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Past Preservers

Heritage Conservation

Lascaux Threat

Graffiti Archaeology

Past Horizons
Online Journal of Volunteer Archaeology and Training
Issue 1 : March 2008

Investigating the Iron Age Underworld
Excavations at High Pasture Cave, Skye

Volume I : No. 1 March 2008 Editors: Felicity Donohoe Maggie Struckmeier Layout: David Connolly Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: Find us on the web: Contributors: Steven Birch Annie Evans Nigel Hetherington Jamie Donahoe Rona Walker Additional Material: Strevo Craig Swanson Jon Welsh Hans Hins
Front Cover: Excavating within the Bone Passage (credit: Steven Birch)


cover story

High Pasture Cave: No ordinary settlement
Steven Birch takes us into an Iron Age Underworld

Disclaimer Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

Lascaux - Cave Art Under Threat A shocking article on the fungus that is literally eating away the ancient cave paintings



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Putting the Past into Perspective Nigel Hetherington on bridging the gap between heritage experts and TV production crews

Graffiti : Writing on the Wall A look at the importance and historical potential of what many see as vandalism

History in your Hands Jamie Donahoe introduces us to the work of Heritage Conservation Network

An Israeli Adventure Rona Walker shares her experiences on a volunteer fieldwork project

5 Editorial 6 News
Recent news stories from around the world

28 Dig Cook

Annie Evans on culinary escapades during fieldwork with a delicious recipe each issue We interview Professor David Kennedy of the University of Western Australia

30 Profile

21 Viewpoint

David Connolly challenges us to examine the long term effects of volunteer archaeology

31 Crossword and Cartoons

27 Dig in....

A selection of volunteer projects around the world from the Past Horizons website

Have a break and try this archaeology crossword


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Eastern Sicily
in spring

Bare Bones Tours
We offer carefully planned itineraries with your own specialist archaeologist, so that you can explore the ancient world - not just the highlights, but also lesser-known sites, and really understand them. The Bare Bones formula allows you individual freedom within a group structure, so there is plenty of free time and the opportunity to go exploring alone, but enjoy like-minded company should you wish it.

A personal introduction by Dr Michael Metcalfe who lives in Syracusa and is Lecturer in Ancient History there. All the highlights of the East of this large island, and cross the straits of Messina to see the amazing Riace bronzes.

11-18 May 2008 £1100 (Sgl Supp £95) with Dr Michael Metcalfe


in summer

The eruption of Vesuvius in AD79 devastated lives and livelihoods throughout the Bay of Naples. It also uniquely preserved the evidence of those lives. Our hotel for this summer tour is close to the coast, has wonderful views over the Bay, and a pool!

21-28 July 2008 £995 (Sgl Supp £145) with Dr Andy Fear

Western Crete
in autumn

Archaeology in Tunisia
This unusual trip includes all the highlights of the centre and west of the island of the Minoans, and a walk down the fabulous Samaria gorge. Aptera displays the entire story of the archaeology of the island in its continuous occupation. An archaeological treat in beautiful surroundings.

In the wide landscapes of northern Tunisia lie the ruins of Roman towns, more or less unaltered since the 5th century AD. This is a trip of superlatives, exploring world-class sites in romantic landscapes and seeing mosaic art at its most sophisticated and colourful. The story of the fall of Carthage, read from the vantage point of the Roman forum, will remain with you long after you return!

