandtheaccidentalcircuitmayinvolveahand 33
tohandandhandtoIeetcurrentpath,theanalysisoIGISgroundingnecessitatesconsiderationoImetalto 34
metaltouchvoltage(seeFigure14). 35
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Many GISmanuIacturersconsidertheenclosureproperlydesignedandadequatelygroundediIthepotential 1
diIIerence between individual enclosures, and the potential diIIerence between an enclosure and other 2
groundedstructures,doesnotexceed65130VduringaIault.Themetaltometaltouchvoltageequations, 3
Equation(34)andEquation(35),revealthatthisvoltagerangecorrespondstoIaulttimesrangingIrom0.8 4
sto3.2siIa50kgcriterionisused,andrangingIrom1.46sto5.8sIortheassumptionoIa70kgbody. 5
Thisrelationshipis,however,betterperceivedinthegraphicalIormoIFigure15,whichalsohelpstograsp 6
therelatedproblemoIsuIIicientsaIetymargins. 7
The Iault conditions and the corresponding circuit equivalents Ior determining or veriIying the critical 8
saIetydesignparametersoIGISgroundingisdetailedinClause10. 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Figure 15 Touch voltage limits for metaltometal contact and a 24
typical range of enclosure voltages to ground 25
8.5 Effect of sustained ground currents 26
AIter the saIe step and touch voltage limits are established, the grounding system can then be designed 27
basedontheavailableIaultcurrentandoverallclearingtime.Thedesignershouldalso considersustained 28
lowlevel (below setting oI protective relays) Iault magnitudes that may be above the letgo current 29
threshold. Some sustained Iaults above the letgo current, but below the Iibrillation threshold, may cause 30
asphyxiationIromprolongedcontractionoIthechestmuscles.However,itwouldnotbepracticaltodesign 31
againstlessershocksthatarepainIul,butcausenopermanentinjury. 32
9. Principal design considerations 33
9.1 Definitions 34
NOTETheIollowingdeIinitionsarealsolistedinClause3,butrepeatedhereIortheconvenienceoIthereader. 35
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Auxiliary ground electrode: Agroundelectrodewithcertaindesignoroperating constraints.Its 1
primaryIunctionmaybeotherthanconductingthegroundIaultcurrentintotheearth 2
Ground electrode: AconductorimbeddedintheearthandusedIorcollectinggroundcurrentIromor 3
dissipatinggroundcurrentintotheearth 4
Ground mat: AsolidmetallicplateorasystemoIcloselyspacedbareconductorsthatareconnectedto 5
andoItenplacedinshallowdepthsaboveagroundgridorelsewhereattheearthsurIace,inordertoobtain 6
anextraprotectivemeasureminimizingthedangeroItheexposuretohighsteportouchvoltagesina 7
criticaloperatingareaorplacesthatareIrequentlyusedby people.Groundedmetalgrating,placedonor 8
abovethesoilsurIace,orwiremeshplaceddirectlyunderthesurIacematerial,arecommonIormsoIa 9
groundmat. 10
Ground grid: AsystemoIhorizontalgroundelectrodesthatconsistsoIanumberoIinterconnected,bare 11
conductorsburiedintheearth,providingacommongroundIorelectricaldevicesormetallicstructures, 12
usuallyinonespeciIiclocation. 13
NOTEGrids buried horizontally near the earths surIace are also eIIective in controlling the surIace potential 14
gradients.AtypicalgridusuallyissupplementedbyanumberoIgroundrodsandmaybeIurtherconnectedtoauxiliary 15
groundelectrodes,toloweritsresistancewithrespecttoremoteearth. 16
Grounding system: ComprisesallinterconnectedgroundingIacilitiesinaspeciIicarea. 17
Primary ground electrode: AgroundelectrodespeciIicallydesignedoradaptedIordischargingthe 18
groundIaultcurrentintotheground,oIteninaspeciIicdischargepattern,asrequired(orimplicitlycalled 19
Ior)bythegroundingsystemdesign. 20
9.2 General concept 21
AgroundingsystemshouldbeinstalledinamannerthatwilllimittheeIIectoIgroundpotentialgradients 22
to such voltage and current levels that will not endanger the saIety oI people or equipment under normal 23
andIaultconditions.ThesystemshouldalsohelpensurecontinuityoIservice. 24
InthediscussionthatIollows,itisassumedthatthesystemoIgroundelectrodeshastheIormoIagridoI 25
horizontally buried conductors, supplemented by a number oI vertical ground rods connected to the grid. 26
Based on two surveys, the Iirst reported in an AIEE application guide in 1954 B3, and the second 27
published in 1980 (Dawalibi, Bauchard, and Mukhedkar B45), this concept represents the prevailing 28
practiceoImostutilitiesbothintheUnitedStatesandinothercountries. 29
Some oI the reasons Ior using the combined system oI vertical rods and horizontal conductors are as 30
Iollows: 31
a) In substations a single electrode is, by itselI, inadequate in providing a saIe grounding system. In 32
turn,whenseveralelectrodes,suchasgroundrods,areconnectedtoeachotherandtoallequipment 33
neutrals,Irames,andstructuresthatare tobegrounded,theresultisessentiallyagridarrangementoI 34
groundelectrodes,regardlessoItheoriginalobjective.IItheconnectinglinkshappentobeburiedin 35
a soil having good conductivity, this network alone may represent an excellent grounding system. 36
PartlyIorthisreason,someutilitiesdependontheuseoIagridalone.However,groundrodsareoIa 37
particularvalue,asexplainedinitem 38
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II the magnitude oI current dissipated into the earth is high, it seldom is possible to install a grid with 1
resistancesolowastoassurethattheriseoIa groundpotential willnot generate surIacegradients unsaIe 2
Iorhumancontact.Then,thehazardcanbeeliminatedonlybycontroloIlocalpotentialsthroughtheentire 3
area.AsystemthatcombinesahorizontalgridandanumberoIverticalgroundrodspenetratinglowersoils 4
hastheIollowingadvantages: 5
1) Whilehorizontal(grid)conductorsaremosteIIectiveinreducingthedangeroIhighstepand 6
touch voltages on the earths surIace, provided that the grid is installed in a shallow depth 7
usually0.30.5m(1218 in) below grade, suIIiciently long ground rods will stabilize the 8
perIormance oI such a combined system. For many installations this is important because 9
IreezingordryingoIuppersoillayerscouldvarythesoilresistivitywithseasons,whilethe 10
resistivityoIlowersoillayersremainsnearlyconstant. 11
2) RodspenetratingthelowerresistivitysoilareIarmoreeIIectiveindissipatingIaultcurrents 12
whenever a twolayer or multilayer soil is encountered and the upper soil layer has higher 13
resistivity than the lower layers. For many GIS and other spacelimited installations, this 14
condition becomes in Iact the most desirable one to occur, or to be achieved by the 15
appropriatedesignmeans(extralonggroundrods,groundingwells,etc.). 16
3) II the rods are installed predominately along the grid perimeter in hightolow or uniIorm 17
soilconditions,therodswillconsiderablymoderatethesteepincreaseoIthesurIacegradient 18
neartheperipheral meshes. See Clause 16 Iordetails oI this arrangement. These details are 19
pertinenttotheuseoIsimpliIied methods in determining the voltage gradient at the earths 20
surIace. 21
9.3 Primary and auxiliary ground electrodes 22
Ingeneral,mostgroundingsystemsutilize twogroupsoIgroundelectrodes.Primarygroundelectrodesare 23
speciIically designed Ior grounding purposes. Auxiliary ground electrodes are electrodes that comprise 24
various underground metal structures installed Ior purposes other than grounding. Typical primary 25
electrodes include such things as ground grids, counterpoise conductors, ground rods, and ground wells. 26
TypicalauxiliaryelectrodesincludeundergroundmetalstructuresandreinIorcingbarsencasedin concrete, 27
iIconnectedtothegroundgrid.Auxiliarygroundelectrodesmayhavealimitedcurrentcarryingcapability. 28
9.4 Basic aspects of grid design 29
ConceptualanalysisoIa gridsystem usually starts with inspection oI the substation layout plan, showing 30
all major equipment and structures. To establish the basic ideas and concepts, the Iollowing points may 31
serveasguidelinesIorstartingatypicalgroundgrid design: 32
a) A continuous conductor loop should surround the perimeter to enclose as much area as practical. 33
This measure helps to avoid high current concentration and, hence, high gradients both in the grid 34
area and near the projecting cable ends. Enclosing more area also reduces the resistance oI the 35
groundgrid. 36
Withintheloop,conductorsaretypically laidinparallellinesand, wherepractical,alongthestructuresor 37
rowsoIequipmenttoprovideIorshortgroundconnections. 38
AtypicalgridsystemIorasubstationmayinclude4/0barecopperconductorsburied0.30.5m(1218in) 39
belowgrade,spaced37m(1020It)apart,inagridpattern.Atcrossconnections,theconductorswould 40
be securely bonded together. Ground rods may be at the grid corners and at junction points along the 41
perimeter. Ground rods may also be installed at major equipment, especially near surge arresters. In 42
multilayer or high resistivity soils, it might be useIul to use longer rods or rods installed at additional 43
junctionpoints. 44
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ThisgridsystemwouldbeextendedovertheentiresubstationswitchyardandoItenbeyondtheIenceline. 1
MultiplegroundleadsorlargersizedconductorswouldbeusedwherehighconcentrationsoIcurrentmay 2
occur,suchasataneutraltogroundconnectionoIgenerators,capacitorbanks,ortransIormers. 3
The ratio oI the sides oI the grid meshes usually is Irom 1:1 to 1:3, unless a precise (computeraided) 4
analysis warrants more extreme values. Frequent crossconnections have a relatively small eIIect on 5
loweringtheresistanceoIagrid.TheirprimaryroleistoassureadequatecontroloIthesurIacepotentials. 6
The crossconnections are also useIul in securing multiple paths Ior the Iault current, minimizing the 7
voltage drop in the grid itselI, and providing a certain measure oI redundancy in the case oI a conductor 8
Iailure. 9
9.5 Design in difficult conditions 10
In areas where the soil resistivity is rather high or the substation space is at a premium, it may not be 11
possibletoobtainalowimpedancegroundingsystembyspreadingthegridelectrodesoveralargearea,as 12
is done in more Iavorable conditions. Such a situation is typical oI many GIS installations and industrial 13
substations, occupying only a Iraction oI the land area normally used Ior conventional equipment. This 14
oItenmakesthecontroloIsurIacegradientsdiIIicult.SomeoIthesolutionsinclude 15
a) Connection(s) oI remote ground grid(s) and adjacent grounding Iacilities, a combined system 16
utilizingseparateinstallationsinbuildings,undergroundvaults,etc.ApredominantuseoIremote 17
groundelectrodesrequirescareIulconsiderationoItransIerredpotentials,surgearresterlocations, 18
and other critical points. A signiIicant voltage drop may develop between the local and remote 19
groundingIacilities,especiallyIorhighIrequencysurges(lightning). 20
b) UseoIdeepdrivengroundrodsanddrilledgroundwells. 21
c) Various additives and soil treatments used in conjunction with ground rods and interconnecting 22
conductorsaremoreIullydescribedin14.5. 23
d) Use oI wire mats. It is Ieasible to combine both a surIace material and Iabricated mats made oI 24
wire mesh to equalize the gradient Iield near the surIace. A typical wire mat might consist oI 25
coppercladsteel wiresoINo.6 AWG, arranged in a 0.6 m x 0.6 m (24 in x 24 in) grid pattern, 26
installedontheearthssurIaceandbelowthesurIacematerial,andbondedtothemaingroundgrid 27
atmultiplelocations. 28
e) WhereIeasible,controlleduseoIotheravailablemeanstolowertheoverallresistanceoIaground 29
system,suchasconnectingstaticwiresandneutralstotheground(see15.3).TypicalistheuseoI 30
metallic objects on the site that qualiIy Ior and can serve as auxiliary ground electrodes, or as 31
ground ties to other systems. Consequences oI such applications, oI course, have to be careIully 32
evaluated. 33
I) Whereverpractical,anearbydepositoIlowresistivitymaterialoIsuIIicientvolumecanbeusedto 34
install an extra (satellite) grid. This satellite grid, when suIIiciently connected to the main grid, 35
willlowertheoverallresistanceand,thus,thegroundpotentialriseoIthegroundgrid.Thenearby 36
lowresistivitymaterialmaybeaclaydepositoritmaybeapartoIsomelargestructure,suchas 37
theconcretemassoIahydroelectricdam(Verma,Merand,andBarbeauB148). 38
9.6 Connections to grid 39
Conductors oI adequate ampacity and mechanical strength (see Clause 11) should be used Ior the 40
connectionsbetween: 41
a) Allgroundelectrodes,suchasgroundgrids,rodbeds,groundwells,and,whereapplicable,metal, 42
water,orgaspipes,waterwellcasings,etc. 43
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b) Allabovegroundconductivemetalpartsthatmightaccidentallybecomeenergized,suchasmetal 1
structures, machine Irames, metal housings oI conventional or gasinsulated switchgear, 2
transIormer tanks, guards, etc. Also, conductive metal parts that might be at a diIIerent potential 3
relativetoothermetalpartsthathavebecomeenergizedshouldbebondedtogether,usuallyviathe 4
groundgrid. 5
c) All Iault current sources such as surge arresters, capacitor banks or coupling capacitors, 6
transIormers,and,whereappropriate,machineneutralsandlightingandpowercircuits. 7
CoppercablesorstrapsareusuallyemployedIorthesegroundconnections.However,transIormertanksare 8
sometimes used as part oI a ground path Ior surge arresters. Similarly, most steel or aluminum structures 9
may be used Ior the ground path iI it can be established that their conductance, including that oI any 10
connections, is and can be maintained as equivalent to that oI the conductor that would normally be 11
installed.WherethispracticeisIollowed,anypaintIilmsthatmightotherwiseintroduceahighlyresistive 12
connectionshouldberemoved,andasuitablejointcompoundshouldbeapplied,orothereIIectivemeans, 13
such as jumpers across the connections, should be taken to prevent subsequent deterioration oI the 14
connection. In the case oI GIS installations, extra attention should be paid to the possibility oI unwanted 15
circulationoIinducedcurrents.Clause10coversthesubjectinmoredetail. 16
Equal division oI currents between multiple ground leads at crossconnections or similar junction points 17
shouldnotbeassumed. 18
Allaccessiblegroundleadsshouldbeinspectedonaperiodicbasis.Exothermicweld,brazed,orpressure 19
type connectors can be used Ior underground connections (see 11.4). Soldered connections should be 20
avoidedbecauseoIthepossibilityoIIailureunderhighIaultcurrents. 21
Open circuits, even in exposed locations, can escape detection, and it obviously is impractical to inspect 22
buriedportionsoIthegroundingnetworkonceitisinstalled.MoredetaileddiscussionoItestmethodsused 23
todeterminethecontinuityoIburiedgrounding systems is includedin19.4.ThoseIacilitiesthatare most 24
likelyto supplyorcarrya highcurrent,such as transIormer and circuit breaker tanks, switch Irames, and 25
arresterpads,shouldbeconnectedtothegridwithmorethanonegroundlead.TheleadsshouldpreIerably 26
beruninoppositedirectionstoeliminatecommonmodeIailure.
5
27
10. Special considerations for GIS 28
10.1 Definitions 29
NOTETheIollowingdeIinitionsarealsolistedinClause3,butrepeatedhereIortheconvenienceoIthereader. 30
continuous enclosure: A bus enclosure in which the consecutive sections oI the housing along the same 31
phase conductor are bonded together to provide an electrically continuous current path throughout the 32
entireenclosurelength.Crossbondings,connectingtheotherphaseenclosures,aremadeonlyatthe 33
enclosure currents: Currents that result Irom the voltages induced in the metallic enclosure by the 34
current(s) fowing in the enclosed conductor(s). 35
gasinsulated substation (GIS): Acompact, multicomponent assembly, enclosed in a grounded metallic 36
housinginwhichtheprimaryinsulatingmedium isagas,andthatnormallyconsistsoIbuses,switchgear, 37
andassociatedequipment(subassemblies). 38
39
5
OnepossibleexceptionisgroundingoIthesecondariesoIpotentialandcurrenttransIormers.ThegroundingoIsuchdevicesusually
must be restricted to a single point to avoid any parallel path that could cause undesirable circulation oI currents aIIecting the
perIormanceoIrelaysandmeteringdevices.
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main ground bus: A conductor or system oI conductors provided Ior connecting all designated metallic 1
componentsoItheGIStoasubstationgroundingsystem. 2
noncontinuous enclosure:AbusenclosurewiththeconsecutivesectionsoIthehousingoIthesamephase 3
conductor electrically isolated (or insulated Irom each other), so that no current can fow beyond each 4
enclosuresection. 5
transient enclosure voltage (TEV): Very Iast transient phenomena, which are Iound on the grounded 6
enclosureoIGISsystems.Typically,groundleadsaretoolong(inductive)attheIrequenciesoIinterestto 7
eIIectivelypreventtheoccurrenceoITEV.Thephenomenonisalsoknownastransientgroundrise(TGR) 8
ortransientgroundpotentialrise(TGPR). 9
very fast transient (VFT): AclassoItransients generated internally within a GIS characterized by short 10
durationandveryhighIrequency.VFTisgeneratedbythe rapidcollapseoIvoltageduringbreakdownoI 11
theinsulating gas,eitheracrossthecontacts oI a switching device or linetoground during a Iault. These 12
transientscanhaverisetimesin theorderoInanosecondsimplyingaIrequencycontentextendingtoabout 13
100MHz.However,dominantoscillationIrequencies,whicharerelatedtophysicallengthsoIGISbus,are 14
usuallyinthe2040MHzrange. 15
very fast transients overvoltage (VFTO): SystemovervoltagesthatresultIromgenerationoIVFT.While 16
VFT is one oI the main constituents oI VFTO, some lower Irequency ( 1 MHz) component may be 17
presentasaresultoIthedischargeoIlumpedcapacitance(voltagetransIormers).Typically,VFTOwillnot 18
exceed2.0perunit,thoughhighermagnitudesarepossibleinspeciIicinstances. 19
10.2 GIS characteristics 20
GIS are subjected to the same magnitude oI ground Iault current and require the same lowimpedance 21
groundingasconventionalsubstations. 22
Typically,theGISinstallationnecessitates 1025 oI the land area required Ior conventional equipment. 23
Because oI this smaller area, it may be diIIicult to obtain adequate grounding solely by conventional 24
methods. Particular attention should be given to the bonding oI the metallic enclosures oI the GIS 25
assembly,astheseenclosurescarryinduced currents oI signiIicant magnitude, which must be conIined to 26
speciIic paths. In this respect, grounding recommendations by the manuIacturer oI a given GIS usually 27
needtobestrictlyIollowed. 28
AsaresultoIthecompactnatureoIGISanditsshortdistances,electricalbreakdownintheinsulating gas, 29
either across the contacts oI a switching device during operation or in a Iault that generates very high 30
Irequencytransientsthatcancoupleontothegroundingsystem B18.Insomecases,thesetransientsmay 31
have to be considered in the overall grounding design. These transients may cause high magnitude, short 32
durationgroundrisesandarealsothesourceoIelectromagneticinterIerence(EMI)intheGIS.WhileEMI 33
isbeyondthescopeoIthisdocument,theEMImitigationtechniquesoIteninvolvespecialconsiderationsin 34
thegroundingdesign(HarveyB79). 35
10.3 Enclosures and circulating currents 36
TheshieldingeIIectivenessoIthebusenclosureisdeterminedbyitsimpedance,whichgovernsthecircula 37
tionoIinducedcurrents. 38
WithseparateenclosuresIoreachphase,themagnitudeanddirectionoItheenclosurecurrentisinIluenced 39
bythesizeoItheenclosureandthephasespacingbetweenthebuses,aswellasbythemethodoIintercon 40
nectingtheenclosures. 41
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Inacontinuousenclosuredesign,avoltageisinducedinanenclosurebythecurrentintheconductorthatit 1
surrounds, producing a longitudinal current Ilow in the enclosure. When a continuity oI all phase 2
enclosuresismaintainedthroughshortconnectionsatbothends,theenclosurecurrentis onlyslightlyless 3
than that Ilowing in the inner bus in the opposite direction. This current returns through the housing 4
(enclosures) oI adjacent phases when the load is equalized between phases. The magnetizing current lags 5
theenclosurecurrentbyapproximately90.TheIluxismainlycontainedwithintheenclosure. 6
In a noncontinuous enclosure design, there are no external return paths Ior enclosure currents. Thus the 7
voltage induced in a noncontinuous enclosure by the current oI an inner bus(es) that it surrounds cannot 8
produceanylongitudinalcurrentIlow.Also,voltagesmightbeinducedineachenclosurebythecurrentsin 9
theconductorsnotenclosedbyit.NonuniIormvoltagesresult,causinglocalcurrentIlowsineachisolated 10
enclosuresection,withthecurrentsIlowinginnonuniIormpatterns.BecauseoItheseproperties,thenon 11
continuousdesignisgenerallyconsideredlessadvantageousthanthatoIthecontinuoustype.Assuch,itis 12
notcurrentlyusedbytheindustry. 13
10.4 Grounding of enclosures 14
Normally,thecontinuoustypeenclosures provide a return path Ior induced currents so that the conductor 15
andenclosureIormaconcentricpairwitheIIectiveexternalshieldingoItheIieldinternaltotheenclosure. 16
However,underasymmetricalIaults,thedccomponentisnotshieldedandcausesanexternalvoltagedrop 17
duetoenclosureresistance. 18
Frequent bonding and grounding oI GIS enclosures is the best solution to minimize hazardous touch and 19
stepvoltages withintheGIS area.Additional measures
6
include the use oI conductive platIorms (ground 20
mats)thatareconnectedtoGISstructuresandgrounded. 21
TolimittheundesirableeIIectscausedbycirculatingcurrents,theIollowingrequirementsshouldbemet: 22
a) Allmetallicenclosuresshouldnormallyoperateatgroundvoltagelevel. 23
b) When grounded at the designated points, the bus enclosure design should ensure that no 24
signiIicant voltage diIIerences exist between individual enclosure sections and that neither the 25
supportingstructuresnoranypartoI thegroundingsystemsisadverselyinIluencedbytheIlowoI 26
inducedcurrents. 27
c) ToavoidthecirculationoIenclosurecurrentsbeyondregularreturnpathwithintheGISassembly, 28
power cable sheath grounds should be tied to the grounding system via connections that are 29
separated Irom the GIS enclosures. To Iacilitate this isolation, the design oI cable terminations 30
should be such that an isolating air gap or proper insulation elements are provided. Very Iast 31
transients generated by switching or by Iaults in the GIS may cause these insulation elements to 32
Ilashover. In such cases, the consequences oI such Ilashovers on current distribution within the 33
groundingsystemshouldbeconsidered(Fujimoto,Croall,andFotyB68). 34
d) Enclosure return currents also cannot be permitted to Ilow through any mounted current 35
transIormers. 36
10.5 Cooperation between GIS manufacturer and user 37
UsuallyitistheGISmanuIacturerwhodeIinesclearlywhatconstitutesthemaingroundbusoItheGISand 38
speciIies what is required oI the user Ior connecting the GIS assembly to the substation ground. Ample 39
documentation is necessary to assure that none oI the proposed connections Irom the main ground bus to 40
6
Despite all measures described, the presence oI circulating currents can cause diIIerent parts oI the GIS metal housing to have a
slightly diIIerent potential to ground. Although the resulting voltage diIIerences are small and generally oI no concern to a shock
hazard,accidentalmetallicbridgingoIadjacentenclosurescancauseannoyingsparks.
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the ground grid will interIere with the required enclosure current path or any other operational Ieature oI 1
the GIS design. That may be especially pertinent iI the main ground bus consists oI a system oI 2
interconnectionsbetweentheGIScomponentsandstructures,andnoseparatebusbar(continuouscommon 3
groundbusloop)isIurnished. 4
Usually theGISmanuIactureralsoprovides,orisresponsibleIor 5
a) Providing the subassemblytosubassembly bonding to establish saIe voltage gradients that meet 6
saIety requirements between all intentionally grounded parts oI the GIS assembly and between 7
thosepartsandthemaingroundbusoItheGIS. 8
b) Furnishing readily accessible connectors oI suIIicient mechanical strength to withstand 9
electromagnetic Iorces and normal abuse, and that are capable oI carrying the anticipated 10
maximumIaultcurrentinthatportion oIthecircuitwithoutoverheating. 11
c) Providinggroundpadsorconnectors,orboth,allowing,atleast,IortwopathstogroundIromthe 12
main ground bus, or Irom each metallic enclosure and auxiliary piece oI GIS equipment 13
designatedIoraconnectiontothesubstationgroundiIthemaingroundbusoItheGISassembly 14
doesnotactuallyexist. 15
d) RecommendingproperproceduresIorconnectionsbetweendissimilarmetals,typicallybetweena 16
coppercableorasimilargroundconductorandaluminumenclosures. 17
The user usually provides inIormation on the sources oI Iault current and the expected magnitudes and 18
durationsthatshouldbeconsidered.Moreover,theusershouldassisttheGISmanuIacturerinreviewingall 19
proposedgroundingprovisionstoassureproperinterIacingoI 20
a) ConnectionsIortheneutralcurrentoIgroundedequipmentorapparatusandIordissipatingsurges 21
causedbylightningandswitchingwithintheGIS. 22
b) DevicesIordissipatinglightningandswitchingsurgecurrentsexternaltotheGISassembly. 23
c) Requirements oI protective relaying, and satisIying the provisions necessary Ior telephone and 24
communicationIacilities. 25
d) GroundconnectionstoallGISsupportingIramesandstructures,metallicsheaths,andinstallation 26
oIshieldingIorcableterminationswhereapplicable. 27
e) ConnectionstoallpadsorconnectorsIurnishedbytheGISmanuIacturer. 28
I) SaIevoltageIorstepandtouch,underbothnormalandabnormaloperatingconditionsexternalto 29
theGISassembly. 30
g) CompliancewiththegroundingspeciIications,relatedtocorrectgroundingpractices,asmutually 31
agreedtobytheGISmanuIacturerandtheuser. 32
10.6 Other special aspects of GIS grounding 33
Precautions should be taken to prevent excessive currents Irom being induced into adjacent Irames, 34
structures,orreinIorcingsteel,andtoavoidestablishmentoIcurrentloopsviaothersubstationequipment, 35
such as transIormers or separate switchgear. II there is the possibility oI undesirable current loops via 36
ground connections, or iI any sustained current path might partially close or pass through grounded 37
structures,thesubstationgroundingschemeandthephysicallayout shouldbecareIullyreviewed withthe 38
GISmanuIacturer. 39
Equal care is needed in the proximity oI discontinuities in enclosure grounding paths at the transIormer 40
connectionstoGISandattheinterIacepointstoconventionalswitchgeartopreventcirculatingcurrentsin 41
thecircuitbreakerandtransIormertanksteel. 42
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Whereapplicable,allisolatingelements should be able to withstand the Iull potential diIIerence that may 1
occur between the locally grounded system and that external to the GIS. In many cases, the very Iast 2
transientsgeneratedbyswitchingorbyIaultsintheGIS maycause veryhightransientvoltagestoappear 3
atthesepoints.Forinstance,theisolationoI highpressureoilpipecablesIromtheGIS groundingsystem 4
oIten involves diIIiculties. Although the individual HV or EHV terminators may provide adequate 5
separationIromtheexternal grounds(by the virtue oI a design that usually includes the use oI base plate 6
insulators madeoIhighvoltageratedporcelain or Iiberglass), problems sometimes arise iI the same level 7
oI insulation is also expected at other interIace points. One typical problem area is the auxiliary piping 8
betweentheoilchamberoIindividualGIS terminators and the oil diIIusion chamber at the end oI a pipe 9
cable that Irequently branches to a variety oI oil pressure monitoring instruments and alarm devices 10
(Graybill, Koehler, Nadkarni, and Nicholas B77). In these branch areas the isolation oI metal parts is 11
oIten achieved by the means oI ceramic or plastic inserts. Adequate creepage distance should be ensured 12
where possible. To protect against transient voltages, other precautions might be necessary (Dick, 13
Fujimoto,Ford,andHarveyB52;FordandGeddesB67;Fujimoto,Croall,andFotyB68). 14
The direct eIIects oI transient enclosure voltage (TEV) on humans may not be Iatal, but the secondary 15
eIIectsonhumansshouldbeaconcerntothedesignengineerandmanuIacturer. 16
In these and similar circumstances, close cooperation with the GIS manuIacturer at the early stages oI 17
designisveryimportant. 18
10.7 Notes on grounding of GIS foundations 19
Since the earth path oI ground currents is strongly aIIected by the relative position oI conductive objects 20
that are in the ground, more attention should be paid to those portions oI the GIS grounding system that 21
includediscontinuities,orwherethedesignrequiresanabruptchange inthepatternoI groundelectrodes. 22
TheIollowingcircumstancesareoIconcern. 23
In the limited space oI GIS substations, a substantial part oI the substation area is oIten occupied by 24
concrete Ioundations, which may cause irregularities in a current discharge path. In this respect, a simple 25
monolithic concrete steel reinIorced slab is advantageous both as an auxiliary grounding device and Ior 26
seismicreasons. 27
IIacontinuousIloorslabisused,agoodadjunctmeasureistotieitsreinIorcingsteelmeshtothecommon 28
ground bus (main ground bus) so that both the GIS enclosures and the structural steel in and above the 29
Ioundation will be approximately the same potential level. The assumption is that this measure should 30
produce a better ground and the reinIorcing bars, being considerably closer together than the wires oI a 31
typicalgroundgrid,shouldproducemoreevenpotentialswithintheIloorandatthesurIace.
7
32
GIS Ioundations, which include reinIorcing bars and other metals, can act as auxiliary ground electrodes 33
andmaybesousedprovidedthatunderno circumstanceswouldthedischargeoIcurrentresultinadamage 34
oI concrete because oI local overheating or a gradual erosion oI the concretesteel bonds. For Iurther 35
details,reIerto14.6. 36
7
Itmightbearguedthattheconcreteslab,beingaIairlygoodconductoritselI,couldproduceamoreuniIormvoltageat the foor level
iI no current would Ilow into the reinIorcing bars Irom the ground system. II the bars are connected, the electrical feld in the earth
betweenthebarsoItheslabandtheunderlyinggridwouldbezero.(Asbothmatsareatthesamepotential,hardlyanycurrentwould
fow out oI the bars into the concrete and toward the ground grid.) ThereIore, the concrete with reinIorcing bars will produce a
substantiallyuniIormpotentialIieldacrosstheIloorsurIace.
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10.8 Touch voltage criteria for GIS 1
Although the GIS manuIacturer generally designs the equipment to meet the already mentioned require 2
ments Ior saIe operation and usually perIorms most, iI not all, calculations that are necessary Ior 3
determiningthesheathvoltagesandcurrentsduring Iaults, therestillarecircumstances whenthe user has 4
toascertainthattheentireinstallationissaIe.Havingthispossibilityinmind,someoIthecriticalaspectsoI 5
interconnecting the GIS with a grounding system are briefy discussed next. 6
Acertainparadox,inherenttotheGISdesign, mayoccur whenonetriestodetermine thebestconceptoI 7
GISgrounding.Incontrasttothegeneralwisdomthatalargegroundconnectionnecessarilyequalsagood 8
grounding practice, the circulating currents generated in the GIS enclosures during a Iault should also be 9
takenintoaccount.Tobeconsideredare:1)wherethesecurrents willcirculate,and2) whereandto what 10
degreethedesignengineerorGISmanuIacturer,orboth,preIerthesecurrentstocirculate. 11
Typically in a continuous enclosure design, the path oI enclosure currents includes some structural 12
membersoItheGISIrameandtheenclosuresthemselves.Witheachphaseenclosuretiedtotheenclosures 13
oI adjacent phases at both ends, several loops are Iormed. Because a cross section oI the mentioned 14
structural members is usually much smaller than that oI the enclosure and comparable to that oI the 15
groundingstrapsthatconnecttheGISassemblytoagroundgrid(andIorthatmatter,alsotothereinIorcing 16
barsoItheconcreteIoundation),severalquestionsneedtobeasked: 17
a) IIthecurrentsdivideandIlowviaallavailablemetallicpaths,whatratioistobeexpectedbetween 18
thecurrentscirculatingwithintheGISassemblyandthosecirculatingviaagroundconnection? 19
b) Howmuchcurrentcirculatingviaagroundconnectionloopistoomuch? 20
c) IstheGISbeingdesignedtobesaIeiInocirculatingcurrentwould(atleastIoranexternalIault) 21
circulateviagroundconnections? 22
d) AndIinally,howmuchgrounding is neededIorthebestbalancebetween operationalandsaIety 23
relatedrequirements? 24
Presently, there are no clearcut answers and solutions to the questions listed above. Some manuIacturers 25
preIer to supply a special ground bus (main ground bus) as a part oI the GIS package, with clearly 26
designated ground connection points. Others do not use any main ground bus at all, but simply designate 27
certainpointsontheenclosureasgroundingpadsandlettheutilitycompletethegrounding. 28
Ineithercase,itbecomesnecessarytolimitthebodycurrent tosome valueina milliampererange, while 29
theIaultcurrentsthatareoIconcernrangeIromhundredstothousandsoIamperes.Thus,onecan assume 30
that the Iull potential diIIerence existing prior to a contact would not change while Iorcing the current 31
throughanalternatepathincludingthebody.ThenthecaseoIapersontouchingtheGISsheathmetalcan 32
bereducedtotheproblemoIIindingthevoltagedropbetweentwopointsoIcontactalongoneorbetween 33
two enclosures and a common ground. For the handtoIeet contact made by a person standing on a 34
nonmetallic surIace (Ior instance, a concrete slab or the soil layer above the ground grid), only a minor 35
modiIicationoItheapplicationcriterionoIEquation(32)andEquation(33)isrequiredinordertotakeinto 36
accountthemaximuminductivevoltagedropoccurringwithintheGISassembly. 37
ThetouchvoltagecriterionIorGISis 38
( )
touch to t
E E E < +
2
'
max
2
(36) 39
where 40
41
E
t
isthemaximumtouchvoltage,asdeterminedIorthepointunderneathapersonsIeet 42
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E
'to max
is the (predominantly inductive) maximum value oI metaltometal voltage diIIerence on and 1
betweenGISenclosures,orbetweentheseenclosuresandthesupportingstructures,includingany 2
horizontalorverticalmembersIorwhichtheGISassemblyisdesigned 3
4
Inpracticalsituations,asshowninFigure16,amultiplicityoIreturnpathsandconsiderablecrosscoupling 5
occurs.ThismakesthecalculationoIlongitudinallyinducedcurrentsdiIIicultandIorsomeremoteexternal 6
Iaults oIten outright unpractical, as too many parameters remain undeIined. As a rule, because oI a great 7
variety in possible physical arrangements oI the GIS assembly, the GIS manuIacturers perIorm detailed 8
calculationsIordeterminingthebasicdesignparameters,suchasspacingandlocationoIbonds. 9
10.9 Recommendations 10
TheIollowingrecommendationsshouldbeconsideredIorGISinstallations: 11
a) When applying the touch voltage criterion Equation (36), the Iollowing Iacts should be 12
considered.The case oI an internal Iault with ground return requires the addition oI the resistive 13
andinductivevoltagedroptothe resistive droprepresenting the diIIerence oI potentials between 14
the substation ground and the point beneath a persons Ieet. This generally is not necessary Ior 15
IaultsexternaltotheGIS.ForanexternallinetogroundIault,thevoltagesinducedonthesheath 16
shouldbecheckedIorahandtohandmetaltometalcontact,butthecalculationoIstepandtouch 17
voltagesattheearthssurIaceisthesameasthatIorconventionalinstallationsi.e.,theinductive 18
terminEquation(36)iszero. 19
20
Figure 16 Typical faults in GIS 21
b) InevaluatingthemagnitudeoIinducedvoltagescausedbyIaultsexternaltotheGIS,onlythecase 22
oIaclosein Iaultcase(B)inFigure16needstobeanalyzedbecauseremoteexternalIaultswill 23
causelessoIaproblem. 24
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11. Selection of conductors and connections 1
In assessing which conductor material and what conductor size or what maximum allowable temperature 2
limit needs to be applied in individual design situations, the fnal choice should always refect the 3
considerationsoutlinedin11.111.4. 4
11.1 Basic requirements 5
Each element oI the grounding system, including grid conductors, connections, connecting leads, and all 6
primaryelectrodes,shouldbesodesigned that Ior the expected design liIe oI the installation, the element 7
will 8
a) HavesuIIicientconductivity,sothatitwillnotcontributesubstantiallytolocalvoltagediIIerences. 9
b) ResistIusingandmechanicaldeteriorationunderthemostadversecombinationoIaIaultmagnitude 10
andduration. 11
c) Bemechanicallyreliableandruggedtoahighdegree. 12
d) BeabletomaintainitsIunctionevenwhenexposedtocorrosionorphysicalabuse. 13
11.2 Choice of material for conductors and related corrosion problems 14
11.2.1 Copper 15
Copper is a common material used Ior grounding. Copper conductors, in addition to their high 16
conductivity, have the advantage oI being resistant to most underground corrosion because copper is 17
cathodicwithrespecttomostothermetalsthatarelikelytobeburiedinthevicinity. 18
11.2.2 Copperclad steel 19
CoppercladsteelisusuallyusedIorundergroundrodsandoccasionallyIorgroundgrids,especiallywhere 20
theItisaproblem.UseoIcopper,ortoalesserdegreecoppercladsteel,thereIoreassuresthattheintegrity 21
oIanundergroundnetworkwillbemaintainedIoryears,solongastheconductorsareoIanadequatesize 22
andnotdamagedandthesoilconditionsarenotcorrosivetothematerialused. 23
11.2.3 Aluminum 24
AluminumhasrarelybeenusedIorgroundgrids.AlthoughatIirstglancetheuseoIaluminumwouldbea 25
natural choice Ior GIS equipment with enclosures made oI aluminum or aluminum alloys, there are the 26
Iollowingdisadvantagestoconsider: 27
a) Aluminum itselI may corrode in certain soils. The layer oI corroded aluminum material is 28
nonconductiveIorallpracticalgroundingpurposes. 29
b) Gradualcorrosioncausedbyalternatingcurrentsmayalsobeaproblemundercertainconditions. 30
Itisnotrecommendedtousealuminumconductorunderground,despitetheIactthat,likesteel,it 31
wouldalleviatetheproblemoIcontributingtothecorrosionoIotherburiedobjects.Aluminumis 32
anodic to many other metals, including steel and, iI interconnected to one oI these metals in the 33
presenceoIan electrolyte,thealuminumwillsacriIiceitselItoprotecttheothermetal. 34
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11.2.4 Steel 1
Steel or stainless steel conductors and ground rods may be used in applications where the soil conditions 2
maybedetrimental tocopper.OIcourse, such a design requires that attention is paid to the corrosionoI 3
the steel or stainless steel. Use oI zinc coated steel or stainless steel, in combination with cathodic 4
protection,istypicalIorsteelgroundingsystems(MahonarandNagarB100). 5
11.2.5 Other considerations 6
AgridoIcopperorcoppercladsteel Iorms a galvanic cell with buried steel structures, pipes, and anyoI 7
theleadbasedalloysthatmightbepresentincablesheaths.ThisgalvaniccellmayhastencorrosionoIthe 8
latter.TinningthecopperhasbeentriedbysomeoItheutilities.Thatreducesthecellpotentialwithrespect 9
to steel and zinc by about 50 and practically eliminates this potential with respect to lead (tin being 10
slightly sacriIicialtolead).The disadvantage oI using a tinned copper conductor is that it accelerates and 11
concentratesthenaturalcorrosion,causedbythechemicalsinthesoil,oIthecopperinanysmallbarearea. 12
OtheroItenusedmethodsare 13
a) InsulationoIthesacriIicialmetalsurIaceswithacoatingsuchasplastictape,asphalt compound,or 14
both. 15
b) RoutingoIburiedmetalelementssothatanycopperbasedconductorwillcrosswaterpipelinesor 16
similarobjectsmadeoIotheruncoatedmetalsasnearlyaspossibleatrightangles,andthenapply 17
ing an insulated coating to one metal or the other where they are in proximity. The insulated 18
coatingisusuallyappliedtothepipe. 19
c) CathodicprotectionusingsacriIicialanodesorimpressedcurrentsystems. 20
d) UseoInonmetallicpipesandconduits. 21
In GIS, the use oI cathodic protection may also be required Ior other reasons. Cathodic protection is 22
commonlyusedtoprotectIacilitiesthatareexternaltotheGIS,suchaspressurizedpipetypecables,lead 23
shieldedcables,etc.BecauseoIthecomplexityoIGISinstallations,itisessentialtoconsiderallaspectsoI 24
corrosion prevention beIore designing the grounding system. SpeciIic guidelines are diIIicult to establish 25
becausesubstationconditionsmaybediIIerentduetolocationandapplicationintheelectricpowersystem. 26
The subject oI underground corrosion and cathodic protection is complex. Many studies have been made 27
and much has been published on this subject. A detailed discussion oI these phenomena is beyond the 28
scopeoIthisguide. 29
11.3 Conductor sizing factors 30
11.3.1 Symmetrical currents 31
The short time temperature rise in a ground conductor, or the required conductor size as a Iunction oI 32
conductor current, can be obtained Irom Equation (37) through Equation (42), which are taken Irom the 33
derivation by Sverak B133. These equations are also included as Appendix B in IEEE Std 837. These 34
equations evaluate the ampacity oI any conductor Ior which the material constants are known, or can be 35
determinedbycalculation.MaterialconstantsoIthecommonlyusedgroundingmaterialsarelistedinTable 36
1.Equation(37)throughEquation(42)arederivedIorsymmetricalcurrents(withnodcoIIset). 37
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.

\

+
+


.

\

=
a o
m o
r r c
mm
T K
T K
t
TCAP
A I ln
10
4
2
o
(37) 1
where 2
3
I isthermscurrentinkA 4
A
mm2
istheconductorcrosssectioninmm2 5
T
m
isthemaximumallowabletemperatureinC 6
T
a
istheambienttemperatureinC 7
T
r
isthereIerencetemperatureIormaterialconstantsinC 8
o
isthethermalcoeIIicientoIresistivityat0Cin1/C 9
r
isthethermalcoeIIicientoIresistivityatreIerencetemperatureT
r
in1/C 10
r
istheresistivityoIthegroundconductoratreIerencetemperatureT
r
in Ocm 11
K
o
1/
o
or (1/
r
) T
r
inC 12
t
c
isthedurationoIcurrentins 13
TCAP isthethermalcapacityperunitvolumeIromTable1,inJ/(cm3C) 14
15
Itshouldbenotedthat
r
and
r
areboth to be Iound at the same reIerence temperature oIT
r
C. Table1 16
providesdataIor
r
and
r
at20 C. 17
IItheconductorsizeisgiveninkcmils(mm21.974kcmils),Equation(37)becomes 18


.

