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Application Manual for MASTERTOP Cementitious Floors

1
st
Issue Version January 2010
























BASF Construction Chemicals
Product Management Europe
c/o PCI Augsburg GmbH
Piccardstr. 11
86159 Augsburg
Germany



Application Manual
Cementitious Flooring Products Page 2 Version 1 (January 2010)

1. Content
1. Content................................................................................................................................................. 2
2. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 3
3. Dry Shake surface hardeners .............................................................................................................. 4
3.1. Concrete............................................................................................................................................ 4
3.2. Slab Design..................................................................................................................................... 10
3.3. Summary of Products...................................................................................................................... 11
3.4. Application Procedures How to install a proper dry shake floor .................................................. 12
3.4.1. Manual Application (e.g. with shovel) .......................................................................................13
3.4.2. Spreader application.................................................................................................................15
3.4.3. Laser screed application...........................................................................................................17
3.5. Types of floors:................................................................................................................................ 19
3.5.1. Standard floors:.........................................................................................................................19
3.5.2. Coloured floors..........................................................................................................................19
3.5.3. Aesthetic floors: ........................................................................................................................20
3.5.4. Light reflective floors: ................................................................................................................20
3.5.5. Antistatic floors Installation of MASTERTOP 201..................................................................21
4. Pumpable products................................................................................................................................. 23
4.1. Concrete mix design........................................................................................................................ 23
4.2. Slab construction............................................................................................................................. 23
4.3. Summary of products ...................................................................................................................... 23
4.4. Application procedures.................................................................................................................... 24
4.4.1. Installation onto freshly poured concrete..................................................................................24
4.4.2. Installation on existing concrete................................................................................................26
5. Screedable Topping MASTERTOP 210 / 230..................................................................................... 27
5.1. Application procedures.................................................................................................................... 27
5.1.1. Installation onto freshly poured concrete..................................................................................27
5.1.2. Installation on existing concrete................................................................................................28
6. Trouble shooting..................................................................................................................................... 30
6.1. Bleeding of concrete........................................................................................................................ 30
6.2. Wind ............................................................................................................................................. 30
6.3. Dry shake is applied too early......................................................................................................... 31
6.4. Dry shake is applied too late........................................................................................................... 31
6.5. The floor is uneven in colour or even grey...................................................................................... 31
6.6. Potential defects in concrete floors ................................................................................................. 31
7. Repairs ................................................................................................................................................... 32
7.1. Local Repair of Joints and Corners................................................................................................. 32
7.2. Local repairs in existing concrete substrate or damaged final floors.............................................. 33
7.2.1. Universal floor repair options ....................................................................................................33
7.2.2. Repairs ("like-with-like"), limited to repairs < 20 mm thickness ................................................34
8. Curings ................................................................................................................................................... 34
9. Joints ...................................................................................................................................................... 36
9.1. Types of joints ................................................................................................................................. 36
9.2. MASTERTOP armoured joints........................................................................................................ 40
9.3. MASTERFLEX 474 ......................................................................................................................... 41
10. Tools..................................................................................................................................................... 43
11. Recommendation on Job Site Organisation......................................................................................... 43
11.1. Safety and precautions ................................................................................................................. 43
11.2. Field Service.................................................................................................................................. 44
11.3. Job Site Organization.................................................................................................................... 44
12. Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................... 44
13. General limitations of cementitious floors............................................................................................. 48
14. Supporting Documents ......................................................................................................................... 48



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2. Introduction
General
This manual is a guide for applicators laying MASTERTOP cementitious flooring systems.
Compliance with the procedures described should ensure that end-users are provided with a floor
having the benefits that are associated with MASTERTOP floors.
It is assumed that applicators of MASTERTOP flooring are experienced installers of cementitious
flooring.
On-site operations, including the assessment of substrates, especially in refurbishment situations,
the use of proper and safe working practices, and estimating, are in the applicators' area of
expertise and remain their responsibility.
The manual contains recommendations based upon our knowledge of MASTERTOP flooring,
extensive laboratory testing and more than 90 years of successful specification worldwide.

Aim of the manual
This application manual was designed to meet certain specific objectives. It should create in
applicators and owners of MASTERTOP
cementitious floors the awareness that the
total floor system is a combination of the
three elements of a floor: the subgrade, the
concrete and the surface and that the
interaction between technology,
workmanship and quality products are
important factors. As a company involved in
the marketing of high performance floor
systems it is essential that the customers
and users of BASF products understand the importance of correct planning and installation. It is
critical that each element of the whole floor system is properly designed and constructed; only then
the customer will realize the true potential of his investment. The document should provide
guidance on good practice in the use of dry shake finishes on concrete floors and advice on
avoiding problems.
Technology Technology
Quality Quality Products Products Workmanship Workmanship
High High Qual ity Qual ity Concrete Concrete Floors Floors
Technology Technology
Quality Quality Products Products Workmanship Workmanship
High High Qual ity Qual ity Concrete Concrete Floors Floors



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3. Dry Shake surface hardeners
Dry shake materials are blends of a special cements, aggregates, admixtures and pigments that
are factory blended or pre-mixed and supplied in bags or big bags. They are used to improve the
surface of concrete floors in terms of abrasion resistance, cleanability and also for aesthetic
purposes. As a consequence the durability and life time of a floor is increased significantly and
maintenance costs are reduced.
The final quality of a high performance cementitious floor not only depends on the surface product
but also on the design and quality of the concrete below. Therefore we would like to give a
complete overview of the whole installation process starting from the concrete to application of the
MASTERTOP product and the installation of joints.
Note: The responsibility for the stability of the subgrade /sub-base before concrete is placed lies in
the responsibility of the designer/owner.
3.1. Concrete
The consistency of the supplied concrete is of high importance for the installation of a dry shake
floor. Concrete mix design and production should follow the guidance of EN 206-1:2000.
Important factors that determine the composition of concrete are described as follows and are cited
here as described in EN 206-1:
Exposure classes related to environmental actions
The environmental actions are classified as exposure classes. The exposure classes to be
selected depend on the provisions valid in the place of use of the concrete. This exposure
classification does not exclude consideration of special conditions existing in the place of use of
the concrete or the application of protective measures such as the use of stainless steel or other
corrosion resistant metal and the use of protective coatings for the concrete or the reinforcement.
The concrete may be subject to more than one of the actions described. The environmental
conditions to which it is subjected may thus need to be expressed as a combination of exposure
classes.
Details and examples are given on the next page.




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Class
designation
Description of the environment Informative examples where exposure
classes may occur
No risk of corrosion or attack
X 0 For concrete without reinforcement or
embedded metal: all exposures, except
where there is freeze/thaw, abrasion or
chemical attack For concrete with
reinforcement or embedded metal: very dry
Concrete inside buildings with low air
humidity
Corrosion induced by carbonation
X C 1 Dry or permanently wet. Concrete inside buildings with low air
humidity. Concrete permanently
submerged in water
X C 2 Wet, rarely dry Concrete surfaces subject to long-term
water contact; many foundations
X C 3 Moderate humidity Concrete inside buildings with moderate or
high air humidity; external concrete
sheltered from rain
X C 4 Cyclic wet and dry Concrete surfaces subject to water
contact, not within exposure Class X C 2
Corrosion induced by chlorides other than from sea water
X D 1 Moderate humidity Concrete surfaces exposed to airborne
chlorides
X D 2 Wet, rarely dry Swimming pools; concrete exposed to
industrial waters containing chlorides
X D 3 Cyclic wet and dry Parts of bridges exposed to spray
containing chlorides; pavements; car park
slabs
Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water
X S 1 Exposed to airborne salt but not in direct
contact with sea water
Structures near to or on the coast
X S 2 Permanently submerged Parts of marine structures
X S 3 Tidal, splash and spray zones Parts of marine structures
Freeze/thaw attack with or without de-icing agents
X F 1 Moderate water saturation, without de-icing
agent
Vertical concrete surfaces exposed to rain
and freezing
X F 2 Moderate water saturation, with de-icing
agent
Vertical concrete surfaces of road
structures exposed to freezing and
airborne de-icing agents
X F 3 High water saturation, without de-icing
agent
Horizontal concrete surfaces exposed to
rain and freezing
X F 4 High water saturation, with de-icing agent Road and bridge decks exposed to de-
icing agents; concrete surfaces exposed
to direct spray containing de-icing agents
and freezing
Chemical Attack
X A 1 Slightly aggressive chemical environment
according to Table 2.2.2 in EN 206-1
Concrete in treatment plants; slurry
containers
X A 2 Moderately aggressive chemical
environment according to Table 2.2.2 in EN
206-1
Concrete components in contact with sea
water; components in soil corrosive to
concrete
X A 3 Highly aggressive chemical environment
according to Table 2.2.2 in EN 206-1
Industrial effluent plants with effluent
corrosive to concrete; silage tanks;
concrete structures for discharge of flue
gases



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Exposure classes according to EN 206-1 related to environmental actions examples

Classification by Consistence
The classes of consistence in the tables below are not directly related. For moist concrete, i.e.
concrete with low water content, the consistence is not classified.