7-14 Oct 2008 £1100 (Sgl Supp £120) with Dr Georgina Muskett

26 Oct - 2 Nov 2008 £950 (Sgl Supp £45) with Dr Denise Allen

Ring for further details, or visit our website...
01722 past horizons 713800 4
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online magazine, dedicated to volunteering in archaeology and heritage conservation around the world. Our main feature (pg 10) takes a look at the enigmatic High Pasture Cave on the Scottish island of Skye, where archaeologist Steven Birch takes us on a fascinating journey into the Iron Age underworld. In Cave Art Under Threat (pg 8), we investigate the damage that has been done to the famous Lascaux Cave in France and the ongoing dispute concerning the protection of this unique site. We all have concerns about the way archaeology is presented in the media. Nigel Hetherington describes how his company, Past Preservers, bridges the gap between heritage experts and TV production crews in this article (pg 16). We move onto building conservation, written by Jamie Donahoe of American organisation Heritage Conservation Network. She describes the positive effects that volunteering can have both for individuals and the local community (pg 22). In the next article Graffiti: Writing on the Wall (pg 18) David Connolly gives us a background story on the subject of graffiti and offers some advice on the range of techniques that he uses to record it. Finally, Edinburgh archaeology graduate Rona Walker writes about her experiences while volunteering on an excavation in northern Israel (pg 24). In addition to the features there will be the regulars for you to enjoy each quarterly issue. The News and Small Finds section lets you know what’s happening in the world of archaeology, while the Viewpoint written by David Connolly of British Archaeological Jobs and Resources will provide a thought-provoking challenge, guaranteed to open up discussion. We are proud to present to you Annie Evans, Dig Cook, who will provide us with one of her mouth-watering recipes every issue, while Profile will feature a questionand-answer session with a leading archaeologist. Do the crossword, laugh at the cartoons and most of all enjoy the read……. we hope to hear from you with your views.


Welcome to the first edition of Past Horizons

meier Maggie StruckStruckmeier Maggie

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Remarkable Roman remains

t is not often that archaeologists get to open the lid of a Roman coffin, but in December 2007 Wessex Archaeology announced just that. It was during an excavation at Boscombe Down, Wiltshire, England that they discovered the three ton undisturbed stone coffin. With great excitement they removed the soil from around the coffin and looked inside with an infra red camera. On the removal of the lid to their surprise they found that the inside was free of soil and in an excellent state of preservation. The coffin touchingly contained the skeleton of a woman with a young child cradled in her arms. The unique environment within the coffin has allowed some of the clothing to survive even after 1800 years. The woman was wearing fur-lined luxury deerskin and cork slippers imported from the Mediterranean, while the child was wearing soft calf skin shoes. The woman also wore a necklace of Whitby jet and a bronze ankle bracelet. By her head had been placed a small lustrous pot imported from France, the contents of which would have provided something to drink for the final journey to the next world. The sarcophagus, dating to around 220 AD, is the earliest burial that Wessex Archaeology have excavated in this cemetery. The other coffins, clustered around it, were all made of wood. In contrast, their occupants wore hobnail boots and were furnished with locally made copies of imported pottery.

Wessex Archaeology have now released a video, filmed as they were removing the lid.

To watch the video, click play button on the controls above and then zoom in.
Hyperlinks : (click to view) > Wessex Archaeology : > Entire film of the Boscombe Down Coffin excavation :


Small Finds
Archaeologist ‘Strikes Gold’ with finds of ancient Nasca iron ore mine in Peru
“A Purdue University archaeologist discovered an intact ancient iron ore mine in South America that shows how civilizations before the Inca Empire were mining this valuable ore” Read Full Story: (Science Daily)

Ancient mass sacrifice, riches discovered in Chinese tomb
“A 2,500-year-old tomb containing nearly fifty victims of human sacrifice has been excavated in China, yielding a treasure trove of new insights into customs during the era of Confucius” Read Full Story: (National Geographic)

New tests on rare polar bear find in Scotland
“Scientists hope to unlock secrets contained in the DNA of what are believed to be the only polar bear remains to be found in Britain dating to 18,000 BCE.” Read Full Story: (BBC News)

Found at last: the world’s oldest missing page
“Fifth-century Christian text turns up under floor in Egypt, bringing early church martyrs to light. It is the oldest dated Christian text in existence” Read Full Story: (The Independant)

Gene studies confirm “Out of Africa” theories
“Two big genetic studies confirm theories that modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated through Europe and Asia to reach the Pacific and Americas.” Read Full Story: (Yahoo News)

Royal goddesses of a Bronze Age state
“More than 30 years after Italian archaeologists found a vast archive of 17,000 cuneiform tablets, the Bronze Age site of Ebla in Syria is still surprising those who work there. ” Read Full Story: (

Unlocking mysteries of the Parthenon
“Over 2,500 years, the Parthenon endured earthquakes, fire, explosions, looting & misguided preservation. The Athenians built it in just nine years. Repairing it is taking longer!” Read Full Story: (Smithsonian Magazine)