\

+
+


.

\

=
a o
m o
r r c
kcmil
T K
T K
t
TCAP
A I ln 10 07 . 5
3
o
(38) 19
11.3.1.1 Calculation of TCAP 20
TCAPcanbecalculatedIormaterialsnotlistedinTable1IromthespeciIicheatanddensity.SpeciIicheat, 21
cp, in cal/(grams C) and density, , in gram/cm3 are related to the thermal capacity per unit volume in 22
J/(cm3CasIollows: 23
4.184J1calorie 24
ThereIore,TCAP isdeIinedby; 25
TCAP cal/(cm
3
x
o
C)c
p
cal/(gram
o
C) (gram/cm
3
) (39) 26
or 27
TCAP J/(cm
3
C)4.184(J/cal) c
p
(cal/(gram C) (gram/cm
3
) (40) 28
OnceTCAP isdetermined,Equation(37)andEquation(38)canbeused to determinetheampacityoIthe 29
conductor. 30
MaterialconstantsgiveninTable1Iorcomposite materials, such as copper clad steel, are average values 31
Iortheconductor. 32
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SpeciIic heat is deIined as the amount oI energy needed to increase the temperature oI one gram oI a 1
materialbyonedegreeCelsius.SpeciIicheatusuallyappliestoanindividualmaterial.However,whenthe 2
componentsoIacompositeconductorstay at the same temperature, an average speciIic heat can be used. 3
The average speciIic heat is proportional to the mass Iraction. For example, a composite that is 90 4
materialAand10materialB,thespeciIicheatistheamountoIenergyrequiredtoraisethetemperature 5
oI 0.9 grams oI material A and 0.1 grams oI material B by one degree Celsius. The speciIic heat can be 6
calculatedwiththeIollowingequation. 7
2 2 1 1 p p pav
c w c w c + = (41) 8
where 9
10
c
pav
istheaveragespeciIicheat 11
w
1
isthemassIractionoImaterial1 12
c
p1
isthespeciIicheatoImaterial1 13
w
2
isthemassIractionoImaterial2 14
c
p2
isthespeciIicheatoImaterial2 15
16
Theaveragedensityisthetotal massoIthe conductor divided by the total volume oI the conductor. The 17
averagedensityiscalculatedusingtheIollowingequation 18
2 1
2 1
V V
m m
D
av
+
+
= (42) 19
where 20
21
D
av
istheaveragedensity 22
m
1
isthemassoImaterial1 23
m
2
isthemassoImaterial2 24
V
1
isthevolumeoImaterial1 25
V
2
isthevolumeoImaterial2 26
27
Example 1: Tocalculatethethermalcapacity oI a 5/8 inch nominal copper clad steel rod with 0.545 inch 28
OD, and 0.01 inch copper thickness. First the average speciIic heat and density is calculated Irom the 29
dimensionsoItherodaswellasthedensityandspeciIicheatoIthematerials 30
( )
2 2 2
505 . 1 233 . 0 545 . 0
4
cm in A SteelArea
i
= = = =
t
31
32
( )
2 2 2 2
112 . 0 0174 . 0 545 . 0 565 . 0
4
cm in A CopperArea
o
= = = =
t
33
922 . 0
) 112 . 0 )( 95 . 8 ( ) 505 . 1 )( 87 . 7 (
) 505 . 1 )( 87 . 7 (
=
+
=
+
= =
o o i i
i i
i
A D A D
A D
w Steel Faction Mass 34
078 . 0
) 112 . 0 )( 95 . 8 ( ) 505 . 1 )( 87 . 7 (
) 112 . 0 )( 95 . 8 (
=
+
=
+
= =
o o i i
i i
i
A D A D
A D
w Copper Faction Mass 35
36
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C g
J
c w c w c Heat Specific Average
po o pi i pav
= = =
3 3
83 . 3 ) 24 . 8 )( 465 . 0 ( 3
11.3.1.2 Resistivity of Clad Steel Rod 4
TocalculatetheresistivityoIcladsteelrod,itisassumedthemetalsareelectricallyinparallel. 5
i o o i
o i r
o
r o
i
r i
o
r o
i
r i
a i
a i
clad
A A
L
A
L
A
L
A
L
A
L
R R
R R
R
+
=
+


.

\



.

\

=
+
= (43) 6
( )
i o o i
o i o i
r
clad clad
clad
A A
A A
L
A R
+
+
= = (44) 7
where 8
9
R
i
resistanceoIinnerlayer, O 10
R
o
resistance oI outer layer, O 11
R
clad
resistance oI bimetallic rod or wire, O 12
i
resistivity oI inner layer, Ocm 13
o
resistivity oI outer layer, Ocm 14
clad
eIIective resistivity oI bimetallic rod or wire, Ocm 15
A
i
areaoIinnerlayer,cm2 16
A
o
areaoIouterlayer,cm2 17
18
Example:Acopperclad5/8inchnominalsteelrodwith anoutsidediameter(OD)oI0.545inchand0.01 19
inchcoppercladthickness 20
21
( )
2 2 2
505 . 1 233 . 0 545 . 0
4
cm in A SteelArea
i
= = = =
t
22
23
( )
2 2 2 2
112 . 0 0174 . 0 545 . 0 565 . 0
4
cm in A CopperArea
o
= = = =
t
24
25
( )
i o o i
o i o i
clad
A A
A A
+
+
= 26
27
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( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cm
clad
O =
+
+
= 1 . 10
51 . 1 72 . 1 112 . 0 9 . 15
112 . 0 51 . 1 72 . 1 9 . 15
1
2
ResistivityvaluesaretakenIromTable1. 3
4
0 . 17
1 . 10
) 72 . 1 ( 100
= = ty Conductivi 5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
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Table 1Material constant 1
2
a) Material constants Ior copper, steel, stainless steel, zinc are Irom The Metals Handbook by the 3
AmericanSocietyIorMetals. 4
b) Copperclad steel rods based on nominal 5/8 inch rod, 0.010 inch soItdrawn copper thickness 5
overNo.1020steel. 6
c) Stainlesscladsteelrodbasedonnominal5/8inchrod,0.020inchNo.304stainlesssteelthickness 7
overNo.1020steelcore. 8
d) Unlikemostmetals,steelhasahighlyvariableheatcapacityIrom550to800degreesC,however 9
since the heat capacity in this range is much larger than at lower and higher temperatures, 10
calculationsusinglowervaluesareconservativewithrespecttoconductorheating. 11
e) BimetallicmaterialsIusingtemperaturebasedonmetalwithlowerIusingtemperature 12
13
Equation(37)andEquation(38),inconjunctionwithEquation(39) and(40) (whichdeIinesTCAP),reIlect 14
twobasicassumptions: 15
16
Description
Material
a
conductivity
(%IACS)
o
r
factor
a
at 20C
(1/C)
K
o
at 0C
(0C)
Fusing
a
temperature
T
m
(C)
Resistivity
a
at 20 C
r
(Ocm)
Thermal
a
capacity
TCAP
[J/(cm
3
.
C)]
Copper,
annealed
soItdrawn
100.0 0.00393 234 1083 1.72 3.4
Copper,
commercial
harddrawn
97.0 0.00381 242 1084 1.78 3.4
Copperclad
steelwire
40.0 0.00378 245 1084e 4.40 3.8
Coppercladsteel
wire
30.0 0.00378 245 1084e 5.86 3.8
Coppercladsteel
rod
b
17.0 0.00378 245 1084e 10.1 3.8
Steel,1020 10.8 0.00160 605 1510 15.90 3.8
Stainlessclad
steelrod
c
9.8 0.00160 605 1400e 17.50 4.4
Zinccoated
steelrod
8.6 0.00320 293 419e 20.10 3.9
Stainlesssteel,
304
2.4 0.00130 749 1400 72.00 4.0
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a) Thatallheatwillberetainedintheconductor(adiabaticprocess). 1
b) ThattheproductoIspeciIicheat (SH) and density (), TCAP, is approximately constant because 2
SH increases and decreases at about the same rate. For most metals, these premises are 3
applicableoverareasonablywidetemperaturerange,aslongastheIaultdurationiswithinaIew 4
seconds. 5
6


.

\

+
+


.

\

=
a o
m o
r r c
mm
T K
T K
t
TCAP
I A
ln
10
1
4
2
o
(45) 7


.

\

+
+


.

\

=
a o
m o
r r c
kcmil
T K
T K
t
TCAP
I A
ln
4 . 97 1
o
(46) 8
Example:Atabulation canbemade,usingEquation(46)andTable1,togetdataIor30and40copper 9
clad steel, and Ior 100 and 97 copper conductors. For instance, to calculate the 1 s size oI a 30 10
coppercladsteelconductor,onegets 11
245 , 40 , 1084 , 85 . 3 , 86 . 5 , 00378 . 0 , 0 . 1
0 20 20
= = = = = = = K T T TCAP a t
a m e
12
13
Thus,Ior I1kAandusingEquation(46) 14
kcmil A
kcmil
06 . 12
61 . 267
4 . 197
= = 15
Forevery1kA,12.06kcmilisrequired. 16
11.3.1.3 Formula simplification 17
TheIormulainEnglishunitscanbesimpliIiedtotheIollowing: 18
c f kcmil
t K I A = (47) 19
where 20
21
A
kcmil
istheareaoIconductorinkcmil 22
I isthermsIaultcurrentinkA 23
t
c
isthecurrentdurationins 24
K
f
istheconstantIromTable2IorthematerialatvariousvaluesoIT
m
(Iusingtemperatureorlimited 25
conductortemperaturebasedon11.3.3)andusingambienttemperature(T
a
)oI40C. 26
27
28
29
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Table 2Material constants 1
2
a
See11.3.3Iorcommentsconcerningmaterialselection 3
4
Examples:UsingEquation (47) Iora20kA,3sIault 5
a) ForsoItdrawncopper 6
3 7 20 x A
kcmil
= 7
kcmil 5 . 242 = 8
9
use250kcmil 10
For40conductivitycoppercladsteelconductor 11
3 45 . 10 20 x A
kcmil
= 12
kcmil 0 . 362 = 13
14
Use19/#7 15
Forsteelconductor 16
3 95 . 15 20 x A
kcmil
= 17
kcmil 5 . 552 = 18
19
use3/4 inchdiameterconductor 20
21
OnecanalsocomparetheIusingcurrentsoIastatedconductorsizeIorvariousdurationsoItime.Using4/0 22
AWG(211.6kcmil)soItdrawncopperasanexample 23
II kA I s t
c
7 . 42 5 . 0 ) 00 . 7 /( 6 . 211 ; 5 . 0 = = = 24
Material Conductivity()
T
m
a
(
o
C)
K
I
Copper,annealedsoItdrawn 100.0 1083 7.00
Copper,commercialharddrawn 97.0 1084 7.06
Copper,commercialharddrawn 97.0 250 11.78
Coppercladsteelwire 40.0 1084 10.45
Coppercladsteelwire 30.0 1084 12.06
Coppercladsteelrod 17.0 1084 14.64
Steel1020 10.8 1510 15.95
Stainlesscladsteelrod 9.8 1400 14.72
Zinccoatedsteelrod 8.6 419 28.96
Stainlesssteel304 2.4 1400 30.05
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II kA I s t
c
2 . 30 0 . 2 ) 00 . 7 /( 6 . 211 ; 0 . 2 = = = 1
II kA I s t
c
5 . 17 0 . 3 ) 00 . 7 /( 6 . 211 ; 0 . 3 = = = 2
TheconductorsizeactuallyselectedisusuallylargerthanthatbasedonIusingbecauseoIIactorssuchas 3
a) The conductor should have the strength to withstand any expected mechanical and corrosive abuse 4
duringthedesignliIeoIthegroundinginstallation. 5
The conductor should have a high enough conductance to prevent any possible dangerous voltage drop 6
duringaIault,IortheliIeoIthegroundinginstallation. 7
Theneedtolimittheconductortemperature(see11.3.3). 8
AIactoroIsaIetyshouldbeappliedtothegroundingsystemaswithotherelectricalcomponents. 9
11.3.2 Asymmetrical currents 10
11.3.2.1 Using decrement factor 11
IncaseswhereaccountingIorapossibledcoIIsetcomponentinthe Iaultcurrentisdesired,anequivalent 12
valueoIthesymmetricalcurrent,IF,representingtheeIIectivevalueoIanasymmetricalcurrentintegrated 13
overtheentireIaultduration,tc,canbedeterminedasaIunctionoIX/RbyusingthedecrementIactorDI, 14
Equation(79)in 15.10,priortotheapplicationoIEquation(37)throughEquation(42). 15
IncaseswhereaccountingIorapossibledcoIIsetcomponentinthe Iaultcurrentisdesired,anequivalent 16
valueoIthesymmetricalcurrent,I
F
,representingtheeIIectivevalueoIanasymmetricalcurrentintegrated 17
overtheentireIaultduration,t
c
,canbedeterminedasa IunctionoIX/R by using thedecrementIactorD
f
, 18
Equation(83)in15.10,priortotheapplicationoIEquation(37)throughEquation(42). 19
f f F
D I I = (48) 20
The resulting value oI I
F
is always larger than I
f
because the decrement Iactor is based on a very 21
conservativeassumptionthattheaccomponentdoesnotdecaywithtimebutremainsconstantatitsinitial 22
subtransientvalue. 23
11.3.2.2 Using asymmetrical current tables 24
Because the dc oIIset in the Iault current will cause the conductor to reach a higher temperature Ior the 25
sameIaultconditions(Iaultcurrentdurationandmagnitude),Equation(48)determinesanequivalentvalue 26
oI the symmetrical current in the presence oI dc oIIset. In addition, iI present, dc oIIset will result in 27
mechanicalIorcesandabsorbedenergybeingalmostIourtimesthevaluethanIoranequivalentsymmetric 28
currentcase.However,theeIIectoIdcoIIsetscan beneglectediIthedurationoIthecurrentisgreaterthan 29
orequalto1sortheX/RratioattheIaultlocationislessthan5. 30
FusingcharacteristicsIorvarioussizesoIcopperconductor with variousdegreeoIdcoIIsetarepresented 31
in Table 3 through Table 6. These Iusing characteristics have been derived theoretically, and then 32
extensivelyveriIiedexperimentally(Reichman,Vainberg,andKuIIelB122). 33
34
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Table 3Ultimate current carrying capabilities of copper grounding cables; currents are RMS 1
values, for frequency of 60Hz, X/R =40; current in kiloamperes 2
CableSize,
AWG
Nominal
CrossSection,
mm
2
6cycles
(100ms)
15cycles
(250ms)
30cycles
(500ms)
45cycles
(750ms)
60cycles
(1s)
180cycles
(3s)
#2 33.63 22 16 12 10 9 5
#1 42.41 28 21 16 13 11 7
1/0 53.48 36 26 20 17 14 8
2/0 67.42 45 33 25 21 18 11
3/0 85.03 57 42 32 27 23 14
4/0 107.20 72 53 40 34 30 17
250kcmil 126.65 85 62 47 40 35 21
350kcmil 177.36 119 87 67 56 49 29
3
Table 4Ultimate current carrying capabilities of copper grounding cables; currents are in 4
RMS values, for frequency of 60Hz, X/R=20; current in kilopamperes 5
CableSize,
AWG
Nominal
CrossSection,
mm
2
6cycles
(100ms)
15cycles
(250ms)
30cycles
(500ms)
45cycles
(750ms)
60cycles
(1s)
180cycles
(3s)
#2 33.63 25 18 13 11 9 5
#1 42.41 32 22 16 13 12 7
1/0 53.48 40 28 21 17 15 9
2/0 67.42 51 36 26 22 19 11
3/0 85.03 64 45 33 27 24 14
4/0 107.20 81 57 42 35 30 18
250kcmil 126.65 95 67 50 41 36 21
350kcmil 177.36 134 94 70 58 50 29
6
7
8
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Table 5Ultimate current carrying capabilities of copper grounding cables; currents are in 1
RMS values, for frequency of 60Hz, X/R = 10; current in kiloamperes 2
CableSize,
AWG
Nominal
CrossSection,
mm
2
6cycles
(100ms)
15cycles
(250ms)
30cycles
(500ms)
45cycles
(750ms)
60cycles
(1s)
180cycles
(3s)
#2 33.63 27 19 13 11 9 5
#1 42.41 35 23 17 14 12 7
1/0 53.48 44 30 21 17 15 9
2/0 67.42 56 38 27 22 19 11
3/0 85.03 70 48 34 28 24 14
4/0 107.20 89 60 43 36 31 18
250kcmil 126.65 105 71 51 42 36 21
350kcmil 177.36 147 99 72 59 51 30
3
Table 6Ultimate current carrying capabilities of copper grounding cables; currents are in 4
RMS values, for frequency of 60Hz, X/R =0; current in kiloamperes 5
CableSize,
AWG
Nominal
CrossSection,
mm
2
6cycles
(100ms)
15cycles
(250ms)
30cycles
(500ms)
45cycles
(750ms)
60cycles
(1s)
180cycles
(3s)
#2 33.63 31 19 14 11 9 5
#1 42.41 39 24 17 14 12 7
1/0 53.48 49 31 22 18 15 9
2/0 67.42 62 39 28 22 19 11
3/0 85.03 79 50 35 28 25 14
4/0 107.20 99 63 44 36 31 18
250kcmil 126.65 117 74 52 43 37 21
350kcmil 177.36 165 104 73 60 52 30
6
NOTE1The current calues in Table 3 through Table 6 were computed Irom the computer program RTGC 7
(Reichman, Vainberg, and KuIIel B122). This computer program can be used directly to determine the grounding 8
cablesizerequirementsIorknownX/RratioandIaultclearingtime. 9
NOTE2CurrentiscomputedIormaximumdcoIIset(see15.10). 10
NOTE3Initial conductor temperature 40 C; fnal conductor temperature 1083 C. 11
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NOTE4Metric values are soIt conversions. SoIt conversion is a direct area calculation, in metric units, Irom the 1
AWGsize 2
11.3.3 Additional conductor sizing factors 3
ThedesignershouldtakeprecautionstoveriIy thatthetemperatureoIanyconductorandconnectioninthe 4
groundinginstallationdoesnotposeadangertothesaIe operationoIthesubstation.Forinstance 5
a) Typically, conductors and connections near Ilammable materials should be subject to more 6
stringenttemperaturelimitations. 7
b) IIthestrengthoIharddrawncopperisrequiredIormechanicalreasons,thenitmaybeprudentnot 8
toexceed250CtopreventannealingoItheconductors. 9
The possible exposure to a corrosive environment should be careIully examined. Even when the correct 10
conductor size and the selected joining (connecting) method have satisIied all the IEEE Std 837 test 11
requirements,itmaybeprudenttochoosealargerconductorsizetocompensateIorsomegradualreduction 12
intheconductorcrosssectionduringthedesignliIeoItheinstallationwherethesoilenvironmenttendsto 13
promotecorrosion. 14
The down leads Irom the equipment to the grid may be subjected to the total Iault current into the grid, 15
while the grid divides this current so that each conductor segment in the grid is only subjected to some 16
IractionoIthe totalIaultcurrent.Thus,the down leads may have to be larger than the grid conductors or 17
may have to be multiples Irom the equipment to the grid to have suIIicient ampacity Ior the total Iault 18
current. 19
GroundleadconductorsconductinglightningcurrentseldomrequireIurtherconsideration.ThesizeoIthe 20
conductor, which is selected according to its Iault current requirements, usually is also adequate Ior 21
carryingshorttimesurgescausedbylightning(BellaschiB6). 22
Inpractice,therequirementsonmechanicalreliabilitywillsettheminimumconductorsize.Whileitmight 23
seemproperIorthedesignertoestablishminimumsizesinlightoIlocalconditions,theneedIorconserva 24
tismdeservesconsideration. Some oI the specifc reasons are 25
a) Relay malIunctions can result in Iault duration in excess oI primary clearing times. The backup 26
clearing time is usually adequate Ior sizing the conductor. For smaller substations, this may 27
approach 3 s or longer. However, because large substations usually have complex or redundant 28
protectionschemes,theIaultwillgenerallybeclearedin1sorless. 29
b) The ultimate value oI current used to determine the conductor size should take into account the 30
possibilityoIIuturegrowth.Itislesscostlytoincludeanadequatemargininconductorsizeduring 31
theinitialdesignthantotrytoreinIorceanumberoIgroundleadsatalaterdate. 32
11.4 Selection of connections 33
All connections made in a grounding network above and below ground should be evaluated to meet the 34
same general requirements oI the conductor used; namely, electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, 35
current carrying capacity, and mechanical strength. These connections should be massive enough to 36
maintain a temperature rise below that oI the conductor and to withstand the eIIect oI heating. The 37
connections should also be strong enough to withstand the electromagnetic Iorces oI the maximum 38
expectedIaultcurrentsandbeabletoresistcorrosionIortheintendedliIeoItheinstallation. 39
IEEEStd837providesdetailedinIormationontheapplicationandtestingoIpermanentconnectionsIoruse 40
in substation grounding. Grounding connections that pass IEEE Std 837 satisIy all the criteriaelectrical 41
conductivity,corrosionresistance,currentcarryingcapacity,andmechanicalstrength. 42
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12. Soil Characteristics 1
12.1 Soil as a grounding medium 2
ThebehavioroIagroundelectrodeburiedinsoilcanbeanalyzedbymeansoIthecircuitinFigure17.As 3
shown,mostsoilsbehavebothas aconductoroIresistance,r,andasadielectric.ExceptIorhighIrequency 4
and steepIront waves penetrating a very resistive soil material, the charging current is negligible in 5
comparisontotheleakagecurrent,andtheearthcanberepresentedbyapureresistance. 6
7
Figure 17 Soil model 8
12.2 Effect of voltage gradient 9
ThesoilresistivityisnotaIIectedbyavoltagegradientunlessthelatterexceedsacertaincriticalvalue.The 10
valuesomewhatvarieswiththesoilmaterial,butitusuallyhasthemagnitudeoIseveralkilovoltspercenti 11
meter. Once exceeded, arcs would develop at the electrode surIace and progress into the earth so as to 12
increase the eIIective size oI the electrode, until gradients are reduced to values that the soil material can 13
withstand.ThisconditionisillustratedbythepresenceoIgapsinFigure17.Becausethesubstationground 14
ingsystemnormallyisdesignedtocomplywithIarmorestringentcriteriaoIstepandtouchvoltagelimits, 15
thegradientcanalwaysbeassumedtobebelowthecriticalrange. 16
12.3 Effect of current magnitude 17
SoilresistivityinthevicinityoIgroundelectrodesmaybeaIIectedbycurrentIlowingIromtheelectrodes 18
intothesurroundingsoil.ThethermalcharacteristicsandthemoisturecontentoIthesoilwilldetermine iIa 19
currentoIagivenmagnitudeanddurationwillcausesigniIicantdryingandthusincreasetheeIIectivesoil 20
resistivity.AconservativevalueoIcurrentdensity,asgivenbyArmstrongB4,isnottoexceed200A/m2 21
Ior1s. 22
12.4 Effect of moisture, temperature, and chemical content 23
Electrical conduction in soils is essentially electrolytic. For this reason the resistivity oI most soils rises 24
abruptly whenever the moisture content accounts Ior less than 15 oI the soil weight. The amount oI 25
moistureIurtherdependsuponthegrain size,compactness,andvariabilityoIthegrainsizes.However,as 26
shown in curve 2 oI Figure 18, the resistivity is little aIIected once the moisture content exceeds 27
approximately22,asshowninStd142. 28
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TheeIIectoItemperatureonsoilresistivityis nearly negligibleIortemperaturesabove theIreezingpoint. 1
At0C,thewaterinthesoilstartstoIreezeandtheresistivityincreasesrapidly.Curve3showsthistypical 2
variationIorasandyloamsoilcontaining15.2oImoisturebyweight. 3
4
Figure 18 Effects of moisture, temperature, and salt upon soil 5
resistivity 6
ThecompositionandtheamountoIsolublesalts,acids,oralkalipresentinthesoilmayconsiderablyaIIect 7
itsresistivity.Curve1oIFigure18illustratesatypicaleIIectoIsalt(sodiumchloride)ontheresistivityoIa 8
soilcontaining30 moisturebyweight(TowneB147). 9
Figure18shouldnotbeusedIorcalculationpurposes.Todeterminetheactualsoilresistivity,testssuchas 10
thosedescribedinIEEEStd81shouldbeperIormedatthesite. 11
12.5 Use of surface material layer 12
Gravel or surIace material coverings, usually about 0.080.15 m (36 in) in depth, are very useIul in 13
retarding the evaporation oI moisture and, thus, in limiting the drying oI topsoil layers during prolonged 14
dry weather periods. Also, as discussed in 7.4, covering the surIace with a material oI high resistivity is 15
veryvaluableinreducingshockcurrents. The value oI this layer in reducing shock currents is not always 16
Iully realized. Tests by Bodier B14 at a substation in France showed that the river gravel used as yard 17
surIacing when moistened had a resistivity oI 5000 Om. A layer 0.10.15m(46in)thickdecreasedthe 18
danger Iactor (ratio oI body to shortcircuit current) by a ratio oI 10:1, as compared to the natural moist 19
ground. Tests by Langer B95 in Germany compared body currents when touching a hydrant while 20
standing on wet coarse gravel oI 6000 Om resistivity with body currents while standing on dry sod. The 21
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currentinthecaseoIdrysodwasoItheorderoI20timesthevalueIorwetcoarsegravel.Tests reportedby 1
othersprovideIurtherconIirmationoIthesebeneIits(ElekB54;EPRITR100863B64). 2
In basing calculations on the use oI a layer oI clean surIace material or gravel, consideration should be 3
giventothepossibilitythatinsulationmaybecomeimpairedinpartthroughIillingoIvoidsbycompression 4
oIthelowestballastlayersintothesoilbeneath by material Irom subsequent excavations, iI not careIully 5
removed,andin someareasbysettlementoIairbornedust. 6
TherangeoIresistivity valuesIorthesurIace material layer depends on many Iactors, some oI which are 7
kindsoIstone,size,conditionoIstone(thatis,cleanor withIines),amountandtypeoI moisturecontent, 8
atmosphericcontamination,etc.Table7indicatesthattheresistivityoIthewaterwithwhichtherockiswet 9
hasconsiderableinIluenceonthemeasuredresistivityoIthesurIacemateriallayer.Thus,surIacematerial 10
subjected to sea spray may have substantially lower resistivity than surIace material utilized in arid 11
environments.AsindicatedbyTable7,localconditions,size,andtypeoIstone,etc.,mayaIIectthevalue 12
oI resistivity. Thus, it is important that the resistivity oI rock samples typical oI the type being used in a 13
givenareabemeasured. 14
Table7givestypicalresistivityvaluesIordiIIerenttypesoIsurIacematerialmeasuredbyseveraldiIIerent 15
parties in diIIerent regions oI the United States (Abledu and Laird B2; EPRI TR100863 B64; 16
HammondandRobsonB78;ThompsonB145B146).ThesevaluesarenotvalidIoralltypesandsizes 17
oIstone inanygivenregion. Testsshould be perIormed to determine the resistivity oI the stone typically 18
purchasedbytheutility. 19
13. Soil structure and selection of soil model 20
13.1 Investigation of soil structure 21
ResistivityinvestigationsoIasubstationsiteareessentialIordeterminingboththegeneralsoilcomposition 22
and degree oI homogeneity. Boring test samples and other geological investigations oIten provide useIul 23
inIormationonthepresenceoIvariouslayersandthenatureoIsoilmaterial,leadingatleasttosomeideas 24
astotherangeoIresistivityatthesite. 25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
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Table 7Typical surface material resistivities 1
Description of
Resistivity of Sample, OP
Number surface material
(U.S state where found)
Dry Wet
1
CrusherRunGranitewithFines
(NC)
140x10
6
1300(GroundWater,45Om
)
2
1 in(0.04m)CrusherRunGranite
(GA)withFines
4000 1200(RainWater,100Om)
3
/1in(0.020.025m)Granite(CA)
withFines

6513(10MinutesAIter45
Om Water Drained)
4
#4(12in)(0.0250.05m)Washed
Granite(GA)
1.5x10
6
to4.5x10
6
5000(RainWater,100Om )
5
#3(24in)(0.050.1m)Washed
Granite(GA)
2.6x10
6
to3x10
6
10000(RainWater,100Om
)
6
SizeUnknown,WashedLimestone
(MI)
7x10
6
2000 3000(GroundWater,
45 Om )
7
WashedGranite,Similarto/in
(0.02m)Gravel
2x10
6
10000
8
WashedGranite,SimilartoPea
Gravel
40x10
6
5000
9
#57(/in)(0.02m)Washed
Granite(NC)
190x10
6
8000(GroundWater,45Om
)
10 Asphalt 2x10
6
to30x10
6
10000to6x10
6
11 Concrete 1x10
6
to1x10
9 a
21to100
a
Ovendriedconcrete(HammondandRobsonB78).ValuesIoraircuredconcretecanbemuchlowerdue 2
tomoisturecontent. 3
13.2 Classification of soils and range of resistivity 4
AnumberoItablesexistintheliteratureshowingtherangesoIresistivityIorvarioussoilsandrocks.The 5
tabulation Irom Rdenberg B126 has the advantage oI extreme simplicity. More detailed data are 6
availableinengineeringhandbooksandpublications(Iorinstance,SundeB130andWennerB151).See 7
Table8. 8
13.3 Resistivity measurements 9
EstimatesbasedonsoilclassiIicationyieldonlyaroughapproximationoItheresistivity.Actualresistivity 10
teststhereIoreareimperative.TheseshouldbemadeatanumberoIplaceswithinthesite.Substationsites 11
where the soil may possess uniIorm resistivity throughout the entire area and to a considerable depth are 12
seldomIound.Typically,thereareseverallayers,eachhavingadiIIerentresistivity.OIten,lateralchanges 13
alsooccur,butincomparisontotheverticalones,thesechanges usuallyare more gradual.Soilresistivity 14
tests should be made to determine iI there are any important variations oI resistivity with depth. The 15
numberoIsuchreadingstakenshouldbegreaterwherethevariationsarelarge,especiallyiIsomereadings 16
aresohighastosuggestapossiblesaIetyproblem. 17
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Table 8Range of earth resistivity 1
Type of earth Average resistivity (OP
Wetorganicsoil 10
Moist soil 10
2
Drysoil 10
3
Bedrock 10
4
2
II the resistivity varies appreciably with depth, it is oIten desirable to use an increased range oI probe 3
spacing in order to obtain an estimate oI the resistivity oI deeper layers. This is possible because, as the 4
probespacingisincreased,thetestsourcecurrentpenetrates moreand moredistantareas,inbothvertical 5
and horizontal directions, regardless oI how much the current path is distorted due to the varying soil 6
conditions(Manual on Ground Resistance Testing B101). 7
AnumberoImeasuringtechniquesaredescribedindetailinIEEEStd81.TheWennerIourpinmethod,as 8
shown in Figure 19, is the most commonly used technique. In brieI, Iour probes are driven into the earth 9
along a straight line, at equal distances a apart, driven to a depth b. The voltage between the two inner 10
(potential) electrodes is then measured and divided by the current between the two outer (current) elec 11
trodestogiveavalueoIresistanceR. 12
13
Figure 19 Wenner fourpin method 14
Then, 15
t
a
aR
a
a b
a
a b
=
+
+
+
4
1
2
4
2 2 2 2
(49) 16
where 17
18
a
is the apparent resistivity oI the soil in Om 19
R is the measured resistance in O 20
a isthedistancebetweenadjacentelectrodesinm 21
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b isthedepthoItheelectrodesinm 1
2
IIbissmallcomparedtoa,asisthecaseoIprobespenetratingthegroundonlyashortdistance,Equation 3
(49)canbereducedto 4
aR
a
t 2 = (50) 5
ThecurrenttendstoIlownearthesurIaceIorthesmallprobespacing,whereasmoreoIthecurrent 6
penetratesdeepersoilsIorlargespacing.Thus,itisusuallyareasonableapproximationtoassumethatthe 7
resistivitymeasuredIoragivenprobespacingarepresentstheapparentresistivityoIthesoiltoadepthoIa 8
whensoillayerresistivitycontrasts arenotexcessive.Equation(49)andEquation(50)thuscanbeusedto 9
determinetheapparentresistivity
a
atadeptha. 10
SchlumburgerPalmerB118isamodiIiedversionoItheWennermethod.Thismethodgivesgreater 11
sensitivityIorlargeprobespacing,asdescribedinIEEEStd81. 12
AnothermethodoImeasuringsoilresistivity,asshowninFigure20anddescribedinIEEEStd81,isthe 13
drivenrodmethodbasedonthethreepinorIalloIpotentialmethod(BlattnerB11B12;PurdyB121). 14
Inthismethod,thedepthL
r
oIthedrivenrodlocatedinthesoiltobetestedisvaried.Theothertworods, 15
knownasreIerencerods,aredriventoashallowdepthinastraightline.ThelocationoIthevoltagerodis 16
variedbetweenthetestrodandthecurrentrod.Alternately,thevoltagerodmaybeplacedontheside 17
oppositethecurrentrod.Theapparentresistivityisgivenby 18
1
8
ln
2

.