Compaction classes Slump classes
Class Degree of compactability Class Slump in mm
C0 1.46 S1 10 to 40
C1 1.45 to 1.26 S2 50 to 90
C2 1.25 to 1.11 S3 100 to 150
C3 1.10 to 1.04 S4 160 to 210
S5 220
Flow classes
Class Flow diameter in mm (spread)
F1 340
F2 350 to 410
F3 420 to 480
F4 490 to 550
F5 560 to 620
F6 630



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Compressive Strength Classes
The characteristic compressive strength of either 150 mm diameter by 300 mm cylinders or of
150 mm cubes may be used for classification.

Compressive
Strength Class
Minimum characteristic cylinder strength
f
ck.cyl
[N/mm]

Minimum characteristic cube strength
f
ck.cube
[N/mm]

C 8 / 10 8 10
C 12 / 15 12 15
C 16 / 20 16 20
C 20 / 25 20 25
C 25 / 30 25 30
C 30 / 37 30 37
C 35 / 45 35 45
C 40 / 50 40 50
C 45 / 55 45 55
C 50 / 60 50 60
C 55 / 67 55 67
C 60 / 75 60 75
C 70 / 85 70 85
C 80 / 95 80 95
C 90 / 105 90 105
C 100 / 115 100 115
Extract from EN 206-1: Annex F: Recommended limiting values for composition and
properties of concrete
See next page



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Please consider the following topics concerning the composition of the concrete used:
Cement type: CEM I CEM III types can be used according to EN 206-1.
Cement quantity: minimum 260 360 kg/ m
3

Fillers: addition of either fly- ash, silica fume and limestone is allowed
W/C ratio: according to EN 206-1, but for floors 0.50 to 0.55 is recommended except if
lower W/C factors are requested due to exposure class.
Aggregates: well graded sand and coarse aggregates with a D
max
of 32 mm, for better
performance use D
max
of 20 mm.
Admixtures: POZZOLITH plasticizer or RHEOBUILD/GLENIUM superplasticizers without
air entrainment and no chloride neither chloride containing admixtures!
Fibres: addition of steel fibres or other fibres depending on the load barrier of the concrete
substrate afterwards.
Use a concrete mixture of the required strength design with a slump of 75 mm minimum
and with no more than 3% entrained air.
For heavy-duty traffic areas, concrete designed for at least C 25/30 up to 30/37 N/mm
should be used. Thickness of the slab and the type and amount of reinforcement in it are
important design considerations.
To minimize shrinkage cracking, we advise the use of a suitable POZZOLITH plasticizer or
RHEOBUILD/ GLENIUM super plasticizer.
At high temperatures, at low humidity or when placing concrete without protection from
wind or sun, the evaporation retardant MASTERTOP C711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF)
should be applied on the concrete surface.
Do not use salt water or salt contaminated aggregate in concrete over which MASTERTOP
200, 200 P, 201, 210 or 230 will be applied.

MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) An Evaporation Retardant
MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) is no curing but an evaporation retardant and
finishing aid that helps to produce high quality concrete flatwork. It retards water evaporation,
regulates the surface condition of the slab and permits better adherence to finishing schedules.
Because MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) retards evaporation, it is especially
effective in combating rapid drying conditions (high concrete and/or ambient temperatures, low
humidity, high winds, direct sunlight, work in heated interiors during cold weather, etc.)
It reduces surface moisture evaporation by about 80% in windy and by about 40% in sunny
conditions. It has no effect on the cement hydration process. Concrete strength (early and ultimate),



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abrasion resistance and durability are not altered, except for the improvement in overall quality
resulting from control of rapid evaporation. It eliminates or reduces crusting, stickiness and
underlaying sponginess which often results in unevenness and poor surface texture. The surface
closes better under the trowel. The product reduces and, in many instances, eliminates plastic
shrinkage cracking and wind crusting of flatwork surfaces. Also supplements the recommended
practises for hot weather concreting. Under some conditions, MASTERTOP C 711CF
(MASTERKURE 111CF) will provide the necessary safeguard against the ill effects of evaporation.
It is recommended to apply the product onto the levelled concrete under hot and windy conditions
before the application of the MASTERTOP cementitious flooring products.
MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) is NOT a curing agent. Concrete treated with this
product must still be cured! MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) reduces evaporation
only while concrete is in its plastic state. It is not a substitute for early curing of hardened concrete,
nor does it alter the effectiveness of membrane type, curing compounds.
Application:
Apply MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) with an ordinary, garden type, tank sprayer
or with the equipment used for application of a spray-on, membrane-type curing compound.
MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) contains a fluorescent colour tint which
disappears completely upon drying. When sprayed onto the surface immediately after screeding,
MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) forms a monomolecular film. This film is easily
distinguished from untreated surfaces by its green-yellow colour in the presence of surface
moisture and ultraviolet rays (sunlight or artificial lighting). The residue remaining on the surface of
hardened concrete does not impair bonding or alter the colour appearance. The protective shield
usually lasts as long as the concrete remains plastic, despite succeeding floating and towelling
operations.
3.2. Slab Design
Before determining the structural details of a floor
the design should first consider the overall design
data starting from the surface downwards.
subgrade
slab
sub-base
slip membrane
wearing surface
or topping
subgrade
slab
sub-base
slip membrane
wearing surface
or topping
The following data can considerably influence the
specification decisions and design of the floor.
Surface characteristics: impact abrasion
resistance, surface regularity
Loading: type (wheel loads, leg loads from warehouse systems, )



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Design life: how many years is the planned time of use of a floor
Ground conditions
These factors have an influence on the type of concrete used, the thickness of the slab, the
type of coating used, placement of structural details as joints and the reinforcement.

Further information on the requirements for slab construction can be found in the local
technical recommendations that are available in each country:

For further information on joint design please refer to Chapter 9.
3.3. Summary of Products
The following application procedures are described especially for the products in the table.


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

1
0
0


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

1
3
5

L
S


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

8
0
0


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

2
0
0


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

2
0
1


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

4
0
0
K


M
A
S
T
E
R
T
O
P

4
5
0

Aggregate mineral synthetic metal corundum
Mechanical Load
moderate x x x x x x x
medium x x x x x x x
heavy x x x x
impact resistant x x
Coloured Versions x x (x) x black* (x) x
Antistatic Properties x
Processing/Application
hand applied x x x x x x
spreader applied x x x x x x x
Laser screed applied x x x x x
(x) = selected colours available on request
* MASTERTOP 201 is black in its appearance




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3.4. Application Procedures How to install a proper dry shake floor
For the installation of a dry shake floor there are two main possibilities:
Manual dry shake application (by shovel or spreader): This application method is
especially useful for floors < 1500 m. This method is entirely dependent on the skill and
experience of the finishing team. Steps should be taken to ensure that suitably skilled
operatives are provided to complete the installation of the floor satisfactorily.
Laser screed application: For large floors (from > 1000 m) laser screed application
provides a fast and efficient way of installing large floors in ONE application step.

For the installation of all dry shake floors the following topics should be noted:
Conduct a pre-job conference well in advance with all involved parties
Have the right equipment on site
Fill out a technical service report
Check on concrete composition
Set out bags the day before to a calculated grid (for manual application only)
Plan enough time for all application steps
Site condition during construction can have a serious impact on the quality of the
finished floor. When the floor is placed, it should be protected from wind, rain and
extremes of temperature in the same way as normal construction. The temperature of
the concrete at the time of delivery should be not less than +5C and not exceed +30 C
A floor incorporating a dry shake finish will usually be strong enough to carry foot traffic
15 - 24 hours after finishing. The cement continues to hydrate for several weeks and a
concrete floor carries on drying out for many months or even a year. The rate of drying
will strongly depend on the ambient environment within the building. During the drying
time the floor surface may vary in tone and blotches may be visible caused by different
rates of drying.
The floor should be protected after finishing as installation works spillage can influence
the surface appearance or even damage the surface.