For more news stories that are updated constantly, try:
Past Horizons News Blog: Stonepages Weekly News and Podcast: CBA Archaeology News Feed:


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Lascaux: Art Leg Facing Extinct
by M Struckmeier Images by Hans Hins
The Cave of Lascaux was discovered on 12 Sept. 1940 when four friends and their dog disappeared through a hole. The boys had stumbled upon a vast cave, its walls decorated with colourful paintings of leaping stags, buffalo and prehistoric horses, believed to date to about 14,000 B.C. The Cave itself consists of a large entrance chamber and two main “galleries” - the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery - with about 1,500 engravings and 600 drawings in yellow, red and black mineral pigments.

he Cave of Lascaux in the Dordogne region of SW France is famous for some of the finest examples of Palaeolithic art ever seen. But now, for the second time in a decade the Cave has had to be closed to allow scientists to treat approximately seventy grey/black blemishes which have appeared in the passages. The initial problems arose in 2000 when it was decided to modernise the temperature and humidity regulator. Not long after this work was completed, a white fungus called Fusarium Solani appeared and began spreading across the walls and ceiling. This is a common fungus found around the Lascaux agricultural area, and one theory is that the people working on the system did not sterilise their shoes each day, thereby bringing the fungus with them. By 2001 the mould had formed a white mass over the floors and ledges of the painted chambers. The French heritage authorities agreed to the use of antibiotics and fungicides to try and stop the spread but it soon became clear that the fungus had developed a resistance to the sprays.


In a last ditch attempt to stop the spread, the authorities controversially poured quicklime over the floor. This aggressive treatment did have the desired effect but as a result the internal temperature of the cave rose. Compresses soaked in antibiotics and fungicides were then applied to the walls in a desperate bid to halt the growth. In 2002 the fungus had retreated, but where it had been treated there were now blackish spots. Authorities controversially resorted to the highly invasive procedure of scraping away the fungal roots with scalpels. From the beginning of the crisis the curator of Lascaux Jean-Michel Geneste has always denied there is a problem, stating that the cave is now stable, there has been no damage to the paintings and that the fungus has disappeared naturally. Furthermore, the decision to construct a car park over the top of it for visitors to Lascaux II could potentially harm the cave from the outside also, with the weight of cars, construction materials and exhaust fumes increasing stress on the already fragile environment.


click to view International Committee for the Preservation of Lascaux: World Heritage in Danger: Lascaux Cave website:

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gacy tion
When the problems were pointed out to the French ambassador to the United States, apart from blaming global warming, he stated that the visitors to Lascaux (over 2000 a day in the first two decades of its opening in 1945) were the ones responsible for bringing the fungus into the Cave. risk of being damaged beyond repair. The International Committee for the Preservation of Lascaux summarised the situation: “Unless change is undertaken quickly, the world stands to lose Lascaux’s irreplaceable masterpiece and its rich story of mankind’s place in time.”
One of the most recognisable pieces of art in the world, this panel is in the Hall of the Bulls.

In 1998, lichens were found to be growing This signals the urgency that now surrounds in the cave, with the implication that they Lascaux and the need for firmer direction had lain dormant in the stable conditions in deciding the cave’s future. Until now, of the atmosphere from the opening of the French government has failed to stem the Cave in the 1940s. “the World stands the tide of erosion and The government took no damage, and it is perhaps to lose Lascaux’s action against the lichen time for an international irreplaceable and instead decided to body to step forward and masterpiece” swap the old passive-air demand changes in policy system which re-circulated air naturally regarding the preservation of Lascaux. for a forced-air system which may have activated the spores. There is some hope, however. Unesco is sending a delegation of specialists to No-one seems to be willing to accept the cave to determine whether Lascaux responsibility for the failure, and with four should be included on the World Heritage different goverment departments charged in Danger list. If this should happen, the with the Cave’s care, it is difficult to find protection of the caves may well fall into out what the full story is and who took the the care of stronger, more knowledgeable final decision to replace the system. hands, preserving the heritage and beauty of Lascaux for future generations to enjoy. Lascaux is an important site which is at