\

=
d
L
R L
r
r
a
t
(51) 19
where 20
21
L
r
isthelengthoItherodinm 22
d isthediameteroItherodinm 23
24
AplotoIthemeasuredapparentresistivityvalue
a
versustherodlengthL
r
providesavisualaidIordeter 25
miningearthresistivityvariationswithdepth. 26
Tests conducted by Ohio State University B62 demonstrated that either the Wenner Iourpin method or 27
thedrivenrodthreepinmethodcanprovidetheinIormationneededtodevelopasoilmodel. 28
The Wenner Iourpin method is the most popular method in use. There are a number oI reasons Ior this 29
popularity. The Iourpin method obtains the soil resistivity data Ior deeper layers without driving the test 30
pinstothoselayers.NoheavyequipmentisneededtoperIormtheIourpintest.Theresultsarenotgreatly 31
aIIectedbytheresistanceoIthetestpinsortheholescreatedindrivingthetestpinsintothesoil. 32
AnadvantageoIthedrivenrodmethod,althoughnotrelatednecessarilytothemeasurements,istheability 33
todeterminetowhatdepththegroundrodscanbedriven.KnowingiIandhowdeeprodscanbedriveninto 34
the earth can save the need to redesign the ground grid. OIten, because oI hard layers in the soil such as 35
rock, hard clay, etc., it becomes practically impossible to drive the test rod any Iurther resulting in 36
insuIIicient data. A technique Ior the prediction oI the soil resistivity to a depth 10 times the depth oI 37
known resistivity value has been developed by Blattner B11. This technique can be eIIectively used in 38
caseswherethetestrodcannotbedrivendeep.However,theuserisadvisedtoreviewpracticallimitations 39
oIthistechniquebeIoreusingit.AdisadvantageoIthedrivenrodmethodisthatwhenthetestrodisdriven 40
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deep in the ground, it usually loses contact with the soil due to the vibration and the larger diameter 1
couplers resulting in higher measured resistance values. A ground grid designed with these higher soil 2
resistivityvaluesmaybeunnecessarilyconservative.Thedrivenrodmethodpresentsanuncertaintyinthe 3
resistancevalue.The62ruleisvalidonlyIorlargeelectrodeseparationanduniIormsoil.InnonuniIorm 4
soils, this assumption may aIIect the outcome oI the readings. II the Ilat portion oI the curve is used to 5
determinethe test rod resistance, this fat portion may not give the correct resistance in nonuniIorm soil, 6
and the Ilat portion may not even be obtained unless the test and current rod separation is very large 7
(DawalibiandMukhedkarB39B44). 8
9
ResistivitymeasurementrecordsshouldincludetemperaturedataandinIormationonthe moisturecontent 10
oIthe soilatthetimeoI measurement. All data available on known buried conductive objects in the area 11
studiedshouldalsoberecorded. 12
13
Figure 20 Circuit diagram for threepin or drivenground rod 14
method 15
BuriedconductiveobjectsincontactwiththesoilcaninvalidatereadingsmadebythemethodsdescribediI 16
theyarecloseenoughtoalterthetestcurrentIlowpattern.ThisisparticularlytrueIorlargeorlongobjects. 17
Forthisreason,thesoilresistivitymeasurementsarelikelytobesigniIicantlydistortedinanareawhere 18
gridconductorshavealreadybeeninstalled,exceptIorshallowdepthmeasurementsinornearthecenteroI 19
averylargemeshrectangle.Insuchcases,aIewapproximatereadingsmightbetakeninashortdistance 20
outsidethegrid,withtheprobessoplacedastominimizetheeIIectoIthegridonthecurrentIlowpattern. 21
Thoughnotconclusiveastoconditionsinsidethegrid,suchreadingsmaybeusedIorapproximation, 22
especiallyiIthereisreasontobelievethatthesoilintheentireareaisreasonablyhomogeneous. 23
13.4 Interpretation of soil resistivity measurements 24
Interpretation oI apparent resistivity obtained in the Iield is perhaps the most diIIicult part oI the 25
measurement program. The basic objective is to derive a soil model that is a good approximation oI the 26
actual soil. Soil resistivity varies laterally and with respect to depth, depending on the soil stratiIication. 27
Seasonal variations may occur in soil resistivity due to varying weather conditions as described in EPRI 28
TR100863 B64. It must be recognized that the soil model is only an approximation oI the actual soil 29
conditionsandthataperIectmatchisunlikely. 30
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Themostcommonlyused soilresistivity modelsaretheuniIorm soil modelandthetwolayersoil model. 1
TwolayersoilmodelsareoItenagoodapproximationoImanysoilstructureswhilemultilayersoilmodels 2
maybeusedIor morecomplexsoilconditions. Interpretation oI the soil resistivity measurements maybe 3
accomplished either manually or by use oI computer analysis techniques described in Blattner and 4
Dawalibi B13; Blattner B11B12; Endrenyi B56; EPRI TR100622 B63; EPRI EL3982 B62; 5
EPRI EL2699 B60; Lazzara and Barbeito B97; Meliopoulos, Papelexopoulos, Webb, and Blattner 6
B104; Meliopoulos and Papelexopoulos B102; Moore B109; Nahman and Salamon B111; Roman 7
B123;andTaggB135. 8
A uniIorm soil model should be used only when there is a moderate variation in apparent resistivity. In 9
homogeneous soil conditions, which rarely occur in practice, the uniIorm soil model may be reasonably 10
accurate.IIthereisalargevariationinmeasuredapparentresistivity,theuniIormsoilmodelisunlikelyto 11
yieldaccurateresults. 12
A moreaccuraterepresentationoItheactual soil conditions can be obtained by use oI a twolayer model. 13
The twolayer model consists oI an upper layer oI Iinite depth and with diIIerent resistivity than a lower 14
layer oI inIinite thickness. There are several techniques to determine an equivalent twolayer model Irom 15
apparentresistivityobtainedIromIieldtests.Insomeinstancesatwolayermodelcanbeapproximatedby 16
visual inspection oI a plot oI the apparent resistivity versus depth Irom driven rod measurements or 17
apparentresistivityversusprobespacingIromWennerIourpinmeasurements(BlattnerB10B12;IEEE 18
TutorialCourse86B86). 19
Computer programs available to the industry may also be used to derive a twolayer soil model and 20
multilayer soil models (Dawalibi and Barbeito B38; EPRI TR100622 B63; EPRI EL2699 B60; 21
OrellaraandMooneyB116). 22
In some instances the variation in soil resistivity may exhibit minimums and maximums such that an 23
equivalenttwolayermodelmaynotyieldanaccuratemodel.InsuchinstancesadiIIerentsoilmodel,such 24
asamultilayermodel,mayberequiredasdescribedinDawalibi,Ma,andSoutheyB46andDawalibiand 25
BarbeitoB38. 26
13.4.1 Uniform soil assumption 27
AuniIormsoilmodelcanbeused insteadoIthemultilayersoilmodelwheneverthetwolayerormultilayer 28
computation tools are not available. UnIortunately, an upper bound oI the error on all relevant grounding 29
parametersisdiIIiculttoestimateingeneral,butwhenthecontrastbetweenthevariouslayerresistivitiesis 30
moderate, an average soil resistivity value may be used as a Iirst approximation or to establish order oI 31
magnitudes. The approximate uniIorm soil resistivity may be obtainedby taking an arithmetic average oI 32
themeasuredapparentresistivitydataasshowninEquation(52). 33
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n a a a a
av a
+ + + +
=
3 2 1
1
(52) 34
where 35
36
a(1),
a(2),
a(3)
...
a(n)
arethemeasuredapparentresistivitydataobtainedatdiIIerentspacings 37
in the Iourpin method or at diIIerent depths in the driven ground rod 38
method in Om 39
n istotalnumberoImeasurements 40
41
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A majorityoIthesoils willnot meetthe criteria oI Equation (52). It is diIIicult to develop a uniIorm soil 1
model when the resistivity oI a soil varies signiIicantly. Because the step and touch voltage equations oI 2
thisguidearebasedonuniIormsoilmodels,anattemptwasmadetodevelopaguidelinetoapproximatea 3
nonuniIormsoiltoauniIormsoil.Apparentsoilresistivitydata wereobtained usingtheIourpin method 4
Irom several diIIerent geographical locations. The soil data Irom each location were approximated with 5
three diIIerent equivalent soil models. These approximate models consisted oI one computergenerated 6
(EPRI TR100622 B63) twolayer model and two uniIorm soil models. The uniIorm soil models were 7
determinedIrommeasuredapparentresistivitydatausingEquation(52)andEquation(53).Inthenextstep, 8
thegridresistanceandstep/touch voltages Ior a 76.2 m 76.2 m (250 It 250 It) gridwith a total oI 64 9
uniIormly distributed ground rods were computed using a computer program (EPRI TR100622 B63). 10
ThedepthoIthe groundrods wasdependent on the soil model used. For example, in the case oI the two 11
layer model, the ground rods penetrated the lower layer. ReIer to Annex E Ior more details oI this 12
investigation. Finally, the grounding parameters computed Ior the twolayer model were compared with 13
thatcomputedusingtheuniIormsoil models. The grounding parameters computed using the uniIorm soil 14
modeloIEquation(48)comparedwellwiththatcomputedusingthetwolayermodel. 15
( )
( ) ( )
2
min max
2
a a
av a
+
= (53) 16
where 17
18
a(max)
is the maximum apparent resistivity value (Irom measured data) in Om. 19
a
(min)
is the minimum apparent resistivity value (Irom measured data) in Om. 20
21
ThereareanumberoIassumptionsmadeintheabovestudy.Asaresult,theEquation(53)shouldbeused 22
withcaution.Forexample,useoIEquation(53)isnotrecommendedIoragroundgridwithoutgroundrods 23
(Dawalibi, Ma, and Southey B47). In addition, iI the uniIorm soil resistivity determined using Equation 24
(53) is employed to design a ground grid, the ground rods should at least reach the depth where the 25
measured resistivity corresponds to the computed value oI
a(av2).
26
ThereareseveralmethodssuggestedbydiIIerentauthorstoapproximateanonuniIormsoilwithauniIorm 27
soil model. One oI these methods includes using the average oI upper layer apparent resistivity Ior the 28
touch and step voltage calculations and the average oI lower layer apparent resistivity Ior the grounding 29
systemresistancecalculation.Dawalibi,Ma,andSoutheyB46; DawalibiandBarbeitoB38;EPRITR 30
100622 B63; Fujimoto, Dick, Boggs, and Ford B69; and Thapar and Gerez B140 may provide 31
additionalinIormationaboutinterpretation oI the measured soil data and the inIluence oI multilayer, two 32
layer,anduniIorm soilmodelsongroundingparameters. 33
13.4.2 Nonuniform soil assumptions 34
AnotherapproachtosituationswhereresistivityvariesmarkedlywithdepthissuggestedbySundeB130, 35
andinsomeoIthebooksongeophysicalprospectingto which hereIers.Forexample,itisoItenpossible 36
Irom feld readings taken with a wide range oI probe spacing to deduce a stratiIication oI the earth into two 37
ormorelayersoIappropriatethicknessthatwillaccountIortheactualtestvariations(MooreB109). 38
13.4.2.1 Twolayer soil model (general) 39
A twolayer soil modelcanberepresented by an upper layer soil oI a Iinite depth above a lower layer oI 40
inIinite depth. The abrupt change in resistivity at the boundaries oI each soil layer can be described by 41
meansoIareIlectionIactor.ThereIlectionIactor,K,isdeIinedbyEquation(54). 42
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2 1
1 2
+
= K (54) 1
where 2
3
1
is the upper layer soil resistivity, in Om 4
2)
is the lower layer soil resistivity, in Om 5
6
While the most accurate representation oI a grounding system should certainly be based on the actual 7
variations oI soil resistivity present at the substation site, it will rarely be economically justiIiable or 8
technically Ieasible to model all these variations. However, in most cases, the representation oI a ground 9
electrodebasedonanequivalenttwolayerearthmodelissuIIicientIordesigningasaIegroundingsystem. 10
IEEEStd81providesmethodsIordeterminingtheequivalentresistivitiesoItheupperandlowerlayeroI 11
soilandtheheightoItheupperlayerIorsuchamodel. 12
There are other methods suggested by authors that include determining a twolayer model and using the 13
upperlayerresistivity Iortouchandstep calculations and the lower resistivity Ior resistance and methods 14
that modiIy the equations presented in the guide to be used in twolayer soil models. These papers may 15
providethedesigner with moreinIormation about theinterpretation oI soils and the impact oI multilayer, 16
twolayer, and uniIorm models (Dawalibi, Ma, and Southey B46; Dawalibi and Barbeito B38; Thapar 17
andGerezB140). 18
13.4.2.2 Twolayer soil model by graphical method 19
A twolayer soil model can be approximated by using graphical methods described in Blattner and 20
Dawalibi B13; Endrenyi B56; Tagg B136; Roman B123; and Sunde B130. Sundes graphical 21
methodisdescribedintheIollowingparagraphs. 22
InSundesmethod,thegraphshowninFigure21isusedtoapproximateatwolayersoilmodel.Thegraph 23
in Figure 21, which is based on the Wenner Iourpin test data, is reproduced Irom Iigure 2.6 oI Sunde 24
B130,withnotationsrevisedtomatchthesymbolsusedinthisguide. 25
Parameters
1
and
2
areobtainedbyinspectionoIresistivitymeasurements(seetheexampleinFigure22). 26
Onlyh isobtainedbySundesgraphicalmethod,asIollows: 27
a) Plot a graph oI apparent resistivity
a
onyaxisvs.pinspacingonxaxis. 28
b) Estimate
1
and
2
Irom the graph plotted in a).
a
correspondingtoasmallerspacingis
1
andIora 29
larger spacing is
2
. Extend the apparent resistivity graph at both ends to obtain these extreme 30
resistivityvaluesiItheIielddataareinsuIIicient. 31
c) Determine
2
/
1
and select a curve on the Sunde graph in Figure 21, which matches closely, or 32
interpolateanddrawanewcurveonthegraph. 33
d) Select the value on the yaxis oI
a
/
1
within the sloped region oI the appropriate
2
/
1
curve oI 34
Figure21. 35
e) ReadthecorrespondingvalueoIa/h onthexaxis. 36
I) Compute
a
bymultiplyingtheselectedvalue,
a
/
1
,in(d)by
1
. 37
g) ReadthecorrespondingprobespacingIromtheapparentresistivitygraphplottedina). 38
h) Computeh,thedepthoItheupperlevel,usingtheappropriateprobeseparation,a. 39
40
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UsingthesoildataIromsoiltype1inTableE.2inAnnexE,aplotoIresistivityvs.spacingcanbedrawn. 1
SeeIigure22.Both
1
and
2
canbedeterminedbyvisualinspection.Assuming
1
100 Omand
2
300 2
Om, the Iollowing example illustrates Sunde`s graphical method: 3
a) PlotFigure22. 4
b) Choose
1
100 Om,
2
300 Om 5
c)
2
/
1
300/1003.DrawcurveonFigure21.SeeFigure23Ioranexample. 6
d) Select
a
/
1
2. 7
e) Reada/h 2.7 Irom fgureFigure23Ior
a
/
1
2. 8
I) Compute
a
:
a
2
1
2(100)200. 9
g) Reada 19ontheapparentresistivitycurveoIFigure24Ior
a
200. 10
h)Computeh;
h a
a
h
/
= 19/2.77.0mor23It. 11
ThiscomparesIavorablywiththe6.1m(20It)usingEPRITR100622B63. 12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Figure 21 Sundes graphical method 34
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1
Figure 22 Resistivity plot of data from soil type 1, table E2 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Figure 23 Example of Sundes graphical method 22
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1
Figure 24 Example to determine a from apparent resistivity 2
curve 3
13.4.2.3 Comparison of uniform and twolayer soil model on grounding systems 4
The twolayer model approach has been Iound to be much more accurate than the uniIorm soil model. A 5
groundingsysteminatwolayersoilenvironmentbehavesdiIIerentlyincomparisonwiththesamesystem 6
inuniIormsoil. 7
Generally,IoragroundingsysteminuniIormsoilorintwolayersoilwith
1
lessthan
2
(upperlayersoil 8
resistivitylessthanlowerlayersoilresistivity,apositivereIlectionIactor),thecurrent densityishigherin 9
theconductorsattheouteredgesoIthegroundgrid.Intwolayersoilwith
1
greaterthan
2
(thesoilinthe 10
upper layer is more resistive than the lower layer soil, a negative reIlection Iactor), the current density is 11
moreuniIormoveralltheconductorsoIthe grounding system.ThisiscausedbythetendencyoIthe grid 12
currenttogodownwardintothelayeroIlowerresistivity,ratherthanupandoutwardtothemoreresistive 13
upperlayer.StudiesbyThaparandGrossB141andDawalibietal.B41B43B48provideawealthoI 14
inIormationonthissubject. 15
a) Variations in soil resistivity have considerable inIluence on the perIormance oI most grounding 16
systems, aIIecting both the value oI ground resistance and ground potential rise, and the step and 17
touchsurIacevoltages.Ingeneral,Iornegative valuesoIK (upperlayer moreresistivethanlower 18
layer),theresistanceislessthanthatoIthesamegroundingsysteminuniIormsoilwithresistivity 19
1. In contrast, Ior positive valuesoIK,theresistanceisgenerallyhigherthanthatinuniIormsoil 20
and resistivity
1
. A similar relationship exists Ior the step and touch voltages produced on the 21
surIaceoIatwolayerearthversusthatonthesurIaceoIuniIormsoil.FornegativevaluesoIK,the 22
step and touch voltages are generally lower than the voltages Ior the same grounding system in 23
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uniIorm soil oI resistivity
1
. Also, Ior positive values oI K, the step and touch voltages are 1
generallyhigherthaninuniIormsoil
8
. 2
b) Otherparameters,suchastheupperlayerheighth,alsoaIIectthediIIerencesintheperIormanceoI 3
ground electrodes in a twolayer environment and in uniIorm soil conditions. The general rule is 4
that when the upper layer height h becomes signiIicantly larger than the electrodes own 5
dimensions,theperIormanceoItheelectrodeapproachestheperIormanceoIthesameelectrodein 6
uniIormsoiloIresistivity
1
. 7
c) Also, it must be recognized that the above characteristics are based on the premise oI a constant 8
Iaultcurrentsource.TheactualcurrentsinthegroundingsystemwillchangeIromcasetocaseasa 9
Iunction oI
1
and
2
, reIlecting the local changes relative to all other ground Iault current paths 10
predetermined by the Iault location. This current division is discussed in Clause 15.ThereIore, in 11
certaincasessomeoItheassumptionsgivenabovemaynotalwaysholdtrue. 12
For design applications involving relatively simple grounding arrangements oI electrodes buried in a 13
reasonably uniIorm soil, the approximate methods provided elsewhere in the guide will be suitable Ior 14
obtainingarealisticdesignwithadequatesaIetymargins.However,Iordesignsinvolvingalargegrounded 15
area, oddshaped grids, etc., or where the resistivity oI soil is clearly very nonuniIorm, the engineer 16
responsibleIorthedesignshoulddecideiImoresophisticatedmethodsareneeded(ZaborszkyB152). 17
Annex F provides a parametric analysis oI various grid conIigurations in uniIorm and twolayer soil 18
models. 19
13.4.2.4 Multilayer soil model 20
HighlynonuniIormsoilconditionsmaybeencountered.SuchsoilconditionsmayrequiretheuseoImulti 21
layer modeling techniques iI an equivalent twolayer soil model is not Ieasible. A multilayer soil model 22
may include several horizontal layers or vertical layers. Techniques to interpret highly nonuniIorm soil 23
resistivityrequiretheuseoIcomputerprogramsorgraphical methods(Dawalibi,Ma,andSoutheyB46; 24
Dawalibi and Barbeito B38; EPRI TR100622 B63; EPRI EL2699 B60; Orellara and Mooney 25
B116). 26
TheequationsthatgoverntheperIormanceoIagroundingsystemburiedinmultilayersoilcanbeobtained 27
by solving Laplaces equations Ior a point current source, or by the method oI images, which gives 28
identical results. The use oI either method in determining the earth potential caused by a point current 29
sourceresultsinaninIiniteseriesoItermsrepresentingthe contributionsoIeachconsequentimageoIthe 30
pointcurrentsource.ExactIormulationoItheequationsthatincludetheseeIIectsisgiveninDawalibiand 31
MukhedkarB42,HeppeB80,andSundeB130. 32
14. Evaluation of ground resistance 33
14.1 Usual requirements 34
As discussed in 12.5, it is a common practice to have a thin layer oI surIace material overlaying the 35
grounded areaoIasubstation.Itcouldappear that such a high resistivity layer, having the layer heighth, 36
muchlessthanthedepthoIthegroundingsystem,mightworsenboththe stepandtouchvoltage.However, 37
thisisnotthecase.ThesurIacematerialisusedtoincreasethecontactresistancebetweenapersonsIoot 38
8
Asdiscussedin12.5,itisacommonpracticetohaveathinlayeroIsurIacematerialoverlayingthegroundedareaoIasubstation.It
could appear that such a high resistivity layer, having the layer height h, much less than the depth oI the grounding system, might
worsenboththestepandtouchvoltage.However,thisisnotthecase.ThesurIacematerialisusedtoincreasethecontactresistance
betweenapersonsIootandtheearthsurIace.Thus,Ioragivenmaximumallowablebodycurrent,considerablyhigherstepandtouch
voltagescanbeallowediIahighresistivitysurIacematerialispresent.
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and the earth surIace. Thus, Ior a given maximum allowable body current, considerably higher step and 1
touchvoltagescanbeallowediIahighresistivitysurIacematerialispresent. 2
14.2 Simplified calculations 3
EstimationoIthetotalresistancetoremoteearthisoneoI theIirststepsindeterminingthesizeandbasic 4
layout oI a grounding system. The resistance depends primarily on the area to be occupied by the 5
groundingsystem,whichisusuallyknownintheearlydesignstage.AsaIirstapproximation,aminimum 6
value oI the substation grounding system resistance in uniIorm soil can be estimated by means oI the 7
IormulaoIacircularmetalplateatzerodepth 8
A
R
g
t
4
= (55) 9
where 10
11
R is the substation ground resistance in O 12
is the soil resistivity in Om 13
A istheareaoccupiedbythegroundgridinm 14
15
Next, an upper limit oI the substation ground resistance can be obtained by adding a second term to the 16
aboveIormula,asproposedbyLaurentB96andNieman B114 17
T
g
L A
R
t
+ =
4
(56) 18
where 19
20
L
T
isthetotalburiedlengthoIconductorsinm 21
22
In the case oI a grid rod combination in uniIorm soil, a combined length oI horizontal conductors and 23
ground rods will yield a slightly conservative estimate oI L
T,
because ground rods usually are more 24
eIIectiveonaperunitlengthbasis. 25
The second term recognizes the Iact that the resistance oI any actual grounding system that consists oI a 26
number oI conductors is higher than that oI a solid metallic plate. The diIIerence will decrease with the 27
increasing length oI buried conductors and will approach 0 Ior inIinite L
T,
when the condition oI a solid 28
plateisreached. 29
SverakB133expandedEquation(56)totakeintoaccounttheeIIectoIgriddepth 30
(

.

\

+
+ + =
A h A L
R
T
g
/ 20 1
1
1
20
1 1
(57) 31
where 32
33
h isthedepthoIthegridinm 34
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1
Forgridswithoutgroundrods,thisIormula hasbeentestedtoyieldresultsthatarepracticallyidenticalto 2
thoseobtainedwithEquation(61)oISchwarzB128,describedin14.3. 3
TheIollowingtabulation IromKinyonB92 oIIers some idea oI how the calculated and actual measured 4
resistance Ior Iive diIIerent substations compare. Equation (56) was used to compute the grid resistance. 5
SeeTable9. 6
Table 9Typical grid resistances 7
8
AnaveragevalueoIallmeasuredresistivityvaluesisIrequentlysubstitutedIortheuniIormsoilresistivity 9
in Equation (56). II this average resistivity is used, Equation (56) usually produces a resistance that is 10
higherthanthevaluethatwouldresultIromadirectresistancemeasurement.Thecalculatedandmeasured 11
resistancevaluesshownintable9donotreIlect thistrend,becauseKinyonB92basedhiscalculationson 12
the...lowestaveragevalueoIresistivitymeasuredonthesite.ReadersarereIerredtoKinyonB92Ior 13
IurtherdiscussiononhischoiceoIresistivityvaluesusedinTable9. 14
14.3 Schwarzs equations 15
SchwarzB128developedtheIollowing set oI equations to determine the total resistance oI a grounding 16
system in a homogeneous soil consisting oI horizontal (grid) and vertical (rods) electrodes. Schwarzs 17
equationsextendedacceptedequationsIorastraighthorizontalwiretorepresentthegroundresistance,R
1,
18
oI a grid consisting oI crisscrossing conductors, and a sphere embedded in the earth to represent ground 19
rods,R
2
.HealsointroducedanequationIorthemutualgroundresistanceR
m
betweenthegridandrodbed. 20
Schwarz used the Iollowing equation introduced by Sunde B130 and Rdenberg B127 to combine the 21
resistanceoIthegrid,rods,andmutualgroundresistancetocalculatethetotalsystemresistance,R
g
. 22
R
R R R
R R R
g
m
m
=
+
1 2
2
1 2
2
(58) 23
where 24
25
R
1
groundresistanceoIgridconductors in O 26
Parameter soil
texture
Sub 1
sand &
gravel
Sub 2
sandy loam
Sub 3
sand & clay
Sub 4
sand &
gravel
Sub 5
soil & clay
Resistivity
(Om)
2000 800 200 1300 28.0
Gridarea(It
2
) 15159 60939 18849 15759 61479
Buriedlength
(It)
3120 9500 1775 3820 3000
R
g
(calculated
O)
25.7 4.97 2.55 16.15 0.19
R
g
(measured
O)
39.0 4.10 3.65 18.20 0.21
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R
2
ground resistance oI all ground rods in O 1
R
m
mutualgroundresistancebetweenthegroupoIgridconductors, R
1
,andgroupoIgroundrods,R
2
2
in O. 3
4
GroundresistanceoIthegrid 5
(
+ 
.

\

'
=
2
1
1
2
ln k
A
L k
a
L
L
R
C C
C
t
(59) 6
where 7
8
is the soil resistivity in Om 9
L
c
isthetotallengthoIallconnectedgridconductorsinm 10
a' isa 2hIorconductorsburiedatdepthh inm,or 11
a' isaIorconductoronearthsurIaceinm 12
2
a
isthediameteroIconductorinm 13
A isthearea coveredbyconductorsinm
2
14
k
1
, k
2
arethecoeIIicientsseeFigure25(a)and(b) 15
16
GroundresistanceoItherodbed 17
( )
(
+

.

\

=
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
ln
2
R
r r
r R
n
A
L k
b
L
L n
R
t
(60) 18
where 19
20
L
r
isthelengthoIeachrodinm 21
2b isthediameteroIrodinm 22
n
R
numberoIrodsplacedinareaA 23
24
Mutualgroundresistancebetweenthegridandtherodbed 25
(
+


.

\

= 1 ln
2
1
k
A
L k
L
2L
L
R
c
r
c
c
m
t
(61) 26
The combined ground resistance oI the grid and the rod bed will be lower than the ground resistance oI 27
eithercomponentalone,butstillhigherthanthatoIaparallelcombination. 28
SchwarzcomparedtheresultsoIhisequationstopreviouslypublishedtheoreticalworkandtomodeltests 29
toveriIytheaccuracyoIhisequations.Sincetheywerepublishedin1954,Schwarzsequationshavebeen 30
modiIiedbyKercelB91toprovideequationsIorconstantsk
1
andk
2
andIurtherexpandedtoincludethe 31
useoIequationsintwolayersoil(NahamandSalamonB112B113). 32
33
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Figure 25 Coefficients k1 and k2 of Schwarzs formula: (a) 43
coefficient k1, (b) coefficient k2 44
45
46
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14.4 Note on ground resistance of primary electrodes 1
Ingeneral,the groundresistanceoIanyprimary electrode depends on the soil resistivity and the size and 2
type oI arrangement oI all individual conductors comprising the ground electrode. In more complex 3
arrangements involving crisscrossed wires and a large number oI rods in the same area, the mutual 4
resistancebetweenindividualelements playsanimportantrole. 5
14.5 Soil treatment to lower resistivity 6
ItisoItenimpossibletoachievethedesiredreductioningroundresistancebyaddingmoregridconductors 7
orgroundrods.AnalternatesolutionistoeIIectively increasethediameteroItheelectrodeby modiIying 8
the soil surrounding the electrode. The inner shell oI soil closest to the electrode normally comprises the 9
bulkoItheelectrodegroundresistancetoremoteearth.ThisphenomenonisoItenutilizedtoanadvantage, 10
asIollows: 11
a) Use oI sodium chloride, magnesium, and copper sulIates, or calcium chloride, to increase the 12
conductivityoIthesoilimmediatelysurroundinganelectrode.StateorIederalauthoritiesmaynot 13
permit using this method because oI possible leaching to surrounding areas. Further, the salt 14
treatmentmustberenewedperiodically. 15
b) Use oI bentonite, a natural clay containing the mineral montmorillionite, which was Iormed by 16
volcanic action years ago. It is noncorrosive, stable, and has a resistivity oI 2.5 m at 300 17
moisture. The low resistivity results mainly Irom an electrolytic process between water, Na
2
O 18
(soda), K
2
O (potash), CaO (lime), MgO (magnesia), and other mineral salts that ionize Iorming a 19
strongelectrolytewithpHrangingIrom8to10.This electrolytewillnotgraduallyleachout,asit 20
ispartoItheclayitselI.ProvidedwithasuIIicientamountoIwater,itswellsupto13timesitsdry 21
volumeandwilladheretonearlyanysurIaceittouches.Duetoitshydroscopicnature,itactsasa 22
drying agent drawing any available moisture Irom the surrounding environment. Bentonite needs 23
watertoobtainandmaintainitsbeneIicialcharacteristics.Itsinitialmoisturecontentisobtainedat 24
installationwhentheslurryisprepared.Onceinstalled,bentonitereliesonthepresenceoI ground 25
moisture to maintain its characteristics. Most soils have suIIicient ground moisture so that drying 26
outisnotaconcern.ThehydroscopicnatureoIbentonitewilltakeadvantageoItheavailablewater 27
to maintain its as installed condition. II exposed to direct sunlight, it tends to seal itselI oII, 28
preventing the drying process Irom penetrating deeper. It may not Iunction well in a very dry 29
environment, because it may shrink away Irom the electrode, increasing the electrode resistance 30
(JonesB89). 31
c) Chemicaltype electrodes consist oI a copper tube Iilled with a salt. Holes in the tube allow 32
moisture to enter, dissolve the salts, and allow the salt solution to leach into the ground. These 33
electrodesareinstalledinanauguredholeandtypicallybackIilledwithsoiltreatment. 34
d) Ground enhancement materials, some with a resistivity oI less than 0.12 m (about 5 oI the 35
resistivityoIbentonite),aretypicallyplacedaroundtherodinanauguredholeoraroundgrounding 36
conductors in a trench, in either a dry Iorm or premixed in a slurry. Some oI these enhancement 37
materialsarepermanentandwillnot leach any chemicals into the ground. Other available ground 38
enhancementmaterialsaremixedwithlocalsoilinvaryingamountsandwillslowlyleachintothe 39
surroundingsoil,loweringtheearthresistivity. 40
14.6 Concreteencased electrodes 41
Concrete, being hygroscopic, attracts moisture. Buried in soil, a concrete block behaves as a 42
semiconducting medium with a resistivity oI 3090 Om. This is oI particular interest in medium and 43
highlyresistivesoilsbecauseawireormetallicrodencasedinconcretehaslowerresistancethanasimilar 44
electrodeburieddirectlyintheearth.ThisencasementreducestheresistivityoIthemostcriticalportionoI 45
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material surrounding the metal element in much the same manner as a chemical treatment oI soils. 1
However,thisphenomenon mayoItenbe both a design advantage and disadvantage. Some oI the reasons 2
areasIollows: 3
a) On the one hand, it is impractical to build Ioundations Ior structures where the inner steel 4
(reinIorcing bars) is not electrically connected to the metal oI the structure. Even iI extreme care 5
weretakenwiththeanchorboltplacementinordertopreventanydirectmetaltometalcontact,the 6
semiconductivenatureoIconcretewouldprovideanelectricalconnection. 7
b) On the other hand, the presence oI a small dc current can cause corrosion oI rebar material. 8
Although ac current as such does not produce corrosion, approximately 0.01 oI the ac current 9
becomes rectiIied at the interIace oI the steel bar and concrete (Rosa, McCollum, and Peters 10
B124). 11
c) Splitting oI concrete may occur either due to the above phenomenon because corroded steel 12
occupiesapproximately2.2timesitsoriginalvolume,producingpressuresapproaching35MPaor 13
thepassageoIaveryhighcurrent,whichwouldvaporizethemoistureintheconcrete. 14
Fortunately,thereisacertainthresholdpotentialIordccorrosion,approximately60Vdc,belowwhichno 15
corrosion will occur. A number oI feld tests concerning the maximum current loading is reported in 16
Bogajewski, Dawalibi, Gervais, and Mukhedkar B16; Dick and Holliday B53; and Miller, Hart, and 17
Brown B107). The shorttime current loading capacity, I
CE
, oI concreteencased electrodes can be 18
estimated by means oI OllendorIIs Iormula
9
Ior an indeIinitely sustainable current I, adjusted by a 1.4 19
multiplyingIactor,ordirectlyIromFigure26. 20
( ) ( )
a v g
z
CE
T T
R
I I = =
2
4 . 1
4 . 1 (62) 21
where 22
23
isthethermalconductivityoItheearthinW/(mC) 24
R
z
isthegroundresistanceoItheconcreteencasedelectrodeinO 25
is the soil resistivity in Om 26
T
a
istheambienttemperatureinC 27
T
v
isthemaximumallowabletemperaturetopreventsuddenevaporationoImoistureinC 28
I
istheindeIinitelysustainablecurrentinA 29
30
The applicability oI this Iormula has been veriIied in Bogajewski, Dawalibi, Gervais, and Mukhedkar 31
B16,whichreportsontheresultsoIextensive IieldtestingoIconcretepoles.In general,iIdamageisto 32
be prevented, the actual current should be less than the value oI I
CE
determined by Equation (62). A 20 33
25saIetymarginisreasonableIormostpracticalapplications. 34
Thus,withproperprecautions,theconcreteencasedelectrodesmaybeusedasauxiliarygroundelectrodes. 35
Faganand LeeB65usetheIollowingequation Ior obtaining the ground resistance, R
CErod
, oI a vertical 36
rodencasedinconcrete: 37
( )   ( )   ( ) 1 / 8 /
2
1
+ =
C r C c
r
rod CE
D L ln d D ln
L
R
t
(63) 38
9
OllendorIIB115neglectsthecoolingeIIectoIevaporatedmoisturein calculating I.
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where 1
2
c
is the resistivity oI the concrete in Om 3
is the resistivity oI the soil in Om 4
L
r
isthelengthoIthegroundrodinm 5
d isthediameteroIthegroundrodinm 6
D
C
isthediameteroItheconcreteshellinm 7
8
Equation(59)canberelatedtothecommonlyusedIormulaIoragroundrodoIlengthL
r
anddiameterd,as 9
Iollows: 10
( )   1 / 8 ln
2
= d L
L
R
r
r
rod
t
(64) 11
thenEquation(58)canberesolvedinto 12
( )   ( )   ( )   { } 1 / 8 ln 1 / 8 ln 1 / 8 ln
2
1
+ =
C r c r c C r
r
rod CE
D L d L D L
L
R
t
(65) 13
representingacombination oItworesistancesinseries: 14
a) Ground resistance calculated by Equation (64) oI a concrete cylinder oI diameter D
C
, directly 15
buriedinsoil 16
b) GroundresistanceoItheinnersegmentoIdiameterD
C
,containingametalrodoIdiameterd 17
18
Obviously, the latter term is obtained as a diIIerence oI the hypothetical resistance values Ior a rod in 19
concrete,iId andD
C
areenteredintothesinglemediumIormulaEquation(64), and is replaced by
c.
20
Such an approach is generally valid Ior any other electrode having a diIIerent shape. Noting, Ior 21
convenience 22
) , , ( G S F R
o SM
= (66) 23
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , , ( G S F G S F G S F R
i i o C DM
+ = (67) 24
where,inadditiontothesymbolsalreadymentioned, 25
26
R
SM
is the electrode resistance in single medium in O 27
R
DM
is the electrode resistance in dual medium in O 28
S
o
isthesurIaceareaoIagiven electrodeinm
2
29
S
i
istheareaoIinterIaceinm
2
30
G isageometricalIactorcharacterizingtheparticularshapeoIagivenelectrode 31
32
TheIollowingrecommendationsshouldbeconsideredwhenusingconcreteencasedelectrodes: 33
a) Connectanchorboltand anglestubstothereinIorcingsteelIorareliablemetaltometalcontact. 34
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b) Reduce the current duty and dc leakage to allowable levels by making sure that enough primary 1
groundelectrodes(groundgrid andgroundrods)willconductmostoItheIaultcurrent. 2
c) Ground enhancement material may be used in the areas oI a high soil resistivity to reduce the 3
resistanceoIprimarygrounding. Augeringa100250mm (410in)holeandbackIillingit witha 4
soilenhancementmaterialaroundagroundrodisauseIulmethodtopreventthepredominanceoI 5
auxiliaryelectrodesindissipatingtheIaultcurrent. 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
Figure 26 Shorttime current loading capability of concrete 43
encased ground electrodes 44
45
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This Iorm is adaptable to a variety oI electrodes, buried in soil, and assumed to be surrounded by a 1
concentricshelloIamaterialthathasdiIIerentresistivitythanthesoil.OnepossiblemodeloIthistype,Ior 2
whichSchwarzsIormulaIorarodbedcaneasilybemodiIied,isshowninFigure27. 3
4
Figure 27 Grid with encased vertical electrodes 5
15. Determination of maximum grid current 6
15.1 Definitions 7
NOTEThe IollowingdeIinitionsarealsolistedinClause3,butrepeatedhereIortheconvenienceoIthereader. 8
15.1.1 Dc offset: DiIIerencebetweenthesymmetricalcurrentwaveandtheactualcurrentwaveduringa 9
powersystemtransientcondition.Mathematically,theactualIaultcurrentcanbebrokenintotwoparts,a 10
symmetricalalternatingcomponentandaunidirectional(dc)component.Theunidirectionalcomponentcan 11
beoIeitherpolarity,butwillnotchangepolarity,andwilldecreaseatsomepredeterminedrate. 12
15.1.2 Decrement factor: AnadjustmentIactorusedinconjunctionwiththesymmetricalgroundIault 13
currentparameterinsaIetyorientedgroundingcalculations.ItdeterminesthermsequivalentoIthe 14
asymmetricalcurrentwaveIoragivenIaultduration,t
f
,accountingIortheeIIectoIinitialdcoIIsetandits 15
attenuationduringtheIault. 16
15.1.3 Fault current division factor: AIactorrepresentingtheinverseoIaratiooIthesymmetrical 17
IaultcurrenttothatportionoIthecurrentthatIlowsbetweenthegroundgrid andsurroundingearth. 18
S
I
I
f
g
o
=
3
(68) 19
where 20
21
S
f
istheIaultcurrentdivisionIactor 22
I isthermssymmetricalgridcurrentinA 23
I
0
isthezerosequenceIaultcurrentinA 24
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NOTEInreality,thecurrentdivisionIactorwouldchangeduringtheIaultduration,basedonthevaryingdecayrates 1
oItheIaultcontributionsandthesequenceoIinterruptingdeviceoperations.However,IorthepurposesoIcalculating 2
thedesignvalueoImaximumgridcurrentandsymmetricalgridcurrentperdeIinitionsoIsymmetricalgridcurrentand 3
maximumgridcurrent,theratioisassumedconstantduringtheentiredurationoIagivenIault. 4
15.1.4 Maximum grid current: AdesignvalueoIthemaximumgridcurrent,deIinedasIollows: 5
g f G
I D I = (69) 6
where 7
8
I
G
isthemaximumgridcurrentinA 9
D
f
isthedecrementIactorIortheentiredurationoIIaultt
f
, givenins 10
I isthermssymmetricalgridcurrentinA 11
15.1.5 Subtransient reactance: ReactanceoIageneratorattheinitiationoIaIault.Thisreactanceis 12
usedincalculationsoItheinitialsymmetricalIaultcurrent.Thecurrentcontinuouslydecreases,butitis 13
assumedtobesteadyatthisvalueasaIirststep,lastingapproximately0.05saIterasuddenlyappliedIault. 14
15.1.6 Symmetrical grid current: ThatportionoIthesymmetricalgroundIaultcurrentthatIlows 15
betweenthe groundgrid andsurroundingearth.Itmaybe expressedas 16
f f g
I S I = (70) 17
18
f f g
I S I = (71) 19
where 20
21
I
g
isthermssymmetricalgridcurrentinA 22
I
f
isthermsvalueoIsymmetricalgroundIaultcurrentinA 23
S
f
istheIaultcurrentdivisionIactor 24
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15.1.7 Synchronous reactance: SteadystatereactanceoIageneratorduringIaultconditionsusedto 1
calculatethesteadystateIaultcurrent.ThecurrentsocalculatedexcludestheeIIectoItheautomatic 2
voltageregulatororgovernor. 3
15.1.8 Transient reactance: ReactanceoIageneratorbetweenthesubtransientandsynchronousstates. 4
ThisreactanceisusedIorthecalculationoIthesymmetricalIaultcurrentduringtheperiodbetweenthe 5
subtransientandsteadystates.Thecurrentdecreasescontinuouslyduringthisperiod,butisassumedtobe 6
steadyatthisvalueIorapproximately0.25s. 7
15.1.9 X/R Ratio: RatiooIthesysteminductivereactancetoresistance.ItisindicativeoItherateoI 8
decayoIanydcoIIset.AlargeX/R ratiocorrespondstoalargetimeconstantandaslowrateoIdecay. 9
15.2 Procedure 10
Inmostcases,thelargestvalueoIgridcurrentwillresult inthemosthazardouscondition.Forthesecases, 11
theIollowingstepsareinvolvedindeterminingthecorrectdesignvalueoImaximumgridcurrentI
G
Ioruse 12
insubstationgroundingcalculations: 13
a) Assess the type and location oI those ground Iaults that are likely to produce the greatest Ilow oI 14
current between the ground grid and surrounding earth, and hence the greatest GPR and largest 15
localsurIacepotentialgradientsinthesubstationarea(see15.8). 16
b) Determine, by computation, the Iault current division Iactor S
f
Ior the Iaults selected in a), and 17
establishthecorrespondingvaluesoIsymmetricalgridcurrent I
g
(see15.9). 18
c) ForeachIault,basedonitsdurationtime,t
f,
determinethevalueoIdecrementIactorD
f
toallowIor 19
theeIIectsoIasymmetryoItheIaultcurrentwave.SelectthelargestproductD
f
I
g
, andhencethe 20
worstIaultcondition(see15.10). 21
d) ConsiderIutureincreasesinavailableIaultcurrent(see15.11). 22
15.3 Types of ground faults 23
Many diIIerent types oI Iaults may occur in the system. UnIortunately, it may be diIIicult to determine 24
which Iault type and location will result in the greatest Ilow oI current between the ground grid and 25
surroundingearthbecausenosimpleruleapplies.Figure28throughFigure31showmaximumgridcurrent 26
I
G
IorvariousIaultlocationsandsystemconIigurations. 27
IndeterminingtheapplicableIaulttypes,considerationshouldbegiventotheprobabilityoIoccurrenceoI 28
theIault.MultiplesimultaneousIaults,eventhough they mayresultin higher groundcurrent,need notbe 29
considered iI their probability oI occurrence is negligible. It is thus recommended, Ior practical reasons, 30
thatinvestigationbeconIinedtosinglelinetogroundandlinetolinetogroundIaults. 31
InthecaseoIalinetolinetogroundIault,thezerosequenceIaultcurrentis 32
( )
( ) ( )
 