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3.4.1. Manual Application (e.g. with shovel)
Step 1 Placing, consolidating and striking off concrete
Concrete is placed at zero level with good planimetry. With least possible
handling, deposit concrete between previously placed screed points. Move
concrete into place with square-tipped shovels or other bladed tools; do not use
rakes. Vibrators, when used, should be inserted vertically and should not be used
to move concrete, but to consolidate.
Step 2 Levelling concrete
Strike off concrete with a true, wooden strike-off bar (straight edge).
Immediately behind the strike-off operation, the concrete is further levelled and
consolidated with a wooden bull float or in areas with limited access, with a
wooden darby. This operation must be completed before any free moisture
(bleeding) rises to the surface.
Try to avoid bleeding by controlling the concrete composition and workability.
Note:
During hot, dry or windy conditions, consider spraying on the evaporation retardant
MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF).
Step 3 Floating concrete (trowelling)
If there is free bleed water on the surface, remove it prior to floating. A rubber
squeegee dragged slowly over the surface is the best method. Concrete
adjacent to forms, columns, pits, doorways and walls should be floated
first because it stiffens faster than the concrete in the overall areas.
Float the overall area as soon as the concrete will bear the weight of a
finisher and a light trowelling machine, equipped with float blades,
without digging it.
See Picture on the right hand: Concrete ready for floating
Step 4 First shake of MASTERTOP dry shake hardener
Transfer the dry powder to a wheelbarrow of a size convenient for handling by men walking on
the freshly floated surface. Apply the shake as soon as possible to areas
adjacent to walls, forms, columns and doorways since these areas lose moisture
very rapidly. Apply the shake evenly by hand or shovel to obtain a uniformly thick
application over the surface. Immediately behind the first floating of the overall areas, as it
proceeds, apply two thirds of the total shake specified evenly over the total surface.



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Step 5 Floating the first shake of MASTERTOP
With wooden hand floats or power floats, float the shake on concrete adjacent to walls, forms,
columns and doorways as soon as possible. Other finishers using power
trowels with float blades should float the shake on overall areas as soon as the
shake has absorbed moisture from the concrete beneath it (as indicated by
darkening of the surface) and as soon as the float blades do not dig into the
surface. Float just enough to bring the moisture through the shake and incorporate the
plasticized shake into the surface of the slab, so that a cement paste layer remains. Time the
floating operation so it will not be necessary to sprinkle water on the surface.
Step 6 Second shake of MASTERTOP dry shake hardener
As the floating of the first shake proceeds, follow immediately behind it with the
remaining powder so it can absorb the moistured cement paste from the first
shake at right angles to the first for even application.
Step 7 Floating the second shake of MASTERTOP
As soon as the second shake is absorbed by the moistured cement paste from
the shake beneath it, as indicated by darkening of the surface, float the surface
with a power trowel equipped with float blades.
Additional floating
The surface may be further compacted by a third or fourth power floating if time and setting
characteristics of the concrete permit.
Step 8 First trowelling
When the surface stiffens further and loses some of its shine, it should be
trowelled by hand or with power trowel, keeping the trowel blades as flat as
possible without digging it.
Step 9 Second / final trowelling
When the surface tightens further it should be trowelled again by hand or with
a power trowel. The blades may be raised slightly for this trowelling.
When only a little paste clings to the trowel blade, a third, raised trowelling may
be given to the floor. Pinholes and trowel marks should be removed in this hand
trowelling operation. In case of coloured floors do not burnish trowel the floor, this may lead to
discolouration.
Note:
During hot, dry or windy conditions, trowelling should be kept to the minimum necessary to
obtain the right structure. Each delay in protecting the concrete surface with curing compound
may cause problems.



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Step 10 Curing
Just as soon as the surface will not be marred by the application, apply the
suitable curing compound formulated by BASF Construction Chemicals for the
type of surface and floor involved. For further information on the right choice of
curing agent please see Chapter 8
Protective measurements
The area should be barricaded after the curing compound is applied. As soon as the curing
compound has dried, adequately cover the floor surface to prevent staining, discoloration or
physical damage which may be difficult to correct. Alert other trades to the need for special
protection against rolling or sliding heavy loads across the surface, oil drippings from pipe
threaders, spillage of paint, plaster and mortar, acid washing of interior masonry walls, etc.
Insure that the covering is not damaged during the progress of the job.
Step 11 Sawing joints
Sawing the joints should be carried out as soon as possible, without spalling the
concrete. For further information on joints please see Chapter 9.
Step 12 Application of sealant
Apply appropriate joint sealant according to the technical data sheet after
concrete has hardened.
3.4.2. Spreader application
For small to intermediate-sized concrete pours dry shakes can also be applied by using a
spreader. The spreader is a wheeled unit that is pushed by hand or mechanically driven across
the new but hardening concrete surface.

Simple mechanical spreader



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Spreading rate is governed by a discharge barrel in the base of the hopper body and relies on
the skill of the operator to move the unit smoothly.
Steps 1 to 3 are the same as for manual application (see page 13).
Step 4 Spreader application of MASTERTOP dry shake hardener
Transfer the MASTERTOP powder from the bags to the hopper of the spreader
(approximately 2-3 bags maximum or even a big-bag for large spreaders see
photo below).

Motorized mechanical spreader
Note: The spreader should be pre-calibrated to deliver the correct amount of material per pass
to achieve the desired loading. This can be done by setting up a piece of plastic sheet 2 meters
long and running the spreader over it. The material on the sheet can be weighed and the
application rate adjusted. The application rate should be checked about every 200 m. The
results should be kept for inclusion in the quality assurance records for the floor construction.
Then continue with Steps 5 and 8 to 12 as described on pages 14/15.



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3.4.3. Laser screed application
Laser Screed levelling and screeding machines have a huge advantage in the construction of
large floor slabs. The machines enable large areas of concrete floor to be placed with few
construction joints and high levels of surface tolerance.
The main difference of this application for placing the dry shake surface hardener is that the
material can be applied before the concrete has stiffened and application is possible in one
step.
Automatic spreaders are three axle machines with a counter-balanced hydraulically activated
boom carrying a hopper. They are designed to work alongside the laser screed as part of a
spreading system. The dry shake is dispensed by a variable discharge mechanism at the base
of the hopper on a boom traversing above the surface of the concrete. The machine works off
the sub-base and delivers the dry shake material directly to the freshly levelled concrete,
enabling the dry shake to absorb the moistured cement paste. Be aware that bleed water is not
allowed. The concrete composition and especially water/cement factor is chosen that the risk of
bleed water is reduced /eliminated.

Laser Screed equipment: levelling machine (in front), spreading machine (behind)




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Step 1 Placing, consolidating and striking off concrete
Concrete is placed in strokes or lanes at zero level with good planimetry. With
least possible handling, deposit concrete between previously placed screed
points. Move concrete into place with square-tipped shovels or other bladed
tools; do not use rakes. Vibrators, when used, should be inserted vertically and should not be
used to move concrete, but to consolidate. Strike off concrete with a true, wooden strike-off bar.
Step 2 Levelling concrete
Immediately behind the strike-off operation, the concrete is further levelled and
consolidated with a laser screed or in areas with limited access, with a wooden
darby.
Step 3 Mechanical application of MASTERTOP dry shakes hardener
The dry shake hoppers are filled manually with bagged material or big-bags. The
spreading machine is then set up at the face of the concrete that has been
levelled and compacted and the dry shake is then automatically spread evenly by
a defined application rate.

Laser screed dry shake spreading
Note: The specified application rate should be calibrated by filling the hoppers with dry shake
material and performing a trial discharge over a weigh plate or by setting up a piece of plastic
sheet 2 meters long and running the spreader over it. The material on the sheet can be



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weighed and the application rate adjusted. The application rate should be checked about every
500 m. The results should be kept for inclusion in the quality assurance records for the floor
construction.
The whole amount of specified material is applied in one step.
Then continue with Steps 5 and 8 to 12 as described on pages 14/15.

3.5. Types of floors:
The application procedures give a general instruction on the installation process. Depending on
the requirements of the owner or architect additional steps should be considered and can lead
to a special concrete floor. Comments are given in the following chapters.