Below, left to right The Fleeing Horse bracing at the edge of a precipice over which another horse has just fallen, Axial Gallery Fungicides and antibiotics used in multiple and ineffective massive sprayings inside the cave. Art restorer manually removing fungus from the Red Cow, Axial Gallery Antibiotic compress applied to Lascaux’s painted walls. The Falling Cow over the Frieze of Ponies, Axial Gallery


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Investigating the Iron Age
By Steven Birch
Co-Director High Pasture Cave & Environs Project Images by Steven Birch


High Pasture Cave on the Isle of Skye is a natural limestone cave that contains a diverse assemblage of archaeological deposits of prehistoric age. However, although the cave appears to have been the focus of the site during prehistory, fieldwork carried out between 2004 and 2007 indicates use of the site from the Mesolithic through to the Post-Medieval period – around 6000 years of activity. Although much work remains to be done, investigations and post-excavation analysis suggests the cave formed an important part of the wider prehistoric landscape in Skye between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age periods. Archaeological material recovered from the cave includes a series of structured deposits, such as a wide range of votive offerings, ad while much of this would have been available locally, some of the finds point to wider cultural contacts. The assemblage of materials has produced several significant finds. Features uncovered include pits and post-holes, and a number of cellular stone-built structures and revetment walls associated with a large burnt mound. There are also indications that fire played a major role in activities including its use in cooking and feasting, in the possible cremation of animals, and in industrial processes such as metalworking. Access to the cave from the surface was initially through a natural entrance, comprising a walkway over abandoned river-washed gravels and boulders. Through time the entrance was modified; at first this included a series of small steps and a paved surface leading along a dry and abandoned passage and down a steep ramp
Adult inhumation in top of backfilled stairwell

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to a junction with the underground stream. Around the 4th century BC, a more elaborate entrance was constructed comprising a steep stone-built stairwell, over which was built a corbelled roof. It is most probable the site was utilised periodically, and its function, particularly the cave, changed through time. A study of the small finds and their distribution, along with the variation in the deposition of faunal remains, butchery techniques and quality of preservation, provides clear evidence of this. The earlier phases identified within the cave, dating to the 9th century BC, provide evidence for the structured
“ fire played a major role in activities including cooking and feasting, the possible cremation of animals, and in industrial processes such as metalworking. ”
Entering Bone Passage from base of stairwell.

musical instrument were placed in a gap between the paving stones, while nearby a socketed iron axe and an adze of similar form was recovered. Later phases of use, including that identified above the upper paved granite floor in the cave, which has been radiocarbon dated to between the 4th and 2nd century BC, indicates the continued deposition of material comprising domestic-type midden. Included with this mix of materials are elements from the burnt mound that was accumulating at the surface throughout the use of the cave, including deposits of fire-cracked stone, charcoal and heavily burnt bone. However, by this phase the distribution of small finds is more even and widespread throughout the archaeological deposits, with less emphasis placed on zonation within the cave. The range of small finds from the upper contexts in the cave on the whole comprise similar types of material including spindle whorls, bone pins, items manufactured from antler, a range of iron objects,
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deposition of small finds, especially within the liminal zone where the paved walkway entered the natural cave entrance. Here, caches of bone points and pins, spindle whorls, whetstones and a large saddle quern stone were recovered. This deposition continued along the walkway in the cave where a cache of seven tuning pegs from a

Above (left to right): Ink drawing of bone and antler pins and socketed adze from Bone Passage (before conservation).


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and stone tools including grinders, hammers, palettes, whetstones and quern stones. However, within these deposits we also recovered glass beads and residues relating to metalworking including hearth slabs, slag deposits, hammer-scale, and crucible and tuyere fragments, the latter indicating the processing of copperalloy. Although it appears likely that the metalworking was taking place on site, or at least somewhere close to High Pasture Cave, we have not yet found any evidence for these activities.