( ) ( )
I
E R jX
R jX R R R j X X R jX R R jX
f f
0
2 2
1 1 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 0
3 3
=
+
+ + + + + + + + +
(72) 33
where 34
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1
I
0
isthesymmetricalrmsvalueoIzerosequenceIaultcurrentinA 2
E isthephasetoneutralvoltageinV 3
R
f
istheestimatedresistance oI the Iault in O (normally it is assumed R
f
0) 4
R
1
is the positive sequence equivalent system resistance in O 5
R
2
is the negative sequence equivalent system resistance in O 6
R
0
is the zero sequence equivalent system resistance in O 7
X
1
isthepositive sequence equivalent system reactance (subtransient) in O 8
X
2
isthenegativesequence
10
equivalent system reactance in O 9
X
0
is the zero sequence equivalent system reactance in O 10
11
ThevaluesR
1
, R
2
, R
0
, X
1
, X
2
, andX
0
arecomputedlookingintothesystemIromthepointoIIault. 12
InthecaseoIasinglelinetogroundIault,thezerosequenceIaultcurrentis 13
( )
I
E
R R R R j X X X
f
0
1 2 0 1 2 0
3
=
+ + + + + +
(73) 14
Inmanycases,however,theeIIectoItheresistancetermsinEquation(73)isnegligible. Forpracticalpur 15
poses,theIollowingsimpliIiedequationsaresuIIicientlyaccurateandmoreconvenient. 16
ZerosequencecurrentIorlinetolinetogroundIault: 17
( ) ( )
I
E X
X X X X X
0
2
1 0 2 2 0
=
+ +
(74) 18
ZerosequencecurrentIorlinetogroundIault: 19
I
E
X X X
0
1 2 0
=
+ +
(75) 20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
10
In most calculations it is usually permissible to assume a ration oI X2/X1 equal to unity, and, hence, X1 X2, especially iI an
appreciablepercentageoIthepositivesequencereactancetothepointoIIaultisthatoIstaticapparatusandtransmissionlines.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Figure 28 Fault within local substation; local neutral grounded 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Figure 29 Fault within local substation; neutral grounded at 31
remote location 32
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1
2
Fault in substation; system grounded at local substation and also at other points 3
Figure 30 4
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1
Typical current division for a fault on high side of distribution substation 2
Figure 31 3
4
15.4 Effect of substation ground resistance 5
In most cases it is suIIicient to derive the maximum grid current I
G
, as described in 15.2 and 15.3, by 6
neglectingthesystemresistance,thesubstationgroundresistance,andtheresistanceattheIault.Theerror 7
thusintroducedisusuallysmall,andisalwaysonthesideoIsaIety.However,theremaybeunusualcases 8
wherethepredictedsubstationgroundresistanceissolarge,inrelationtosystemreactance,thatitisworth 9
whiletotaketheresistanceintoaccountbyincludingitintothemoreexactEquation(72)orEquation(73). 10
This poses a problem because the substation ground system is not yet designed and its resistance is not 11
known.However,theresistancecanbeestimated by the use oI the approximate Iormulas oI 14.2 or 14.3. 12
ThisestimatedresistancegenerallygivessuIIicientaccuracyIordeterminingthecurrentIg,andhenceI
G
. 13
15.5 Effect of fault resistance 14
II the Iault is an insulation breakdown within the local substation, the only saIe assumption is that the 15
resistanceoItheIaultbeassumedzero(seeFigure28throughFigure31). 16
InthecaseoIaIaultoutsideoIthelocalsubstationarea,onalineconnectedtothesubstationbus(Figure 17
31),itispermissible,iIaconservative(minimum)valueoIIaultresistanceR
f
canbeassigned,tousethisin 18
the ground Iault current calculations. This is done by multiplying R
f
by three and adding it to the other 19
resistancetermsasindicatedin thedenominatoroIEquation(72)andEquation(73).II,however,theactual 20
Iaultresistancedoesnot maintainavalue at least as great as the value oI R
f
used in the calculations, then 21
the Iault resistance should be neglected. Any error Irom neglecting R
f
will, oI course, be on the side oI 22
saIety. 23
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15.6 Effect of overhead ground wires and neutral conductors 1
Where transmission line overhead ground wires or neutral conductors are connected to the substation 2
ground,asubstantialportionoIthegroundIaultcurrentisdivertedaway Iromthesubstationgroundgrid. 3
Wherethissituationexists,theoverheadgroundwiresorneutralconductorsshouldbetakenintoconsider 4
ation in the design oI the ground grid. Connecting the substation ground to overhead ground wires or 5
neutral conductors, or both, and through them to transmission line structures or distribution poles, will 6
usually have the overall eIIect oI increasing the GPR at tower bases, while lessening it at the substation. 7
This is because each oI the nearby towers will share in each voltage rise oI the substation ground mat, 8
whatever the cause, instead oI being aIIected only by a local insulation Iailure or Ilashover at one oI the 9
towers. Conversely, when such a tower Iault does occur, the eIIect oI the connected substation ground 10
systemshoulddecreasethemagnitudeoIgradientsnearthetowerbases. 11
15.7 Effect of direct buried pipes and cables 12
Buried cables with their sheaths or armor in eIIective contact with the ground, and buried metallic pipes 13
will have a somewhat similar eIIect when they are bonded to the substation ground system, but extend 14
beyonditsperimeter. 15
Buried cables with their sheaths or armor in eIIective contact with the earth, and buried metallic pipes 16
bondedtothe substationgroundsystem and extending beyond its perimeter will have an eIIect similar to 17
thatoIoverheadgroundwiresandneutrals.Byconducting partoItheground Iaultcurrentaway Irom the 18
substation, the potential rise oI the grid during the Iault, and the local gradients in the substation will be 19
somewhat lessened. As discussed in Clause 17, external hazards may sometimes be introduced (Bodier 20
B15;RdenbergB127). 21
BecauseoIthecomplexitiesanduncertainties in the pattern oI current Ilow, the eIIect is oIten diIIicultto 22
calculate. Some guidelines to the computation oI the input impedance oI such current paths leaving the 23
substation are supplied by Rdenberg B125 and Laurent B96. A more recent study oI this problem is 24
presented in EPRI EL904 B59, which provides methods Ior computing the impedance oI both above 25
ground and buried pipes. From these values an approximate calculation can determine the division oI 26
groundcurrentbetweenthesepaths,thesubstationgroundsystem,andanyoverheadgroundwiresthatare 27
presentandconnected. 28
15.8 Worst fault type and location 29
The worst Iault type Ior a given grounding system is usually the one resulting in the highest value oI the 30
maximumgridcurrentI
G
.BecausethiscurrentisproportionaltothezerosequenceorgroundIaultcurrent 31
andthecurrentdivisionIactor,andbecausethecurrentdivisionisalmostindependentoItheIaulttype,the 32
worst Iault type can be deIined as the one resulting in the highest zero sequence or ground Iault current 33
Ilowintotheearth,3
I
0.Inagivenlocation,asinglelinetogroundIaultwillbetheworstIaulttypeiIZ
1
Z
0
34
> Z
2
2
atthepointoIIault,andalinetolinetogroundIaultwillbetheworsttypeiIZ
1
Z
0
< Z
2
2
.Intheusual 35
casewhereZ
2
isassumedequaltoZ
1
,theabovecomparisonsreducetoZ
0
> Z1,andZ
0
< Z
2,
respectively. 36
Z
1
, Z
2
, Z
0
aredeIinedas 37
Z R jX
1 1 1
= + (76) 38
Z R jX
2 2 2
= + (77) 39
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Z R jX
0 0 0
= + (78) 1
ThequestionoItheIaultlocationproducingthe maximum gridcurrentI
G
involvesseveralconsiderations. 2
TheworstIaultlocationmaybeeitheronthehighvoltagesideoronthelowvoltageside,andineithercase 3
maybeeitherinsidethesubstationoroutsideonaline,atacertaindistanceIromthesubstation.AIaultis 4
classiIied asinsidethesubstationiIitisrelated to a metallic structure that is electrically connected to the 5
substation groundgrid vianegligibleimpedance.Thereareno universalrules IorthedeterminationoIthe 6
worstIaultlocation.TheIollowingdiscussionrelatestosome,butbynomeansall,possibilities. 7
FordistributionsubstationswiththetransIormergroundedonlyonthedistributionside,themaximumgrid 8
current I
G
usuallyoccursIoragroundIault on the highside terminals oI the transIormer. However, iI the 9
source oI ground Iault current on the high side is weak, or iI a parallel operation oI several transIormers 10
resultsinastronggroundIaultcurrentsourceonthelow side,the maximum gridcurrent mayoccurIora 11
groundIaultsomewhereonthedistributioncircuit. 12
For ground Iaults on the lowside terminals oI such a secondary grounded transIormer, the transIormers 13
contributiontotheIaultcirculatesinthesubstationgridconductorwithnegligibleleakagecurrentintothe 14
earthand,thus,hasnoeIIectonthesubstationGPR,asshowninFigure28. 15
For ground Iaults outside the substation on a distribution Ieeder (Iar enough to be at remote earth with 16
respect to the ground grid), a large portion oI the Iault current will return to its source (the transIormer 17
neutral)viathesubstationgrid,thuscontributingtothesubstationGPR. 18
In transmission substations with threewinding transIormers or autotransIormers, the problem is more 19
complex.ThemaximumgridcurrentI
G
mayoccurIoragroundIaultoneitherthehighorlowsideoIthe 20
transIormer;bothlocationsshouldbechecked.Ineithercase,itcanbeassumedthattheworstIaultlocation 21
isattheterminalsoIthetransIormerinsidethesubstation,iIthesystemcontributiontotheIaultcurrentis 22
larger than that oI the transIormers in the substation. Conversely, the worst Iault location may be outside 23
thesubstationonatransmissionline,iIthetransIormercontributiondominates. 24
Exceptionstotheabovegeneralitiesexist.ThereIore,IoraspeciIicsystem,severalIaultlocationcandidates 25
Ior the maximum grid current should be considered. For each candidate, the applicable value oI zero 26
sequencecurrentI
0
(groundIaultcurrent)shouldbeestablishedinthisstep. 27
In a Iew cases, a Iurther complication arises. The duration oI the Iault depends on the type oI protection 28
scheme used, the location oI the Iault, and the choice oI using primary or backup clearing times Ior the 29
Iault (shock) duration. The Iault duration not only aIIects the decrement Iactor, D
f
, but also the tolerable 30
voltages, as discussed in Clause 8. II the Iault clearing time Ior a particular Iault is relatively long, the 31
corresponding tolerable voltages may be reduced to values that make this Iault condition the worst case, 32
eventhoughthegridcurrentIorthiscaseis notthemaximumvalue.Thissituationgenerallyoccurswhere 33
adeltawyegroundedtransIormerisIedIromarelativelyweaksourceoIIaultcurrentandtheIaultoccurs 34
some distance down a rural distribution Ieeder. In this case, the high (delta) side Iault current may be 35
relativelylow,andthelow(wyegrounded)sideIeeder Iaultsaredeterminedprimarily bythetransIormer 36
andIeederimpedances.IIbackupclearingisconsidered,aIeederIaultseveralkilometersdowntheIeeder, 37
dependingonthehighsideclearingdevicetobackuptheIailureoIthe Ieederbreaker,couldtakeseveral 38
seconds to clear. The tolerable voltage Ior this case may be signiIicantly lower than that Ior a high side 39
Iault, making the low side Ieeder Iault the worst case Ior the grid design. Thus, the worst Iault type and 40
locationmusttakeintoconsiderationnotonlythemaximumvalueoIgridcurrentI
G
,butalsothetolerable 41
voltagesbasedontheIaultclearingtime. 42
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15.9 Computation of current division 1
FortheassumptionoIasustainedIlowoItheinitialgroundIaultcurrent,thesymmetricalgridcurrentcan 2
beexpressedas 3
( ) I S I
g f
= 3
0
(79) 4
TodetermineI
g
, thecurrentdivisionIactor S
f
mustbecomputed. 5
TheprocessoIcomputingconsistsoIderiving an equivalent representation oI the overhead ground wires, 6
neutrals,etc.,connectedtothegridandthensolvingtheequivalent todetermine what IractionoIthetotal 7
Iault current Ilows between the grid and earth, and what Iraction fows through the ground wires or 8
neutrals.S
f
isdependentonmanyparameters,someoIwhichare 9
a) LocationoItheIault,asdescribedin15.8. 10
b) MagnitudeoIsubstationgroundgridimpedance,asdiscussedinClause4. 11
c) BuriedpipesandcablesinthevicinityoIordirectlyconnectedtothesubstationgroundsystem,as 12
discussedin15.7. 13
d) Overheadgroundwires,neutrals,orothergroundreturnpaths,asdiscussedin15.6. 14
BecauseoIS
f,
thesymmetricalgridcurrentI
g
, andthereIorealsoI
G
, arecloselyrelatedtothelocationoIthe 15
Iault.IItheadditionalgroundpathsoIitemsc)andd)aboveareneglected,thecurrentdivisionratio(based 16
onremote versuslocalcurrentcontributions) can be computed using traditional symmetrical components. 17
However,thecurrentI
g
, computedusingsuchamethodmightbeoverlyconservative. 18
The remaining discussion reIers only to overhead ground wires and neutral conductors, although the 19
principlesinvolvedalsoapplytoburiedpipes,cables,oranyother conductingpathconnectedtothegrid. 20
Highvoltagetransmissionlinesarecommonlyprovidedwithoverheadstaticwires,eitherthroughouttheir 21
lengthor IorshortdistancesIromeach substation. They may be grounded at each tower along the line or 22
theymaybeinsulatedIromthetowersandusedIorcommunicationpurposes.Therearemanysourcesthat 23
provideassistanceindeterminingtheeIIectiveimpedanceoIastaticwireasseenIromtheIaultpoint(see, 24
Ior instance, Carson B17; Clem B19; EEI and BellTelephone Systems B20; CCITT Study Group V 25
B24; Desieno, Marchenko, and Vassel B51; Laurent B96; Patel B119; and Verma and Mukhedkar 26
B149).ManyoIthesemethodsmay,however,bediIIiculttoapplybythedesignengineer.Becauseitis 27
beyondthescopeoIthisguidetodiscuss in detail the applicability oI each method to all possible system 28
conIigurations,onlyabrieIdescriptionoIsomeoIthemorerecentmethodswillbegiven. 29
EndrenyiB57B55presentsanapproachin which, IoraseriesoIidentical spans,thetowerimpedances 30
and overhead ground wires or neutrals are reduced to an equivalent lumped impedance. Except Ior 31
estimatingpurposes,Endrenyirecommendsincludingthemutualsbetweenmultiplegroundconductorsand 32
introduces a coupling Iactor to account Ior the mutual impedance between the neutral conductors and the 33
phaseconductors.ThistechniqueisdevelopedIurtherbyVermaandMukhedkarB149. 34
Inthecascaded matrix methodoISeboB129, an impedance matrix is derived Ior each span oI the line, 35
and the individual span matrices are cascaded into a resulting matrix representing the entire line. This 36
technique allows a person to take into account all selI and mutual impedances (except between the tower 37
Iootinggrounds),and thelocationandtypeoIIault.AcorrectionIortheendeIIectsoIthelineissuggested, 38
usingamodiIiedscreeningIactor. 39
With some limitations in applicability and accuracy, the spanbyspan calculation technique can be 40
considerablysimpliIied. Atypical approach, in which all mutual couplings between the neutral conductor 41
andphaseconductorsandbetweenneutralconductorsareignored,hasbeendescribedbyGarrettB70.In 42
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thistechnique,eachneutralconductorismodeledbytheimpedanceoIeachspanandtheequivalentground 1
impedanceoIeachtowertoIormanetworkresemblingaladder.Thisladdernetworkisthenreduced,using 2
simple network reduction techniques, to the input impedance as seen Irom the Iault point. The input 3
impedance oI each circuit is combined with the grid resistance and three times this resulting value is 4
included in the zerosequence equivalent Iault impedance. The current division Iactor S
f
is computed by 5
applying KirchoIIs current law to obtain the current division between the grid resistance and the input 6
impedanceoIeachcircuit.Althoughthis,orsimilarapproximateapproaches,islimitedinapplicabilityand 7
accuracy, in many cases it may provide a reasonable estimate oI the inIluence oI overhead ground wires 8
andneutralsonboththeresistanceoIthegroundingsystemandthecurrentdivisionratio. 9
Dawalibi B37, B40 provides algorithms Ior deriving simple equations to solve Ior the currents in the 10
gridandineachtower.TheseequationsareobtainedIromoneorbothendsoIeachlineanddonotrequire 11
thelargecomputerstoragerequirementsoIthetechniquesthatmodeleachspanindividually.Dawalibialso 12
addresses the eIIects oI the soil structure (that is, multilayer earth resistivities) on the selI and mutual 13
impedancesoItheconductorsandonthecurrentdivisionratio. 14
Meliopoulos et al. B103 introduced an equivalent conductor to represent the eIIects oI earth using 15
CarsonsIormula.Everyspanineachlineismodeledandtheresultingnetworkissolved IorcurrentIlows. 16
Fromthissolution,thecurrentdivisionratioiscomputed.ThenumberoIlinesandsubstationsmodeledare 17
limitedonlybythecomputerusedtosolvethenetwork(EPRITR100622B63). 18
Garrett and Patel B73 used the method oI Meliopoulos B103 to perIorm a parametric analysis oI the 19
parametersaIIectingS
f
,andtodevelopasetoIcurvesoIS
f
vs.gridresistanceIorsomeoIthemostcritical 20
parameters.Thisprovidesaquickandsimple methodtoestimatethecurrentdivisionthatavoidsthe need 21
IorsomeoIthesimpliIyingassumptionsoItheotherapproximatemethods,thoughtheresultsarestillonly 22
approximate.Thesecurves,alongwithaIewnewcurvesandanimpedancetableaddedIorthisguide,are 23
includedinAnnexC.ReIertoAnnexCIorlimitationsonthismethod. 24
Obviously,thetechniquesthatmodelthestaticwires,phaseconductors,towers,etc.,indetailwillgivethe 25
bestevaluationoIthecurrentdivisionIactorSI.However,theapproximatemethodsdiscussedabovehave 26
been compared with the detailed methods and Iound to give comparable answers Ior many simple 27
examples.Thus,thechoiceoIthemethodusedtodetermineSIwilldependonthecomplexityoIthesystem 28
connected to the substation and the desired degree oI accuracy. A simple example Iollows, showing the 29
results oI Iour oI the methods described in the preceding paragraphs. In the Iollowing example, the 30
approximate methods oI Endrenyi and Garrett and Patel are compared with the results oI Dawalibis and 31
Meliopoulosmoreaccuratemethods. 32
As an example, Figure 32 shows a oneIeeder distribution substation Ied by single transmission line 33
connectingthesubstationtoaremoteequivalentsource(nextadjacentsubstation).Thetransmissionline 34
is20kmlongand thedistancebetweentowergroundsis0.5km.TheIeederis4kmlongandthedistance 35
between pole grounds is 0.122 km. The soil is assumed to be uniIorm with a resistivity oI 200 Om. 36
Carsonsequationsareusedtocomputethe selIimpedancesoIthephaseconductorsandoverheadstatic 37
wire, and the mutual impedance between these (transmission line only) Ior use with Endrenyis Iormula 38
and Garrett and Patels splitIactor curves. Annex C shows the equations used to calculate the line 39
impedances necessary Ior the current split computations. The various impedances Ior each line section 40
towerIootingresistance,remoteterminalgroundresistance,andsubstationgridresistanceare 41
R
tg
10.0 j0.0 O/section 42
R
dg
25.0 j0.0 O/section 43
R
s
3.0 j0.0 O 44
R 2.5 j0.0 O 45
g 46
Z
1
3.82 j9.21 O Ior the 115 kV line 47
Z
0(a)
7.37 j35.86 O Ior the 115 kV line 48
Z
0(g)
148.24 j66.44 O Ior the 115 kV line 49
Z
0(ag)
3.56 j33.34 O Ior the 115 kV line Z0 12.54 j39.72 O Ior the 115 kV line 50
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Z
sl
1.24 j0.55 O/span Ior the 115 kV overhead static wire 1
Z
sf
0.11 j0.11 O/span Ior the 12.47 kV Ieeder neutral 2
3
where 4
5
R
tg
istheimpedancetoremoteearthoIeachtransmissiongroundelectrode in O 6
R
dg
is the impedance to remote earth oI each distribution ground electrode in O 7
R
s
is the remote terminal ground impedance (equivalent) in O 8
R is the station ground impedance to remote earth in O 9
Z
1
istheequivalentpositivesequenceimpedance Ior the 115 kV line in O 10
Z
0(a)
is the zero sequence selI impedance Ior the 115 kV phase conductors in O 11
Z
0(g)
is the zero sequence selI impedance Ior the 115 kV ground wire in O 12
Z
0(ag)
isthezerosequencemutualimpedancebetweenphaseandgroundconductorsIorthe115kVline 13
in O 14
Z
0
is the equivalent zero sequence impedance Ior the 115 kV line in O 15
Z
s
l
is the selI impedance oI the 115 kV overhead static wire in O/span 16
Z
sf
is the selI impedance oI the 12.47 kV Ieeder neutral in O/span 17
18
Adding the 115 kV line impedances to the source impedances gives the Iollowing equivalent Iault 19
impedanceatthe115kVbus: 20
01 . 19 82 . 3
) ( 1
j Z
eq
+ = O 21
32 . 46 54 . 12
) ( 0
j Z
eq
+ = O 22
Thus,Iora115kVsinglelinetogroundIault 23
24
( ) ( )
3
3 115 000 3
2 382 19 01 12 54 46 32
534 5 22338 2297
0
I
j j
j =
+ + +
= =
, /
. . . .
. . 25
Asshowninthe fgure, a singlelinetogroundIaultoccursatthesubstationIromthephaseconductorbus 26
tothesubstationneutral. 27
UsingEndrenyisB57method,theequivalentimpedanceoItheoverheadstaticwire(asseenIromthe 28
IaultpointandignoringtheeIIectsoIcoupling)is 29
( ) ( ) Z j j j
eq l
= + + + = + 05 124 055 10 124 055 4 22 104 . . . . . . . O 30
TheequivalentimpedanceoItheIeederneutral(asseenIromthesubstation)is 31
( ) ( ) Z j j j
eq f
= + + + = + 05 011 011 25 011 011 188 089 . . . . . . . O 32
TheresultingequivalentoItheoverheadstaticwireandIeederneutralisIoundbyparallelingtheabove 33
equivalentimpedances: 34
35
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1
2
3
Figure 32
Example system for computation of current division 4
factor factor S
f
5
6
Z
Z Z
j
eq
eq l eq f
=
+
= +
1
1 1
131 052 . . O 7
ThecurrentdivisionIactor,S
f
,isZ 8
( )
S
Z
Z R
j
j
f
eq
eq g
=
+
=
+
+ +
=
131 052
131 052 2 5
037
. .
. . .
. 9
10
andtheresultinggridcurrentI
g
is 11
I S I
g f
= = = 3 0 37 2297 850
0
. A 12
13
UsingGarrettandPatelstableoIsplitIactorequivalents(AnnexC),theequivalentoItheoverheadstatic 14
wireandIeederneutralis 15
485 . 0 91 . 0 j Z + = O 16
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andthesplitIactoris 1
( )
S
Z
Z R
j
j
f
eq
eq g
=
+
=
+
+ +
=
0 91 0 485
0 91 0 485 2 5
030
. .
. . .
. 2
3
Thus,thegridcurrentis 4
I S I
g f
= = = 3 0 30 2297 689
0
. A 5
UsingGarret andPatelssplitIactorcurves(FigureC.3inAnnexC),theapproximatesplitIactorS
f
0.28. 6
Thus,thegridcurrentis 7
I S I
g f
= = = 3 0 28 2297 643
0
. A 8
UsingEPRITR100622B63,thetotalIaultcurrent3I
0
is2472A.Approximately34(I
g
836A)oIthe 9
IaultcurrentIlowsthrough gridtoremote earth, so the current division Iactor equals 0.34. Similar results 10
areobtainedusingDawalibiB37. 11
Asshownabove,theapproximateanddetailedmethodsareincloseagreementIorthisexample.However, 12
Ior more complex systems, with both local and remote ground sources and with dissimilar lines and 13
sources,theresultsmaynotbeincloseagreement(seeAnnexC). 14
15.10 Effect of asymmetry 15
The design oI a ground grid must consider the asymmetrical current. A decrement Iactor, DI, will be 16
derived to take into account the eIIect oI dc current oIIset. In general, the asymmetrical Iault current 17
includes the subtransient, transient and steadystate ac components, and the dc oIIset current component. 18
Both the subtransient and transient ac components and the dc oIIset decay exponentially, each having a 19
diIIerentattenuationrate. 20
However, in typical applications oI this guide, it is assumed that the ac component does not decay with 21
time,butremainsatitsinitialvalue.Thus,asaperiodicIunctionoItime,t,theasymmetricalIaultcurrent 22
maybeexpressedas 23
( ) ( )
 
i t E Y t e
f
ac
t T
a
( ) sin sin
/
= +
2 e o u o u (80) 24
where 25
26
i
f
(t) istheasymmetricalIaultcurrent,inA,atanyinstantt, t ins 27
E isthepreIaultrmsvoltage,linetoneutralV 28
isthesystemIrequencyinradians/s 29
isthevoltageangleatcurrentinitiationinradians 30
isthecircuitphaseangleinradians 31
Y
ac istheequivalentacsystemadmittanceinmhos 32
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T
a
isthedcoIIsettimeconstantinsT
a
X/(R), Ior 60 Hz, T
a
X/(120R) 1
2
TheX/R ratiotobeusedhereisthesystemX/R ratioattheIaultlocationIoragivenIaulttype.The X andR 3
componentsoIthesystemsubtransientIaultimpedanceshouldbeusedtodeterminetheX/R ratio. 4
5
Inreality,Iaultsoccuratrandomwithrespecttothevoltagewave.However,theshockcontactmayexistat 6
themomenttheIaultisinitiated.Hence,toallowIorthemostseverecondition,itisnecessarytoassume 7
thatthemaximumpossibledcoIIsetwillbepresentatthemomentoIanaccidentalshockcontact. 8
9
Maximum dc oIIset occurs when: ( ) /2 10
11
ThenEquation(80)becomes 12
 
i t E Y e t
f ac
t T
a
( ) cos( )
/
=
2 e (81) 13
BecausetheexperimentaldataintheIibrillationthresholdarebasedontheenergycontentoIasymmetrical 14
sine wave oI constant amplitude, it is necessary to establish an equivalent rms value oI the asymmetrical 15
currentwaveIorthemaximumtimeoIpossibleshockexposure.Thisvalue,inaccordancewiththedeIini 16
tion oI the eIIective asymmetrical Iault current I
F
, can be determined by integration oI Equation (81) 17
squaredovertheentiredurationoIIaultt
f
ins. 18
 
I
t
i t dt
F
f
f
t
f
=
}
1 2
0
( ) (82) 19
where 20
21
I
F
istheeIIectivermsvalueoIapproximateasymmetricalcurrentIortheentiredurationoIaIaultin 22
A 23
t
f
isthetimedurationoIIaultins 24
t isthetime(variable)aItertheinitiationoIIaultin 25
26
EvaluatingtheintegraloIEquation(82)intermsoIEquation(81),itIollowsthat 27
 
I I
t
e t dt
F f
f
t T
t
a
f
=
}
2 2
0
/
cos( ) e (83) 28
ThereIore,thedecrementIactorD
f
isdeterminedbytheratioI
F
/I
f
,yielding 29
D
I
I
f
F
f
= (84) 30
D
T
t
e
f
a
f
t
T
f
a
= +

\

.



1 1
2
(85) 31
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Equation (85) can be used to compute the decrement Iactor Ior specifc X/R ratios and Iault durations. 1
TypicalvaluesoIthedecrementIactorIorvariousIaultdurationsandX/R ratiosareshowninTable10. 2
For relatively long Iault durations, the eIIect oI the dc oIIset current can be assumed to be more than 3
compensated by the decay oI the subtransient component oI ac current. A decrement Iactor oI 1.0 can be 4
usedIorIaultdurationsoI30cyclesormore. 5
For closely spaced successive shocks (possibly Irom reclosures), early editions oI this guide suggested a 6
decrement Iactor computed using the shortest single Iault duration, even iI the time, t
s
, used elsewhere in 7
thecalculationsisbasedonthesumoIthe individualshockdurations.However,theprecedingdiscussion 8
oI the asymmetrical Iault current decrement Iactor suggests that the use oI the shortest Iault duration in 9
conjunctionwiththelongestshockduration,orsumoItheshockdurations,mayresultinanoverdesigned 10
groundingsystem.ThisisespeciallytrueIorIaultsoIintermediateduration(thatis,630cycles),wherethe 11
decrementIactorisrelativelylargeandtheaccomponentoIcurrentisassumedtoremainatitssubtransient 12
value.CrawIordandGriIIithB22suggestthattheshockdurationandIaultdurationbeassumedidentical, 13
whichwillresultinsuIIicientgriddesignIorcasesinvolving noautomaticreclosuresorsuccessive(high 14
speed) shocks. However, because little or no testing has been done on the eIIects oI repetitive shocks 15
separated byonlyaIew cycles,thedesign engineer should judge whether or not to use the longest shock 16
durationIortimet
s
elsewhereinthecalculationsandtheshortestIaultdurationIorthetimet
f
incomputing 17
thedecrementIactorwithEquation(85). 18
ItisimportantthatthevaluesoIthedecrementIactorgiveninTable10notbeconIusedwiththe 19
multiplyingIactorsgivenbyIEEEC37.010B84.ThedecrementIactorisD
f
,andisusedtodeterminethe 20
eIIectivecurrentduringagiventimeintervalaIterinceptionoIaIault,whereasthemultiplyingIactors 21
givenbyIEEEC37.010B84areusedtodeterminethermscurrentattheendoIthisinterval.BecauseoI 22
thedecayoIacanddctransientcomponentswithtime,thedecrementIactorsdeterminedbyEquation(85) 23
areslightlyhigherthantheIactorsgivenbyIEEEC37.010B84IorshortIaultandshockdurations. 24
25
Table 10 Typical values of D
f
26
Fault duration, t
f
Decrement factor, D
f
Seconds
Cycles at 60
Hz
X/R = 10 X/R = 20 X/R = 30 X/R = 40
0.00833 0.5 1.576 1.648 1.675 1.688
0.05 3 1.232 1.378 1.462 1.515
0.10 6 1.125 1.232 1.316 1.378
0.20 12 1.064 1.125 1.181 1.232
0.30 18 1.043 1.085 1.125 1.163
0.40 24 1.033 1.064 1.095 1.125
0.50 30 1.026 1.052 1.077 1.101
0.75 45 1.018 1.035 1.052 1.068
1.00 60 1.013 1.026 1.039 1.052
27
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15.11 Effect of future changes 1
ItisacommonexperienceIormaximumIaultcurrentsatagivenlocationtoincreaseassystemcapacityis 2
added or new connections are made to the grid. While an increase in system capacity will increase the 3
maximumexpected Iaultcurrent I
F
,new connections may increase or decrease the maximum grid current 4
I
G
.Onecaseinwhichthegridcurrentmaydecreasewithnewconnectionsiswhennewtransmissionlines 5
areaddedwithgroundorneutralwires,orboth.Ingeneral,iInomarginIorincreaseinI
G
isincludedinthe 6
originalgroundsystemdesign,thedesign may become unsaIe. Also, subsequent additions will usually be 7
muchlessconvenientand moreexpensive to install. It has been a widely accepted practice to assume the 8
totalIaultcurrent,I
F
,betweenthegridand surrounding earth (that is, ignoring any current division) inan 9
attempt to allow Ior system growth. While this assumption would be overly pessimistic Ior presentyear 10
conditions, it may not exceed the current I
G
computed considering current division and system growth. II 11
the system growth is taken into account and current division is ignored, the resulting grid will be 12
overdesigned. An estimate oI the Iuture system conditions can be obtained by including all system 13
additionsIorecasted. 14
CautionshouldbeexercisedwhenIuturechangesinvolvesuchdesignchangesasdisconnectionoI 15
overheadgroundwirescomingintothesubstations.SuchchangesmayhaveaneIIectongroundIault 16
currentsandmayresultinaninadequategroundingsystem.However,IuturechangessuchasadditionsoI 17
incomingoverheadgroundwires,maydecreasethecurrentdivisionratio,resultingintheexistingground 18
systembeingoverdesigned. 19
20
16. Design of grounding system 21
16.1 Design criteria 22
As stated in 4.1, there are two main design goals to be achieved by any substation ground system under 23
normalaswellasIaultconditions.Thesegoalsare 24
a) Toprovidemeanstodissipateelectriccurrentsintotheearth withoutexceedinganyoperatingand 25
equipmentlimits. 26
b) ToassurethatapersoninthevicinityoIgroundedIacilitiesisnotexposedtothedangeroIcritical 27
electricshock. 28
ThedesignproceduresdescribedintheIollowingsubclausesareaimedatachievingsaIetyIromdangerous 29
step and touch voltages within a substation. It is pointed out in 8.2 that it is possible Ior transIerred 30
potentials to exceed the GPR oI the substation during Iault conditions. Clause 17 discusses some oI the 31
methods used to protect personnel and equipment Irom these transIerred potentials. Thus, the design 32
procedure described here is based on assuring saIety Irom dangerous step and touch voltages within, and 33
immediately outside, the substation Ienced area. Because the mesh voltage is usually the worst possible 34
touchvoltageinsidethesubstation(excludingtransIerredpotentials),themesh voltage willbeusedasthe 35
basisoIthisdesignprocedure. 36
Step voltages are inherently less dangerous than mesh voltages. II, however, saIety within the grounded 37
area is achieved with the assistance oI a high resistivity surIace layer (surIace material), which does not 38
extend outside the Ience, then step voltages may be dangerous. In any event, the computed step voltages 39
shouldbecomparedwiththepermissiblestepvoltageaIteragridhasbeendesigned that satisfes the touch 40
voltagecriterion. 41
Forequallyspacedgroundgrids,themeshvoltagewillincreasealongmeshesIromthecentertothecorner 42
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oI the grid. The rate oI this increase will depend on the size oI the grid, number and location oI ground 1
rods,spacingoIparallelconductors,diameteranddepthoItheconductors,andtheresistivityproIileoIthe 2
soil.InacomputerstudyoIthreetypical groundgridsin uniIorm soilresistivity,thedatashown inTable 3
11wereobtained.Thesegrids wereallsymmetrically shaped square grids with no ground rods and equal 4
parallelconductorspacing.ThecornerE
m
wascomputedatthecenteroIthecornermesh.Theactualworst 5
caseE
m
occursslightlyoIIcenter(towardthecorneroIthegrid),butisonly slightly higherthantheE
m
at 6
thecenteroIthemesh. 7
As indicated in Table 11, the corner mesh voltage is generally much higher than that in the center mesh. 8
This will be true unless the grid is unsymmetrical (has projections, is Lshaped, etc.), has ground rods 9
locatedonorneartheperimeter,orhasextremely nonuniIorm conductor spacing. Thus, in the equations 10
IorthemeshvoltageE
m
givenin16.5,onlythemeshvoltageatthecenteroIthecornermeshisusedasthe 11
basis oI the design procedure. Analysis based on computer programs, described in 16.8, may use this 12
approximate corner mesh voltage, the actual corner mesh voltage, or the actual worstcase touch voltage 13
Iound anywhere within the grounded area as the basis oI the design procedure. In either case, the initial 14
criterion Ior a saIe design is to limit the computed mesh or touch voltage to below the tolerable touch 15
voltageIromEquation(32)orEquation(33). 16
Unless otherwise speciIied, the remainder oI the guide will use the term mesh voltage (E
m
) to mean the 17
touchvoltageatthecenteroIthecornermesh.However,themeshvoltagemaynotbetheworstcasetouch 18
voltageiIgroundrodsarelocatedneartheperimeter,oriIthemeshspacingneartheperimeterissmall.In 19
thesecases,the touchvoltageatthecorneroIthegridmayexceedthecornermeshvoltage. 20
21
Table 11 Typical ratio of cornertocorner mesh voltage 22
Grid number Number of meshes
E
m
corner/center
1 10x10 2.71
2 20x20 5.55
3 30x30 8.85
16.2 Critical parameters 23
The Iollowing sitedependent parameters have been Iound to have substantial impact on the grid design: 24
maximum grid current I
G
, Iault duration t
f
, shock duration t
s
, soil resistivity , surIace material resistivity 25
(
s
),andgridgeometry.SeveralparametersdeIinethe geometryoIthegrid,buttheareaoIthe grounding 26
system,theconductorspacing,andthedepthoIthegroundgridhavethemostimpactonthemeshvoltage, 27
while parameters such as the conductor diameter and the thickness oI the surIacing material have less 28
impact(AIEEWorkingGroupB3;Dawalibi,Bauchard,andMukhedkarB45;DawalibiandMukhedkar 29
B43; EPRI EL3099 B61). A brieI discussion or review oI the critical parameters is given in 16.2.1 30
16.2.5. 31
16.2.1 Maximum grid current (I
G
) 32
The evaluation oI the maximum design value oI ground Iault current that Ilows through the substation 33
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groundgrid intotheearth,I
G
,hasbeendescribedinClause15.IndeterminingthemaximumcurrentI
G
,by 1
meansoIEquation(69),considerationshouldbegiventotheresistanceoIthegroundgrid,divisionoIthe 2
groundIaultcurrentbetweenthealternatereturnpathsandthegrid,andthedecrementIactor. 3
16.2.2 Fault duration (t
f
) and shock duration (t
s
) 4
TheIaultdurationandshockdurationare normallyassumedequal, unlessthe Iaultdurationisthe sumoI 5
successiveshocks,suchasIromreclosures.TheselectionoIt
f
shouldreIlectIastclearingtimeIortransmis 6
sion substations and slow clearing times Ior distribution and industrial substations. The choices t
f
and t
s
7
should result in the most pessimistic combination oI Iault current decrement Iactor and allowable body 8
current.TypicalvaluesIort
f
andt
s
rangeIrom0.25sto1.0s.MoredetailedinIormationisgivenin5.26.4 9
and15.10ontheselectionoIt
f
andt
s
. 10
16.2.3 Soil resistivity () 11
The grid resistance and the voltage gradients within a substation are directly dependent on the soil 12
resistivity.Becauseinrealitysoilresistivitywillvaryhorizontallyaswellasvertically,suIIicientdatamust 13
be gathered Ior a substation yard.The Wenner method described in 13.3 is widely used (James J. Biddle 14
Co.B101;WennerB150). 15
BecausetheequationsIorE
m
andE
s
givenin16.5assumeuniIormsoilresistivity,theequationscanemploy 16
onlyasinglevalueIortheresistivity.ReIerto13.4.1IorguidanceindetermininganapproximateuniIorm 17
soilresistivity. 18
16.2.4 Resistivity of surface layer (
s
) 19
A layeroIsurIace materialhelpsin limiting the body current by adding resistance to the equivalent body 20
resistance.ReIerto7.4and12.5IormoredetailsontheapplicationoIthisparameter. 21
16.2.5 Grid geometry 22
In general, the limitations on the physical parameters oI a ground grid are based on economics and the 23
physicallimitationsoItheinstallationoIthe grid. The economic limitation is obvious. It is impracticalto 24
install a copper plate grounding system. Clause 18 describes some oI the limitations encountered in the 25
installation oI a grid. For example, the digging oI the trenches into which the conductor material is laid 26
limitstheconductorspacingtoapproximately2mormore.TypicalconductorspacingsrangeIrom3mto 27
15 m, while typical grid depths range Irom 0.5 m to 1.5 m. For the typical conductors ranging Irom 2/0 28
AWG(67mm
2
)to500kcmil(253mm
2
),theconductordiameterhasnegligibleeIIectonthemeshvoltage. 29
The area oI the grounding system is the single most important geometrical Iactor in determining the 30
resistanceoIthe grid.Thelargerthearea grounded, the lower the grid resistance and, thus, the lower the 31
GPR. 32
16.3 Index of design parameters 33
Table12containsasummaryoIthedesignparametersusedinthedesignprocedure. 34
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16.4 Design procedure 1
TheblockdiagramoIFigure33illustratesthesequencesoIstepstodesignthegroundgrid.Theparameters 2
shownintheblockdiagramareidentiIiedintheindexpresentedinTable12.TheIollowingdescribeseach 3
stepoItheprocedure: 4
Step1:ThepropertymapandgenerallocationplanoIthesubstationshouldprovidegoodestimates 5
oI the area to be grounded. A soil resistivity test, described in Clause 13, will determine the soil 6
resistivityproIileandthesoilmodelneeded(thatis,uniIormortwolayermodel). 7
Step2:Theconductorsizeisdeterminedbyequationsgivenin11.3.TheIaultcurrent3I
0
shouldbe 8
the maximum expected Iuture Iault current that will be conducted by any conductor in the 9
grounding system, and the time, t
c
, should reIlect the maximum possible clearing time (including 10
backup). 11
Step3:Thetolerabletouchandstepvoltagesaredeterminedbyequationsgivenin8.3and8.4.The 12
choiceoItime,t
s
,isbasedonthejudgmentoIthedesignengineer,withguidanceIrom5.26.3. 13
Step 4: The preliminary design should include a conductor loop surrounding the entire grounded 14
area,plusadequatecrossconductorstoprovideconvenientaccessIorequipmentgrounds,etc.The 15
initial estimates oI conductor spacing and ground rod locations should be based on the current I
G
16
andtheareabeinggrounded. 17
Step 5: Estimates oI the preliminary resistance oI the grounding system in uniIorm soil can be 18
determinedbytheequationsgiven in 14.2 and 14.3. For the Iinal design, more accurate estimates 19
oI the resistance may be desired. Computer analysis based on modeling the components oI the 20
groundingsystemindetailcancomputetheresistancewithahighdegreeoIaccuracy,assumingthe 21
soilmodelischosencorrectly. 22
Step6:ThecurrentI
G
isdeterminedbytheequationsgiveninClause15.TopreventoverdesignoI 23
thegroundingsystem,onlythatportionoIthetotalIaultcurrent,3I
0
,thatIlowsthroughthegridto 24
remoteearthshouldbeusedindesigningthegrid.ThecurrentI
G
should, however,reIlecttheworst 25
Iaulttypeandlocation,thedecrementIactor,andanyIuturesystemexpansion. 26
Step 7: II the GPR oI the preliminary design is below the tolerable touch voltage, no Iurther 27
analysisisnecessary.Onlyadditionalconductorrequiredtoprovideaccesstoequipmentgroundsis 28
necessary. 29
Step8:ThecalculationoIthemesh and step voltages Ior the grid as designed can be done by the 30
approximate analysis techniques described in 16.5 Ior uniIorm soil, or by the more accurate 31
computer analysis techniques, as demonstrated in 16.8. Further discussion oI the calculations is 32
reservedIorthosesections. 33
Step 9: II the computed mesh voltage is below the tolerable touch voltage, the design may be 34
complete (see Step 10). II the computed mesh voltage is greater than the tolerable touch voltage, 35
thepreliminarydesignshouldberevised(seeStep11). 36
Step10:IIboththecomputedtouchandstepvoltagesarebelowthetolerablevoltages,thedesign 37
needsonlythereIinementsrequiredtoprovideaccesstoequipmentgrounds.IInot,thepreliminary 38
designmustberevised(seeStep11). 39
Step 11: II either the step or touch tolerable limits are exceeded, revision oI the grid design is 40
required. These revisions may include smaller conductor spacings, additional ground rods, etc. 41
More discussion on the revision oI the grid design to satisIy the step and touch voltage limits is 42
givenin16.6. 43
Step12:AItersatisIyingthestepandtouch voltagerequirements,additional gridand groundrods 44
mayberequired.TheadditionalgridconductorsmayberequirediIthegriddesigndoesnotinclude 45
conductorsnearequipmenttobegrounded.AdditionalgroundrodsmayberequiredatthebaseoI 46
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surge arresters, transIormer neutrals, etc. The Iinal design should also be reviewed to eliminate 1
hazards due to transIerred potential and hazards associated with special areas oI concern. See 2
Clause17. 3
4
5
Table 12 Index of design parameters 6
7
Symbol Description Clause numbers
Soilresistivity,Om 13
s
SurIacelayerresistivity,Om 7.4,12.5
3I
0
SymmetricalIaultcurrentinsubstationIorconductorsizing,A 15.3
A
Totalareaenclosedbygroundgrid,m
2
14.2
C
s
SurIacelayerderatingIactor 7.4
d DiameteroIgridconductor,m 16.5
D Spacingbetweenparallelconductors,m 16.5
D
f
DecrementIactorIordeterminingI
G
15.1.4,15.10
D
m
Maximumdistancebetweenanytwopointsonthegrid,m 16.5
E
m
Meshvoltageatthecenter oIthecornermeshIorthesimpliIied
method,V
16.5
E
s
StepvoltagebetweenapointabovetheoutercorneroIthegridand
apoint1mdiagonallyoutsidethegridIorthesimpliIiedmethod,
V
16.5
E
step50
TolerablestepvoltageIorhumanwith50kgbodyweight,V 8.3
E
step70
TolerablestepvoltageIorhumanwith70kgbodyweight,V 8.3
E
touch50
TolerabletouchvoltageIorhumanwith50kgbodyweight,V 8.3
E
touch70
TolerabletouchvoltageIorhumanwith70kgbodyweight,V 8.3
h DepthoIgroundgridconductors,m 14.2
h
s
SurIacelayerthickness,m 7.4
I
G
MaximumgridcurrentthatIlowsbetweengroundgridand
surroundingearth(includingdcoIIset),A
15.1.4
I
g
Symmetricalgridcurrent,A 15.1.6
K ReIlectionIactorbetweendiIIerentresistivities 7.4
K
h
CorrectiveweightingIactorthatemphasizestheeIIectsoIgrid
depth,simpliIiedmethod
16.5
K
i
CorrectionIactorIorgridgeometry,simpliIiedmethod 16.5
K
ii
CorrectiveweightingIactorthatadjustsIortheeIIectsoIinner
conductorsonthecornermesh,simpliIiedmethod
16.5
K
m
SpacingIactorIormeshvoltage,simpliIiedmethod 16.5
K
s
SpacingIactorIorstepvoltage,simpliIiedmethod 16.5
L
c
TotallengthoIgridconductor,m 14.3
L
M
EIIectivelengthoIL
c
L
R
Iormeshvoltage,m
16.5
L
R
TotallengthoIgroundrods,m 16.5
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L
r
LengthoIgroundrodateachlocation,m 14.3,16.5
L
S
EIIectivelengthoIL
c
L
R
Iorstepvoltage,m
16.5
L
T
TotaleIIectivelengthoIgroundingsystemconductor,including
gridandgroundrods,m
14.2
L
x
MaximumlengthoIgridconductorinxdirection,m 16.5
L
y
MaximumlengthoIgridconductorsinydirection,m 16.5
n GeometricIactorcomposedoIIactorsn
a
, n
b
, n
c
, and n
d
16.5
n
R
NumberoIrodsplacedinareaA 14.3
R
g
ResistanceoIgroundingsystem,O 14.114.4
S
f
FaultcurrentdivisionIactor(splitIactor) 15.1.3
t
c
DurationoIIaultcurrentIorsizinggroundconductor,s 11.3
t
f
DurationoIIaultcurrentIordeterminingdecrementIactor,s 15.10
t
s
DurationoIshockIordeterminingallowablebodycurrent,s 5.26.3
1
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1
Figure 33 Design procedure block diagram 2
16.5 Calculation of maximum step and mesh voltages 3
Computer algorithms Ior determining the grid resistance and the mesh and step voltages have been 4
developed in EPRI TR100622 B63; Dawalibi and Mukhedkar B42; Garrett and Holley B71; Heppe 5
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B81;andJoy,Meliopoulos,andWebb B90.Thesealgorithms required considerable storage capability 1
andwererelativelyexpensivetoexecute,butimprovementsinthesolutionalgorithmsandtheproliIeration 2
oIpowerIuldesktopcomputershavealleviatedmostoItheseconcerns. 3
Insomecases,itisnoteconomicallyjustiIiabletousethesecomputeralgorithms,orthedesignermaynot 4
have access to a computer with the required capabilities. This subclause, in conjunction with Annex D, 5
describes approximate equations Ior determining the design parameters and establishing corresponding 6
valuesoIE
m
andE
s
withoutthenecessityoIusingacomputer. 7
16.5.1 Mesh voltage (E
m
) 8
The mesh voltage values are obtained as a product oI the geometrical Iactor, K
m
; a corrective Iactor, K
i
, 9
which accounts Ior some oI the error introduced by the assumptions made in deriving K
m
; the soil 10
resistivity, ; and the average current per unit oI eIIective buried length oI the grounding system conductor 11
(I
G
/L
M
). 12
E
K K I
L
m
m i G
M
=
(86) 13
ThegeometricalIactorK
m
(SverakB132),isasIollows: 14
( )
( )
K
D
h d
D h
D d
h
d
K
K n
m
ii
h
=
+
+
(
(
+
(
(
1
2 16
2
8 4
8
2 1
2
2
t t
ln ln (87) 15
Forgridswithgroundrodsalongtheperimeter,orIorgridswith groundrodsinthegridcorners,aswellas 16
bothalongtheperimeterandthroughoutthegridarea 17
K
ii
1 18
Forgrids withnogroundrodsorgridswithonlyaIew groundrods,nonelocatedinthe cornersoronthe 19
perimeter. 20
( )
K
n
ii
n
=
1
2
2
(88) 21
K
h
h
h
o
= + 1 h
o
1m(gridreIerencedepth) (89) 22
UsingIourgridshapecomponentsdevelopedinThapar,Gerez,Balakrishnan,andBlankB144,theeIIec 23
tivenumberoIparallelconductorsinagiven grid,n, can be made applicable to rectangular or irregularly 24
shapedgridsthatrepresentthenumberoIparallelconductorsoIanequivalentrectangulargrid. 25
n n n n n
a b c d
= (90) 26
where 27
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n
L
L
a
C
p
=
2
(91) 1
n
b
1Iorsquaregrids 2
n
c
1Iorsquareandrectangulargrids 3
n
d
1Iorsquare,rectangularandLshapedgrids 4
5
otherwise 6
n
L
A
b
p
=
4
(92) 7
n
L L
A
c
x y
A
L L
x y
=
0 7 .
(93) 8
n
D
L L
d
m
x y
=
+
2 2
(94) 9
L
C
isthetotallengthoItheconductorinthehorizontalgridinm 10
L
p
istheperipherallengthoIthegridin m 11
A istheareaoIthegridinm2 12
L
x
isthemaximumlengthoIthegridinthexdirectioninm 13
L
y
isthemaximumlengthoIthegridintheydirectioninm 14
D
m
isthemaximumdistancebetweenanytwopointsonthegridinm 15
and D, h,andd aredeIinedinTable12. 16
TheirregularityIactor,K
i
,usedinconjunctionwiththeabovedeIinedn is 17
K n
i
= + 0 644 0148 . . (95) 18
gridswithnogroundrods,orgridswithonlyaIewgroundrodsscatteredthroughoutthegrid,butnone 19
locatedinthecornersoralongtheperimeteroIthegrid,theeIIectiveburiedlength,L
M
,is 20
R C M
L L L + = (96) 21
where 22
23
L
R
isthetotallengthoIallgroundrodsinm 24
25
For grids with ground rods in the corners, as well as along the perimeter and throughout the grid, the 26
eIIectiveburiedlength,L
M
,is 27
28
L L
L
L L
L
M C
r
x y
R
= + +
+

\

.