3.5.1. Standard floors:
Normal procedures as described in the chapters before.

3.5.2. Coloured floors
Normal procedures as described in the chapters before, but take care of the following points:
Finishing tools used on the coloured surface must be free of plain mortar or dirt, as these
will contaminate or affect the final colour.
Coloured dry shake materials should never be applied to the surface of concrete until the
concrete is properly consolidated and all free water has disappeared or been removed.
The greater the amount of coloured dry shake material applied, the greater will be the
thickness of coloured surface mortar. Heavier shakes help prevent cement colour from
being worked up through to the coloured surface during finishing. Overworking the surface
during the early floating dilutes final colour.
The back and forth motion with a trowel often produces a slight difference in texture which
is more apparent on a coloured floor than a plain floor.
Throwing water on a floor during finishing is a poor practice on any floor, and it produces a
noticeable difference in shade on a coloured floor.
For final finish trowelling of coloured floors, use of stainless steel trowels is recommended.
Finishers should use the same trowelling motion and blade angle as they move over the
floor. Overworking the surface during final trowelling can cause spotty colour.
A coloured floor surface should not be burnish trowelled; that is, hard trowelling after there
is no longer any paste left for the trowel. Burnishing coloured floors "burns" the colour, often



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resulting in mottling, darker shades becoming much lighter and light or pastel colours
becoming darker.
Coloured floors must not be cured with paper, polyethylene, ponding, straw, damp sand or
burlap as this will cause efflorescence stains. Use a clear sealer or matching pigmented
wax or sealer designed for this purpose.
After curing is applied, coloured floors should be covered with paper or polyethylene to
further protect it from paint, oil, .abrasion, etc. from the other trades.
Observing these precautions will help the contractor produce coloured floors that have a
uniform colour of the desired shade.

3.5.3. Aesthetic floors:
In general the same procedures as described for coloured floors before, but everything has to
be done even more accurately and preferably by highly skilled and experienced applicators.
The concrete quality, its placing and levelling has to be very exact and is the key to success.
Take care not to leave any footprints or wheel marks in the concrete. The spreading should be
carried out either automatically (with laserscreed equipment) or by spreaders that run on long
wooden boards in order to not leave wheel and foot marks. Should a foot / wheel mark appear
despite all precautions, it is essential to smoothen it within 5 minutes otherwise it will remain
visible! Application thickness of the dry shake has to be as uniform as possible. Finishing of the
floor should be done preferably in presence of the owner/customer and continued until he
agrees on the surface appearance.

3.5.4. Light reflective floors:
All things mentioned for coloured floors remain valid here as well. Additionally, since the light
reflective dry shakes contain white cement, care must be used in applying it on the concrete
surface. Application at the wrong time may produce a muddy diluted effect if the dry shake is
applied too early in the concrete placement. Typically the slab should have no, or very minimal,
residual bleed water present and the slab should be floated prior to the application of the dry
shake in case of hand/spreader application.
The use of a mechanical spreader is helpful in applying the material in a uniform relatively thick
application rate.
Proper floating and techniques must be employed with care taken to maintain a clean
uncontaminated surface. Use stainless steel pans for floating as they will not cause
discolouration of the dry shake. All tools have to be very clean and non-rusty at all. Workers



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are using plastic boot wrapping when machining the surface of the slabs. A final finishing hand
trowel is provided on the surface taking care not to burn the slab surface and discolour it. Hand
trowelling is often employed during the final slab finishing operation with the abrasion
resistance coming from dry shake hardener.
Protection of the slab involves two concerns. The proper curing of the slab can be
accomplished with a liquid membrane-curing compound with no yellowing qualities. Best
performance is when these materials are back rolled with a short nap roller after spraying on
the surface. This also produces a more uniform distribution of the curing compound on the
surface to assume more uniform hydration and subsequent drying of the surface after curing.
During construction good housekeeping techniques should be used to protect the floor.
Care should be taken to avoid a highly polished surface that does not produce enough diffusion
of the light. The glare of these surfaces is readily seenfrom even a dark pigmented concrete
slab. This glare can produce considerable eye fatigue when light reflects off of the surface of
the slab.

3.5.5. Antistatic floors Installation of MASTERTOP 201
Antistatic floors need to be installed under the following conditions:
- in areas where solvent containing products are manufactured, handled and stored
- in areas where there are explosives or explosive dusts are handled
- in areas where static charges are continually being generated by continuous processes

MASTERTOP 201 is a pre-mixed, ready to use product designed to be applied as a dry shake
by shovel or spreader over freshly placed concrete to provide an iron armoured spark resistant
floor surface.
Note: due to the special conductive ingredients in MASTERTOP 201 this product is black
coloured.
The application is carried out as regular dry shake surface hardeners with the following
additions:
Electrical circuit installation prior to concrete
It is very important to install an electrical grounding system for use with the static disseminating
and spark resistant metallic floor finish MASTERTOP 201. Use one ground rod or ground stud
per 45 m (typically every 6.5 x 6.5 m) see graphics on next page.
It is a must to place an electrical connection to the metallic conductors. In many installations,
the building ground and earth ground are connected to each other by heavy copper cables.



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Typical floor area showing the location of ground rods / studs with one for each 45 m of floor

Grounding systems details (Drawings not to scale).
Curing
Just as soon as the surface will not be marred by the application, apply the special curing
compound MASTERTOP C 762 (MASTERKURE 620).



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4. Pumpable products
4.1. Concrete mix design
For requirements of concrete when applying MASTERTOP P products fresh in fresh please see
Chapter 3.1.
4.2. Slab construction
For information on slab construction please see Chapter 3.2.
4.3. Summary of products
The MASTERTOP P product range are ready-to-use pumpable, pourable and screedable high
strength cement based overlays for floors for indoor and outdoor applications. They are available
with different durable aggregates (see table below) to meet the different requirements on abrasion
resistance for cementitious floors.
The products have the following features:
- economical, ready-to-use, pumpable cement and hard aggregates based flooring overlays, that
harden free of bleeding at any consistency: from flowable / pourable to damp pack.
- the mixed products can be pumped without separation with high-yield mortar pumps (screw
pumps).
- can be easily poured and distributed.
- retain good workability for at least 30 minutes at 20 to 25C.
- by using a cement based bonding slurry good adhesion will and no blistering will be ensured,
when applied on existing (hardened) concrete.



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4.4. Application procedures
General Information


MASTERTOP 135 P MASTERTOP 200 P MASTERTOP 450 P
Aggregate mineral metal corundum
Mechanical Load
moderate x x x
medium x x x
heavy x x
impact resistant x

Coloured Versions x x x

Processing/Application
on fresh concrete x x x
on old concrete x x x
Layer thickness 5 15 mm 5 - 15 mm 5 15 mm

For further data please refer to the technical data sheets.
4.4.1. Installation onto freshly poured concrete
The fresh concrete support is placed at the level depending on the application thickness of
MASTERTOP P to obtain the required top surface level. This application thickness is typically
between 5 to 15 mm.
Steps 1 to 3 are the same as for manual application of dry shakes (see page 13).
Step 4 Mixing of the product
Measure the necessary mixing water and put of the water required in the mixer first, than
slowly and steadily add the powder. Mix until smooth (2-3 minutes) in a concrete mixer and/or
mechanical mixer (max. 400 rpm). Add the rest of the water and continue to mix for at least 2
more minutes. Use of ice water to produce mixed mortar temperatures of +20C to +35C will
reduce water required for a given consistency and increase strength and working
time accordingly. Do not re-temper material by adding water or remixing after it
stiffens. Start the mixer and add MASTERTOP P. Continue mixing until a
homogenous and lump-free mortar is obtained (total of 5 minutes).
Other types of mixers (self feeding etc) where the dry powder is added continuously and
water is mixed during the feeding process are possible; consult your local BASF Construction
Chemicals representative in this case



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Note:
- Do not add cement, sand or other materials to the mix!
- Do not use the contents of packages that are damaged or broken.
- Use one or more mixers to permit mixing and placing operations to proceed simultaneously
without interruption.
- DO NOT MIX BY HAND!
- Mix with clean tap water only.
Step 5 Placing of material
The mixed MASTERTOP P product is applied onto the floated concrete.
Mix and place flooring overlay as close as possible to the place being treated.
Have sufficient manpower, materials and tools to make mixing and placing rapid
and continuous. The material shall be poured continuously to a layer thickness of minimum 5 -
15 mm max. Consult BASF Construction Chemicals in case of higher layer thickness.
MASTERTOP P grades will flow out horizontally on application.
Step 6 Levelling of material
The surface should be gone over with a straight edge to give it the best possible
de-aeration. The setting material must not be diluted with additional water or
fresh mortar. In the event of low humidity, high room temperature, direct
sunshine or draughts, the surface should be covered in order to protect it from drying too
quickly, once it is dry enough to be stepped on.
Step 7 First floating
As soon as the mortar has sufficiently dried, start the floating process.
With wooden hand floats or power floats, float the mortar on concrete adjacent
to walls, forms, columns and doorways as soon as possible. Time the floating
operation so it will not be necessary to sprinkle water on the surface.
Step 8 Additional floating
The surface may be further compacted by a third or fourth power floating if time and setting
characteristics of the concrete permit.
Step 9 First trowelling
When the surface stiffens further and loses some of its sheen, it should be
trowelled by hand or with power trowel, keeping the trowel blades as flat as
possible without digging it.



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Step 10 Second / final trowelling
When the surface tightens further it should be trowelled again by hand or with
a power trowel. The blades may be raised slightly for this trowelling.
When only a little paste clings to the trowel blade, a third, raised trowelling may
be given to the floor. Pinholes and trowel marks should be removed in this hand
trowelling operation. In case of coloured floors do not burnish trowel the floor, this may lead to
discolouration.
Step 11 Curing
Just as soon as the surface will not be marred by the application, apply the
suitable curing compound formulated by BASF Construction Chemicals for the
type of surface and floor involved. For further information on the right choice of
curing agent please see Chapter 8
Step 12 Sawing joints
Sawing the joints should be carried out as soon as possible, without spalling the
concrete. For further information on joints please see Chapter 9.
Step 13 Application of sealant
Apply appropriate joint sealant according to the technical data sheet after
concrete has hardened.
4.4.2. Installation on existing concrete
Step 1 Preparation of the substrate
The substrate must be clean, healthy and sound. Remove all traces of previous coatings,
laitance, oil, curing compounds, grease, dirt, cement skin, organic growth or any other
contaminants which may adversely affect the bond. To achieve a good bonding surface, the
use of grit blasting, shot blasting or high pressure water cleaning is recommended.
Step 2 Water saturation
Saturate the cleaned foundation for at least 6 hours, preferably 24 hours. Just
before applying the bonding slurry remove all free water.
Step 3 Application of bonding slurry
On the water-saturated substrate that is free of excess water the mixed bonding
slurry (e.g. MASTERTOP 500) is immediately applied using a hard broom. Work
it thoroughly onto the surface (see also picture on page 29). Do not allow the
bonding agent to dry!



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Step 4 Placing of material
The ready mixed MASTERTOP P product (please see Step 5 on page 27) has to
be applied onto the bonding agent fresh-in-fresh. Mix and place flooring overlay
as close as possible to the place being treated. Have sufficient manpower,
materials and tools to make mixing and placing rapid and continuous. The material shall be
poured continuously to a layer thickness of minimum 5 - 15 mm max. Consult BASF
Construction Chemicals in case of higher layer thickness. MASTERTOP products will flow out
horizontally on application.
Then continue with Steps 6 to 13 as described on pages 25/26.

5. Screedable Topping MASTERTOP 210 / 230
MASTERTOP 210 and MASTERTOP 230 are ready to use, pre mixed floor toppings based on
hydraulic binders, special treated metal particles and selected dispersing and hardening agents.
General information:
MASTERTOP 210 MASTERTOP 230
Layer thickness 5 15 mm 15 30 mm
Colours 6 colours on request Natural (dark grey)
For further data please refer to the technical data sheets.
5.1. Application procedures
5.1.1. Installation onto freshly poured concrete
The fresh concrete support is placed at the level depending on the application thickness of
MASTERTOP 210 / 230 to obtain the required top surface level.
Concrete mix and Slab design: see Chapters 3.1 and 3.2.
Steps 1 to 3 are the same as for manual application of dry shakes (see page 13).
Step 4 Mixing of Mortar
Measure the necessary mixing water and put it into the mixing vessel. Start the
mixer and add MASTERTOP 210 / 230. Continue mixing until a homogeneous
and lump free mortar is obtained (total of 5 minutes). Mix according to the
instruction in the technical data sheet. Use one or more mixers to permit mixing
and placing operations to proceed simultaneously without interruption.



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Note:
- Do not add cement, sand or other materials to the mix!
- Do not use the contents of bags that are damaged or broken.
- DO NOT MIX BY HAND!
- Mix with clean tap water only.
Step 5 Application
The mixed MASTERTOP 210 / 230 is applied on the floated concrete. An even
and uniform spread is recommended. Level the MASTERTOP 210 / 230 mortar
by the screeding method. Mix the product as close as possible to the place of
installation. Have sufficient manpower, materials and tools to make mixing and
placing rapid and continuous.
Then continue with Steps 6 to 13 as described on pages 25/26.
5.1.2. Installation on existing concrete
Step 1 Surface preparation
The old surface needs to be carefully prepared before the application of MASTERTOP 210 /
230. The substrate must be clean, healthy and sound. Remove all traces of previous coatings,
laitance, oil, curing compounds, grease, dirt, cement skin, organic growth or any other
contaminants which may adversely affect the bond. To achieve a good bonding surface, the
use of grit blasting, shot blasting or high pressure water cleaning is recommended.
Step 2 Water saturation of concrete
The roughened concrete shall be saturated with water for at least 6 to 24 hours,
before MASTERTOP 210 / 230 is applied. Remove the excessive standing water
before proceeding to the next step.
Step 3 Application of bonding slurry
On the water-saturated substrate that is free of excess water the mixed bonding
slurry (e.g. MASTERTOP 210/230 mixed in a slurry consistency or MASTERTOP
500) is immediately applied using a hard broom. Work it thoroughly onto the
surface. Do not allow the bonding agent to dry!



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Application of MASTERTOP 500 bonding slurry
Step 4 Application
The ready mixed MASTERTOP 210 / 230 (for mixing please refer to Step 4 on
page 27) is applied wet-in-wet onto the fresh bonding slurry. Level the mortar by
the screeding-method. Mix the product as close as possible to the place of
installation. Have sufficient manpower, materials and tools to make mixing and
placing rapid and continuous.

Installation of MASTERTOP 230 on existing concrete (using a floor surface vibrator)
Then continue with steps 6 to 13 as described on pages 25/26.



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6. Trouble shooting
6.1. Bleeding of concrete
Avoid extensive bleeding of concrete as it will make the dry shake too wet.
If the concrete shows bleeding even after floating, remove bleeding water with a squeegee or a
water hose (see picture below) directly before spreading the dry shake.

Removal of bleed water with hose before applying dry shake
6.2. Wind
Wind is an issue especially for all external application and those installations where wind can
attack, e.g. ware house ramps, hangars with big open doors etc. Try to avoid wind if somehow
manageable, especially during application and at least for the next 24 hours. Wind can cause
too quick evaporation and hence lead to all kind of damages like cracking, spalling but also
problems of the concrete curing itself.
In case wind cannot be controlled/excluded, apply the evaporation retardant MASTERTOP
C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) on the fresh concrete.



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6.3. Dry shake is applied too early
If dry shake is applied too early, it is often mixed with larger amounts of surface water. This
usually results in problematic trowelling during which dry shake sticks to trowel-machine blades.
As a consequence, local problems with flatness often arise. If dry shake is applied directly into
surface water, there is another danger that it will segregate and the surface of finished floor will
separate and/or delaminate.
6.4. Dry shake is applied too late
If dry shake is applied too late, the concrete slab does not have enough water to moisten it and
delamination can occur. The correction of details by hand is very difficult in such cases.
Note: most of the time sprinkling water during the trowelling process is done, but this is not
recommended.
6.5. The floor is uneven in colour or even grey
In such case the dry shake was very probably applied too early (on soft concrete surface with
high content of water), or surface water had not been removed. Also too low dosage rates of
dry shakes will mix the material to with concrete from below, and this causes the low colour
intensity. Propose light coloured concrete when also light coloured MASTERTOP is used. Be
careful to control the concrete composition prior the choice of the MASTERTOP colour.
6.6. Potential defects in concrete floors
Delamination: This effect occurs when part or all of the dry shake finish fails to bond with
the base concrete. The thickness of the delaminated layer depends on the application rate
of the dry shake and the density of the aggregate. Patterns of hairline cracks may be visible
and the surface might slightly lift and sound hollow when tapped with a metal tool. It can be
on a few isolated spots on larger patches.
Cracking: Cracks are not uncommon especially with large jointless floors.
Crazing: Excessive floating or trowelling of a slab surface can produce a layer of laitance
which tends to dry more quickly than the inner mass. The resulting tensile forces in the
surface can cause a fine crazing pattern. Because the cracks are narrow and shallow
crazing normally does not need to be repaired.