(
(
155 122
2 2
. . (97) 29
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where 1
2
L
r
isthelengthoIeach groundrodinm 3
16.5.2 Step voltage (Es) 4
ThestepvoltagevaluesareobtainedasaproductoIthegeometricalIactor,K
s
;thecorrectiveIactor,K
i
;the 5
soil resistivity, ; and the average current per unit oI buried length oI grounding system conductor (I
G
/L
S
). 6
E
K K I
L
s
s i G
S
=
(98) 7
Forgridswithorwithoutgroundrods,theeIIectiveburiedconductorlength,L
S
,is 8
L L L
S C R
= + 075 0 85 . . (99) 9
ThemaximumstepvoltageisassumedtooccuroveradistanceoI1m,beginningatandextendingoutside 10
oItheperimeterconductorattheanglebisectingthe mostextremecorneroIthegrid.Forthe usualburial 11
depthoI0.25mh 2.5m(SverakB132),K
s
is 12
( )
K
h D h D
s
n
=
+
+
+
1 1
2
1 1
1 05
2
t
. (100) 13
16.6 Refinement of preliminary design 14
II calculations based on the preliminary design indicate that dangerous potential diIIerences can exist 15
withinthesubstation,theIollowingpossibleremediesshouldbestudiedandappliedwhereappropriate: 16
a) Decrease total grid resistance: A decrease in total grid resistance will decrease the maximum 17
GPR and, hence, the maximum transIerred voltage. The most eIIective way to decrease ground 18
grid resistance is by increasing the area occupied by the grid. Deep driven rods or wells may be 19
used iI the available area is limited and the rods penetrate lower resistivity layers. A decrease in 20
substation resistance may or may not decrease appreciably the local gradients, depending on the 21
methodused. 22
b) Closer grid spacings: By employing closer spacing oI grid conductors, the condition oI the 23
continuousplatecanbeapproached moreclosely.Dangerouspotentials withinthe substationcan 24
thus be eliminated at a cost. The problem at the perimeter may be more diIIicult, especially at a 25
small substation when resistivity is high. However, it is usually possible, by burying the grid 26
groundconductoroutsidetheIence line, to ensure that the stepper gradients immediately outside 27
thisgridperimeterdonotcontributetothemoredangeroustouchcontacts.AnothereIIectiveand 28
economicalwaytocontrolgradientsistoincreasethedensityoIgroundrodsattheperimeter.This 29
densitymaybedecreasedtowardthecenteroIthegrid.Anotherapproachtocontrollingperimeter 30
gradients and step potentials is to bury two or more parallel conductors around the perimeter at 31
successively greater depth as distance Irom the substation is increased. Another approach is to 32
vary the grid conductor spacing with closer conductors near the perimeter oI the grid (AIEE 33
WorkingGroupB3;BiegelmeierandRotterB8;LaurentB96;SverakB131). 34
c) Diverting a greater part of the fault current to other paths: Byconnectingoverheadgroundwires 35
oI transmission lines or by decreasing the tower Iooting resistances in the vicinity oI the 36
substation, part oI the Iault current will be diverted Irom the grid. In connection with the latter, 37
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however,theeIIectonIaultgradientsneartowerIootings shouldbeweighed B151. 1
d) Limiting total fault current: IIIeasible, limiting the total Iault current will decrease the GPR and 2
allgradientsinproportion.OtherIactors, however, willusually makethisimpractical.Moreover, 3
iIaccomplishedattheexpenseoI greater Iault clearing time, the change may be increased rather 4
thandiminished. 5
e) Barring access to limited areas: Barring access to certain areas, where practical, will reduce the 6
probabilityoIhazardstopersonnel. 7
I) Increase the tolerable touch and step voltages: The tolerable touch and step voltages can be 8
increased by reducing the Iault clearing time, use a surIace material with a higher resistivity or 9
increasethethicknessoIthesurIacematerial.SeeTable7. 10
16.7 Application of equations for E
m
and E
s
11
Several simpliIying assumptions are made in deriving the equations Ior E
m
and E
s
. The equations were 12
comparedwithmoreaccuratecomputerresultsIromcaseswithvariousgridshapes,meshsizes,numbersoI 13
ground rods, and lengths oI ground rods, and Iound to be consistently better than the previous equations. 14
These cases included square, rectangular, triangular, Tshaped, and Lshaped grids. Cases were run with 15
and without ground rods. The total ground rod length was varied with diIIerent numbers oI ground rod 16
locationsanddiIIerentgroundrodlengths.TheareaoIthegridswasvariedIrom6.25m
2
to10000m
2
.The 17
numberoImeshesalongasidewasvariedIrom1to40.Themeshsize wasvariedIrom 2.5mto22.5m. 18
All cases assumed a uniIorm soil model and uniIorm conductor spacing. Most practical examples oI grid 19
designwereconsidered.ThecomparisonsIoundtheequationstotrackthecomputerresultswithacceptable 20
accuracy. 21
16.8 Use of computer analysis in grid design 22
DawalibiandMukhedkarB42;EPRITR100622B63;andHeppeB80describecomputer 23
algorithmsIormodelinggroundingsystems.Ingeneral,thesealgorithmsarebasedon 24
a) Modeling the individual components comprising the grounding system (grid conductors, ground 25
rods,etc.). 26
b) FormingasetoIequationsdescribingtheinteractionoIthesecomponents. 27
c) SolvingIorthegroundIaultcurrentIlowingIromeachcomponentintotheearth. 28
d) ComputingthepotentialatanydesiredsurIacepointduetoalltheindividualcomponents. 29
e) The accuracy oI the computer algorithm is dependent on how well the soil model and physical 30
layoutreIlectactualIieldconditions. 31
There are several reasons that justiIy the use oI more accurate computer algorithms in designing the 32
groundingsystem.Thesereasonsinclude 33
a) ParametersexceedthelimitationsoItheequations. 34
b) AtwolayerormultilayersoilmodelispreIerredduetosigniIicantvariationsinsoilresistivity. 35
c) Unevengridconductororgroundrodspacingscannotbeanalyzedusingtheapproximatemethods 36
oI16.5. 37
d) MoreIlexibilityindetermininglocaldangerpointsmaybedesired.e)PresenceoIburiedmetallic 38
structuresorconductornotconnectedtothegroundingsystem,whichintroducescomplexitytothe 39
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system. 1
17. Special areas of concern 2
BeIore the Iinal ground grid design calculations are completed, there still remains the important task oI 3
investigating possible special areas oI concern in the substation grounding network. This includes an 4
investigation oI grounding techniques Ior substation Ience, switch operating shaIts, rails, pipelines, and 5
cablesheaths.TheeIIectsoItransIerredpotentialsshouldalsobeconsidered. 6
17.1 Service areas 7
The problems associated with step and touch voltage exposure to persons outside a substation Ience are 8
much thesameasthosetopersonswithinIencedsubstationareas. 9
Occasionally, a Ience will be installed to enclose a much larger area than initially utilized in a substation 10
and a ground grid will be constructed only in the utilized area and along the substation Ience. The 11
remaining unprotected areas within the Ienced area are oIten used as storage, staging, or general service 12
areas. Step and touch voltages should be checked to determine iI additional grounds are needed in these 13
areas. 14
A reduced substation grid, which does not include the service area, has both initial cost advantages and 15
Iuture savings resulting Irom not having the problems associated with working around a previously 16
installedtotalareagridsystemwhenIutureexpansionisrequiredintotheservicearea.However,areduced 17
grid provides less personnel protection compared to a complete substation grid that includes the service 18
area.Also,becauseoIthesmallerareaandlessconductorlength,aserviceareagridandreducedsubstation 19
grid willhaveahigheroverallresistancecomparedtoacomplete substation gridthatincludesthe service 20
area. 21
Theservicearea mightbeenclosedbya separate Ience that is not grounded and bonded to the substation 22
grid.PossibletransIervoltageissuesareaddressedin17.3. 23
17.2 Switch shaft and operating handle grounding 24
Operating handles oI switches represent a signiIicant concern iI the handles are not adequately grounded. 25
Because the manual operation oI a switch requires the presence oI an operator near a grounded structure, 26
several things could occur that might result in a Iault to the structure and subject the operator to an 27
electricalshock.ThisincludestheopeningoIanenergizedcircuit,mechanicalIailure,electricalbreakdown 28
oI a switch insulator, or attempting to interrupt a greater value oI linecharging current or transIormer 29
magnetizingcurrentthantheswitchcansaIelyinterrupt. 30
It is relatively easy to protect against these hazards when the operating handle is within a reasonably 31
extensive substation ground grid area. II the grounding system has been designed in accordance with this 32
standard, touch and step voltages near the operating handle should be within saIe limits. However, quite 33
oItenadditionalmeansaretakentoprovideagreater saIetyIactorIortheoperator.Forexample,theswitch 34
operatingshaItcanbeconnectedtoagroundmat(asdescribed in9.1.3)onwhichtheoperatorstandswhen 35
operating the switch. The ground mat is connected directly to the ground grid and the switch operating 36
shaIt. This technique provides a direct bypass to ground across the person operating the switch. The 37
groundingpathIromtheswitchshaIttothegroundgridmustbeadequatelysizedtocarrythegroundIault 38
currentIortherequiredduration.ReIertoFigure34IoratypicalswitchshaItgroundingpractice. 39
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The practices Ior grounding switch operating shaIts are varied. The results oI a worldwide survey 1
conducted in 2009 indicated that 82 oI the utilities that responded required grounding oI substation air 2
switch operating shaIts to the grounding grid, The survey also showed 100 oI the respondents took 3
extraprecautionstoreducesurIacegradientswheretheswitchoperatorstands.Themethodologytoground 4
the operating shaIt was almost equally divided among those responding to the questionnaire. 5
ApproximatelyhalIoItheutilitiesprovidedadirectjumperbetween theswitchshaItandtheground mat, 6
whiletheotherhalIprovidedajumperIromtheswitchshaIttotheadjacentgroundedstructuralsteel.The 7
steel is used as part oI the conducting path. Approximately 90 oI the utilities utilized a braid Ior 8
grounding the switch shaIt. The remaining 10 utilized a braidless grounding device. A typical braided 9
groundisshowninFigure35andabraidlessgroundingdeviceisshowninFigure36 ThemethodologyIor 10
reducingthesurIacegradientswheretheswitchoperatorwouldbestandingwasdividedbetweenutilizing: 11
a grounded platIorm, a closely spaced wire mesh under the surIace material, or closer spacing oI the 12
primarygrid. 13
14
15
16
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27
Figure 34 Typical switch shaft grounding 28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Figure 35 Typical braided ground 41
42
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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12
13
14
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19
Figure 36 Typical braidless grounding device 20
21
17.3 Grounding of substation fence 22
Fences around substations are usually metallic. In some cases, the Ience might be made oI masonry 23
materials or nonconductive materials. For those cases, the Ience is not grounded, except possibly at 24
exposedmetallichardwareorsections,suchas gates.The Iollowingdiscussionpertains to metallic Ience 25
grounding. 26
FencegroundingisoImajorimportancebecausethe Ience isusuallyaccessibletothe generalpublic.The 27
substation grounding design should be such that the touch voltage on the Ience is within the calculated 28
tolerable limit oI touch voltage. Step potential should also be checked to veriIy that a problem does not 29
exist,thoughstepvoltageisrarelyaproblemwhenthetouchvoltageisbelowthetolerablelevel. 30
Several philosophies exist with regard to grounding oI substation Ience. As an example, the National 31
Electrical SaIety Code
(NESC
+
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
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Figure 37 Case 1, plot 1 1
2
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Figure 38 Case 1, Plot 2 19
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Figure 39 Case 2, plot 1 41
42
43
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1
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Figure 40 Case 2, plot 2 23
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Figure 41 Case 3, plot 1 43
44
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1
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Figure 42 Case 3, plot 2 22
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Figure 43 Case 4, plot 1 43
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1
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Figure 44 Case 4, plot 2 20
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Figure 45 Case 5, plot 1 40
41
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1
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Figure 46 Case 5, plot 2 21
22
K =
+
=
60 3000
60 3000
0 961 . 23
636 . 0 =
s
C 24
Theallowablestepandtouchvoltages arecalculatedusingEquation(29)andEquation(32).Fortestcases 25
15: 26
E C t
step s s s 50
1000 6 0116 1995 = + = ( ) . / V 27
E C t
touch s s s 50
1000 15 0116 622 = + = ( . ) . / V 28
29
Theactualstep voltage E
s
andactual mesh voltage E
m
are calculated as a Iunction oI the GPR in percent, 30
usingtheIollowingequations: 31
E R I
E
D
s g g
s
f
=
()
100
32
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E R I
E
D
m g g
m
f
=
()
100
1
where 2
3
E
s
()isthestepvoltage intermsoIpercentoIGPR 4
E
m
()isthemesh voltageintermsoIpercentoIGPR 5
6
Equatingtheactualstepandmeshvoltageequationstothetolerablestepandtouchvoltagevalues(E
step
E
s
7
and E
touch
E
m
)andsolvingIorE
s
()andE
m
(),theequationsbecome 8
E
E
R I D
s
step
g g f
()
( )
=
100
9
10
E
E
R I D
m
touch
g g f
()
( )
=
100
11
SubstitutingtheassumedparametersIorthesetestcasesyieldstheIollowing: 12
Forcases14 13
14
9 . 61 () =
s
E 15
2 . 19 () =
m
E 16
Forcase5 17
7 . 41 () =
s
E 18
9 . 12 () =
m
E 19
20
TheactualstepandmeshvoltagesasapercentoIGPRmustbelessthan61.9and19.2,respectively, 21
Iorcases14andlessthan41.7and12.9,respectively,Iorcase5. 22
For each test case, two voltage profles were computed at the Iollowing locations: 23
Alineparalleltoand0.91m(3It)outsideoIIence. 24
AlinethroughthegridIromonesidetotheother,paralleltothegridwires. 25
17.4 Results of voltage profiles for fence grounding 26
TheresultsoIthevoltageproIilesalongthesurIaceoItheearthIortestcase1areshowninFigure37and 27
Figure38.TheresultsIorbothproIilesindicatethatthetouchvoltageontheIenceIorapersonstanding 28
0.91m(3It)IromtheIence(approximatelyonearms length)islessthanthetolerabletouch voltageand 29
hence saIe. The voltage proIiles illustrate how the voltage above remote earth decreases rapidly as one 30
leavesthesubstationgroundgrid area.AsseeninFigure37,thestepvoltageisnogreaterthan34andis 31
Iar below the tolerable step voltage percent oI 61.9 oI GPR. Because step voltage is usually not the 32
concerninregardtoIencegrounding,itwillnotbeanalyzedintheremainingtestcases. 33
TheresultsoIthevoltageproIilesIortestcase2areshowninFigure39andFigure40.ThevoltageproIile 34
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inFigure40IoralinethroughthegridIromonesidetotheotherindicatesthatthetouchvoltage0.91m(3 1
It)outsideoItheIenceisverynearlyequaltotheallowabletouchvoltage.However,asseeninFigure39 2
Ior a voltage proIile along the Ience and 0.91 m (3 It) away Irom it, it is clear that the touch voltages on 3
certainareasoItheIencearenotsaIeIorapersontocontact.BycomparingFigure37andFigure39,one 4
can clearly see the eIIect oI having a ground grid wire 0.91 m (3 It) outside oI the Ience and around the 5
Ienceperimeter. 6
TheresultsoI the voltageproIilesIortest case 3 are shown in Figure 41 and Figure 42.These results are 7
verysimilartothoseoItestcase2andillustratethatthetouchvoltageontheIenceisgenerallynotsaIein 8
severalareasIorapersontocontact. 9
TheresultsoIthevoltageproIilesIortestcase4areshowninFigure43andFigure44.Theseresultsagain 10
illustratethatthetouchvoltageontheIenceduringaIaultconditionisnotsaIetocontact.Itcanbeseenby 11
comparing Figure 37, Figure 39, Figure 41, and Figure 43 that the touch voltage along the length oI the 12
Ienceincreasesastheoutergroundgridwireismovedinwardtowardthesubstation. 13
TheresultsoIthevoltageproIilesIortestcase5areshowninFigure45andFigure46.Thetolerabletouch 14
voltage has decreased Irom 19.2 to 12.9 because oI an increase in the substation grid resistance. The 15
gridresistanceincreaseisaresultoIlesswireandreducedareainthegridIortestcase5.Accordingtothe 16
computer program results, the potential rise on the isolated, separately grounded Ience during a ground 17
Iaultconditionis43.7oIGPR, whichis shown as a horizontal line on the graphs. The potential rise on 18
theIenceiscausedbythecouplingthroughtheearthIromthegroundgridtotheIence.AsshowninFigure 19
45, thepotentialriseontheearth0.91m(3It)beyondtheIencecornercausedbyagroundIaultcondition 20
is30.5oIGPR.ThelargestdiIIerenceinvoltagebetweentheIenceandtheearthoccursatthecornerand 21
is13.2oIGPR,whichis0.3greaterthantheallowabletouchvoltageoI12.9.Itisalsoimportantto 22
note that iI the Ience should ever inadvertently become metallically connected to the ground grid, the 23
potentialontheIencecouldreach100oIGPRandtheresultswouldbesimilartothoseshownincase4 24
(Figure43andFigure44). 25
Test cases studied Ior an isolated ungrounded Ience yield very similar results as the test cases run Ior an 26
isolated,separatelygroundedIenceshowninFigure45andFigure46. 27
17.5 Control cable sheath grounding 28
Metalliccablesheaths,unlesseIIectivelygrounded,mayattaindangerousvoltageswithrespecttoground. 29
These voltages may result Irom insulation Iailure, charges due to electrostatic induction, and Ilow oI 30
currentsinthesheath,orIromthevoltagerise duringIaultsdischargingtothesubstationgroundsystemto 31
whichthesheathsareconnected.Allgroundingconnectionsshouldbemadetotheshieldinsuchawayas 32
to provide a permanent lowresistance bond, and have a continuous short circuit ampacity equal to or 33
greaterthanthecablesheath. 34
Unlessrecommendedtoeliminatecirculatingcurrentsinlowvoltageorcurrentcontrolcircuits,thesheaths 35
oIshieldedcontrolcablesshouldbegroundedatbothendstoreduceelectromagneticallyinducedpotentials 36
onandcurrentsinthecontrolcable.IIthecontrolcablesheathisgroundedatwidelyseparatedpoints,large 37
potential gradients in the ground grid during Iaults may cause excessive sheath currents to Ilow. One 38
solutionistorunaseparateconductorinparallelwiththecontrolcableconnectedtothetwosheathground 39
points.Theinducedcurrentintheseparateconductorwillinduceanopposingvoltageonthecontrolcable 40
sheath, thereby minimizing the current in the sheath. This separate conductor (usually bare copper) is 41
typicallyroutedalongthetopoItheinsidewalloIthecabletrenchorabovedirectburiedconductors.ReIer 42
toIEEEStd525. 43
NonshieldedcablesaresubjecttotransientinducedvoltagemagnitudesoI190ormorethantheinduced 44
voltagesonshieldedcables(MitaniB108,PatelB120).Inducedvoltagesinnonshieldedcablescanbe 45
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reduced by as much as 60 by grounding both ends oI an unused wire, or by installing parallel ground 1
conductorsgroundedatbothends,asdescribedabove. TheeIIectsoIIaultcurrentsontheconditionstobe 2
encounteredwithanyoIthesegroundingarrangementscanonlybedeterminedbycareIulanalysisoIeach 3
speciIiccase. 4
17.6 GIS bus extensions 5
A number oI unique problems are encountered in the grounding oI a GIS visavis conventional 6
substations.ThegroundedmetalenclosureoIGISequipmentcanbeasourceoIdangeroustouchvoltages 7
duringIaultconditions.ReIertoClause10IortechniquesoIevaluatingtouchvoltagesinGIS. 8
17.7 Surge arrester grounding 9
Surge arresters should always be provided with a reliable lowimpedance ground connection. Arresters 10
shouldbeconnectedascloseaspossibletotheterminalsoItheapparatustobeprotectedandhaveasphase 11
and neutral leads as short and straight as possible. For equipment such as transIormers, breakers and 12
regulators, connecting the arresters Irom phase to the tank will minimize the surge voltage across the 13
equipmentsinsulationtoground.Forequipmentandallotherapplications,thearresterneutralleadshould 14
alsobeasshortanddirectapathtothegrounding system as practical to dissipate the surge energy to the 15
earth. Bends in the arrester phase or neutral end leads can add signiIicant impedance and reduce the 16
protectiveleveloIthe arrester. WhilemanyutilitiesprovideseparategroundleadsIromarrestersmounted 17
on metal structures, other utilities use the arrester mounting structures or the tank Io the protected 18
equipmentasthesurgearrestergroundpathbecausethelargecross sectionoIthesteelmembersprovidesa 19
lowerresistancepaththanacoppercableoItheusualsize.Inthesecasesitisimportanttoensureadequate 20
electricconnectionsIromthestructuretobotharrestergroundleadandgroundgrid. AlsoveriIythe steel 21
crosssectional area has adequate conductivity, and that no high resistance is introduced into joints Irom 22
paintIilm,rust,etc. 23
17.8 Separate grounds 24
ThepracticeoIhavingseparategroundswithinasubstationareaisrarelyusedIortheIollowingreasons: 25
a) HigherresistancesIorseparatesaIetyandsystemgroundsareproducedthanwouldbethecaseIor
asingleuniIormgroundsystem.
b)
In the event oI insulation Iailures in the substation, high currents could still Ilow in the saIety
ground.
c) Because oI a high degree oI coupling between separate electrodes in the same area, the saIety
objectiveoIkeepingtheGPRoIthesaIetygroundslowIorlineIaultswouldnotbeaccomplished.
d)
OIten dangerous potentials would be possible between nearby grounded points because
decouplingoItheseparategroundsispossible,atleasttosomeextent.
(e)
SeparategroundscanresultinlargetransientpotentialdiIIerencesbetweencomponentsoI
electricalequipmentduringlightningorothersurgeevents,causingequipmentmisoperationor
damage.
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17.9 Transferred potentials 1
A serious hazard may result during a ground Iault Irom the transIer oI potential between the substation 2
ground grid area and outside locations. This transIerred potential may be transmitted by communication 3
circuits,conduit,pipes,metallicIences,lowvoltage neutral wires,etc.ThedangerisusuallyIromcontact 4
oI the touch type. A transIerred potential problem generally occurs when a person standing at a remote 5
location away Irom the substation area touches a conductor connected to the substation ground grid. It 6
mightalsooccurwhenapersonwithinthesubstationtouchesaconductorthatleavesthesubstationandis 7
remotely grounded. The importance oI the problem results Irom the very high magnitude oI potential 8
diIIerence,whichisoItenpossible.ThispotentialdiIIerence mayequalorexceed(duetoinduced voltage 9
onunshieldedcommunicationcircuits,pipes,etc.)theGPRoIthesubstationduringaIaultcondition.The 10
basicshocksituationIortransIerredpotentialisshowninFigure12. 11
An investigation into possible transIerred potential hazards is essential in the design oI a saIe substation 12
groundingnetwork.VariousmeanscanbetakentoprotectagainstthedangeroItransIerredpotentials.The 13
Iollowing subclauses oIIer a brieI discussion oI the various transIerred potential hazards and means to 14
eliminatethehazard. 15
17.9.1 Communication circuits 16
For communications circuits, methods have been developed involving protective devices to saIeguard 17
personnelandcommunicationsterminalequipment.These will notbediscussed hereexcepttoemphasize 18
the importance oI adequate insulation and isolation Irom accidental contact oI any oI these devices and 19
theirwiring,whichmayreachahighvoltagewithrespecttolocalground.Fiberopticsandopticalisolators 20
arenowmorecommonlyusedtoisolatethesubstationcommunicationsterminalIromtheremoteterminal 21
toeliminatethetransIeroIhighpotentials.ReIertoIEEEStd487IormoredetailedinIormation. 22
17.9.2 Rails 23
Rails entering the substation can create a hazard at a remote point by transIerring all or a portion oI the 24
GPRIromthesubstationtoaremotepointduringagroundIault.Similarly,iIgroundedremotely,ahazard 25
can be introduced into the substation area by transIerring remote earth potential to within the substation. 26
Thesehazardscanbeeliminatedbyremoving the track sections into the substation aIter initial use, or by 27
usingremovabletracksectionswheretherails leavethe groundgridarea.However,insulatingIlanges,as 28
discussed in the Iollowing paragraphs, should also be utilized to provide as much protection as possible 29
whentherailroadtrackisintactIoruse. 30
InsulatingsplicesorIlangesaremanuIacturedbyavarietyoIvendors.Thegeneralpracticeistoinstalltwo 31
or three sets oI these devices such that a rail car would not shunt a single set. Investigation oI these 32
insulating splices has shown that they are primarily designed Ior electrical isolation oI one track Irom 33
anotherIorsignalschemepurposes.ThetypicalinsulatedjointconsistsoIasectionoItrackmadeIroman 34
insulated material called an end post, installed between rail ends. The side members bolting the joint are 35
alsoinsulatedIromtherailsections.ThebreakdownvoltageoItheinsulatingjointsshouldbeconsideredin 36
each application. The insulating joints must be capable oI withstanding the potential diIIerence between 37
remoteearthandthepotentialtransIerredtothejoint. 38
Itshouldbenoted,however,thatinsulatingIlangesarenotrecommendedastheprimarymeansoIprotec 39
tion, as they may create their own hazardous situations (Garrett and Wallace B72). II the track sections 40
outside the substation and beyond the insulating Ilange are in contact with the soil, a hazardous voltage 41
may exist between that rail section and a rail section or perimeter Ience grounded to the substation grid 42
duringaIault.IItherailsarenotbondedtothesubstationgrid,ahazardousvoltagemayexistbetweenthe 43
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railsandgroundedstructureswithinthesubstationduringaIault.OthersituationsarediscussedinGarrett 1
andWallaceB72thatmayresultinhazardousvoltages.Thus,removaloIrailsectionsattheperimeteroI 2
thegroundingsystemisrecommended. 3
17.9.3 Lowvoltage neutral wires 4
HazardsarepossiblewherelowvoltageIeedersorsecondarycircuits,servingpointsoutsidethesubstation 5
area, have their neutrals connected to the substation ground. When the potential oI the substation ground 6
gridrisesastheresultoIgroundIaultcurrentIlow,alloralargepartoIthispotentialrisemaythenappear 7
at remote points as a dangerous voltage between this grounded neutral wire and the adjacent earth. 8
Moreover,whereotherconnectionstoeartharealsoprovided,theIlowoIIaultcurrentthroughthesemay, 9
underunIavorableconditions,creategradienthazardsatpointsremoteIromthesubstation. 10
To avoid these diIIiculties, the low voltage neutral may be isolated Irom ground at the substation itselI; 11
alwaysprovided,however,thatthisdoesnotresultinslowingdowntheclearingtimeIorlowvoltageIaults 12
to the point where the total hazard is increased rather than diminished. This is oIten done by utilizing an 13
isolationtransIormertoseparatethesubstationneutralIromtheneutraloIthecircuittotheremoteservice 14
point.IIthelowvoltageneutralisisolatedIromthatsubstationground,itthenbecomesnecessarytoavoid 15
hazards at the substation due to the introduction, via the neutral wire, oI remote earth potential. This 16
implies that this neutral, in and near the substation, should be treated as a live conductor. It should be 17
insulatedIromthesubstationgroundsystembyinsulationadequatetowithstandtheGPR;anditshouldbe 18
locatedtominimizethedangeroIbeingcontactedbypersonnel. 19
Alternately,theremoteservicepointcanbetreatedasanextensionoIthegrid.Inthiscase,additional 20
grounding,suchasaloopoIgroundingandgroundrods,oranequipotentialgroundmat,isinstalledaround 21
theremoteservicepointtocontrolhazardoustouchandstepvoltagesinthatarea. 22
23
17.9.4 Portable equipment and tools supplied from substation 24
TransIerred voltage hazards need to be considered in the case oI portable mining, excavating, or material 25
handling equipment, or portable tools, which are supplied electrically Irom the substation and are used 26
outside oI the area oI the grid where the mesh potential is held within saIe limits. Such loads are oIten 27
suppliedbytemporarypolelinesorlongportablecables.AnexampleisoItenseenwhenanadditiontoan 28
existingsubstationisbeingconstructed. 29
A hazardoustransIerredpotential mightappear between equipment and the nearby earth during a Iault,iI 30
theneutralorgroundingwiretotheequipmentisalsoconnectedtothesubstationground.Incasessuchas 31
these, it is common to isolate the supply circuits Irom the substation ground; to ground the neutrals and 32
equipment to earth at the site oI the work; and to make sure that the maximum Iault current to the local 33
ground is limited to a low value that will not itselI cause gradient hazards. Another option is to provide 34
powertotheexternalworksiteusingportablegenerators. 35
17.9.5 Piping 36
Pipelines and metallic conduits should always be connected to the substation grounding system to avoid 37
hazards within the substation area. TransIerred potentials may be reduced or stopped at the substation 38
boundary by inserting insulating sections oI suIIicient length to avoid shunting by the adjacent soil. The 39
insulatingsections mustbecapableoI withstanding the potential diIIerence between remote earth and the 40
substation. 41
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17.9.6 Auxiliary buildings 1
AuxiliarybuildingscanbetreatedaspartoIthesubstationIorgroundingpurposes,orasseparateinstalla 2
tions,dependingoncircumstances.IIthebuildingsandsubstationarerelativelyclose,andespeciallyiIthe 3
buildingsarelinkeddirectlytothesubstationbywaterpipes,cablesheaths,phonelines,etc.,itisappropri 4
atetotreatsuchbuildingsandtheirimmediateareaaspartoIthesubstation.Assuch,thebuildingsshould 5
be grounded using the same saIety criteria as the substation. II the buildings are not as close, and iI such 6
conductinglinksarelacking,itmaybedecidedtotreat suchbuildingsasseparateunitswiththeirownlocal 7
saIety grounds. II served electrically Irom the substation, they should have their own distribution 8
transIormers oI a type to provide adequate insulation against transIer oI the substation GPR. Secondary 9
neutralswould,inthiscase,beconnectedtothelocalgroundattheauxiliarybuildingsonly. 10
17.9.7 Fences 11
Substation Iences have been extended to other areas oI a site at some locations. This also presents a 12
possibletransIerredpotentialhazardiItheIenceisconnectedtothesubstationgroundgrid. 13
Tolessenthishazard,thesubstationIenceshouldbeinsulatedIromtheIenceleavingthesubstationarea.It 14
isrecommendedthatinsulatingsectionsbeinstalledtopreventthetransIeroIpotentialthroughthesoiland 15
belong enoughtopreventsomeoneIrombridgingtheinsulatingsection. 16
An example oI the potential proIile oI a Ience connected to a substation ground grid and leaving the 17
substation area is shown in Figure 47. As can be seen, the touch voltage on the Ience aIter it leaves the 18
substationgridareaoIinIluenceisnotsaIetocontact. 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
Figure 47 Transfer potential on a fence 46
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18. Construction of a grounding system 1
ThemethodoIconstruction,orcombinationoI methodschosen, willdependonanumberoIIactors,such 2
assizeoIagrid,typeoIsoil,sizeoIconductor,depthoIburial,availabilityoIequipment,costoIlabor,and 3
anyphysicalorsaIetyrestrictionsduetonearbyexistingstructuresorenergizedequipment. 4
Therearetwocommonlyemployedmethodstoinstallthegroundgrid.Thesearethetrenchmethodandthe 5
cableplowingmethod.BothoIthesemethodsemploy machines.Wherethese machines arenotemployed 6
duetolackoIspacetomovethemorsmallsizeoIthejobsite,thegroundgridisinstalledbyhanddigging. 7
18.1 Ground grid construction trench method 8
Flagsmightbe stakedontheperimeteralongtwosidestoidentiIythespacingbetweenparallelconductors. 9
These markers also serve as a guide Ior the trenching machine. The trenches are dug using a trenching 10
machineusuallyalongthesidehavingthelargernumberoIparallelconductors.Thesetrenchesaredugto 11
thespeciIieddepth(usuallyabout0.5mor1.5It).Conductorsareinstalledintheseditchesandgroundrods 12
aredrivenandconnectedtotheconductors.PigtailsIorequipmentgroundsmayalsobeplacedatthistime. 13
TheseinitialditchesarethenbackIilledwithdirtuptothelocationoIthecrossconnections. 14
Thenextstepistodigcrossconductorditches(oItentoashallowerdepth),onceagainusingmarkersasa 15
guide.CaremustbetakenwhendiggingtheseditchestoavoidsnaggingtheconductorlaidinthebackIilled 16
ditches at cross points. The conductors are installed in the ditches and any remaining ground rods are 17
drivenandconnectedtotheconductors.Remainingpigtailsarealsoconnectedtotheseconductors.Cross 18
typeconnectionsaremadebetweenperpendicularconductorruns.TheditchesarethenbackIilledwithdirt. 19
AnalternativemethodconsistsoIdiggingallthetrenchesatthesamedepthatthesametime.Thismight 20
be done in small sections oI the substation (so as not to hender other construction activities or over the 21
entire substation. Installation oI conductors and ground rods are the same as described in the preceding 22
paragraphs. 23
18.2 Ground grid constructionconductor plowing method 24
AnotherprocedureIortheinstallationoIgroundconductors,whichmayproveeconomicalandquickwhen 25
conditionsareIavorableandproperequipmentis available,istoplowtheconductorsin.Aspecialnarrow 26
plowisused,whichmaybeeitherattachedto,ordrawnby,atractororIourwheeldrivetruck,iIthereis 27
suIIicientmaneuveringroom.TheplowmayalsobedrawnbyawinchplacedattheedgeoI theyard.The 28
conductor may be laid on the ground in Iront oI the plow, or areel oI conductor may be mounted on the 29
tractorortruck,oronasledpulledaheadoItheplow.TheconductoristhenIedintothegroundalongthe 30
blade oI the plow to the bottom oI the cut. Another method is to attach the end oI the conductor to the 31
bottomoItheplowblade,andpullitalongthebottomoIthecutastheplowprogresses.Inthiscase,care 32
shouldbetakentoensurethattheconductordoesnotworkitswayupwardthroughtheloosenedsoil. 33
The cross conductors are plowed in at slightly less depth to avoid damage to previously laid conductors. 34
ThepointsoIcrossing,orpointswheregroundrodsaretobeinstalled,arethenuncovered,andconnections 35
aremadeas describedin18.3. 36
With adequate equipment, and the absence oI heavy rock, this method is suitable Ior all oI the conductor 37
sizesandburialdepthsnormallyused.ThereadercanIindadditionalinIormationinIEEEStd590B85. 38
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18.3 Installation of connections, pigtails, and ground rods 1
Once the conductors are placed in their trenches, the required connections are then made. Types oI 2
connections are many and varied and depend on the joint, the material being joined, and the standard 3
practiceoItheutilityconcerned(see11.4). 4
Pigtails are leIt at appropriate locations Ior grounding connections to structures or equipment. These 5
pigtailsmaybethesamecablesizeastheundergroundgridoradiIIerentsizedependingonthenumberoI 6
grounds per device, the magnitude oI the ground Iault current, and the design practices oI the utility 7
concerned.ThepigtailsarethenreadilyaccessibleaIterbackIillingtomakeabovegradeconnections. 8
TheinstallationoIthegroundrodsisusually accomplished by using a hydraulic hammer, air hammer, or 9
othermechanicaldevice.ThejoiningoItwogroundrodsisdonebyusingtheexothermicmethod,swaged 10
connection,orathreadedorthreadlesscoupler.Theconnectionbetweenthegroundrodandgridconductor 11
canbemadeusingvariousmethods. 12
18.4 Construction sequence consideration for ground grid installation 13
A ground grid is normally installed aIter the yard is graded, Ioundations are poured, and deeper 14
undergroundpipesandconduitsareinstalledandbackIilled.ThesecurityIencemaybeinstalledbeIoreor 15
aIter the ground grid installation. In cases where deeper underground pipes and conduits are not installed 16
beIore ground grid installation, an attempt should be made to coordinate the trenching procedure in a 17
logicalmanner. 18
18.5 Safety considerations during subsequent excavations 19
Asshownin7.4,theinsulatingvalueoIalayeroIcleansurIacematerialorgravelisanaidtosaIetyunder 20
ground Iault conditions. ThereIore, when an excavation is necessary aIter a rock surIacing has been 21
applied, care should be taken to avoid mixing the lower resistivity soil Irom the excavation with the 22
surroundingrocksurIacingmaterial. 23
During subsequent excavations there are more chances to snag the ground conductor. In such a case a 24
checkshouldbemadetodetermineiIthereisabreakintheconductorandjoints.Abreakintheconductor 25
orjoints,orboth,mustbeimmediatelyrepaired.Atemporaryprotectiveground(TPG)connectionshould 26
beplacedaroundthebreakbeIoreitisrepaired.The TPG connectionshouldbesuitableIortheapplication 27
and installed according to saIe grounding practices, because a voltage may exist between the two ground 28
conductorends.Thesameprecautionsshouldbeusedwhenexpandingormakingadditionstoanexisting 29
groundingsystem.TPGsshouldbeinstalledbetweentheoldandnewgridconductorsbeIorehandlingthe 30
conductorstomakeconnections. 31
19. Field measurements of a constructed grounding system 32
19.1 Measurements of grounding system impedance 33
A careIul measurement oI the impedance oI the installation as constructed might be desirable, especially 34
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when soil resistivity measurements or interpretation oI the appropriate soil model were questionable. 1
However,thismeasurementisnotalwayspracticaliIthegridisconnectedtoorinIluencedbyotherburied 2
metallicstructures. 3
In this clause only general methods are discussed. For more detailed inIormation reIer to IEEE Std 81. 4
Several important points oI this guide have been used here, where applicable. While in this clause the 5
ohmic value is reIerred to as resistance, it should be remembered that there is a reactive component that 6
shouldbetaken into consideration when the ohmic value oI the ground under test is less than 0.5 O, and the 7
area is relatively large. This reactive component has little eIIect on grounds with impedances higher than 8
0.5 O. 9
19.1.1 Fallofpotential method 10
This method has several variations and is applicable to all types oI ground resistance measurements (see 11
Figure 48). Basically, the ground resistance measurement consists oI measuring the resistance oI the 12
grounding system with respect to a remote ground electrode. The remote electrode is theoretically at an 13
inIinitedistanceIromthegroundingsystemwheretheearthcurrentdensityapproacheszero.Althoughthe 14
IalloIpotentialmethodisuniversallyused,itpresentsmanydiIIicultiesandsourcesoIerrorwhenusedto 15
measure theresistanceoIlargegroundingsystemsusuallyencounteredinpractice.ThesediIIicultiesoccur 16
mainlybecauseoIthesizeandconIigurationoIthegroundingsystemandsoilheterogeneity. 17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
Figure 48 (a) Fall of potential method and (b) Earth surface potentials for 38
various spacings X 39
II the distance D is large enough with respect to the grounding system, the center part oI the IalloI 40
potentialcurvetendstobenearlyhorizontal,butitmayappeartodosoalsobecauseoIlackoIsensitivity 41
oI the instruments used. It is usually accepted, although not always correctly, that the nearly horizontal 42
section oI the curve gives the resistance R
g
. For large grounding systems, large distances D may not be 43
practical or even possible and as a result, the nearly horizontal section oI the curve will not exist. In this 44
case, accurate measurements will not be obtained unless one has already a good idea oI the exact probe 45
position P. In other cases with nonhomogeneous soil, the appropriate probe P position cannot be 46
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determined by simple observation oI the shape oI the curve. Rather, a computer simulation oI the 1
groundingsystemandtestcircuitneedstobeperIormedtopredicttheappropriateprobePposition. 2
For measuring resistance, the current source is connected between the substation ground mat E and a 3
current electrode located at a distance oI several hundred meters Irom the substation. The potential 4
measuring circuit is then connected between the substation mat E and a potential electrode P, with 5
measurements being made at various locations oI the electrode outside the substation. This potential 6
electrode may be moved toward the current electrode in equal increments oI distance and the resistance 7
readingsobtainedatthevariouslocationsmaybeplottedagainstdistanceIromthesubstation.Theresulting 8
graphshouldresemblecurveEPCoIFigure48(b).FromEtoP,thevoltageperampereoItestcurrentrises, 9
but the voltage gradient decreases reaching a minimum at P. Continuing toward C, the eIIect oI current 10
converging on the current test probe becomes apparent and a rising voltage gradient is observed as the 11
currentprobeisapproached.Theslowlyrising,nearlyhorizontalportionoIthegraph,iIany,isdeemedto 12
represents a zone where the interaction oI the tested and return electrodes is small. When the return 13
electrode is placed at a Iinite distance Irom the grounding system and the potential probe is driven at a 14
speciIic location, then an accurate measurement oI the resistance is obtained. UnIortunately, the exact 15
locationoIthepotentialelectrodeiswelldeIinedonly Iorsomeidealcases suchas hemisphericalor very 16
smallelectrodesburiedinuniIormortwolayersoils(DawalibiandMukhedkarB39B44).ThecaseoIa 17
large grounding system buried in uniIorm soil assuming uniIorm current density distribution in the 18
conductors has been analyzed by Curdts B23 and Tagg B137B138B139. In practice, however, 19
grounding systems consist oI a complex arrangement oI vertical ground rods and horizontal conductors, 20
usuallyburiedinnonuniIormsoils. 21
For large ground grids the spacing required may not be practical or even possible, especially where the 22
transmission line overhead ground wires and Ieeder neutrals connected to substation ground eIIectively 23
extendtheareaoIinIluence.Consequently,thesocalledIlatportionoIthecurvewillnotbeobtainedand 24
othermethodsoIinterpretationmustbeused.Previous work has shownthat whensoil isnot uniIormand 25
separationisnotlargecomparedtogroundsystemdimensions,the61.8rule,whichcorrespondstotheso 26
called Ilat portion oI the curve, may no longer apply (Dawalibi and Mukhedkar B39B44). Locations 27
varyingIrom10to90wereIoundtobequitepossible. 28
Itshouldbenoted thatplacementoIthepotential probeP at the opposite side with respect to electrodeC 29
(that is, at P
2
) will always result in a measured apparent resistance smaller than the actual resistance. In 30
addition,whenPislocatedonthesamesideaselectrode C(thatis,atP
1
),thereisaparticularlocationthat 31
givestheactualresistance. 32
TheprimaryadvantageoItheIalloIpotentialmethodisthatthepotentialandcurrentelectrodesmayhave 33
substantially higher resistance than the ground system being tested without signiIicantly aIIecting the 34
accuracyoIthemeasurements. 35
19.2 Field survey of potential contours and touch and step voltages 36
Thebest assurancethatasubstationissaIe would come Irom actual Iield tests oI step and touch voltages 37
withaheavy currentloadonthegroundmat.BecauseoItheexpense,Iewutilitiesarelikelytomakethese 38
testsasa routinepractice.II,however,large discrepancies between calculated and measured resistance or 39
known anomalies in the ground resistivities throw doubt on the calculated step and touch voltages, then 40
suchtestsmaybeconsidered.Thisisespeciallytruewhenthecomputedvaluesareclosetotolerablelimits, 41
andIurtherimprovementoIthegroundtoprovidealargersaIetyIactorwouldbediIIicultorcostly. 42
Insuchsituations,itmaybeworthwhiletoloadthegroundingsystemwithatestcurrent(preIerablyinthe 43
order oI about 100 A) and actually take measurements oI potential gradients at selected locations 44
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throughout the substation and around its perimeter. An EPRI project (EPRI TR100622 B63) included 1
such a Iield test. The projectincluded comparisons oI the Iield test results with a computer solution. The 2
method oI measurement was Iound to be quite Ieasible and gives good results (EPRI TR100622 B63; 3
PatelB119;Meliopoulos,Patel,andCokkonidesB105) 4
The basic method Ior such gradient measurements involves passing a test current through the substation 5
groundviaaremotecurrentelectrode,asinsubstationgroundresistancemeasurements,andmeasuringthe 6
resulting touch and step voltages. To obtain the potentials existing under actual Iault conditions, the test 7
valuesaremultipliedbytheratiooIactualgroundIaultcurrenttotestcurrent. 8
SincethepotentialsoIinterestarethoseexistingatthesurIaceoItheearth,thepotentialprobeusedisoIa 9
typethatmakesasurIacecontact. 10
The relatively high contact resistances involved generally rule out the use oI instruments designed Ior 11
ground resistance measurements since they operate over a limited range oI potential probe resistance. To 12
useavoltmeterammetermethod,itisusually necessarytohaveahighimpedance voltmeter,and use test 13
currentshighenoughtoovercometheeIIectsoIresidualgroundcurrents. 14
Several methods oI measuring and recording voltages may be used. Using a highimpedance voltmeter, 15
proIilesandcontoursoIopencircuitcontactvoltagesmaybeplottedIortheentiresubstation.Byassuming 16
suitablyconservativevaluesoIbodyandIoottoground resistances, and saIe body current, the maximum 17
saIevaluetoopencircuitcontactvoltagecanbedeterminedandhazardoustouchandstepvoltagescanbe 18
locatedonthepotentialmap. 19
Langer B95 and Bodier B15 have described measurement techniques in which the eIIect oI actual 20
contact and body resistances are simulated. The operator wears rubber gloves and rubbersoled boots 21
equippedwithmetallicmeshcontactsurIaces.VoltagesbetweenthesemetalcontactsurIacesaremeasured 22
bya highimpedance voltmetershuntedby a resistance equal to an assumed value oI body resistance and 23
current is measured with a milliammeter. The ratio oI shock current to total ground current is thus 24
determined.MorerecenttestandresultsaredescribedinEPRITR100863B64. 25
By includingIoottoearthcontactresistancesasapartoIthetestprocedure,theeIIectoIvariationsinsur 26
Iaceconductivityistakenintoaccount.Thus,theadditionalsaIetyIactorprovidedbysurIacecoveringsoI 27
surIacematerial,pavement,etc.,isincludedinthetestresults. 28
AdditionalinIormationonmakingIieldmeasurementsoIpotentialsisavailableinIEEEStd81. 29
19.3 Assessment of field measurements for safe design 30
With the value Ior measured resistance available, the maximum GPR can be recalculated. II substantially 31
diIIerent Irom that based on the computed resistance, the precautions taken against transIerred potentials 32
mayneedreview. 33
The measured resistance does not provide a direct means oI rechecking the computed step and touch 34
voltages, as these are derived Irom the resistivity. However, iI the diIIerence between the computed and 35
measured substation grid resistance is very large, the resistance or resistivity values may come under 36
suspicion.Eachcasewillhavetobejudgedonitsmeritstodeterminewhetherthediscrepancyissuchasto 37
warrant Iurther investigation, employment oI larger saIety Iactors, or direct measurement oI danger 38
voltagesorshockcurrentsasdescribedin19.2. 39
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19.4 Ground grid integrity test 1
Many times, solidstate relays, telephone equipment, event recorder circuits, or power supply units in the 2
controlhousegetdamagedduetoalightningsurgeoraIaultiIthesubstationhasapoorgroundingsystem. 3
The ground grid integrity test might be perIormed Iollowing such an event. Evaluation oI older ground 4
grids using this test is also common in the utility industry. Sometimes the ground grid integrity test is 5
perIormed to ensure the integrity beIore the substation is approved Ior operation. The integrity test is a 6
necessitytodetectanyopencircuitorisolatedstructureorequipmentinasubstation. 7
A typical test set is comprised oI a variable voltage source (035 V, 0300 A), voltage and current 8
measuring devices, and two test leads. One oI the two test leads is connected to a reIerence ground riser, 9
generallyatransIormercaseground.Theothertestleadthenconnectstothegroundrisertobetested.The 10
test consists oI Ilowing 300 A (typically) between the connected risers and measuring the voltage drop 11
acrossthegroundcircuitincludingthetestleads.ThemeasurementoIthecurrentdivisionattheriserbeing 12
tested using a clampon ammeter provides additional data to evaluate the ground path. Keeping the 13
reIerence riser connected, the second test lead is moved around to test risers at other equipment and 14
structuresuntiltheentiresubstationgroundgridistested.TheimpedancebetweenthereIerencepointand 15
eachtestpointiscomputedbydividingthecurrentintothemeasuredvoltagedrop.OIten,acabletraceris 16
employed to locate the unknown or broken ground conductor.The cable tracer detects the magnetic feld 17
produced by the test current and generates an electrical noise, which can be heard through headphones. 18
AbsenceoIthenoiseisindicativeoIabrokengroundwire,openconnectionormissingconductor. 19
ItisnecessarytodeterminethevoltagedropoIthetestleads.Thisisdonebyshortingtheleadsacrossthe 20
testsetandmeasuringthevoltagedropbycirculating300Aintheloop.Thisonetimemeasurementyields 21
the series impedance oI the test leads. To obtain a correct impedance value, the test lead impedance is 22
subtractedIromthemeasuredimpedancebetweentherisers.Thoughtheintegritytestisthemostpractical 23
andconvenienttesttoperIorm,itsresultscanonlybeanalyzedsubjectively.Onewaytoevaluateaground 24
grid is to compare the impedance values with each other and determine the test risers, which have 25
abnormally high impedance values. Generally, test points Iurther away Irom the reIerence point should 26
have increasing values oI impedance, compared to test points close to the reIerence point. One can also 27
evaluateagroundgridbycomparingthevoltagedropwithaknownreIerencevalue(typically1.5V/50It 28
between test risers) and determining the weak ties between the risers. However, this rule oI thumb might 29
not apply where there is signiIicant overhead metallic structure that could conduct the test current Irom 30
pointtopoint.MeasuredcurrentdivisionscanindicateiIthereisahighimpedanceoropenpathineither 31
direction.MoreinIormationonthismethodcanbeIoundinGillB76. 32
19.5 Periodic checks of installed grounding system 33
SomeutilitiesrechecksubstationgroundresistanceperiodicallyaItercompletionoIconstruction.Itisalso 34
welladvisedtoreviewthegroundsystemIromtimetotimeIorpossiblechanges insystemconditionsthat 35
mightaIIectthemaximumvalueoIgroundcurrent,aswellasextensionstothesubstationitselIthatmight 36
aIIectthemaximumcurrent,thesubstationgroundresistance,orlocalpotentialdiIIerences.Itissuggested 37
that records be kept oI the total bus Iault current used as the design basis, and periodic checks as system 38
shortcircuitcurrentincreases. 39
20. Physical scale models 40
It oIten is diIIicult to draw valid conclusions concerning a general grounding problem solely Irom actual 41
Iielddata.ThelackoIconsistentresultscausedbytheinabilitytocontrolthetest,suchas weathercondi 42
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tions,andothervariablesaIIectingthecondition oI thesoil, and diIIiculties in data collecting, all hamper 1
theabilitytorunandduplicate tests.BecauseitishelpIultohaveveriIicationoItheoreticalassumptionsor 2
computertechniques,orboth,scalemodelshavebeenusedtobridgethegap.TheuseoIsmallmodelscan 3
beusedtodeterminetheresistanceandpotentialproIilesoIgroundgridarrangements. 4
The early scale model tests used water to represent uniIorm soil. The use oI small models in large tanks 5
gaveconsistentresultsandenabledvarious modelsandconditionstobetestedandtheeIIectsoIdiIIerent 6
parameterstobeobserved(ArmstrongandSimpkinB5). 7
Inthelate1960s,atwolayerlaboratory model was developed at EcolePolytechnique to veriIy computer 8
techniques.ThismethodusedconcreteblockstorepresentthelowerlayeroIsoil(Mukhedkar,Gervais,and 9
DejeanB110).Atechnique laterdeveloped by Ohio State University used agar, a gelatinlike substance 10
Irequentlyusedinbiologicalstudies,tosimulatethelower levelsoIsoil.Inthisproject,accurate uniIorm 11
and twolayer soil models were used to study the eIIects oI many parameters on resistance and surIace 12
potentials(EPRIEL3099B61). 13
Although model test have inherit measurement accuracies, it have shown that scale models can be 14
eIIectively used Ior parametric studies Ior ground grid design and Ior veriIying computer simulations oI 15
groundgridparameters(Sverak,Booream,andKastenB134). 16
17
18
19
20
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Annex A 1
(informative) 2
Bibliography 3
4
B1 ABBPowerSystems,Inc.,Electrical transmission and distribution reference book, 4thEdition,12th 5
printing,1964. 6
B2 Abledu,K.O.,andLaird,D.N.,MeasurementoIsubstationrockresistivity,IEEETransactionon 7
PowerDelivery,vol.7,no.1,pp.295300,Jan.1992. 8
B3 AIEE Working Group on Substation Grounding Practices, Application guide on methods oI 9
substation grounding, AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, no. 11, pp. 271278, Apr. 10
1954. 11
B4 Armstrong, H. R., Grounding electrode characteristics Irom model tests, AIEE Transactions on 12
Power Apparatus and Systems, pp.13011306,Dec.1953. 13
B5 Armstrong, H. R., and Simpkin, L. J., Grounding electrode potential gradients Irom model tests, 14
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, pp.618623,Oct.1960. 15
B6 Bellaschi, P. L., Lightning currents in feld and laboratory, AIEE Transactions, vol 54, pp. 837 16
843,1935. 17
B7 Biegelmeier,U.G.,DieBedeatungderZSchwelle des HerzkammerflimmernsIurdieFestlegung 18
vonBeruhrunggsspanungsgreuzeubeidenSchutzmaBradhmergegenelektrischeUnIate,E&M, vol. 93, 19
no.1,pp.18,1976. 20
B8 Biegelmeier,U.G.,andRotter,K.,ElektrischeWiderstrandeundStromeinMerischlickenKorper," 21
E&M, vol.89,pp.104109,1971. 22
B9 Biegelmeier, U. G., and Lee, W. R., 'New considerations on the threshold oI ventricular fbrillation 23
IorACshocksat5060Hz,"Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.127,pp.103110,1980. 24
B10 Blattner,C.J., AnalysisoI soilresistivity test methodsin twolayerearth,IEEE Transactions on 25
Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS104,no.12,pp.36033608,Dec.1985. 26
B11 Blattner,C.J.,AnalysisoIsoilresistivity test methodsin twolayerearth,IEEE Transactions on 27
Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS104,no.12,pp.36033608,Dec.1985. 28
B12 Blattner,C.J.,StudyoIdrivengroundrodsandIourpointsoilresistivitydata,IEEE Transactions 29
on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS101,no.8,pp.28372850,Aug.1982. 30
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B137 Tagg,G.F.,MeasurementoIearthelectroderesistancewithparticularreIerencetoearth 3
electrodesystemscoveringlargearea,Proceedings of IEE, vol. 111,no.12,pp.21182130,1964. 4
B138 Tagg,G.F.,MeasurementoItheresistanceoIanearthelectrodesystemcoveringlargearea, 5
Proceedings of IEE, vol.116,no.3,pp.475479,Mar.1969. 6
B139 Tagg,G.F.,MeasurementoItheresistanceoIphysicallylargeearthelectrodesystems, 7
Proceedings of IEE, vol.117,no.11,pp.21852190,Nov.1970. 8
B140 Thapar,B.,andGerez,V.,EquivalentresistivityoInonuniIormsoilIorgroundingdesign, 9
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol.10,no.2,pp.759767,Apr.1995. 10
B141 Thapar,B.,andGross,E.T.B.,Grounding gridsIorhighvoltagestationsPartIV:Resistance 11
oIgroundinggridsinnonuniIormsoil,IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS82, 12
pp.782788,Oct.1963. 13
B142 Thapar,B.,Gerez,V.,andEmmanuel,P.,GroundresistanceoItheIootinsubstationyards, 14
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol.8,no.1,pp.16,Jan.1993 15
B143 Thapar,B.,Gerez,V.,andKejriwal,H.,ReductionIactorIorthegroundresistanceoItheIootin 16
substationyards,IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol.9,no. 1,pp.360368,Jan.1994. 17
B144 Thapar, B., Gerez, V., Balakrishnan, A., and Blank, D., 'Simplifed equations Ior mesh and step 18
voltagesinanACsubstation,IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol.6,no.2,pp.601607,Apr. 19
1991. 20
B145 Thompson,P.,Resistivitytestsonelectricstationgroundcoverings,InternalReport,Los 21
AngelesDepartmentoIWaterandPower,July12,1983. 22
B146 Thompson,P.,Resistivitytestsonsoilandconcrete,InternalReport,LosAngelesDepartment 23
oIWaterandPower,Aug.8,1977. 24
B147 Towne,H.M.,LightningarrestergroundsPartsI,II,andIII,General Electric Review, vol.35, 25
pp.173280,Mar.May1932. 26
B148 Verma,R.,Merand,A.,andBarbeau,P.,DesignoIlowresistancegroundingsystemIorhydro 27
electricplantlocatedonhighlyresistivesoils,IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 28
PAS97,no.5,pp.17601768,Sept./Oct.1978. 29
B149 Verma,R.,andMukhedkar,D.,GroundIaultcurrentdistributioninsubstation,towersand 30
groundwire,IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS98,pp.724730,May/June 31
1979. 32
B150 Wenner,F.,AmethodoImeasuringearthresistances,Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards, 33
Reportno258,vol.12,no.3,pp.469482,Feb.1916. 34
B151 Yu,L.,DeterminationoIinducedcurrentsandvoltagesinearthwiresduringIaults,Proceedings 35
of IEE, vol.120,no.6,pp.689692,June1973. 36
B152 Zaborszky,J.,EIIiciencyoIgroundinggridswithnonuniIormsoil,AIEE Transactions on Power 37
Apparatus and Systems, vol.74,pp.12301233,Dec.1955. 38
39
40
41
42
43
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Annex B 1
(informative) 2
Sample Calculations 3
ThisannexillustratestheapplicationoIequations,tables,andgraphsIordesigningasubstationgrounding 4
system.ThespeciIicobjectivesareasIollows: 5
a) To show the application oI principal equations oI this guide Ior several reIinements oI the design 6
concepttowardasatisIactoryIinaldesignsolution. 7
b) To show the application oI principal equations oI this guide Ior several reIinements oI the design 8
concepttowardasatisIactoryIinaldesignsolution. 9
c) To illustrate the typical diIIerences to be expected between results obtained using the simpliIied 10
calculationsoIthisguideandthemorerigorouscomputersolutions. 11
d) Toillustratesuchdesignconditions Ior which the use oI simplifed calculations oI this guide would 12
notbeappropriateIorasaIedesign,assomeoItheequationsmayonlybeusedwithcaution. 13
14
InviewoItheseobjectives,theIollowing seriesoIexamples(B.1B.4)neitherrepresents,nor is intended 15
tobe,thebestormosteIIicientwaytodesignagroundingsystem. 16
AcomputerbasedgroundingprogramdescribedinEPRITR100622B63wasusedtomodelthegridsin 17
theseexamples. 18
FortheseriesoIexamples(B.1B.4),thedesigndataare asIollows: 19
Faultdurationt
f
0.5s 20
PositivesequenceequivalentsystemimpedanceZ
1
4.0 j10.0 O (115 kV side) 21
ZerosequenceequivalentsystemimpedanceZ
0
10.0 j40.0 O (115 kV side) 22
CurrentdivisionIactorS
f
0.6 23
LinetolinevoltageatworstIaultlocation115,000V 24
Soilresistivity 400 Om 25
Crushedrockresistivity(wet)
s
2500 Om 26
ThicknessoIcrushedrocksurIacingh
s
= 0.102m(4in) 27
DepthoIgridburialh 0.5m 28
AvailablegroundingareaA 63m84m 29
TransIormerimpedance,(Z
1
andZ
0
) 0.034 j1.014 O (13 kV) 30
(Z 9at15MVA,115/13kV) 31
32
The crushedrock resistivity is assumed to be a conservative estimate based on actual measurements oI 33
typicalrocksamples.TheequivalentsystemIaultimpedancesandcurrentdivisionIactorS
f
aredetermined 34
Ior the worstIault type and location, including any conceivable system additions over the next 25 years. 35
Thus,noadditionalsaIetyIactorIorsystem growthisadded.Inaddition,itisassumedthatthesubstation 36
will not be cleared by circuit breakers with an automatic reclosing scheme. Thus, the Iault duration and 37
shockdurationareequal. 38
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B.1 Square grid without ground rodsExample 1 1
Using the stepbystep procedure as described in 16.4 and illustrated in Figure 33, the Iollowing design 2
evaluationscanbemade. 3
4
Step 1: Field data. Althoughthesubstationgroundgrid istobelocatedwithinarectangleoI63m84m 5
(5292m
2
),Iortheinitialdesignassessmentitmaybeexpedienttoassumeasquare70m70mgridwith 6
nogroundrods.Consequently,theareaoccupiedbysuchagridisA 4900m
2
.Anaveragesoilresistivity 7
oI 400 Om is assumed, based on soil resistivity measurements. 8
Step 2: Conductor size. Ignoring the station resistance, the symmetrical ground Iault current I
f
 3I
0
, is 9
computedusingEquation(67) 10
I
E
R R R R j X X X
f
0
1 2 0 1 2 0
3
=
+ + + + + + ( ) ( )
(B.1) 11
Forthe115kVbusIault 12
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3
3 115 000 3
3 0 4 0 4 0 10 0 10 0 10 0 40 0
0
I
j
=
+ + + + + +
( ) ,
. . . . . .
13
and,hence 14
,3I
0
,3180A,andtheX/R ratio3.33 15
Forthe13kVbusIault,the115kVequivalentIaultimpedances mustbetransIerredtothe13 kV sideoI 16
the transIormer. It should be noted that, due to the deltawye connection oI the transIormer, only the 17
positivesequence115kVIaultimpedanceistransIerred.Thus 18
  142 . 1 085 . 0 014 . 1 034 . 0 0 . 10 0 . 4
115
13
2
1
j j j Z + = + + +