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Pinholes and pop-outs: They are usually less then 5 mm in diameter and are caused by
particles of fine aggregates flicking out during trowelling or failure of some of the dry shake
constituents. They are unlikely to affect floor durability of interfere with traffic and any repair
may be more noticeable than the original defect.
Further details on trouble shooting will be given in the "Cementitious Floors Problem Solving
Guide" that will be available shortly.
7. Repairs
Defects in concrete floors may be repaired in several ways and are described in the following
section. It must be recognized that a repaired area cannot be hidden easily as an exact colour
match can not be achieved. The appearance and effectiveness of the repair will be most
satisfactory if square or rectangular areas are used, the edges of the repair are parallel to the slab
edges and joints, the areas to be repaired are saw cut vertically and the repair surface is finished
flush with the adjacent floor.
7.1. Local Repair of Joints and Corners
Joints are normally the areas in a floor that are subject to most mechanical impact due to hits.
Therefore they are also the parts of a floor that are damaged first. The following part describes
the process to repair joints and corners with suitable repair products.
Step 1 Removal of damaged areas
Saw cut damaged areas vertically and remove the concrete. The old surface shall be carefully
prepared before the application of the repair mortar.
Chip old concrete to the desired depth with a chipping hammer or mill until a good, solid and
clean surface is obtained. All loose particles that may negatively affect the bonding as well as
oil, grease, cement laitance, dust and other foreign matters shall be removed.
Step 2 Water saturation of concrete
The roughened concrete shall be saturated with water before any bonding slurry
is applied. Remove the excessive standing water before proceeding to the next
step.
Step 3 Application of bonding agent
On the water-saturated substrate that is free of excess water the mixed bonding
slurry (e.g. repair mortar mixed in a slurry consistency or MASTERTOP 500) is
immediately applied using a hard broom or a suitable brush (e.g. EMACO
Nanocrete Brush). Work it thoroughly onto the surface. Do not allow the bonding agent to dry!



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Step 4 Mixing of Mortar
Measure the necessary mixing water and put it into the mixing vessel. Start the
mixer and add MASTERTOP 230. Continue mixing until a homogeneous and
lump free mortar is obtained. Mix according to the instructions given in the
technical data sheet.
Step 5 Application
The mixed repair product is applied on the prepared concrete support. An even
and uniform spread is recommended. Level the mortar by the screeding-tamping
method.
Step 6 Floating
As soon as the mortar has sufficiently dried, start the floating process. In small
areas wooden hand floats may be used to float the mortar.
Step 7 Curing
Just as soon as the surface will not be marred by the application, apply the
suitable curing compound formulated by BASF Construction Chemicals.
7.2. Local repairs in existing concrete substrate or damaged final floors
General remarks:
BASF Construction Chemicals offers various repair products for local patch repair. To offer the
right product it is essential to know the needs of the customer on the specific site. Questions to be
asked: Is the main need to repair the damaged area as quickly as possible (in order to minimize
e.g. shutdown times) or is it more important to match the existing floor optic? The latter will be for
sure essential for coloured floors.
7.2.1. Universal floor repair options
PLEASE NOTE: might result in a different colour appearance of the repaired area!
Repair Products:
EMACO Fast products: allow fast repair in thickness from 5 to 100 mm. Repaired area
can be opened to traffic within 2 to 3 hours.
MASTERTOP 560 (Fluid): allows fast repairs from 10 to 80 mm. Repaired area can be
opened to traffic the next day.
For further information on the properties and application of the products please consult the
corresponding technical data sheets.



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7.2.2. Repairs (" like-with-like" ), limited to repairs < 20 mm thickness
To repair damaged floors, where the optical appearance of the surrounding area shall be
matched and the layer thickness of the replacement is below 20 mm, the corresponding
MASTERTOP P product should be used. However, especially when coloured floors are
installed, the repaired area will probably remain visible as slight colour variations cannot be
prevented.
For the application instructions please refer to Chapter 4.4.2. Application on existing concrete.
8. Curings
What is curing?
Curing means to treat the concrete so it retains the water for the cement hydration. Curing is
the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during cement
hydration. It takes place after it has been placed in position, thereby providing time for the
hydration of the cement to occur. Since the hydration of cement does take time days, and
even weeks rather than hours curing must be undertaken for a reasonable period of time if
the concrete is to achieve its potential strength and durability. Curing may also encompass the
control of temperature since this affects the rate at which cement hydrates.
Concrete that is allowed to dry out quickly also undergoes considerable early age drying
shrinkage. Inadequate or insufficient curing is one of main factors contributing to weak,
powdery surfaces with low abrasion resistance. The durability of concrete is affected by a
number of factors including its permeability and absorbance. Broadly speaking, these are
related to the porosity of the concrete and whether the pores and capillaries are discrete or
interconnected. Whilst the number and size of the pores and capillaries in cement paste are
related directly to its water-cement ratio, they are also related, indirectly, to the extent of water
curing. Over time, water curing causes hydration products to fill, either partially or completely,
the pores and capillaries present, and, hence, help to reduce the porosity of the paste.
When to apply curing?
Immediately after the surface (at least within 2 hours and no later than 6 hours after finishing
the floor) has been finished by trowelling and has hardened sufficiently the concrete should be
cured. Curing should be continuous and effective for at least seven days, longer in colder
weather. Draughts and cross winds must be avoided by enclosing or screening the finished
floor.



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How to achieve curing?
Curing can be achieved by:
spraying of MASTERTOP C liquid curing products onto the surface or
waterproof sheets kept in close contact with the surface. Sheets should overlap at the
edges and be securely fixed so that they don't move.
For a choice on appropriate curing agents please see the following table:

Curing Selection Guide


MASTERTOP
C 713
MASTERTOP
C 714
MASTERTOP
C 715
MASTERTOP
C 762
MASTERTOP
C 781
MASTERTOP
C 782
Description
Solvent
containing
dispersion
Solvent
containing
dispersion
Wax-based,
solvent
containing
Conductive
wax-based,
solvent
containing
Solvent
containing
dispersion
Water based
paraffin
Sprayable YES YES NO NO YES NO
Type of Floor
Non-coloured
(natural) floors
++ ++ ++
Onl y
conducti ve
++ ++
Coloured floors - ++ ++ - - +
Light reflective floors - + + - - +
Remark
Not to use on
coloured or
conducti ve
floors.
Not to use on
conducti ve
floors.
Curing and
waxing at the
same time;
not to use on
conducti ve
floors.
Special curing
for conducti ve
MASTERTOP
201 floors.
Not to use on
conducti ve or
coloured
floors.
Not to use on
conducti ve
floors.
Overcoatable NO YES YES NO YES NO
Product
MT 100 + + + - + +
MT 135 LS + + + - + +
MT 200 + + + - + +
MT 201 -- - - + -- --
MT 400K / MT 450 + + + - + +
MT 800 + + + - + +
MT 135 P + + + - + +
MT 200 P + + + - + +
MT 450 P + + + - + +
MT 210 + + + - + +
MT 230 + + + - + +



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Note: MASTERTOP C 711CF (MASTERKURE 111CF) is no curing but an evaporation
retardant and finishing aid that helps to produce high quality concrete flatwork. Hence this
product is treated in Chapter 3.1. Concrete.

How to apply MASTERTOP C curings?
Apply a thin, equal layer by sprayer (garden type), brush (shorthaired) or roll. For quantities
needed per m please consult the technical data sheets of the different products. The products
should be applied at temperatures above +5C.
It is important to apply an equal layer of the product otherwise the floor will have a spotted
appearance after a while. Immediately after application, the concrete has a shiny appearance
that makes it easy to see which part has been treated and double layers can be avoided.

9. Joints
9.1. Types of joints
3 types of joints can be distinguished:
a. Expansion (setting) joints
b. Isolation joints
c. Contraction joints

Types of joints



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a. Expansion (setting) joints
Expansion joints cut the slab completely in a vertical way, so the cut parts can move independently.
Expansion joints have 2 functions: different vertical movement of parts of the structure and
horizontal movement due to temperature extension/contraction.
An example for the design of an expansion setting joint can be found in the following technical
drawing.

Expansion (setting) joint
1. reinforced concrete slab 8. elastic joint filler MASTERFLEX 474
2. MASTERTOP dry shake / topping 9. back filler rod, e.g. MASTERFLEX backer rod
3. dowel sleeve 10. compressible joint plate (e.g. styrene plate)
4. steel dowel 11. spacer reinforcement
5. dowel spacer
12. PE foil, thickness 0.2 mm
6. wire mesh / welded wire mesh / rebar
13. stabilised substrate (e.g. lean concrete)
7. edge profile or MASTERTOP plastic mortar
N.B.: dimensioning of reinforcement and dowels follows load study



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b. Isolation Joints
Isolation joints isolate the concrete slab from other construction parts (e.g. walls, columns).









Isolation joint at walls











Joints at columns

Isolation joints must me installed at fixed parts (walls, columns...) over the full thickness of the slab.
They are to be filled with a compressive material.

c. Contraction joints
Contraction joints are cut in the fresh slab, 1 to 2 days after pouring. The joints are cut to - of
the thickness of the slab, upper reinforcement is to be cut. The saw cut must be 3 - 5 mm wide
(see detail drawing on next page).



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Details of a contraction joint
1. reinforced concrete slab
2. MASTERTOP dry shake / topping
3. wire mesh / welded wire mesh / rebar
4. spacer reinforcement
5. PE foil, thickness 0.2 mm
6. saw cut, width 3 5 mm, depth to of slab's thickness, upper
reinforcement has to be cut
7. elastic joint filler MASTERFLEX 474
8. stabilised substrate (e.g. lean concrete)
N.B.: dimensioning of reinforcement and dowels follows load study




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9.2. MASTERTOP armoured joints
Deteriorated, rutted joints in floors are the number 1 problem in commercial and industrial floors.
Joints on the floors are the critical points in concrete floor due to the heavy impact from fork lift
trucks or steel wheeled trolleys. Iron armoured joint will prolong the overall life of the concrete floor.
The next paragraphs will outline how MASTERTOP armoured joints can be installed.
Remove any bleed water at edges before proceeding with joints. The concrete at the joints to be
armoured should be cut down and removed to a depth of 12mm at the joint line or form, tapering
back to surface level at 100mm from the joint line. This area should then be floated with a wooden
hand float working up sufficient paste at the surface to assure an integral bond of the mortar to the
fresh slab. Mix MASTERTOP with enough water to obtain a stiff mortar consistency. Place, level
off and wood float the mortar while keeping the float perpendicular to the joint at all times. Do not
pack the joint, use only enough material to fill the void.


Details of special armoured (left) and construction joint (right) made with MASTERTOP mortar

When armouring control joints, it is imperative that the placement of the mortar be on the centre
line of the designed joint location. Once the exact location of the joint centre line is determined and
can be visually followed across the slabs (either by string or chalk line), bridge the slab
approximately 150mm to the side. Working from the bridge platform the joint is treated as
previously described.
The application rate is approx. 3.3 kg per lineal meter per one side of joint. Two sides (as shown
above) are approx. 6.6 kg per lineal meter.



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9.3. MASTERFLEX 474
MASTERFLEX 474 is a single-component, non-sag, tough, pick-resistant, high modulus
polyurethane joint sealant for floors and walls.
The product is ideal for:
Floor connection and expansion joints in buildings and civil structures
Pedestrian and traffic areas (e. g. car decks / parks)
Warehouse and production areas
Medium chemical exposure areas (e. g. canteen kitchens, garages)
Public buildings subject to possible vandalism e. g. prisons and police cells, schools, libraries
Areas constantly submerged in water (use correct primer!)
MASTERFLEX 474 provides the following features:
Single component easy to use
For walls and floors
Good mechanical and chemical resistance
Excellent adhesion to most substrates even without priming
Robust tough seal with high pick / vandalism resistance
Good weathering and ageing resistance provides high durability and long service life
Short skinning time early resistance to rain and limited risk of dirt pick up
High elastic recovery
No residual tackiness and non corrosive
Available in colours grey, white, black, brown and beige

Application Procedure for joint sealant MASTERFLEX 474
Step 1 Preparation of Substrate
The substrate must be clean, sound and dry. All traces of dust, oil and other dirt must be
removed. A minimum direct tensile adhesion strength of 1.5 N/mm of the substrate is required.
For correct installation of the joint sealant it is essential that bond breaker tape or polyethylene
closed cell backer rod is used to regulate joint depth and prevent three sided adhesion.
On well prepared dry, sound concrete older than 28 days, masonry or metal or glass surfaces
MASTERFLEX 474 does not require a primer.



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Step 2 Application
The product is supplied ready for application. Cut open the foil sausage (or the nozzle) at one
end and place in a manual or pneumatic gun and apply immediately. The product should be
tooled smooth with a spatula or with non-alcoholic liquid to create a concave surface free of
bubbles. It can be applied directly both horizontally and vertically.

MASTERFLEX 474 (light grey) applied in a horizontal expansion joint

Application of MASTERFLEX 474 (light grey) in a wall/floor connection (isolation) joint
For more details please refer to the MASTERFLEX Sealants brochure and/or the technical data
sheet.



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Cementitious Flooring Products Page 43 Version 1 (January 2010)

10. Tools
The choice of the most suitable tools and the correct use of well maintained equipment is one
important factor for the successful installation of cementitious flooring products.

Please find an exemplary contact for concrete placement equipment (e.g. laser screed
equipment) below:
Somero Enterprises, Ltd.
European Office
Broombank Road
Chesterfield Trading Estate
England S41 9QJ
www.somero.com

11. Recommendation on Job Site Organisation
11.1. Safety and precautions
All MASTERTOP cementitious flooring products contain cement which may cause irritation.
Avoid contact with eyes and prolonged contact with skin. If contact occurs, wash thoroughly
with water and call a doctor. Keep product out of reach of children. Consult the Material Safety
Data Sheet of the corresponding product for more details.




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11.2. Field Service
BASF Construction Chemicals recommends that the user requests the services of the local
representative for a pre-job conference to carefully plan each step of the installation.
11.3. Job Site Organization
Setting up, pouring and finishing a concrete floor does not just happen. It takes some careful
planning. The following list should give some recommendations for installing successfully
concrete floors.
Conduct a preconstruction meeting with all the parties involved to set up a well-executed
installation and placement plan.
Facilitate on-site communication between suppliers and contractors
Require adherence to specified tolerances and reject defective products
Insist on a clean work site with well organized storage areas
Use skilled operators and tradesmen utilizing new tools and maintained equipment
The correct timing is crucial for installing high quality floors, therefore plan sufficient time for
placing of concrete (include time of the day, weather, temperature,), time for floating and
all the other application steps.
Plan for enough people to carry out a project
12. Maintenance
BASF Construction Chemicals MASTERTOP cementitious floor surfaces installed in your
facility have far greater surface density than plain concrete and thus increasing / improving the
resistance to penetration by oil, grease, hydraulic fluids and many industrial chemicals. This
allows much easier and less expensive cleaning because the absorption of water and cleaning
agents is reduced. While the floor surfaces in your facility provide increased wear resistance
and a denser, easier to clean surface, a continual cleaning program should not be ignored.
Generally, good housekeeping practices such as cleaning up spills when they occur and
cleaning the entire floor surface on a regular basis will maintain and enhance the colour
appearance and - if applicable - the light reflective qualities that you desire.
While general and periodic cleaning will be the bulk of your maintenance program, other forms
of dirt and stains such as tire marks, oxidation, grease, paint etc will demand special cleaning
agents and techniques.
BASF Construction Chemicals stands behind our products and are always available to help
with any maintenance questions or concerns you may have.



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Some of the cleaning chemicals mentioned herein are classified toxic by the manufacturer,
thus precautions must be taken when using and disposing of these products. Local regulations
should be checked and followed.
General Cleaning
For general cleaning, the material that has been used with success, is an all purpose high
alkaline detergent. Scrubbing the floor with this type of detergent and a power floor scrubber
will offer the best results for periodic cleaning.
Curing Compound Removal
The use of a BASF Construction Chemicals approved curing compound is of utmost
importance for curing 'dry-shake' floor surfaces. Coloured concrete surfaces cured using curing
paper, plastic sheeting, wet sand or pending may develop a white efflorescence on the surface.
This stain is almost impossible to remove without damaging the surface itself. Acids such as
acetic or muriatic will remove efflorescence stains, but some etching of the cement matrix will
take place. This is undesirable for these industrial floor surfaces.
To remove the efflorescence from the surface of those coloured floors that have not been
cured with one of the MASTERTOP C (MASTERKURE) curing products, we suggest the use of
sulfamic acid (H
2
NSO
2
OH), sometimes called amidosulfonic acid. This material can be
purchased wherever chemical supplies are available and often in masonry or paint supply
stores.
Sulfamic acid should be purchased in powder form and dissolved in water. A solution below
10% should not etch the cement matrix. Always start with a trial solution of 5% or less, and
gradually increase concentration of the solution as necessary to do the job, but always staying
below 10%. After the efflorescence stains have disappeared, the surface should be damp
mopped clean. During this entire operation, avoid the use of excess water or solution. Do not
flood the floor. After physically removing as much water as possible, quick dry the surface and
immediately follow with an application of a MASTERTOP C (MASTERKURE) product.
If a curing compound is used and it is desired to remove it after the curing 28 days process
there are products and procedures that can make this task as easy as possible.
While some MASTERTOP C (MASTERKURE) types are easier to remove than other curing
compounds, it may still be troublesome if the compound has been ground into the surface by
repeated traffic. Keep in mind that all wax based curing compounds can be removed with a low
solvent cleaner.