.

\

= 19
20
Z j
0
0 034 1014 = + . . 21
22
( )
( ) ( )
3
3 13 000 3
3 0 0 085 0 085 0 034 1142 1142 1014
0
I
j
=
+ + + + + +
( ) ,
( ) . . . . . .
23
24
and,hence 25
3 6814
0
I = A,andtheX/R ratiois16.2 26
The13kVbusIaultvalueoI6814Ashouldbeusedtosizethegroundingconductor. 27
Using Table 10 Ior Iault duration oI 0.5 s, the decrement Iactor D
f
is approximately 1.0; thus, the rms 28
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asymmetricalIaultcurrentisalso6814A.Thiscurrentmagnitudewillbeusedtodeterminetheminimum 1
diameteroIgroundconductors. 2
AssumingtheuseoIcopperwireandanambienttemperatureoI40C,Equation(42)andTable2areused 3
to obtain the required conductor crosssectional area. For 0.5 s and a melting temperature oI 1084 C Ior 4
harddrawncopper,therequiredcrosssectionalareaincircularmilsis 5
A I K t
kcmil f c
= (B.2) 6
kcmil A
kcmil
02 . 34 5 . 0 06 . 7 814 . 6 = =
7
34.02kcmil17.2mm
2
8
Because 4 /
2
2
d A
mm
t = , the conductor diameter is approximately 4.7 mm, or 0.0047 m iI it is solid 9
conductor. 10
Based on this computation, a copper wire as small as size #4 AWG could be used, but due to the 11
mechanicalstrengthandruggednessrequirements,alarger2/0AWGstrandedconductorwithdiameterd 12
0.0105m(0.414in)isusuallypreIerredasaminimum. 13
Consequently,atthisstage,thedesignermayopttocheckiI,alternately,theuseoIalessconductive(30) 14
copperclad steel wire and the imposition oI a more conservative maximum temperature limit oI 700 C 15
willstillpermittheuseoIaconductorwithdiameterd 0.01m. 16
UsingEquation(41)andTable1gives 17
A I
TCAP
t
K T
K T
kcmil
c r r
o m
o a
=

\

.

+
+

\

.

197 4 .
ln
o
(B.3) 18
19
( )( )( )
2
24 . 30 81 . 59
40 245
700 245
ln
862 . 5 00378 . 0 5 . 0
85 . 3
4 . 197
814 . 6 mm or kcmils A
kcmil
=
(

.

\

+
+
=
20
Inthiscase,d
min
6.2 mm, or 0.0062 m solid conductor, which is less than d 0.01 m desired. Hence,a 21
30coppercladsteelwireoIapproximately2/0AWGsizeisaviablealternativeIorgridwires,eveniIa 22
conservativemaximumtemperaturelimitoI700Cisimposed. 23
Step 3: Touch and step criteria. Fora0.102m(4in)layeroIsurIacelayermaterial,withawetresistivity 24
oI 2500 Om, and Ior an earth with resistivity oI 400 Om, the refection Iactor K is computed using 25
Equation(21) 26
K
s
s
=
+
(B.4) 27
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K =
+
=
400 2500
400 2500
0 72 .
1
Figure11indicatesIorK 0.72theresistivityoIthesurIacelayermaterialistobederatedbyareduction 2
Iactor Cs  0.74. The reduction Iactor Cs can also be approximated using Equation (27) 3
4
C
h
s
s
s
=

\

.

+
1
0 09 1
2 0 09
.
.
(B.5) 5
( )
C
s
=

\

.

+
= 1
0 09 1
400
2500
2 0102 0 09
0 74
.
. .
.
6
AssumingthatIortheparticularstationthe location oI grounded Iacilities within the Ienced property
12
is 7
suchthatthepersonsweightcanbeexpectedtobeatleast70kg,Equation(30)andEquation(33)maybe 8
usedtocomputethetolerablestepandtouchvoltages,respectively,asIollows: 9
( ) E C t
step s s s 70
1000 6 0157 = + . / (B.6) 10
( ) ( )   6 . 2686 5 . 0 157 . 0 2500 74 . 0 6 1000
70
= + =
step
E
11
( ) E C t
touch s s s 70
1000 15 0157 = + . . / (B.7) 12
13
( ) ( )   2 . 838 5 . 0 157 . 0 2500 74 . 0 5 . 1 1000
70
= + =
touch
E
14
Step 4: Initial design. AssumeapreliminarylayoutoI70m70mgridwithequallyspacedconductors, 15
asshowninFigureB.1,withspacingD 7m,gridburialdepthh 0.5m,andnogroundrods.Thetotal 16
lengthoIburiedconductor,L
T
,is21170m1540m. 17
18
19
20
21
22
12
Thatis,notaccessibletothegeneralpublic.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure B.1 Square grid without ground rods 12
Step 5: Determination of grid resistance. Using Equation (52) Ior L 1540 m, and grid area A 4900 13
m
2
,theresistanceis 14
15
R
L A h A
g
T
= + +
+

\

.

1 1
20
1
1
1 20 /
(B.8) 16
R ohms
g
= +
+
+

\

.


(
(
= 400
1
1540
1
20 4900
1
1
1 05 20 4900
2 78
.
.
17
Step 6: Maximum grid current I
G
. Per the procedure and defnitions oI 15.1, the maximum grid current I
G
18
is determined by combining Equation (63) and Equation (64). ReIerring to Step 2, Ior D
f
1.0, and the 19
givencurrentdivisionIactorS
f
0.6, 20
S
I
I
f
g
o
=
3
(B.9) 21
22
and 23
I D I G f g =
(B.10) 24
Though the 13 kV bus Iault value oI 6814 A is greater than the 115 kV bus Iault value oI 3180 A, it is 25
recalledIromClause15thatthewyegrounded13kVtransIormerwindingisalocalsourceoIIaultcur 26
rentanddoesnotcontributetotheGPR.Thus,themaximumgridcurrentisbasedon3180A. 27
28
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I D S I
G f f
= 3
0
1
(B.11) 2
( )( )( ) A I
G
1908 3180 6 . 0 1 = =
3
Step 7: GPR. Now it is necessary to compare the product oI I
G
and R
g
, or GPR, to the tolerable touch 4
voltage,E
touch70
5
6
GPR I R
G g
= (B.12) 7
8
V GPR 5304 78 . 2 1908 = =
9
which Iar exceeds 838 V, determined in Step 3 as the saIe value oI E
touch70
. ThereIore, Iurther design 10
evaluationsarenecessary. 11
Step 8: Mesh voltage. UsingEquation(81)throughEquation(83),K
m
iscomputed 12
( )
( )
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
(B.13) 13
where 14
15
( )n
ii
n
K
2
2
1
= (B.14) 16
17
( )
K
ii
=
=
1
2 11
057
2 11
.
18
19
and 20
21
0
1
h
h
K
h
+ = (B.15) 22
23
24
25
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K
h
= + = 1
05
10
1225
.
.
.
1
2
( )
( )
89 . 0
1 11 2
8
ln
225 . 1
57 . 0
01 . 0 4
5 . 0
01 . 0 7 8
5 . 0 2 7
01 . 0 5 . 0 16
7
ln
2
1
2 2
=
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
t t
m
K
3
TheIactorK
i
iscomputedusingEquation(84)throughEquation(89) 4
n K
i
+ = 148 . 0 644 . 0 (B.16) 5
where 6
n = n
a
n
b
n
c
n
d
(B.17) 7
p
C
a
L
L
n
=
2
(B.18) 8
9
10
11
280
1540 2
=
=
a
n
11
12
n
b
1Iorsquaregrid 13
n
c
1Iorsquaregrid 14
n
d
1Iorsquaregrid 15
andthereIore 16
11 1 * 1 * 1 * 11 = = n 17
272 . 2 11 148 . 0 644 . 0 = + =
i
K
18
Finally,E
m
iscomputedusingEquation(80)andEquation(90) 19
R C
i m G
m
L L
K K I
E
+
=
(B.19) 20
V E
m
1 . 1002
1540
272 . 2 89 . 0 1908 400
=
=
21
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Step 9: E
m
vs. E
touch
. Themeshvoltageis higher thanthetolerabletouch voltage(thatis, 1002.1Vversus 1
838.2 V). The grid design must be modifed. 2
Forcomparison,theEPRITR100622 B63 computer program resulted in 2.67 O and 984.3 V Ior the grid 3
resistanceandtouchvoltage,respectively,Ior thisexample. 4
5
B.2 Square grid with ground rodsExample 2 6
In the previous example, B.1, Step 10 oI the design procedure has not been reached due to the Iailure to 7
meetthecriterionoIStep9.Generally,therearetwoapproachesto modiIyingthegriddesignto meetthe 8
tolerabletouchvoltagerequirements 9
a) ReducetheGPRtoavaluebelowthetolerabletouchvoltageortoavaluelowenoughtoresultina 10
valueoIEmbelowthetolerabletouchvoltage 11
b) ReducetheavailablegroundIaultcurrent 12
13
Usuallyreduction oI the available ground Iault current is diIfcult or impractical to achieve, so the grid is 14
modifed by changing any or all oI the Iollowing: grid conductor spacing, total conductor length, grid 15
depth,additionoIgroundrods,etc.Inthisexample,thepreliminary design will be modifed to include 20 16
groundrods,each7.5m(24.6It)long,aroundtheperimeteroIthegrid,asshowninFigureB.2. 17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Figure B.2 Square grid with 20 7.5 rods 28
Step 5. UsingEquation(52)IorL
T
154020 7.51690m,andA 4900m
2
yieldstheIollowingvalue 29
oIgridresistanceR
g
: 30
31
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(


.

\

+
+ + =
A h A
L
R
T
g
/ 20 1
1
1
20
1 1
(B.20) 1
2
3
4
ohms R
g
75 . 2
4900 20 5 . 0 1
1
1
4900 20
1
1690
1
400 =
(
(


.

\

+
+
+ =
5
6
Steps 6 and 7. TherevisedGPRis(1908)(2.75)5247V,whichisstillmuchgreaterthan838.2V. 7
8
Step 8. UsingEquation(81)andEquation(83),K
m
iscomputed 9
10
( )
( )
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
(B.21) 11
12
where 13
K
ii
1.0withrods 14
and 15
0
1
h
h
K
h
+ = (B.22) 16
17
18
K
h
= + = 1
05
10
1225
.
.
.
19
20
( )
( )
77 . 0
1 11 2
8
ln
225 . 1
0 . 1
01 . 0 4
5 . 0
01 . 0 7 8
5 . 0 2 7
01 . 0 5 . 0 16
7
ln
2
1
2 2
=
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
t t
m
K
21
Thistime,E
m
iscomputedusingEquation(80)andEquation(91) 22
23
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R
G
L
L L
L
L
K K I
E
y x
r
C
i m
m
(
(



.

\

+
+ +
=
2 2
22 . 1 55 . 1
(B.23) 1
2
V E
m
4 . 747
150
70 70
5 . 7
22 . 1 55 . 1 1540
272 . 2 77 . 0 1908 400
2 2
=
(
(


.

\

+
+ +
=
3
4
Because the step voltage has not been calculated yet, Equation (89) and Equation (92) through Equation 5
(94)areusedtocomputeK
i
, E
s
, L
S
,andK
s
,respectively.NotethatthevalueIorK
i
isstill2.272(sameasIor 6
meshvoltage). 7
( )
(
+
+
+
=
2
5 . 0 1
1 1
2
1 1
n
s
D h D h
K
t
(B.24) 8
9
10
( )
K
s
=
+
+
+
(
=
1 1
2 05
1
7 05
1
7
1 05 0 406
11 2
t . .
. .
11
Then 12
R C
i s G
s
L L
K K I
E
+
=
85 . 0 75 . 0
(B.25) 13
14
15
volts E
s
9 . 548
150 85 . 0 1540 75 . 0
272 . 2 406 . 0 1908 400
=
+
=
16
17
Step 9: E
m
vs. E
touch
. Now the calculated corner mesh voltage is lower than the tolerable touch voltage 18
(747.4Vversus838.2V),andwearereadytoproceedtoStep10. 19
Step 10: E
s
vs. E
step
. The computed E
s
is well below the tolerable step voltage determined in Step 3 oI 20
Example1.Thatis,548.9Vismuchlessthan2686.6V. 21
Step 11: Modify design. NotnecessaryIorthisexample. 22
Step 12: Detailed design. AsaIedesignhasbeenobtained.Atthispoint,allequipmentpigtails,additional 23
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groundrodsIorsurgearresters,etc.,shouldbeaddedtocompletethegriddesigndetails. 1
Forcomparison,thecomputerprogramoIEPRITR100622B63resultedin 2.52 O, 756.2 V and 459.1 V 2
Iorthegridresistance,touchvoltageandstepvoltage,respectively,Iorthisexample. 3
B.3 Rectangular grid with ground rodsExample 3 4
InthisexamplethepreliminarygriddesignwillbereconciledintermsoItheactualshape oIthegrounding 5
areaasanalternativedesign.RealizingthattheIullgroundingareaisonlyabout8largerthanthatusedin 6
the previous calculations, most oI the conclusions Irom Example 2 can be used Ior arriving at a suitable 7
fnal design solution. 8
Choosing,again,spacingD 7m,Iorarectangular63m84mgrid,thegridwirepatternis1013,and 9
thegridconductorcombinedlengthis1363m1084m1659m.AssumetheuseoI38groundrods, 10
each10mlong,asshowninFigureB.3. 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Figure B.3 Rectangular grid with thirtyeight 10 m ground rods 21
Step 5. Again,usingEquation(52),butIorL
T
1659 m(38)(10 m)2039 mandA 63 m84 m 22
5292m
2
,gives 23
24
(


.

\

+
+ + =
A h A
L
R
T
g
/ 20 1
1
1
20
1 1
(B.26) 25
26
ohms R
g
62 . 2
5292 20 5 . 0 1
1
1
5292 20
1
2039
1
400 =
(
(


.

\

+
+
+ =
27
28
Steps 6 and 7. UsingI
G
1908AasbeIore,andR
g
2.62 O, the GPR (1908)(2.62) 4998.96 V, which 29
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ismuchgreaterthan838.2V. 1
Step 8. For the particular design arrangement shown in Figure B.3, the equations oI 16.5.1 can again be 2
used to estimate the corner mesh voltage. However, because the grid is rectangular, the value oI n to be 3
used in the mesh voltage computation will be diIIerent, based on the Iactors determined using Equation 4
(84)throughEquation(88). 5
d c b a
n n n n n = (B.27) 6
p
C
a
L
L
n
=
2
(B.28) 7
8
29 . 11
294
1659 2
=
=
a
n
9
A
L
n
p
b
=
4
(B.29) 10
005 . 1
5292 4
294
=
=
b
n
11
12
n
c
1 Iorrectangulargrid 13
n
d
1Iorrectangulargrid 14
35 . 11 1 1 005 . 1 29 . 11 = = n 15
NowK
m
iscomputedusingEquation(81)andEquation(83) 16
17
( )
( )
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
(B.30) 18
19
where 20
1 =
ii
K Ioragridwithgroundrods 21
22
K
h
= + = 1
05
10
1225
.
.
.
23
24
25
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( )
( )
77 . 0
1 35 . 11 2
8
ln
225 . 1
0 . 1
01 . 0 4
5 . 0
01 . 0 7 8
5 . 0 2 7
01 . 0 5 . 0 16
7
ln
2
1
2 2
=
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
t t
m
K
1
2
3
Equation(89)isusedtocomputeK
i
4
n K
i
+ = 148 . 0 644 . 0 (B.31) 5
324 . 2 35 . 11 148 . 0 644 . 0 = + =
i
K 6
Finally,E
m
iscomputedusingEquation(80)andEquation(91) 7
R
y x
r
C
i m G
m
L
L L
L
L
K K I
E
(
(



.

\

+
+ +
=
2 2
22 . 1 55 . 1
(B.32) 8
9
10
volts E
m
8 . 595
380
84 63
10
22 . 1 55 . 1 1659
324 . 2 77 . 0 1908 400
2 2
=
(
(


.

\

+
+ +
=
11
12
Step 9. Thiscalculated mesh voltageis well below the E
touch70
limit oI 838.2, but uses 119 m oI additional 13
conductor and 230 m oI additional ground rods, as compared with the previous example. Thus, the mesh 14
spacingcouldbeincreased,thenumberand/orlengthoI groundrodscouldbereduced,orbothtoachieve 15
thesamemarginoIsaIetyasexample2. 16
Theremainingstepsarethesameasdemonstratedinexample2andwillnotberepeatedhere. 17
Forcomparison,thecomputerprogramoIEPRITR100622 B63 resulted in 2.28 O, 519.4 V and 349.7 V 18
Iorthegridresistance,touchvoltage,andstepvoltage,respectively,Iorthisexample. 19
B.4 Lshaped grid with ground rodsExample 4 20
InthisexamplethedesignoIExample 2 is modifed to illustrate the use oI the equations Ior an Lshaped 21
gridwithgroundrods.ThetotalareaandmeshspacingarethesameasthatoIExample2,andtheground 22
rodsarelocatedonlyaroundtheperimeteroIthegrid,asshowninFigureB.4.Allotherparametersarethe 23
sameasExample2,exceptthenumberoI rods (24).Thus, Steps 14 are the same as example 2, and this 24
examplebeginswithStep5. 25
Step 5. UsingEquation(52)IorL
T
1575m(24)(7.5m)1755mandA 4900m
2
,gives 26
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(


.

\

+
+ + =
A h A
L
R
T
g
/ 20 1
1
1
20
1 1
(B.33) 1
ohms R
g
74 . 2
4900 20 5 . 0 1
1
1
4900 20
1
1755
1
400 =
(
(


.

\

+
+
+ =
2
3
Steps 6 and 7. TherevisedGPRis(1908)(2.74)5228V,whichismuchgreaterthanthetolerabletouch 4
voltageoI838.2V. 5
Step 8. UsingEquation(84)throughEquation(88),andEquation(81)andEquation(89),n, K
m
,andK
i
are 6
computed 7
8
9
10
11
12
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Figure B.4 Lshaped grid with twentyfour 7.5 m ground rods 1
d c b a
n n n n n =
(B.34)
2
P
C
a
L
L
n
=
2
(B.35) 3
9
350
1575 2
=
=
a
n 4
A
L
n
P
b
=
4
(B.36) 5
6
12 . 1
4900 4
350
=
=
b
n 7
y x
L L
A
y x
c
A
L L
n
=
7 . 0
(B.37) 8
( )
( )
21 . 1
4900
105 70
105 70
4900 7 . 0
=
(
= n
9
1 =
d
n IorLshapedgrid 10
( )( )( )( ) 2 . 12 1 21 . 1 12 . 1 9 = = n 11
NowK
m
iscomputedusingEquation(81)andEquation(83) 12
1 =
ii
K 13
14
K
h
= + = 1
05
10
1225
.
.
.
15
16
( )
( )
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
(B.35) 17
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1
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
76 . 0
1 2 . 12 2
8
ln
225 . 1
0 . 1
01 . 0 4
5 . 0
01 . 0 7 8
5 . 0 2 7
01 . 0 5 . 0 16
7
ln
2
1
2 2
=
(
(
+
(
+
+ =
t t
m
K
2
Equation(89)isusedtocomputeK
i
3
n K
i
+ = 148 . 0 644 . 0 (B.36) 4
45 . 2 2 . 12 148 . 0 644 . 0 = + =
i
K 5
Finally,E
m
iscomputedusingEquation(80)andEquation(91) 6
7
R
y x
r
i m G
m
L
L L
L
L
K K I
E
C
(
(


.

\

+
+ +
=
2 2
22 . 1 55 . 1
(B.37) 8
9
( )( )( )( )
V 1 . 761
180
105 70
5 . 7
22 . 1 55 . 1 1575
45 . 2 76 . 0 1908 400
2 2
=
(
(


.

\

+
+ +
=
m
E
10
11
Equation(92)throughEquation(94)areusedtocomputeE
s
, L
s
andK
s
,respectively.Itshouldbenotedthat 12
thevalueIorK
i
isstill2.45(sameasIormeshvoltage). 13
( )
(
+
+
+
=
2
5 . 0 1
1 1
2
1 1
n
s
D h D h
K
t
(B.38) 14
15
( )
( ) 41 . 0 5 . 0 1
7
1
5 . 0 7
1
5 . 0 2
1 1
2 2 . 12
=
(
+
+
+ =
t
s
K
16
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Then 1
R C
i s
s
L L
K K I
E
G
+
=
85 . 0 75 . 0
(B.39) 2
3
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )
V 6 . 574
180 85 . 0 1575 75 . 0
45 . 2 41 . 0 1908 400
=
+
=
s
E
4
5
Step 9. Note that this is close to the results oI Example 2, and is lower than the tolerable E
touch70
limit oI 6
838.2V.ProceedtoStep10. 7
Step 10. ThecomputedE
s
iswellbelowthetolerablestepvoltagedeterminedinStep3oIexample1.That 8
is,574.6Vismuchlessthan2686.6V. 9
Step 11. NotrequiredIorthisexample. 10
Step 12. A saIedesignhasbeenobtainedandIinaldetailscannowbeaddedtothedesign. 11
Forcomparison,acomputerprogramoIEPRITR100622 B63 gives results oI 2.34 O, 742.9 V and 441.8 12
VIorthegridresistance,touchvoltage,andstepvoltage,respectively,Iorthisexample. 13
B.5 Equally spaced grid with ground rods in twolayer soilexhibit 1 14
Using the computer program oI EPRI TR100622 B63, an equally spaced grid in twolayer soil was 15
modeled. 16
AsshowninFigureB.5,the61m61m(200It200It)gridconsistedoIIourmeshesperside,andhad 17
nine ground rods, each 9.2 m (30 It) long. The diameter oI ground rods was 0.0127 m (0.5 in). The 18
diameter oI the grid wire was 0.01 m diameter, buried 0.5 m below the earths surIace. The depth oI the 19
upper layer 300 Om soil was 4.6 m (15 It); the lower soil had resistivity oI 100 Om. 20
The computercalculated values oI resistance, corner mesh voltage, and maximum step voltage, are as 21
Iollows: 22
R
g
1.353 O E
m
49.66oIGPRE
s
18.33oIGPR 23
AscanbedeterminedIromFigureB.6,themeshvoltagecoordinateswereX75.00It,andY75.00It, 24
thatis,nearthecenteroIthecornermesh.The maximum stepvoltage(notshown) wascalculatedoutside 25
thegrid,betweenthegridcorner(X,Y100It)andthepointatX,Y102.12It,thatis,approximately 26
over1mdistanceinadiagonaldirectionawayIromthegridcorner. 27
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B.6 Unequally spaced grid with ground rods in uniform soilexhibit 2 1
Using the computer program oI EPRI TR100622 B63, a square grid with unequally spaced conductors 2
wasmodeledasshowninFigureB.7. 3
Thecomputeroutputincludedthegridresistance,asurIacevoltageproIile,thestepvoltage,andthecorner 4
meshvoltage. 5
As shown in Figure B.8, the corner mesh voltage is only 9.29 oI the GPR, while the maximum touch 6
voltage,occurringabovethelargestinteriormesh,is17.08oItheGPR. 7
The maximum touch voltage, thus, did not occur in the corner mesh. For other choices oI conductor 8
spacings, the maximum touch voltage may occur above some other meshes. ThereIore, Ior unequal 9
spacings, the touch voltages must be investigated over the entire grid, and the simpliIied criterion Ior 10
checking the corner mesh voltage alone is not suIIicient. On the other hand, the resistance R
g
is not too 11
dependentontheexactconIigurationoIgridconductorsandgroundrods.Forinstance, wereR
g
estimated 12
byequation(53)IoracombinedlengthoIgridconductorsandgroundrodsL
T
1891.44m259.2m 13
1876 m, the calculated value oI 1.61 O would be less than 14 higher than the value oI 1.416 O 14
calculatedbythecomputerprogramoIEPRITR100622B63. 15
16
17
18
19
20
21
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Figure B.5 Equally spaced square grid with nine rods in twolayer soil 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Figure B.6 Diagonal voltage profile for the grid of Figure B.5 in twolayer soil 15
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure B.7 Unequally spaced square grid with twentyfive 9.2 m rods 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure B.8 Diagonal voltage profile for an unequally spaced grid of Figure B.7 27
28
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Annex C 1
(informative) 2
Graphical and approximate analysis of current division 3
C.1 Introduction 4
AgraphicalmethodIordeterminingthemaximumgridcurrent,basedonresultsobtainedusingacomputer 5
programoIEPRITR100622B63has been developed. This method attempts to correlate the substation 6
zerosequenceIaultobtainedIromastandard short circuit study to the actual current Ilowing between the 7
groundingsystemandsurroundingearth.TheoriginalpresentationoIthisconceptwaspublishedinGarrett, 8
Myers,andPatelB73.ThatpaperdescribestheparametricanalysisperIormedandtheresultingbasisIor 9
theassumptionsusedtodevelopthecurves.Additionalcurveshavesincebeendevelopedtoaddressother 10
system conIigurations. The Iollowing is an explanation oI the use oI the graphs shown in Figure C.1 11
throughFigureC.22. 12
ThegraphsaredividedintotheIollowingIourcategories: 13
CategoryA:100remoteand0localIaultcurrentcontribution,representingtypicaldistribution 14
substations with deltawye transIormer, with X transmission lines and Y Ieeders (Figure C.1 15
throughFigureC.16) 16
CategoryB:75remoteand25localgroundIaultcurrentcontribution(FigureC.17andFigure 17
C.18) 18
CategoryC:50remoteand50localgroundIaultcurrentcontribution(FigureC.19andFigure 19
C.20) 20
CategoryD:25remoteand75localgroundIaultcurrentcontribution(FigureC.21andFigure 21
C.22) 22
23
Categories BD represent typical transmission substations or generating plants with X transmission lines 24
(Ieeders are considered to be transmission lines in these cases), and with local sources oI zero sequence 25
current, such as auto transIormers, three winding transIormers, generators (groundedwye GSUs), etc. 26
Category A works well Ior practical cases. Categories BD are rough approximations, and the accuracy 27
dependsonseveralsystemparameters(particularlythesourceoIthelocalgroundIaultcurrent). 28
TheIollowingassumptionswereusedtoobtainthegraphs: 29
a) TransmissionlinelengthoI23.5mi(37.82km)andadistancebetweengroundsoI500It(152m). 30
b) Transmission tower Iooting resistance oI 15 or 100 O. 31
c) Transmission line structure single pole with 17#10 alumoweld shield wire and 336.4 kcmil, 26/7 32
ACSRconductor. 33
d) DistributionlinelengthoI2.5mi(4km)andadistancebetweengroundsoI400It(122m). 34
e) Distribution pole Iooting resistance oI 25 O or 200 O. 35
I) Distribution pole threephase triangular layout, with one 336.4 kcmil, 26/7 ACSR phase and 1/0 36
ACSRneutralconductor. 37
g) Soil resistivity oI 100 Om. 38
h) Substationgrounding system resistances oI 0.1 O, 0.5 O, 1.0 O, 5.0 O,10.0 O, and 25.0 O. 39
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i) NumberoItransmissionlinesvariedIrom0,1,2,4,8,12,and16. 1
j) NumberoIdistributionlinesvariedIrom0,1,2,4,8,12,and16. 2
k) OneremotesourceIoreachtwotransmissionlines. 3
C.2 How to use the graphs and equivalent impedance table 4
ReIerringtoFigureC.1throughFigureC.22,aIamilyoIcurvesisplotted, witheachcurverepresentinga 5
diIIerentnumberoItransmissionlinesordistributionIeeders.Theabscissaisa rangeoIgroundingsystem 6
resistances Irom 0.1 O to 25.0 O. The ordinate is the percent oI the total zero sequence substation bus 7
groundIaultcurrentwhichIlowsbetweenthegroundingsystemandsurroundingearth(i.e.,thegridcurrent 8
I
g
). 9
WhenusingCategoryAcurvesandTableC.1,onlythedeltaconnectedbusIaultcurrentshouldbeusedas 10
themultiplieroIthesplitIactor,becausethisIaultcurrentistheonethatisIromremotesourcesandisthe 11
basis oI these curves. When using Category BD curves, the Iault current and contributions should be 12
determined Ior all transmission voltage levels and the case resulting in the highest grid current should be 13
used. 14
TableC.1showstheequivalenttransmissionanddistributiongroundsystemimpedanceat1 O Ior 100 15
remotecontributionwithXtransmissionlinesandYdistributionIeeders.TheIirstcolumnoIimpedancesis 16
IortransmissionlinegroundelectroderesistanceR
tg
oI 15 O and distribution Ieeder ground electrode resis 17
tanceR
dg
oI 25 O. The secondcolumnoIimpedancesisIorR
tg
oI 100 O and R
dg
oI 200 O. To determine the 18
GPR with current splits, parallel the grid resistance with the appropriate impedance Irom the table and 19
multiplythisvaluebythetotalIaultcurrent.Forexample,asubstationwithonetransmissionlineandtwo 20
distribution Ieeders has a ground grid resistance oI 5 O, a total Iault current oI 1600 A, R
tg
oI 15 O, and R
dg
21
oI25O.FromTableC.1,theequivalentimpedanceoIthetransmissionanddistributiongroundsystemis 22
0.54j0.33 O. The magnitude oI the equivalent total ground impedance is 23
24
( )( )
Z
j
j
g
=
+
+ +
=
50 054 0 33
50 054 0 33
057
. . .
. . .
. O(C.1) 25
andtheGPRis 26
( )( ) 912 1600 57 . 0 = = GPR V(C.2) 27
Tocalculatethegridcurrent,dividetheGPRbythegroundgridresistance. 28
I
g
= =
912
5
182 A (C.3) 29
Thegridcurrentmayalsobecomputeddirectlybycurrentdivision. 30
( )
I
j
j
g
=
+
+ +
= 1600
054 0 33
50 054 0 33
182
. .
. . .
A (C.4) 31
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C.3 Examples 1
Toillustratethe useoIthe graphicalanalysis, consider a substation with two transmission lines and three 2
distributionIeeders,andaground grid resistance oI 1 O, as shown in Figure C.23. Using EPRI TR100622 3
B63, the maximum grid current is 2354.6 A, and the total bus ground Iault is 9148.7 A. The system in 4
question has two transmission lines with R
tg
oI 15 O and three distribution lines with R
dg
oI 25 O. Figure 5
C.3showscurvesIortwolines/twoIeedersandtwolines/IourIeeders.Thus,interpolationisnecessaryIor 6
this example. From Figure C.3, we see that the approximate split Iactor S
f
is (3223)/2 or 27.5. The 7
maximumgridcurrentis 8
( )( ) 2516 275 . 0 7 9148 = = .
g
I (C.5) 9
UsingTableC.1,theequivalentimpedanceoIthetransmissionanddistributiongroundsystemIortwolines 10
andtwodistributionIeedersis0.455j0.241 O, and Ior two lines and Iour distribution Ieeders is 0.27 11
j0.165 O. The average oI the split Iactors Ior these two cases will be used. 12
349 . 0
241 . 0 455 . 0 0 . 1
241 . 0 455 . 0
=
+ +
+
=
j
j
S
f
13
14
247 . 0
165 . 0 27 . 0 0 . 1
165 . 0 27 . 0
=
+ +
+
=
j
j
S
f
15
16
Thus, ( ) 9 . 28 298 . 0 2 / 247 . 0 349 . 0 or S
f
= + = 17
Theresultinggridcurrentusingthismethodis 18
( ) ( ) 2726 298 . 0 7 . 9148 = =
g
I A 19
Both methods compare Iavorably with the value oI 2354.6 A or 26 oI 3I
0
Irom the computer program, 20
thoughtheequivalentimpedancemethodisgenerallymoreconservative. 21
NextconsiderthemorecomplexsystemshowninFigureC.24.Thisexample is similar to the frst, except 22
thatthedistributionsubstationisreplaced with a local source oI generation, such as a cogeneration plant. 23
Forthisexample,thereisbothlocalandremotesourcesoIgroundIaultcurrent,sothepercentoIlocalvs. 24
remote ground Iault current contribution must be computed. The computer program oI EPRI TR100622 25
B63computedatotalIaultcurrentoI19269.6Aatthe115kVbus, with48.7contributedbythelocal 26
sourceand51.3contributedbytheremotesources.Theclosestcurvesare Ior50/50split(Figure C.19). 27
For a grid resistance oI 0.9 O, the split Iactor is determined Irom the curve Ior two lines and no Ieeders, S
f
28
29.Themaximumgridcurrentis 29
( ) ( ) 5588 29 . 0 6 . 269 19 = =
g
I A 30
Forthiscase,thecomputerprogramresultsinavalueoI4034.8A,or21oI3I
0
.Thisdoesnotcompareas 31
wellasthecasewith100remotecontribution,butisstillcloserthanusing thetotalIaultcurrent,oreven 32
theremoteorlocalcontribution.Theequivalentimpedance method(TableC.1)doesnot workas well Ior 33
casesotherthan100remotecontribution,andisnotincludedinTableC.1. 34
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C.4 Equations for computing line impedances 1
The Iollowing equations are Iound in the ABB T&D ReIerence Book, Fourth Edition B1. The defnitions 2
oIthetermsusedintheequationsare 3
G
MD
isthegeometricmeandistancebetweenthephaseconductorsinIt 4
G
MR
isthegeometricmeanradiusoItheconductorinIt 5
d
ab
isthedistancebetweenconductorsaandbinIt 6
r
a
istheacresistanceoItheconductoratIrequencyI 7
x
a
istheinductivereactanceoItheconductortooneIootspacingatIrequencyI 8
f istheIrequencyinHz 9
De istheequivalentdepthoIearthreturninIt 10
is the soil resistivity in Om 11
12
Thepositivesequenceimpedance,Z
1
,oIatransmissionline(withearthreturn),ignoringtheeIIectsoIover 13
headshieldwires,is 14
d a a
jx jx r Z + + =
1
Omi (C.6) 15
where 16
17
GMD
f
x
a
1
log
60
2794 . 0
10
= 18
19
GMD
f
x
d 10
log
60
2794 . 0 = 20
21
and 22
3
10
log
60
2794 . 0
ca bc ab
d d d
f
GMD = 23
24
ThezerosequenceselIimpedance,Z
0(a)
, oIthetransmissionline(withearthreturn),withnooverheadshield 25
wiresis 26
d e a e a a o
x jx jx r r Z + + + = 2
) (
Omi (C.7) 27
where 28
f r
e
= 00477 . 0 (C.8) 29
and 30
31
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.

\

=
f
f x
e
6
10
10 6655 . 4 log 006985 . 0 1
andr
a
, x
a
,andx
d
areasdeIinedaboveusingcharacteristicsoIthephaseconductors. 2
ThezerosequenceselIimpedance,Z
0(g)
,oIoneoverheadshieldwire(withearthreturn)is 3
( )
Z r r j x jx
g a e a e 0
3 3 = + + + Omi (C.9) 4
where r
a
andx
a
areasdeIinedaboveusingcharacteristicsoItheoverheadshieldwire,andr
e
andx
e
areas 5
deIinedabove. 6
ThezerosequenceselIimpedance,Z
0(g)
,oItwooverheadshieldwires(withearthreturn)is 7
d e a e a g
x j jx x r r Z + + + =
2
3
2
3
2
3
) ( 0
Omi (C.10) 8
where 9
10
xy d
d
f
x
10
log
60
2794 . 0 = (C.11) 11
12
d
xy
isthedistancebetweenthetwooverheadshieldwires,r
a
andx
a
areasdeIinedaboveusingcharacteris 13
ticsoItheoverheadshieldwire,andr
e
andx
e
areasdeIinedabove. 14
15
Thezerosequencemutualimpedance,Z
0(ag)
betweenonecircuitandnshieldwires(withearthreturn)is 16
d e e ag
x j jx r Z + = 3
) ( 0
O mi (C.12) 17
where 18
( )
n
cgn bgn agn cg bg ag d
d d d d d d
f
x
=
3
1 1 1 10
log
60
2794 . 0 (C.13) 19
20
d
ag1
is the distance between phase a and the frst overhead shield wire, etc., and r
e
and x
e
are as defned 21
above. 22
Then,thezerosequenceimpedanceoIonecircuitwithn shieldwires(andearthreturn)is 23
) ( 0
2
) ( 0
) ( 0 0
g
ag
a
Z
Z
Z Z = O/mile (C.14) 24
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These equations Ior Z
1
and Z
0
are used, along with appropriate impedances Ior transIormers, generators, 1
etc.,tocomputetheequivalentIaultimpedance. 2
TocomputetheimpedanceoIanoverheadshieldwireorIeederneutralIoruseinEndrenyisIormula,the 3
simpleselIimpedance(withearthreturn)oItheconductorisused. 4
3 3
e
a
e
c s
x
j jx
r
r Z + + + = O mi (C.15) 5
where 6
r
a
andx
a
areasdeIinedaboveusingcharacteristicsoItheoverhead shield wireorIeeder neutral, 7
andr
e
andx
e
areasdeIinedabove. 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
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Table C.1Approximate equivalent impedance of transmission line overhead shield wires 1
and distribution feeder neutrals 2
3
Number of transmission
lines
Number of distribution
neutrals
Rtg = 15; Rdg = 25;
R + jx (O)
Rtg = 100; Rdg = 200;
R + jx (O)
1 1 0.91j0.485 3.27j0.652
1 2 0.54j0.33 2.18j0.412
1 4 0.295j0.20 1.32j0.244
1 8 0.15j0.11 0.732j0.133
1 12 0.10j0.076 0.507j0.091
1 16 0.079j0.057 0.387j0.069
2 1 0.685j0.302 2.18j0.442
2 2 0.455j0.241 1.63j0.324
2 4 0.27j0.165 1.09j0.208
2 8 0.15j0.10 0.685j0.122
2 12 0.10j0.07 0.47j0.087
2 16 0.08j.055 0.366j0.067
4 1 0.45j0.16 1.30j0.273
4 2 0.34j0.15 1.09j0.22
4 4 0.23j0.12 0.817j0.16
4 8 0.134j0.083 0.546j0.103
4 12 0.095j0.061 0.41j0.077
4 16 0.073j0.05 0.329j0.06
8 1 0.27j0.08 0.72j0.152
8 2 0.23j0.08 0.65j0.134
8 4 0.17j0.076 0.543j0.11
8 8 0.114j0.061 0.408j0.079
8 12 0.085j0.049 0.327j0.064
8 16 0.067j0.041 0.273j0.052
12 1 0.191j0.054 0.498j0.106
4
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure C.1Curves to approximate split factor S
f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure C.2Curves to approximate split factor S
f
26
27
28
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure C.3Curves to approximate split factor S
f
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure C.4Curves to approximate split factor S
f
27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure C.5Curves to approximate split factor S
f
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure C.6Curves to approximate split factor S
f
25
26
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure C.7Curves to approximate split factor S
f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure C.8Curves to approximate split factor S
f
26
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Figure C.9Curves to approximate split factor S
f
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure C.10Curves to approximate split factor S
f
27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Figure C.11Curves to approximate split factor S
f
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Figure C.12Curves to approximate split factor S
f
28
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1
2
3
Figure C.13Curves to approximate split factor S 4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Figure C.14Curves to approximate split factor S
f
18
19
20
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure C.15Curves to approximate split factor S
f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure C.16Curves to approximate split factor S
f
26
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1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure C.17Curves to approximate split factor S
f
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Figure C.18Curves to approximate split factor S
f
22
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Figure C.19Curves to approximate split factor S
f
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure C.20Curves to approximate split factor S
f
27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure C.21Curves to approximate split factor S
f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure C.22Curves to approximate split factor S
f
25
26
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1
2
Figure C.23System and FRQJXUDWLRQGDWDIRUH[DPSOH of C.3 3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Figure C.26\VWHPDQGFRQJXUDWLRQGDWDIRUH[DPSOHRI& 16
17
18
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Annex D 1
(informative) 2
Simplified step and mesh equations 3
InthepreviouseditionsoIthisguide,the Iollowing equation was provided Ior determining the value oIa 4
mesh voltage (in volts) on the earths surIace above the center oI a corner mesh (assuming an equally 5
spacedrectangulargrid,whichisburiedatdepthh inahomogeneoussoiloIuniIormresistivity).Thisgrid 6
mayconsistoIn parallelconductorsspacedD apart,andoIanundeterminednumberoIcrossconnections. 7
AllgridwiresareassumedtobeoIdiameterd.ThespacingoIparallelconductorsD,aswellasd andh,are 8
inmeters. 9
10
M
G i m
m
L
I K K
E
=
(D.1) 11
where 12
13
E
m
isthemeshvoltageinV 14
is the average soil resistivity in O m 15
I
G
isthemaximumrmscurrentIlowingbetweengroundgridandearthinA 16
L
M
is the total length oI buried conductors, including cross connections, and (optionally) the 17
combinedlengthoIgroundrodsinm 18
K
i
isthecorrectiveIactorIorcurrentirregularity 19
K
m
isthemeshIactordeIinedIornparallelconductors 20
21
TheAIEEWorkingGrouponSubstationGroundingPracticesB3derivedtheIactorsK
m
andK
i
toaccount 22
IorthegeometryoIthegroundingsystem.TherelationshipbetweenK
m
andE
m
dependslargelyonthecur 23
rentdensityintheperimeter conductors versus the current density in the inner conductors. To reIlect this 24
eIIectoIcurrentdensityandtocorrectsomeoIthedeIicienciesintheequationIorK
m
,SverakB132added 25
the weightingterms, K
ii
and K
h
intotheequation IorK
m
. The resulting equation Ior K
m
was moreaccurate 26
andversatilethanpreviousIormsoItheequation 27
28
( )
( )
(
(
+
(
+
+
=
1 2
8
ln
4 8
2
16
ln
2
1
2 2
n K
K
d
h
d D
h D
d h
D
K
h
ii
m
t t
(D.1) 29
30
Forgridswithgroundrodsalongtheperimeter,orIorgridswithgroundrodsinthe gridcorners,aswellas 31
bothalongtheperimeterandthroughoutthegridarea 32
1 =
ii
K 33
Forgrids withnogroundrodsorgridswithonlyaIew groundrods,nonelocatedinthe cornersoronthe 34
perimeter. 35
36
37
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( )n
ii
n
K
2
2
1
= 1
(D.2) 2
3
0
1
h
h
K
h
+ = (D.3) 4
K
h
1h
o
1m(gridreIerencedepth) 5
Because oIassumptionsmadeinthederivationoIK
m
,acorrectiveIactorK
i
isneededtocompensateIorthe 6
Iact that the subject mathematical modeloI n parallel conductors cannot Iully account Ior the eIIects oIa 7
gridgeometry;thatis,IortwosetsoIparallelconductorsthatareperpendiculartoeachotherandintercon 8
nectedatthecrossconnectionpoints.ForalargenumberoIsquareandrectangulargrids,themeshvoltage 9
wasobtainedusingacomputer.Fromthiscomputer generateddata,anewexpression Ior K
i
was Ioundto 10
better ft in the mesh voltage equation (Thapar, Gerez,Balakrishnan,andBlankB144).ThisIactoris 11
n K
i
+ = 148 . 0 644 . 0 (D.4) 12
The simpliIied E
m
equation used in the previous edition oI the guide has been limited to square and 13
rectangular grids with square meshes. In practice, a large number oI ground grids have shapes other than 14
squareorrectangular.WhilethespeciIic Iormula IorK
m
hasremainedthesameasthe1986editionoIthe 15
guide,anewvalueoInbasedonthegeometryoIthegridandthegeometryoIthemesheswasdevelopedin 16
Thapar, Gerez, Balakrishnan, and Blank B144 to allow Equation (D.2), Equation (D.3), and Equation 17
(D5)tobeeIIectiveIoravarietyoIgridshapes,includingsymmetricalTshaped,triangular,andLshaped 18
grids. 19
d c b a
n n n n n = (D.5) 20
where 21
22
p
C
a
L
L
n
=
2
(D.6) 23
24
25
n
b
1Iorsquaregrids 26
n
c
1Iorsquareandrectangulargrids 27
n
d
1Iorsquare,rectangular,andLshapedgrids 28
29
Otherwise 30
31
A
L
n
p
b
=
4
(D.7) 32
xy 33
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y x
L L
A
y x
c
A
L L
n
=
7 . 0
(D.8) 1
2 2
y x
m
d
L L
D
n
+
= (D.9) 2
where 3
4
L
c
isthetotallengthoItheconductorinthehorizontalgridinm 5
L istheperipherallengthoIthegridinm 6
A istheareaoIthegridinm
2
7
L
x
isthemaximumlengthoIthegridinthexdirectioninm 8
L isthemaximumlengthoIthegridintheydirectioninm 9
D
m
isthemaximumdistancebetweenanytwopointsonthegridinm 10
11
12
While these changes to the equations did expand their use to include a variety oI practical ground grid 13
shapes, they did not include the use oI ground rods. An attempt was made to expand these equations to 14
includetheuseoIgroundrods.IIL
C
representsthetotalgridconductorlength,L
R
representsthetotallength 15
oIallgroundrods,andL
r
representstheaveragelengthoIeachgroundrod,thenIorgridswithgroundrods 16
inthecorners,aswellasalongtheperimeterandthroughoutthegrid. 17
18
R
y x
r
C
i m G
m
L
L L
L
L
K K I
E
(
(


.