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While particular solvents can attack/destroy this curing compound, procedures can be adapted
to specific needs. Although composition and bond of the material must be scrubbed off and
immediately removed or vacuumed from the surface.
Cleaning using a power scrubbing machine with wet vacuum is recommended, because it is
important not to leave the products or water on the surface for extended periods of time. This
prevents slippery conditions, re-adhesion as well as surface oxidation.
When using these strippers in conjunction with a power scrubbing machine please be aware of
the different types of pads to be used. All pad manufacturers try to maintain a continuity of
colour, however this does not hold true.
As a general rule the pad colours are as follows:
- Black - stripping
- Green - scrubbing
- Red & Blue - buffing
While black stripping pads should not be used on light reflective floors they are very effective
on natural and dark coloured MASTERTOP floors. The green scrubbing is the preferable pad
for light reflective floors; the buffing pads are also acceptable.
General Cleaning and On-Going Maintenance
The type of cleaning solutions and compounds are extremely important in regard to their use
on metallic floors. In areas subject to frequent cleaning, all maintenance products should be a
high alkaline composition. It has been found that the use of high alkaline cleaning agents has
either caused or increased the potential for surface oxidation on metallic floor surfaces.
Weekly or even daily cleaning using a power scrubbing machine with wet vacuum is
recommended, because it is important not to let the products or water sit on the surface for
extended periods of time. This prevents both slippery conditions as well as surface oxidation.
Rubber Tyre Mark Removal
A major problem in maintaining industrial floors are the tyre marks from lift trucks. These marks
become more apparent and troublesome when a light reflective floor is involved because they
reduce the energy saving qualities of the floor surface.
The most common lift truck tyres are made from a universal rubber compound. This type of tyre
will leave marks on concrete floors and are especially unsightly on light reflective surfaces.
There are two types of "non-marking" tyres available and should be used where tyre marks will
become a problem. "White" tyres are made from synthetic rubber with white silica gel or resin
instead of carbon. The "white" tyres have a grey white appearance, reportedly cost about 25%
more than universal rubber tyres and have about 90% of the life of universal tyres. These



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"white" tyres can have a heat build up problem when running fast and/or long distances. If heat
builds up, the load capacity is somewhat reduced. This type of tyre leaves a white dust which
supposedly does not adhere to the floor surface and this can be swept up during general
cleaning operations. The traction is about the same as universal tyres. Polyurethane tyres are
shiny black in appearance and cost about twice as much as universal rubber tyres. Reportedly,
the polyurethane tyres wear three times longer than universal tyres. Polyurethane tyres have
heat build up when running fast or long distances. These tyres are sometimes grooved for heat
dispersion. If the heat builds up, the load capacity of the tyre is reduced. This type of tyre will
leave a black residue that does not stick to the floor, again allowing the residue to be swept up
during the cleaning process. The traction is less than that of the universal tyre or "white" tyre.
Spinning can be a problem, particularly if there is liquid on the floor.
Most of the major tyre manufacturers produce a line of non-marking tyres.
When universal rubber tyres are in service and tyre marks do become a problem, there are
numerous products on the market that claim the ability to remove them. Whenever trying a new
material, do a small test in an inconspicuous area in the case of metallic floors, if there is any
questions as to the effect on the iron aggregate, have the material tested and/or get
assurances from the manufacturer.
Grease & Oils Stain Removal
Again, a regular housekeeping program will enhance the appearance of your floor. However,
as oil and grease stains become evident, many cleaning options are available. In case of huge
and long-term exposure of grease and oil, remove it with PCI Entler (PCI De-greasing Agent).
Oxidation Removal
Minor surface oxidation will occasionally appear on Light Reflective MASTERTOP 200 surfaces.
It must be kept in mind that there is a major difference between surface oxidation and oxidation
that occurs due to impure iron aggregate. Although the occasional minor surface oxidation
possible with Light Reflective MASTERTOP 200 will not hamper the serviceability or durability
of the floor, at times it is visually objectionable and mist be removed.
While acid etching is after used to prepare concrete for condign toppings etc, other precautions
must be considered when etching a metallic surface. The by-products of HCl acid on iron are
explosive hydrogen (H
2
) and toxic H
2
S.
It is suggested that if acid is to be used where metal is involved, that it be a dilute concentration
of phosphoric acid. Another advantage to the phosphoric solutions is that it should not be
flushed off. Therefore, a weak solution could be left in place to dry. A dilution of 7:1, H
2
O to
Safety Foam has proved successful in the past.



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13. General limitations of cementitious floors
Mineral Aggregates
- Where operating and service conditions dictate the use of a metallic aggregate surface
hardener for greater abrasion and impact resistance.
- For use in areas exposed to acids and their salts or to materials known to deteriorate
cement concrete, consult your BASF Construction Chemicals representative.

Metallic Aggregates
- Where floor surfaces will be exposed to acids, salts or to materials known to deteriorate
cement, consult your BASF Construction Chemicals representative.
- Areas of constant high humidity from ambient or ground water (toilets, wash places, etc)
- On concrete that contains chlorides and/of saltwater.
14. Supporting Documents
Floor Service Report (example copy on the next two pages).
Technical datasheet of all products mentioned are available in the launch pack.
Launch Presentations see launch pack.
Cementitious Floor Problem Solving Guide will be available shortly




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Cementitious Flooring Products Page 49 Version 1 (January 2010)

Cementitious Flooring / Dry Shake
Floor Service Report


Project: Location:
General Contractor: Owner:
Applicator: Specifier:
BASF Representative: Date:
BASF Products Used & Lot #:


GENERAL

Under Roof Outdoor Suspended Sub-Base: Soil Gravel Poly
Slab-Reinforcement: Mesh Rebar None Total size (m
2
):

WEATHER

Hot Humid Arid Cold Windy Snow Rain
Temperatures: Ambient (Placement Area): Concrete: Sub-Base:

CONCRETE

Designed MPa: Admixtures: Dosage: Slump: Air%:
Supplier: Calcium Chloride Water added at job site l/m
3


PLACEMENT

Strip Pour Checkerboard Wet Screed Placement begun:
Straightedge: Wood Metal Power Vibratory MASTERKURE 111CF

CREW

# of Finishers: # of Labourers: Cooperation: Good Fair Poor

LEVELLING/FLOATING

Wood Bull Float Mag. Bull Float Float Shoes # of Float Machines:
Combination Blades Wood Hand Floats Mag. Hand Floats






Application Manual
Cementitious Flooring Products Page 50 Version 1 (January 2010)

APPLICATION

Spec. kg/m
2
: kg/m
2
Used: Iron Armoured Joints
Bags counted and placed Masterkure 111 CF used Bleed Water Bleed Water Removed
Slap floated prior to shake ___ (time) Machine Hand Depth of foot impression: _____
1
st
shake: (time) 2
nd
shake: (time) Final Trowel: (time)
# of Bags applied: APPLICATION: Behind bull float By hand Other: ________
Water added to Dry Shake

TROWELING

Flat Trowel 1
st
FINAL TROWEL Hand Machine FINISH Non-Slip
Smooth Blisters Water sprinkled on surface # of Trowel Machines:
Condition of Finishing Equipment: Clean Gassed Working Unreliable

CURING

CURING METHOD: Moist cure: hrs
Curing Compound (brand name) Coverage m
2
/l
Finished floors protected from weather and other trades

JOINTS

Time before sawing: Appearance Good Fair Poor
Distance between sawed joints m Construction joints m Doweled
Flushed Clean Tape Applied Tooled Joints Other Joints (type)

Comments










Signed: (BASF representative)