\

+
+ +
=
2 2
22 . 1 55 . 1
(D.10) 19
20
Themultiplier IorL
R
isanempiricalIunction that reIlects the Iact that the current density is higher in the 21
groundrodsthaninthehorizontalgridconductorsIoruniIormsoil. 22
23
InthepreviouseditionsoIthisguide,theIollowingequationwasprovidedIordeterminingthevalueoIthe 24
worstcasestepvoltage(involts): 25
26
S
i s G
s
L
K K I
E
=
(D.11) 27
28
where 29
30
E
s
isthestepvoltageinV 31
is the average soil resistivity in Om 32
I
G
isthemaximumrmscurrentIlowingbetweengroundgridandearthinA 33
L
S
isthetotallengthoIburiedconductors,includingcrossconnections,and(optionally)thetotal 34
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eIIectivelengthoIgroundrodsinm 1
K isthecorrectiveIactorIorcurrentirregularity 2
K
s
isthemeshIactordeIinedIornparallelconductors 3
4
SverakB132derivedaIactorK
s
,basedonthegeometryoIagroundgridwithnogroundrods.Aswiththe 5
mesh voltage, this K
s
is proportional to the step voltage E
s
. Again, computer simulations were used to 6
derive empirical Iactors to improve the accuracy oI previous versions oI E
S
, specifcally the Iactor n. 7
(Thapar,Gerez,Balakrishnan,andBlankB144) 8
9
( )
(
+
+
+
=
2
5 . 0 1
1 1
2
1 1
n
s
D h D h
K
t
(D.12) 10
11
wheren, D,andh aredeIinedabove. 12
13
While these changes to the equations did expand their use to include a variety oI practical ground grid 14
shapes, they did not include the use oI ground rods. An attempt was made to expand these equations to 15
include the use oI ground rods. II L
C
represents the total grid conductor length and L
R
represents the total 16
lengthoIallgroundrods,thenIorgridswithorwithoutgroundrods 17
18
R C
i s G
s
L L
K K I
E
+
=
85 . 0 75 . 0
(D.13) 19
20
ThesenewsimpliIiedequationswerecomparedtocomputersolutionsIorhundredsoIdiIIerentground 21
gridsandtheresultscomparedIavorably. 22
23
24
25
26
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Annex E 1
(informative) 2
Equivalent uniform soil model for nonuniform soils 3
In the interest oI simplicity, several assumptions have been made in developing the ground grid design 4
equations oI this guide. One such assumption is that these equations are only valid Ior a uniIorm soil 5
resistivity model regardless oI the soil under consideration. A survey indicated the need to provide a 6
guideline Ior representing a soil regardless oI its type by a uniIorm equivalent and, thus, remove this 7
limitationintheuseoIthedesignequations. 8
9
Atypicalsoilhasseverallayers,eachhavingadiIIerentresistivity.MostoItenlateralchangesalsooccur, 10
butincomparisontotheverticallayers,thesechangesusuallyaremoregradual.Stationsiteswherethesoil 11
may possess uniIorm resistivity throughout the area and to a considerable depth are seldom Iound. A 12
uniIorm soil interpretation oI apparent resistivities obtained in the Iield, under these circumstances, is the 13
most diIfcult task to perIorm even with the help oI computers. Accordingly, it must be recognized that the 14
soil model is only an approximation oI the actual soil conditions and that a perIect match is unlikely. 15
However, it has been recognized that the twolayer representation oI a soil is closer to the actual soil 16
conditionscomparedtoitsuniIormequivalent. 17
18
Sometimes,inamultilayersoil,thevariationinapparentsoilresistivity
a
withrespecttodepthorpinspac 19
ing is not too great. Such a soil can be represented as a uniIorm soil with a single soil resistivity value. 20
AlthoughitisdiIIiculttodrawaclearlinetoindicatewhetherthesoilisuniIormornot,theapproachtaken 21
here consisted oI deIining the uniIorm soil based on the twolayer equivalents oI several Iield measured 22
resistivityproIiles.Thecomputerprogram oI EPRI TR100622 B63 was used to compute an equivalent 23
twolayersoilmodel.ThecomputervaluesindicatedthatasoilcanberepresentedasauniIormsoiliIthe 24
diIIerence between two extreme values oI apparent resistivity is moderate. AIter it is determined that the 25
soilcanbeapproximatedasuniIorm,theaverageapparentresistivityvaluecomputedIromEquation(E.1) 26
representsthatsoilinthedesignequations. 27
28
n
n a a a a
av a
) ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
+ + +
= (E.1) 29
where
a(1)
,
a(2)
,
a(3)
...
a(n)
aretheapparentresistivitymeasurementsobtainedatndiIIerentspacingsinIour 30
pin method or at n diIIerent depths in driven ground rod method in Om. 31
32
AmajorityoIthesoilswillnotmeettheabovecriteriaIortheuniIormsoil.TodetermineuniIormsoilmod 33
els to represent nonuniIorm soils, a similar approach was taken. The measured apparent resistivity data 34
Irom several sites were used to obtain three diIIerent soil models: a twolayer soil model computed with 35
EPRITR100622B63,andtwodiIIerentuniIormsoilmodelsusingEquation(E.1)andEquation(E.2). 36
37
2
(min) (max)
) 2 (
a a
av a
+
= (E.2) 38
where 39
40
a(max)
is the maximum apparent resistivity value (Irom measured data), Om. 41
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a(min)
is the minimum apparent resistivity value (Irom measured data), Om. 1
2
The next step was to compute the ground grid resistance R
g
, the corner mesh voltage E
mesh
, and the 3
corner step voltage E
step
Ior a typical ground grid using EPRI TR100622 B63. A 76.2 m 76.2 m 4
ground grid with 64 meshes and uniIormly distributed ground rods was selected Ior this investigation. 5
The length oI the ground rods varied with the soil model. For a given soil model, this length was 6
determined so as to reach the depth (or pin spacing) where
a(av1)
or
a(av2)
occurred in the measured 7
apparent resistivity profle. Figure E.1 illustrates the modeled ground grid including the locations Ior 8
computedstepandtouchvoltages. 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Figure E.1 The ground grid modeled for computing grounding parameters 22
Followingthecomputations,thegroundingparameterscomputedwiththetwolayermodelwerecompared 23
with those computed using the uniIorm soil models. This comparison indicated that the mesh and step 24
voltagescomputed withthesoil modelrepresented by
a(av2)
yielded values comparable to those computed 25
withthetwolayermodelIorthesoilsinvestigated. 26
27
TableE.1presentsthecomparisonoIgroundingparameterscomputedusingthetwolayersoilmodelwith 28
thosecomputedusingtheuniIormsoilmodelrepresentedby
a(av2)
Iortwotypicalsoils.Thesoilresistivity 29
valuesshowninTableE.2weremathematicallyderivedIromassumedtwolayersoilmodels. 30
31
32
33
34
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Soil
Computed grounding parameters with twolayer
soil model
Computed grounding parameters with
uniform soil model
type
1, 2, h
O m, O m
Rg
O m
Em (V) Es (V)
(av2)
Om
Rg
O
Em (V) Es (V)
1 100,300,6.1 1.28 126 85 158 0.89 151 86
2 300,100,6.1 0.72 187 92 193 1.09 185 106
Table E.1Ground parameters computed with twolayer soil compared with those 1
computed with equivalent uniform soil model 2
3
Probe separation Soil type 1 Soil type 2
(ft) (m)
Resistance
O
Apparent
resistivity
a O m
Resistance
O
Apparent
resistivity
a O m
1 0.305 29.73 56.94 89.13 170.74
3 0.915 15.33 88.07 45.85 263.46
5 1.524 9.97 95.48 29.55 283.06
15 4.573 3.85 110.71 9.39 269.67
20 6.098 3.15 120.76 6.46 247.57
30 9.146 2.49 143.10 3.52 202.12
50 15.244 1.90 181.70 1.50 144.05
70 21.341 1.56 208.78 0.90 120.28
90 27.439 1.32 227.75 0.64 110.68
110 33.537 1.15 241.48 0.51 106.41
130 39.634 1.01 251.77 0.42 104.34
150 45.731 0.90 259.76 0.36 103.16
Table E.2Calculated resistance and apparent resistivity data for 4
soil type 1 and type 2 of Table E.1, based on the fourpin method 5
6
7
8
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Annex F 1
(informative) 2
Parametric analysis of grounding systems 3
(ThisAnnexistakenIromDawalibi,F.,andMukhedkar,D.,ParametricanalysisoI groundingsystems, 4
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS98,no.5,pp.16591668,Sept./Oct.1979; 5
and Dawalibi, F., and Mukhedkar, D., 'Infuence oI ground rods on grounding systems, IEEE 6
Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.PAS98,no.6,pp.20892098,Nov./Dec.1979.) 7
8
ToeIIicientlydesignasaIegroundingsystemitisnecessarytohaveknowledgeoIhowvariousparameters 9
aIIecttheperIormanceoIthegroundingsystem.SomeoItheseparametersincludegridconductorspacing 10
and arrangement, number oI ground rods, location and length, and soil resistivity parameters (that is, 11
homogeneous or multilayered with various surIace layer thickness and values oI K, the reIlection Iactor 12
coeIIicient). 13
14
ThisannexgivesabrieIdiscussionoIhowtheaboveparametersaIIectthebehavioroIgroundingsystems 15
Ior uniIorm soil resistivity and Ior twolayer soil resistivity. There are many other parameters that may 16
aIIecttheperIormanceoIthegroundingsystem,butitisnotwithinthescopeoIthisannextodiscussthese 17
parameters. 18
19
F.1 Uniform soil 20
F.1.1 Current densitygrid only 21
ForagroundingsystemconsistingonlyoIgridconductors,thecurrentalonganyoneoI theconductorsis 22
dischargedintotheearthinaIairlyuniIormmanner.However,alargerportionoIthecurrentisdischarged 23
intothesoilIromtheoutergridconductorsratherthanIromtheconductorsatornearthecenteroIthegrid 24
(reIertoFigureF.1andFigureF.2).AneIIectivewayoImakingthecurrentdensitymoreuniIormbetween 25
the inside and periphery conductors is to employ a nonuniIorm conductor spacing, with the conductor 26
spacinglargeratthecenteroIthe gridand smaller toward the perimeter. However, analysis oI grids with 27
thistypeoIspacingcannotbeaccomplishedusing the simpliIied methodsoI this guide, but mustbedone 28
usingtechniquessimilartothosedescribedinthereIerences. 29
30
F.1.2 Resistancegrid only 31
Foragivenareatobegrounded,theeIIect onresistanceoIincreasingthenumberoImeshesinagridonly 32
systembecomes minimal.Thatis,asthe number oI meshes increases Irom one, the resistance oI the grid 33
decreases. However, this decrease quickly becomes negligible Ior large numbers oI meshes (or small 34
parallelconductorspacing).SeeFigureF.3andFigureF.4. 35
36
AsshowninFigureF.5,theresistancealsoshowsagradualdecreasewithburialdepth,untilitapproaches 37
one halI its resistance value at the surIace as the depth increases to inIinity. But Ior typical variations oI 38
burial depth Iound within the industry (that is, approximately 0.51.5 m), this change in resistance with 39
depthisnegligibleIoruniIormsoil. 40
41
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure F.1One mesh grid current density 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure F.2Sixteen mesh grid current density 27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Figure F.3Four mesh grid resistance 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure F.4Sixteen mesh grid resistance Figure 27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure F.5Grid resistance versus grid depth 12
F.1.3 Step and touch voltagesgrid only 13
Since mostoIthecurrentinauniIormlyspacedgridisdischargedintotheearthIromtheouterconductors, 14
theworsttouchandstepvoltagesoccurintheoutermeshes,especiallyinthecornermeshes.Increasingthe 15
number oI meshes (decreasing the conductor spacing) tends to reduce the touch and step voltages until a 16
saturation limit is reached. Beyond this number oI meshes, reducing the conductor spacing has minimal 17
eIIectonreducingthevoltages(reIertoFigureF.6throughFigureF.9).Thissaturationlimitisthevertical 18
componentoIvoltagecausedbythedepthoIburialoIthegrid,andischangedonlywithachangeindepth 19
oIthegrid. 20
21
ThegridburialdepthalsoinIluencesthestepandtouchvoltages signiIicantlyasshowninFigureF.10and 22
FigureF.11.Formoderateincreasesindepth,thetouchvoltagedecreases,due mainlyto thereduced grid 23
resistance and corresponding reduction in the grid potential rise. However, Ior very large increases in 24
depth, the touch voltage may actually increase. The reduction in grid potential rise reduces to a limit oI 25
approximately halI its value at the surIace as the depth oI the grid approaches inIinity, while the earth 26
surIacepotentialapproacheszeroatinIinite depths. ThereIore, depending on the initial depth, an increase 27
in grid burial depth may either increase or decrease the touch voltage, while the step voltage is always 28
reducedIorincreaseddepths. 29
30
F.1.4 Ground rods only 31
ForsystemsconsistingonlyoIgroundrods,thecurrenthasbeenIoundtodischargeintotheearthataIairly 32
uniIorm rate along the length oI the rod with a gradual increase with depth and with slightly higher 33
increases incurrentdensityneartheends(reIertoFigureF.12).AsinthecaseoIthe gridconductors,the 34
currentdensityisgreaterintherodsneartheperipheryoIthegroundingsystemthanIorthoseinthecenter 35
(reIertoFigureF.13andFigureF.14).Thus,thestepandtouch voltagesare higher neartheouterground 36
rods. 37
38
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Increasing the length oI the rods is eIIective in reducing the resistance oI the system, and thereIore, 1
reducing the step and touch voltages. Increasing the number oI rods also reduces the resistance until the 2
groundedareaissaturated,andisevenmoreeIIectiveinreducingthestepandtouchvoltagesas shownin 3
Table F.1. This is true because in addition to the lower resistance and lower ground potential rise, the 4
spacing between the rods is reduced, which tends to make the earth surIace potential more uniIorm. The 5
commentsaboveontheeIIectsoIgridburialdepthalsoapplytotheeIIectsoIthetopoItheroddepths. 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Figure F.6Four mesh grid touch voltages 16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure F.7Sixteen mesh grid touch voltages 27
28
29
30
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure F.8Four mesh grid step voltages 12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Figure F.9Sixteen mesh grid step voltages 25
26
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure F.10Touch voltage versus grid depth 12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure F.11Step voltage versus grid depth 26
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Figure F.12Single rod current density 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Figure F.13Multiple driven rod current density in uniform soil 27
28
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure F.14Current density in multiple driven rods in twolayer soil 12
F.1.5 Grid and ground rod combinations 13
WhenacombinationoIgridconductorsand groundrodsareused ina grounding system,the numberand 14
lengthoIgroundrodsmayhaveagreatinIluenceontheperIormanceoIthegroundingsystem.Foragiven 15
length oI grid conductor or ground rod, the ground rod discharges much more current into the earth than 16
doesthegridconductor,asshowninFigureF.15throughFigureF.18.Thiscurrentinthegroundrodisalso 17
dischargedmainlyinthelowerportionoItherod.ThereIore,thetouchandstepvoltagesarereducedsigniI 18
icantlycomparedtothatoIgridalone. 19
F.1.6 Conclusions 20
In general, a uniIormly spaced grounding system consisting oI a grid and ground rods is superior to a 21
uniIormly spaced grounding system consisting only oI a grid with the same total conductor length. The 22
variable spacing technique discussed earlier might be used to design a grounding system consisting oI a 23
gridonly,withlowerstepandtouchvoltages thanauniIormlyspacedgridandgroundroddesignoIequal 24
length. However, this variable spacing technique might also be used to design a better grounding system 25
using nonuniIormly spaced grid conductors and ground rods. It shall be emphasized that this type oI 26
designshallbeanalyzedusingthedetailedanalysistechniquesinthereIerences. 27
28
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Figure F.15Grid current densityrods and grid in uniform soil 14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure F.16Rod current densityrods and grids in uniform soil 26
27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Figure F.17Rod and grid current densitynine rodsand grid in twolayer soil 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure F.18and grid current densitynine rods and grid in twolayer soil 26
27
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F.2 Twolayer soil 1
The perIormance oI a grounding system in multilayered earth can diIIer greatly Irom the same system in 2
uniIormsoil.Inadditiontootherparameters,theperIormanceisaIIectedbytheresistivityandthicknesses 3
oIthesoillayersandtheburialdepthoIthegroundingsystem.TheIollowingdiscussionwillconsideronly 4
twolayer earth models, due to the complexity and numerous combinations possible Ior additional layers. 5
ForanexplanationoItwolayerearthanalysisoIgroundingsystems,reIerto13.4.2oIthisguide. 6
7
ForbrevityoIthediscussion,theIollowingvariablesaredeIined: 8
9
1
resistivityoIupperlayeroIsoil 10
2
resistivityoIlowerlayeroIsoil 11
K reIlectionIactorcoeIIicient
1 2
1 2
+
12
h heightoIupperlayeroIsoil 13
14
F.2.1 Current densitygrid only 15
ForgroundingsystemsconsistingonlyoIgridconductors,thecurrentdensityishighlydependentonboth 16
K and h,asshowninFigure F.1andFigure F.2. For negative values oI K (
1
~
2
), the current density is 17
Iairly uniIorm over the entire grid with slightly higher densities in the conductor between intersection 18
pointsonthegrid,andisslightlyhigherIorouterconductorsthanIorconductorsnearthecenteroIthegrid. 19
AstheheightoIthetoplayerincreases,this highercurrentdensityintheouterconductorsbecomes more 20
dominant.ThiscanbeexplainedasIollows.ForsmallvaluesoIh,mostoIthecurrentdischargedIromthe 21
gridgoesdownwardintothelowresistivitysoil,whileIorlargevaluesoIh mostoIthecurrentremainsin 22
the high resistivity layer oI soil, assuming that the grid is in this upper layer. As h increases, the model 23
approachesthatoIuniIormsoilwitharesistivityequaltothatoItheupperlayer.ThereIore,asinthecase 24
oI the uniIorm soil model discussed in F.1, the outer grid conductors discharge a larger portion oI the 25
currentintotheearththandothecenterconductors. 26
27
ForpositivevaluesoI K (
1
2
),thecurrent has a much higher tendency to remain in the low resistivity 28
soil,evenIormoderatelysmallvaluesoIh.Ash increases,thecurrentdensityrapidlyapproachesthatoIa 29
uniIormsoil,withhighercurrentdensitiesintheperipheryconductors. 30
31
F.2.2 Resistancegrid only 32
TheresistanceoIagridonlysystemmayvarygreatlyasaIunctionoIK andh and,thus,maybehigheror 33
lowerthanthesamegridinauniIormsoil,asshowninFigureF.3andFigureF.4.Ingeneral,theresistance 34
oI a grid is lowest iI it is in the most conductive layer oI soil. As h increases the resistance oI the grid 35
approachesthatoIagridinuniIormsoiloIthesameresistivityastheupperlayer.Assumingthatthegridis 36
locatedintheuppersoillayerwithresistivity equal to
1
,theIollowingcanbegeneralized: 37
38
a) For negative values oI K (1 ~ 2), the resistance oI the grid will be higher than that oI an identical
gridinuniIormsoilwithresistivity1.
b)
For positive values oI K (1 2), the resistance grid will be lower than that oI an identical grid in
uniIormsoilresistivity2.
39
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F.2.3 Step and touch voltagesgrid only 1
Thestep,touchvoltages,andmeshvoltagesmayalsovarysigniIicantly withK,h,andgriddepth.They 2
maybeverymuchhigherorlowerthanacorrespondinguniIormsoilmodel.SeeFigureF.6throughFigure 3
F.9. 4
5
For grids buried near the surIace oI the earth, increasing the number oI meshes is an eIIective means oI 6
reducing the mesh voltages. However, as the grid depth increases, the eIIectiveness oI this method oI 7
reducing the mesh voltages decreases until at some characteristic grid depth, the mesh voltages begin to 8
increase.ThereasonsIorthisphenomenonareidenticaltothosedescribedpreviouslyIoruniIormsoil.For 9
averylargenumberoImeshes(thatis,smallspacingbetweenparallelconductors),thetouchvoltagesare 10
relativelyunaIIectedbyh andK. 11
12
FornegativevaluesoIK (
1
~
2
),thehighesttouchvoltageoccurswhenhisslightlygreaterthanthegrid 13
depth.ForpositivevaluesoIK (
1
2
),thehighesttouchvoltagesoccurwhenhislessthanthegriddepth, 14
orwhenh ismuchgreaterthanthegriddepth. 15
16
One way oI reducing the touch voltage without increasing the total amount oI conductor is to omit the 17
crossconnecting conductors (except at the ends) and reduce the spacing between the remaining parallel 18
conductors.Itmustbenoted,however,thatwhilethetouchvoltageisreduced,thestepvoltageisincreased 19
whenthisdesignisused. 20
21
F.2.4 Ground rods only 22
ThebehavioroIagroundingsystemconsistingonlyoIgroundrodsmayvarygreatlyIromthatinuniIorm 23
soil.ThemajordiIIerencesarebecausethecurrentdensityineachrodcanbemuchhigherintheportionoI 24
the rod located in the lower resistivity layer, depending on the value oI K. As the absolute value oI K 25
increases,sodoesthepercentageoIthecurrentdischargedIromtheportionoItherodlocatedinthelower 26
resistivitylayeroIsoil,asshowninFigureF.12. 27
28
AssumingthattherodextendsthroughthetoplayerintothebottomlayeroIsoil,thecurrentdensityinthe 29
portion oI the rod in either layer is essentially uniIorm with a slight increase near the boundary oI that 30
layer.Thereisanabruptchangeincurrentdensity,however,at thesurIacelayerdepthh.Forrodsthatare 31
mainly in the low resistivity layer, there is an appreciably higher current density in the outer rods as 32
compared to rods near the center oI the design, but Ior rods mainly in the high resistivity layer the 33
diIIerenceinthecurrentdensityoItheoutsideandinsiderodsismuchless(seeFigureF.14). 34
35
As in the case oI the grid, positive values oI K (
1
2
) generally give a higher resistance and negative 36
values oI K (
1
~
2
) give a lower resistance Ior a system oI ground rods as compared to the identical 37
groundingsysteminuniIormsoilwitharesistivityoI
1
.However,asthesurIacelayerheightincreases,the 38
resistanceoItherodsIorallvaluesoIK approachesthatoItheuniIormmodel(seeTableF.1). 39
40
F.2.5 Grid and ground rod combinations 41
DependingonthevaluesoIK andh,addinggroundrodstoasystemoIgridconductorscanhaveatremen 42
douseIIectontheperIormanceoIthegroundingsystem.FornegativevaluesoIK (
1
~
2
)andIorvaluesoI 43
h limitedsothattherodsextendintomoreconductivesoil,themajorityoIthecurrentisdischargedthrough 44
therodsintothelowerlayeroIsoil.EvenIorlargevaluesoIhwherenoneoItherodextendsintothemore 45
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conductive soil, the current density is higher in the ground rods than in the grid conductors, as shown in 1
FigureF.17andFigureF.18. 2
3
II K is positive (
1
2
), the current density Ior the portion oI the ground rods in the upper layer is still 4
higher than that oI the grid conductors. For positive values oI K, the eIIects oI the ground rods become 5
largelydependentonh,oronthelengthoItherodsinthemoreconductivelayer.Dependingonthemagni 6
tude oI K and h, the lengths oI the rods are eIIectively shortened so that they may not contribute 7
signifcantly to the control oI step and touchvoltages.However,IormoderatepositiveK valuesandlargeh 8
values,thegroundrodscanbeusedtoeIIectivelyimprovethestepandtouchvoltages. 9
10
11
If K isnegative (
1
~
2
),thestepandtouchvoltagesarereducedsigniIicantlywiththeadditionoIground 12
rods to a system oI grid conductors. For small to medium values oI h, relatively all oI the current is 13
dischargedintothelowersoillayer,therebyreducingthestepandtouchvoltages.Ash increases,theper 14
IormanceoIthegroundingsystemapproachesthatoIanidenticalsysteminuniIormsoiloIresistivity
1
. 15
16
F.3 Summary 17
Thetwolayerparametersh andK discussedabovecanhaveconsiderableinIluenceontheperIormanceoI 18
the grounding system. A system designed using the uniIorm soil techniques can give results Ior step and 19
touchvoltagesandstationresistancerangingIromhighlypessimistictohighlyoptimistic,dependingonthe 20
specifc values oI various parameters.TableF.2summarizestheeIIectsoIatwolayersoilenvironmenton 21
touchvoltageoIaddingagroundrodtoagrid,andonthetouchvoltageIoragridrodcombination. 22
23
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1
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Annex G 1
(informative) 2
Grounding methods for highvoltage stations with grounded neutrals 3
(ErdungsmassnahmenIurHochstspannungsanlagenmitGeerdetemSternpunkt) 4
5
WalterKoch,
13
Electrotechnische Zeitschrift, vol.71,no.4,pp.8991,Feb.1950. 6
7
ItisnoteconomicallyIeasibletoprovidegroundinginhighvoltagestations withgroundedneutral, which 8
willlimitcontactpotentialstogroundelectrodesandtheconnectedapparatustolessthan125V.Onehasto 9
deal with a multiplicity oI potentials which may be established between the plant and the surroundings 10
undershortcircuitconditions. 11
12
Experiments with models show that by making the ground system in the Iorm oI a grid, areas within the 13
systemcanbeproducedwhichwillbesaIe.MeansIorsaIeentryintothegroundingareawillbegiven. 14
15
Withadirectlygroundedneutralpointthere fows into the system at the Iault point the socalled ground 16
Iault current instead oI the total singlephase shortcircuit ground current (ungrounded system). This 17
groundIault current depends upon the generating capacity oI the power plants in the area and on the 18
impedanceoIthegroundcircuit.ThegroundingsystemsoIasolidlygroundednetworkwillcarryaportion 19
oIthegroundIaultcurrentwhichmaybeaminimumIorIaultsagreatdistanceIromthestationandmaybe 20
amaximum,namelythetotalgroundIaultcurrent,IoraIaultinthestation. 21
22
WhilethegroundingsystemsmaybeadjustedtoeliminatedangerouscontactpotentialsbysuppressionoI 23
ground shortcircuit currents, this is not usually demandedoI solidly grounded neutral systems because it 24
does not appear to be practicable. For groundIault currents above 1000 A, grounding systems oI vast 25
dimensionsmustbeinstalledinorderto meetthe usual125Vcontactpotentialrequirement. A numerical 26
examplewillshowthis.ThesurIaceareaoI anoutdoorsubstationmaybe250m250m.Hereonehasthe 27
possibilityoIplacingagroundplateoI62500m
2
underthestation.WithanaveragegroundresistivityoI 28
100 Om and the equivalent circular plate diameter oI 280 m the ground resistance is 29
30
D
R
2
= 31
or 32
33
O =
= 18 . 0
000 , 28 2
000 , 10
R 34
35
With such a ground, a groundIault current oI 5000 A will produce a 900 V potential above the more 36
distant surroundings which is many times the potential allowed by VDE. In spite oI this, it has the 37
indisputable advantage that the entire station on this metal plate will have no potentials between parts 38
withinitselIthatareworthmentioning.Forpersonsinsidethestationtherewillnotbetheslightestdanger 39
Iromunduecontactpotentialsatsuchahighcurrent.TherewouldbedangeronlyiIatthemomentoIIault 40
one were to enter or leave the plant or touch it Irom the outside. It is not practical to construct such a 41
13
English translation by T. W. Stringfeld. Some portions on Petersen coil systems and German (VDE) regulations omitted.
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groundplate.However,inordernottoendangerthepersonneloIanelectricalplant, ways mustbesought 1
toIulIillthisrequirement. 2
3
Besides the dangers to personnel, there will be some to the material oI the control and communications 4
equipmentiIitisnotprovidedagainst.ThesheathsoIthecontrolcablesprovideaconnectionbetweenthe 5
controlledapparatusinthehighvoltagebaysandthecontrolpoint.Thereby,aIaulttogroundinthestation 6
cancauseaverylargecurrent to fow through the sheath and melt it. Communication cables which leave 7
the plant will also conduct ground currents away since intentionally or unintentionally they come into 8
contact with building construction parts. Thereby, the sheaths acquire the high potential oI the station in 9
their vicinity while the conductors approximate the potential oI the moredistant surroundings, so that 10
insulationIailures mayoccur.Solikewise the cables oI the lowvoltage plant and the windings oI control 11
motorsamongothers maybeendangered by large potential diIIerences. Indeed, Ior these reasons it is not 12
permissible to rely only on a suIfcient interconnection oI all apparatus such as circuit breakers, transIormer 13
cases, Irame parts, etc. To this all cable sheaths within the plant must also be connected; so likewise the 14
controlmechanismsintheswitchingstationtowhichthecontrolcablesareconnected.Basicallytheentire 15
plant should be provided with a builtup ground mat Ior the groundIault current, to which all equipment 16
parts in the plant are connected. So likewise, the existing neutral conductors oI independent lowvoltage 17
systems should be tied to the ground mat. By this method there will be the least worry that signifcant 18
potentialdiIIerenceswillarisebetweentheaccessiblemetallicpartsoItheplantand theplantequipmentso 19
protectedwillbesaIeIromIailure. 20
21
Now, it is certain that considerable and thereIore dangerous potentials can arise between the soil, the foors 22
oIbuildingsonone side,and the metallic parts oI the plant during the time oI Iaults. ThereIore one must 23
alsoconsiderthesaIetyoIoperatingpersonnelwhointhecourseoItheirworkmusttouchsuchmetalparts. 24
For this purpose the operating position may be provided either with an insulated foor capable oI 25
withstandingthe highpotential or with a metallic grid in the foor and tied to the ground mat or provided 26
with both. Such metallic Ioot grids have been previously used Ior protection in SiemensSchuckert plants 27
withungroundedstarneutral.TheyconsistedoIsmallmeshedwirenetting cemented into the foor and tied 28
to the grounding system, and provided absolute protection to persons standing thereon and grasping 29
operatingcontrolsinthatahighlyconductingshuntpathwasprovidedbetweenhandsandIeet. 30
31
As mentioned in the introduction, a large metallic plate is a suitable protection against all step potentials 32
andcontactpotentialswithintheplant.Sincesuchametallicplateinstallationisnotrealizable,thequestion 33
arisesonhowIaronecangoinsubstitutinganetworkoIgroundstrapsandthenecessarymeshspacingin 34
ordertoobtaintolerablepotentialdiIIerences. 35
36
TheinvestigationoIthepotentialdistributionoIcomplicatedgroundelectrodearrangements,whichsucha 37
ground mat is, is not possible by computation, since one can derive Iormulae only Ior simple electrode 38
shapesandevensimplecombinationsoItheseelectrodeshapesarenotamenabletocalculation.Formesh 39
typeelectrodearrangementswithirregulardepthoIburialwhichisthewaytheyareusedIorthepurposeoI 40
potentialcontrolandothercomplicatedgroundingstructures,oneisledtotheuseoImodels.Forthispur 41
pose such model measurements using an electrolytic tank were undertaken. A metal container flled with a 42
conductingsolutionservedasthesemiinfnite space Ior the current diIIusion. Figure G.1 shows the circuit 43
oIthetestarrangement.ThepotentialdistributionIormodelMcanbeobtainedbyanullmethodusingthe 44
electrode S, the calibrated potentiometer P and telephone receiver T. In order to reduce the electrolytic 45
eIIect oI the chopped direct current supply on the model, a slowly rotating switch U was placed in the 46
directcurrentsupplyleads. 47
48
ThemodeloIthegroundmatconsistedoIacopperwire0.2mmindiameterarrangedina squarewith120 49
mmsidesandsetonthesurIace.Forthe usual ground straps with a crosssection oI 30 mm 3 mm cor 50
respondingtoanequivalentdiameteroI23mmthismodelrepresentedareplicaoIagroundsystemwitha 51
lengthoI 52
53
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13800 120
2 . 0
20
= mm 1
2
3
Figure G.1Circuit for obtaining potential distribution 4
or 13.8 m on a side. AIter obtaining the potential distribution, the square was subdivided to contain Iour 5
squaresbytheadditionoIawire cross,theIoursubsquaresweresimilarlysubdivideduntil64subsquares 6
wereattainedandineachcasethepotentialinsidethesquarewasmeasured.AsthemeshbecomesIinerthe 7
eIIect approaches a plate electrode. In Figure G.2 through Figure G.5, the potential at the center point oI 8
each square is given in percent oI the potential oI the ground mat. The potential diIIerences which 9
characterize the step potentials and thereby the hazard are according to these Iigures Ior Iinemesh 10
electrodes1120oI thetotalpotential.ThemeshspacingoIthematwith64meshesis,accordingtothe 11
abovementioned model scale, 13.8/8 1.7 m. The potential distributions in crosssections through the 12
matsatAB,CD,EFandGHoIFigureG.2throughFigureG.5areshowninFigureG.6.Todetermine 13
the eIIect oI only a partial Iine mesh inside the outer edge, the arrangement shown in Figure G.7 was 14
investigatedandasshowninFigureG.8withIurthersubdivisionoIasinglemesh.FromthisitIollowsthat 15
in the area oI a Iine mesh the same relations (proportions) hold as in the complete meshing oI the total 16
groundingarea.ThestillIinersubdivisionoIasinglemeshresultsinaIurtherraisingoIthepotentialinside 17
themesh,thatis,acorrespondingdecreaseoIthepotentialdiIIerencesandtherebythesteppotential. 18
The measurements show, as might be expected, that by using a fne mesh a considerable reduction in 19
potentialdiIIerenceswithinthematareacanbeobtained.Further,itisapparentthatsmallprotectedareas 20
can be produced by partial matting without completely matting the entire grounding area. Practical 21
application oI such Iiner meshing can be Iound principally in outdoor stations in the neighborhood oI 22
accessibleequipmentwherethehazardisgreatest. 23
AreductionoItheeIIect,whichwillnotcompletelyeliminatepotentialdiIIerences,canbearrivedatbya 24
IilloIcoarsegrit(gravel)toadepthoIabout1cmoversuchagroundgrid.Withthis,everythingpractical 25
hasbeendoneinordertominimizethehazard,iInottoeliminateitentirely. 26
To be sure, there remain the locations oI the passageways to the protected areas which remain a hazard 27
whentravelingoverthemduringthetimeoIaIault.FigureG.6showsthehighpotentialdropsatthe edges 28
oIthewidemeshedareas,wheresteppotentialsoIabout45oIthetotalpotentialtothegroundelectrode 29
canbeencountered.IIonemustobtainabsolutesaIety,thenonthepassagewaysonemustresorttotheso 30
called potential ramps in order to obtain a small, and as Iar as possible, uniIorm potential drop. Wooden 31
passagewayshavelikewisealreadybeenusedintheSiemensSchuckertworksin200kVstations. 32
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ThemeansoIpotentialcontrolthroughgroundingstrapsburiedatprogressivelydeeperdepthsisshownin 1
principleinFigureG.9,theeIIectivenessoIwhichwasprovedbythelevelingoIIoIthepotentialsurIacein 2
a model. Figure G.10 shows the application oI potential control around the Iooting oI a tower when one 3
doesnotdesireto,oris notableto,employaIence. 4
The magnitude oI the expected step potential Ior a ground mat depends upon the ground resistance, the 5
shortcircuitcurrentandthemeshdensity.IIonetakestheareaoIanoutdoorsubstation250msquare,then 6
a ground strap around the periphery will be 1000 m long. Without regard to the cross connections and 7
mattedgrounds,thegroundresistanceoIthisstrapisR /OQ/G where is the ground resistivity 8
(generally 100 Om), L isthelengthoIthestrapincentimeters,andd istheequivalent diameteroIthestrap 9
asaconductorwithasemicircularcrosssection(Iortheusualgroundstrapd 2.3cm).With theseIigures 10
R 0.36 O. The resistance is thus only twice as great as Ior a solid plate 250 250 m. The reactance will 11
bereducedbythecrossconnectionswhicharerequiredIortyingintheapparatustobegrounded. 12
WithashortcircuitcurrentoI,Iorexample,5000A, thevoltageto thegroundsystem willbeabout1800 13
V.WithagroundratingasshowninFigureG.5,thegreateststeppotentialtobeexpectedwillbeabout11 14
12oIthisvalue,or200V,theeIIectoIwhichonpersonscanbereducedeIIectivelybyusinggravelIill. 15
AccordingtoFigureG.8,withameshspacingoI0.85mthepotentialinsidethemeshis7oItheground 16
matpotentialandIoragroundmatpotentialoI1800Vthesteppotentialcantherebybereducedbelow125 17
ViInecessary. 18
The systematic application oI the protective measures described makes the separation oI the operating 19
ground Irom the protective ground superIluous. The separation oI operating and protective grounds gives 20
noprotectionIorIaultsinsidethestationandIromexperiencethesemustbeconsidered.TheinstallationoI 21
aseparatedstar neutralgroundsystemrequires a tremendous amount oI land outside the station. Thereis 22
no advantage worth mentioning Ior this since a protective ground is still required inside the station. It 23
thereIorecanonlyberecommendedthatthestarneutralpointbeconnectedtoasuitablegroundsystemas 24
describedinthe Ioregoingor otherwise Ior a separate grounding system to employ the requisite materials 25
IoranampledevelopmentoItheprotectivegroundsystem. 26
Tyingtogetherbothsystems(protectiveandoperating)hasthenoteworthyadvantagethatIoragroundIault 27
within the station the groundIault current component oI the Iaulted station need not be carried by the 28
groundmatbutisconducteddirectlyoverthegroundingconductorswhicharetiedtothestarneutralpoint. 29
Also, one has only to reckon with the diIIerence between the total groundIault current and the station 30
component,wherebythereisaconsiderablereductioningroundmatpotentialandsteppotential. 31
TheoverheadgroundwireoItheoutgoingstationtransmissionlines maybeadvantageouslyconnectedto 32
thestationground,andeIIectivelyreducethetotalgroundresistance;thisisespeciallysowheretheground 33
wirewhichappearstobenecessaryIorstarneutralgroundedsystemswithhighgroundIaultcurrentsisoI 34
ampledesign. 35
Summary 36
LargecontactandsteppotentialsunderIault conditions must be considered in highvoltage stations using 37
grounded star neutral point. Potential diIIerences which may endanger cable insulation and lowvoltage 38
apparatusandIacilities(Iorexample,windingsoIcontrolmotors)maybeeliminatedbymetallicintercon 39
nection oI equipment housing, sheaths oI control and service cables and their neutral conductors, and the 40
construction parts in the control house. For protection oI personnel at the danger points, narrow meshed 41
groundmatswithmeshspacingoIabout1mwillserve.ThepotentialdistributionoIsuchgroundmatsmay 42
beinvestigatedbymeansoIelectrolytictanks.AseparateoperatinggroundIorthestarneutralpointisnot 43
recommended, since connection oI the latter to a general ground system designed according to the 44
viewpointoutlinedherein,hasadvantagesoverseparation.ApproachestopartsoIthegroundsystemwhich 45
havepotentialcontrolcanbemadesaIebythesocalledpotentialramps. 46
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Figure G.2Measured potential distribution for various ground mats 10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Figure G.3Measured potential distribution for various ground mats 24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Figure G.4Measured potential distribution for various ground mats 34
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Figure G.5Measured potential distribution for various ground mats 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Figure G.6distribution for a ground mat with various mesh densities; 18
ground mat potential = 100% 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Figure G.7PoWHQWLDOGLVWULEXWLRQIRUJURXQGPDWVZLWKQHPHVKHVLQSRUWLRQV 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Figure G.83RWHQWLDOGLVWULEXWLRQIRUJURXQGPDWVZLWKQHPHVKHVLQSRUWLRQV 18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Figure G.9Potential distribution in a ground mat with ramp (Curve 1) 16
and without ramp (Curve 2) 17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Figure G.10Potential distribution around a mast in the direction AB for a mast with 12
ramp (Curve b) and without ramp (Curve a) 13
14
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Annex H 1
(informative) 2
Benchmark 3
H.1 Overview 4
H.2 Soil analysis 5
Though there are several methods and soItware available that can evaluate soil resistivity Iield 6
measurements into multilayer soil models, the equations oI this guide are limited to uniIorm soil models 7
andmostgroundinganalysissoItware(allbutCDEGS)islimitedtoatwolayersoilmodel.Therearealso 8
manymethods,asdescribedinIEEEStd.811983,Iormeasuringsoilresistivity.ByIar,themostcommon 9
method oI measurement is the Iourpin (Wenner) method. A less seldom used method is the threepin 10
(drivenrod) method. The benchmark cases oI soil resistivity interpretation are restricted to analysis oI 11
measurements made using the Iourpin and threepin methods. In order to make it possible to compare at 12
least two computation methods Ior all examples, the soil structure has been limited to uniIorm and two 13
layer soils, although there are Irequently situations in which it is desirable to model more complex soil 14
structures. Because oI the diIIiculties and errors introduced into the actual Iield measurements, it is 15
diIIicult,iInotimpossible,todeterminethecorrecttwolayersoilmodelIorasetoIIieldmeasurements. 16
InIact,thesoilresistivityusuallyvariesboth laterallyand withdepthoverthesubstationarea, sothereis 17
no exact twolayer or multilayer soil model. Because oI this, exact sets oI Iield measurements were 18
mathematically derived that correctly represent a perIect twolayer soil. In order to make it possible to 19
compareatleasttwocomputationmethodsIorallexamples,thesoilstructurehasbeenlimitedtouniIorm 20
and twolayer soils, although there are situations in which it is desirable to model more complex soil 21
structures. 22
The mathematicallyderived Iield measurements are shown in Tables H.1 and H.3 Ior soil models with 23
1
300Om,
2
100Om,andh6.096m(20It),andIor
1
300Om,
2
100Om,andh6.096m(20 24
It).TheplotsoIapparentresistivityvs.pinspacingIorthesetwosoilmodelsareshowninFiguresH.1and 25
H.2. 26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
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Table H.1Fourpin field measurements for twolayer soil models 1
SPACING m(ft)
1
2
=100 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
2
=300 h=6.096m (20ft)
RESISTANCE
(O)
APPARENT
RESISTIVITY
(Om)
RESISTANCE
(O)
APPARENT
RESISTIVITY
(Om)
0.3048(1.0) 109.38 209.5 36.46 69.8
0.9144(3.0) 48.84 280.6 16.32 93.8
1.524(5.0) 30.40 291.1 10.25 98.2
3.048(10.0) 15.01 287.5 5.40 103.4
4.572(15.0) 9.42 270.6 3.86 110.9
6.096(20.0) 6.48 248.2 3.16 121.0
9.144(30.0) 3.52 202.2 2.49 143.1
15.24(50.0) 1.50 143.6 1.90 181.9
21.336(70.0) 0.90 120.7 1.56 209.1
27.432(90.0) 0.64 110.3 1.32 227.5
33.528(110.0) 0.51 107.4 1.15 242.3
39.624(130.0) 0.42 104.6 1.01 251.5
45.72(150.0) 0.36 103.4 0.90 258.5
Thesedata wereanalyzedusingthe guidance in 13.4.2.2 and the computer programs RESAP (component 2
oI CDEGS), SOMIP (component oI SGW), SDWorkstation and WinIGS. The comparisons Ior each soil 3
modelarepresentedinTableH.2 4
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 10 20 30 40 50
PIN SPACING (m)
A
P
P
A
R
E
N
T
R
E
S
I
S
T
I
V
I
T
Y
(
o
h
m

m
)
300/100/6.1
100/300/6.1
5
Figure H.1Soil resistivity vs pin spacing for fourpin test 6
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Table H.2Towlayer soil models derived from four pin field measurements of Table H.1 1
METHOD
1
2
=100 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
2
=300 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
(O)
2
(O) h
1
(O)
2
(O) h
STD802000
(SUNDE
CURVE)
290.0 100.0 5.6m
(18.37It)
100.0 270.0 7.0 m
(22.97 ft)
RESAP 297.6 100.2 6.13m
(20.1It)
99.0 297.9 5.94 m
(19.5 ft)
SOMIP 300.1 100.4 6.07m
(19.9It)
99.8 298.8 6.04 m
(19.8 ft)
SDWorkstation* 294.5 100.1 6.22m
(20.4It)
84.4 237.8 2.54 m
(8.33 ft)
WinIGS 300.7 100.4 6.035 m
(19.8 ft)
100.1 299.5 6.096 m
(20.0 ft)
*Doesnotallowmeasurementsbelow1.77Itspacing. 2
3
Table H.3Threepin field measurements for twolayer soil models 4
ROD DEPTH
m(ft)
2
=100 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
2
=300 h=6.096m (20ft)
RESISTANCE
(O)
APPARENT
RESISTIVITY
(Om)
RESISTANCE
(O)
APPARENT
RESISTIVITY
(Om)
0.3048(1.0) 647.6 299.27 218.3 100.88
0.9144(3.0) 270.6 296.54 92.68 101.56
1.524(5.0) 177.1 294.74 61.52 102.39
3.048(10.0) 97.63 290.03 35.13 104.36
4.572(15.0) 67.85 284.45 25.43 106.61
6.096(20.0) 50.82 272.63 20.63 110.67
9.144(30.0) 21.77 165.77 18.22 138.73
15.24(50.0) 10.91 129.68 14.58 173.30
21.336(70.0) 7.41 118.36 12.16 194.23
27.432(90.0) 5.64 112.46 10.42 207.77
33.528(110.0) 4.57 108.85 9.13 217.46
39.624(130.0) 3.84 106.09 8.12 224.33
45.72(150.0) 3.32 104.18 7.31 229.38
5
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0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 10 20 30 40 50
PIN SPACING (m)
A
P
P
A
R
E
N
T
R
E
S
I
S
T
I
V
I
T
Y
(
o
h
m

m
)
300/100/6.1
100/300/6.1
1
Figure H.2Soil resistivity vs pin spacing for threepin test 2
3
Table H.4Twolayer soil models derived from threepin field measurements of Table H.3 4
METHOD
1
2
=100 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
2
=300 h=6.096m (20ft)
1
(O)
2
(O) h
1
(O)
2
(O) h
STD802000
(SUNDE
CURVE)
NA NA NA NA NA NA
CDEGS NA NA NA NA NA NA
SDWorkstation 289.6 97.0 6.096m
(20It)
96.7 291.5 6.04 m
(19.8 ft)
WinIGS 301.5 100.6 6.096 m
(20 ft)
104.1 268.8 6.096 m
(20 ft)
5
H.3 Grounding System analysis 6
Inthe1961editionoIIEEE Std80,the equations Ior touch and step voltages were limited to analysis at 7
very speciIic points and were limited to analysis oI uniIormlyspaced conductors in symmetrical grids. 8
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IEEEStd802000includedimprovementsonthoseequationstoaccount Ioroddshapedgridsandground 1
rods, but still analyzed only speciIic points Ior touch and step voltages. Other methods, and especially 2
computerprogramsbasedonaIineelementanalysisoIthegroundingsystem,mightallowmoreIlexibility 3
inmodelingtheconductorsandgroundrodsmakingupthegroundingsystem,andmightanalyzetouchand 4
stepvoltagesandtransIerredvoltagesatanypointdesired.Thisclauseanalyzesthegridresistance,touch 5
and step voltages, and transIerred voltages (iI applicable) Ior grids ranging Irom simple evenlyspaced 6
symmetricalgridswithnogroundrodstononsymmetricallyshapedandspacedgridswithrandomground 7
rod locations and with separatelygrounded Iences. The grid current Ior all cases is 744.8A. The grid 8
analysis is perIormed using the equations in IEEE Std 80, and computer programs CDEGS, ETAP and 9
WinIGS. Again, in order to make it possible to compare at least two computation methods Ior all 10
examples,thesoilstructurehasbeenlimitedtouniIormandtwolayersoils,althoughtherearesituationsin 11
whichitisdesirabletomodelmorecomplexsoilstructures. 12
Each program has several Ieatures Ior displaying the touch and step voltages, as well as determining the 13
absolute worst case voltages. For consistency in comparing results between the programs, the touch and 14
stepvoltageswereevaluatedatveryspeciIicpointsandwithspeciIicguidelinesonthepointsevaluatedto 15
determinetheworstcasevoltages.Forexample,todeterminethestepvoltageatthecorneroIthegrid,the 16
earthsurIacepotentialsweredeterminedatpointsoverthecorneroIthegridand1moutsidethegridalong 17
thediagonal.ThestepvoltagewascomputedasthediIIerencebetweenthepotentialsatthesetwopoints. 18
Forcaseswhereseveralpoints(i.e.agridoIpoints)wereusedtodeterminethe worstcasetouchvoltage, 19
theevaluatedpointswerespaced0.5mapart. 20
In order to make it possible to compare at least two computation methods Ior all examples, the soil 21
structurehasbeenlimitedtouniIormandtwolayersoils 22
H.3.1 Grid 1 symmetrically spaced and shaped grid, uniform soil, no ground rods 23
Theground gridIorthis comparisonis shown in Figure H.3. The equations in IEEE Std 80 compute the 24
touch voltageatthecenteroIthecorner mesh (T1), so this point was chosen Ior comparison. The actual 25
maximumtouchvoltageIorthisgridshapemightbeonthediagonalnearthecenteroIthecornermesh,but 26
located slightly nearer the perimeter oI the grid (T3). For some cases, it might also be directly over the 27
extreme corner (perimeter) oI the grid (T2). Thus, these two points were also analyzed Ior comparison. 28
TheequationsinIEEEStd80computethestepvoltageasthediIIerencebetweentheearthsurIacepotential 29
1mapart,withonepointdirectlyoverthecorneroIthegridandtheotheronadiagonaland1mbeyondthe 30
Iirst point. Though the actual worst case step voltage might be at a diIIerent location, comparisons were 31
limitedtothisonelocation(S1)Iorthiscase.Thecomparisonsare showninTableH.5. 32
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1
2
Figure H.3Grounding system parameters for Grid 1 3
4
H.3.2 Grid 2 symmetrically spaced and shaped grid uniform soil, with ground rods 5
The ground grid Ior this comparison is shown in Figure H.4. This case is the same as Grid 1, with the 6
additionoItwenty7.5m(24.6It.)rods located at each intersection around the perimeter oI the grid. The 7
touchandstepvoltageswerecomputedatthesamelocationsasIorGrid1.Thecomparisonsareshownin 8
TableH.5. 9
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1
2
Figure H.4Grounding system parameters for Grid 2 3
H.3.3 Grid 3 symmetrically spaced and shaped grid, twolayer soil, with ground tools 4
ThegroundgridIorthiscomparisonisthesameasIorGrid2,exceptthesoilmodelischangedtoatwo 5
layersoilwith
1
300 Om,
2
100 Om,andh6.096m(20It).SeeFigureX.5.Thetouchandstep 6
voltageswerecomputedatthesamelocationsasIorGrid1.ThecomparisonsareshowninTableH.5. 7
8
9
Figure H.5Grounding system parameters for Grid 3 10
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H.3.4 Symmetrically spaced and shaped grid, separatelygrounded fence, twolayer soil, 1
with ground rods 2
ThegroundgridIorthiscomparisonisthesameasIorGrid3,exceptaseparatelygroundedIenceisadded, 3
located3moutsidethegridperimeterconductor,andwithaIenceperimetergroundconductorlocated1m 4
outside the Ience. The touch and step voltages were computed at similar locations as Ior Grid 1. In this 5
case,however,additionaltouchandsteppoints werecomputed. Forthiscase,touch voltagesT1,T2and 6
T3 were computed as diIIerences between the surIace potentials at these points and the GPR oI the main 7
ground grid. T4 was computed as the diIIerence between surIace potential at the corner oI the Ience 8
perimeter conductor and the GPR oI the Ience perimeter conductor (connected only to the separately 9
groundedIence).StepvoltagesS1andS2 werecomputed asdiIIerencesbetweenearth surIacepotentials 10
1mapartalongthediagonal.S1hadtheIirstpointlocatedoverthecorneroItheperimeterconductoroIthe 11
maingrid,whileS2hadtheIirstpointlocatedovertheouter(Ience)perimeterconductor.Thecomparisons 12
areshowninTableH.5 13
14
15
Figure H.6Grounding system parameters for Grid 4 16
H.3.5 Grid 5 symmetrically spaced nonsymmetrically shaped grid, fence grounded to 17
main grid, twolayer, with ground rods 18
The ground grid Ior this comparison is shown in Figure H.7. This grid is nonsymmetrical in shape (L 19
shaped),thoughitstillhassymmetricallyspacedgridconductors.ItalsohasgroundrodsoIuniIormlength 20
ateveryotherintersectionaroundtheperimeter,andhasagroundedIencewithintheconIinesoIthemain 21
gridandbondedtothegrid.ThetouchandstepvoltageequationsinClause16canbeusedIorthistypeoI 22
grid,butitisnotknownexactlywherethetouchandstepvoltagesarebeingcomputed.Forthecomputer 23
programs,thetouchand step voltages were computed at numerous points to determine the worst case Ior 24
each.Theworstcasetouchvoltagewascomputedatallpoints0.5mapartwithintheIence,plusallpoints 25
within reach (1m) outside the Ience. The worst case step voltage (S1) was computed at all points 0.5m 26
apartwithinanareadeIinedinwardIrom1moutsidetheperimeteroIthegrid.Fordirectcomparison,the 27
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step voltage (S2) was also compared by determining the diIIerence between earth surIace potentials 1m 1
apartalongthediagonalat theupperleItcorneroIthegrid.ThecomparisonsareshowninTableH.5 2
3
4
Figure H.7Grounding system parameters for Grid 5 5
H.3.6 Grid 6 nonsymmetrically spaced and shaped grid, nonorthogonal conductors, 6
twolayer soil, with ground rods at random locations and unequal lengths 7
TheIinalgroundgridIorcomparisonissimilartoGrid3,butwithconductorsonthediagonalandwith 8
cornergrounds7.5mlongandallothergroundrods2.5mlong.Thesoilmodelischangedtoatwolayer 9
soilwith
1
100Om,
2
300Om,andh6.091m(20It).SeeFigureH.8.Thetouchandstepvoltage 10
equationsinClause16arenotintendedIorthistypeoIgrid,soIEEEStd80resultsarenotincludedinthis 11
case.Forthecomputerprograms,thetouchandstepvoltageswerecomputedatnumerouspointsto 12
determinetheworstcaseIoreach.Theworstcasetouchvoltagewascomputedatallpoints0.5mapart 13
withintheperimeterconductor.Theworstcase stepvoltage(S1)wascomputedatallpoints0.5mapart 14
withinanareadeIinedinwardIrom1moutsidetheperimeteroIthegrid.Fordirectcomparison,thestep 15
voltage(S2)wasalsocomparedbydeterminingthediIIerencebetweenearthsurIacepotentials 1mapart 16
alongthediagonalattheupperleItcorneroIthegrid.ThecomparisonsareshowninTableH.5. 17
18
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1
2
Figure H.8Grounding system parameters for Grid 6 3
4
Table H.5Comparison of results for grid analysis 5
CASE R
GRID
(O)
R
FENCE
(O)
GPR
GRID
(V)
TOUCH VOLTAGES
(V)
STEP
VOLTAGES
(V)
TRANSFER
VOLTAGE
GRIDTO
FENCE (V)
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
S
1
S
2
Grid1
STD80 1.05 NA 780.0 232.0 NA NA NA 96.0 NA NA
Grid1
CDEGS 1.0 NA 743.9 194.9 147.4 202.7 NA 89.3 NA NA
Grid1
ETAP 1.01 NA 751.7 200.9 164.2 209.0 NA 87.2 NA NA
Grid1
WinIGS 1.0 NA 744.9 196.3 151.2 203.4 NA 88.7 NA NA
Grid2
STD80 1.022 NA 761.0 163.0 NA NA NA 80.0 NA NA
Grid2
CDEGS 0.917 NA 682.8 145.4 85.8 149.6 NA 70.7 NA NA
Grid2
ETAP 0.92 NA 687.9 150.2 77.2 154 NA 79.3 NA NA
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Grid2
WinIGS 0.919 NA 684.8 146.9 91.0 151.3 NA 71.5 NA NA
Grid3
STD80 1.395 NA 1039.0 222.0 NA NA NA 109.0 NA NA
Grid3
CDEGS 0.97 NA 719.5 261.0 128.1 262.5 NA 101.9 NA NA
Grid3
ETAP 0.97 NA 726.4 268.5 111.6 269.7 NA 117 NA NA
Grid3
WinIGS 0.972 NA 723.8 264.5 136.3 266.2 NA 103.5 NA NA
Grid4
STD80 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Grid4
CDEGS 0.96 1.6 717.9 259.7 127.1 261.1 51.1 97.4 38.1 309.2
Grid4
ETAP NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Grid4
WinIGS 0.97 1.62 722.6 263.6 130.1 264.9 49.9 97.0 37.4 312.4
Grid5
STD80
(1)
1.35 NA 1005.8 146.5 NA NA NA 110.6 NA NA
Grid5
CDEGS 0.81 NA 602.7 131.6 NA NA NA 83.0 NA NA
Grid5
ETAP 0.81 NA 606.4 138.1 NA NA NA 90.7 NA NA
Grid5
WinIGS 0.81 NA 606.4 138.1 NA NA NA 90.7 NA NA
Grid6
STD80 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Grid6
CDEGS 1.42 NA 1054.4 134.4 NA NA NA 96.4 NA NA
Grid6
ETAP 1.43 NA 1068.2 140.2 NA NA NA 99.2 NA NA
Grid6
WinIGS 1.43 NA 1063.1 136.6 NA NA NA 77.4 84.9 NA
NOTEUsedaveragesoilresistivitybasedonequation51 oIClause13 1
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H.4 Grid current analysis (current division) 1
Twoexamplesystemsweremodeledtocomparethegridcurrentversusthetotal availableIaultcurrent. 2
TheIirstcasewasIoratypicaldistributionsubstation,withonetransmissionline(remotesourceonly)and 3
onedistributionIeeder.ThesecondcasewasIoratypicaltransmissionsubstation,withIourtransmission 4
lines(remotesources)andoneautotransIormer(localsource).Thegridcurrentwasdeterminedusingthe 5
currentsplitcurvesoIAnnexC,andcomputerprogramsCDEGS,SGWandWinIGS. 6
7
H.4.1 Grid current for distribution substation remote source only 8
Figure H.9 shows the system data Ior this example. The transmission line has a shield wire that is 9
grounded at each pole, with pole ground resistance equal to 15O. The distribution Ieeder neutral is 10
groundedateverypole,withpolegroundresistanceequalto25O.Thesubstationgroundingsystem(grid 11
plus ground rods, only) is 1.0O. All line conIiguration dimensions, line sequence impedances, and 12
equivalentsourceimpedancesareincludedinFigureH.9.TheresultsareshowninTableH.6. 13
14
Figure H.9System data for distribution substation current division 15
16
17
18
19
20
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Table H.6Grid current for distribution substation current division example 1
METHOD GROUND FAULT AT 115kV BUS
I
f
(A) S
f
I
g
(A)
STD802000
(CURVES) 2748.4 0.5 1374.2
CDEGS
2877.3 0.50 1431.3
WinIGS
2891.4 0.49 1426.0
H.4.2 Grid current for transmission substation remote and local sources 2
Figure H.10 shows the system data Ior this example. The transmission lines have shield wires that are 3
grounded at each pole, with pole ground resistance equal to 15O. The autotransIormer has a common 4
groundedwinding,andincludesadeltaconnectedtertiarywinding.Thesubstationgroundingsystem(grid 5
plus ground rods, only) is 1.0O. All line conIiguration dimensions, line sequence impedances, and 6
equivalentsourceimpedancesareincludedinFigureH.10.TheresultsareshowninTableH.7.Following 7
theguidelinesinAnnexCIorthecurrentsplitcurvesStd80results),thegridcurrentiscomputedIorboth 8
230and115kVbusIaultstodeterminetheworstcasegridcurrent.Resultsarealsogivenusingthe50/50 9
remote/localsplitandthe25/75remote/localsplitcurves,assuggestedinAnnexC 10
11
Figure H.10System data for transmission substation current division 12
13
14
15
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Table H.7Grid current for transmission substation current division example 1
METHOD GROUND FAULT AT SPECIFIED BUS
I
f
TOTAL
(A)
I
f
REMOTE
(A) (%)
I
f
LOCAL
(A) (%)
S
f
I
g
(A)
STD802000
(CURVES)
AT230kV
12051
AT115kV
19140
12162
(100.9)
10510(54.9)
343(1.8)
8652(45.2)
0.38
0.29
4579(100
remote)
5551 (25
local&75
remote)
CDEGS
11,895.4 12,083.0
(101.6)
3561.4
(29.9)
0.33 3956.5
WinIGS
12,055.5 8655.9
(71.8)
3701.0
(30.7)
0.34 4102.0
2
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