partial backfilling of Bone Passage with organic midden, deposits of fire-cracked stone and granite boulders, and the complete backfilling of the stairwell. The final closing act was performed when human and animal remains were placed in the top of the backfilled stairwell. These included the extended inhumation of a woman aged 3040 years, the combined remains of a perinate aged 7-9 months, a foetus aged 3-6 months, and the remains of a foetal pig. Preliminary analysis of the remains suggests excarnation may have been used before deposition of the remains in their final resting place, These finds are augmented by a rich while isotope analysis of the human “ The cave appears and varied faunal assemblage, the remains indicates that the perinate and to have been the remains of fish and shellfish, and burnt foetus were most likely directly related main focus at plant remains, most likely relating to to the woman. After the deposition of the site, a place feasting at the site, or deposited as votive the human and animal remains in the where a surface offerings in activities centred on the cave. stairwell, the area around the cave stream plunges It is the unusual composition of the bone underground into a entrance and the surface of the burnt network of natural assemblage, including a predominance mound was landscaped using granite passages. ” of domesticated pig and evidence for and limestone boulders. This final act unusual butchery practices, that sets it may have been an attempt to disguise apart from the other animal remains recovered from the the site from view, erasing the cave and its stairwell site, and to animal bone assemblages generally recovered entrance from Skye’s Iron Age landscape. from Iron Age sites in Scotland. It is clear that High Pasture Cave is no ‘normal’ domestic During these periods, archaeological evidence supported settlement. There is no evidence for dwellings and the site by radiocarbon dates suggests the burnt mound was is set apart from the pattern of settlement identified through accumulating in a horseshoe shape around the cave landscape survey in Strath Suardal. The cave appears to entrance to form a major component of the site. Small have been the main focus at the site, a place where a finds are less numerous but metalworking residues, surface stream plunges underground into a network of waste from the manufacture of shale objects, stone natural passages. As shelters, depots, landmarks and tools, ceramics and lithics have been recovered, and the tombs, caves have been focal points for human ritual and distribution map shows a strong bias in favour of the subsistence activities. As such, archaeological evidence cave entrance and bone passage from caves allows a glimpse of past societies’ cultural understanding of natural places in the landscape, while Radiocarbon dates indicate the intense use of the site the use of caves throughout human history transcends between 850BC and 100BC, and it appears to have chronological divisions, suggesting they were re-used, been formally ‘closed’ around 100BC. This included the re-invented and re-contextualised over millennia.

Post-medieval shielings

Excavations in the burnt mound at the surface

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“Is it possible that these sites are a form of shrine, a place where people gathered together on special dates in the Celtic calendar to hold feasts and make offerings to their Gods?”

Stairwell entrance to cave

Therefore, how do we start to interpret the High Pasture Cave site primarily from the domestic domain? As archaeologists it is difficult to differentiate between economic and symbolic activities, especially at a site where the mode of deposition and the range of materials changes through time. Items found in specialised contexts are often types that are directly associated with the domestic domain within the settlements themselves. Thus, the crucial distinction is not between different kinds of object or between the roles that they had played in daily life, but rather, the manner in which they were deployed when their use came to an end. Maybe it is the form of deposition we are identifying at High Pasture Cave that sets these items apart from those employed in domestic life, providing them with a new emphasis. It has been suggested that these special activities needed to happen in special places, potentially in locations cut off from normal domestic activities or whose significance was marked by the presence of some special form of monument.(1) The cave at High Pasture could be classed as a special type of monument in its own right – a passage leading into the earth containing flowing water. In the Late Bronze Age in particular, water sources such as springs, lakes, rivers and bogs, were revered as special localities in the landscape. Votive offerings were, and still are, tossed into these natural places, which are believed to possess healing powers and were also believed to be entrances to the Otherworld. Bone Passage provided a ready-made chamber, allowing continuous access and repeated use, and through use the site was monumentalised. The use of underground passages and chambers is well known in the Iron Age landscapes of Atlantic Scotland, most of which have been constructed by humans. However, the function of many of these structures including the

souterrains and so-called ‘wells’ remain a mystery. At Mine Howe in Orkney, the construction of stone-built chambers and inter-connecting stairwells created an underground space, or artificial cave. Excavations have revealed evidence for feasting, metalworking and the deposition of the dead – at a location in the landscape set apart from the normal domestic realm. Is it possible that these sites are a form of shrine, a place where people gathered together on special dates in the Celtic calendar to hold feasts and make offerings to their Gods? After all, Iron Age shrines used into the Early Roman period have been identified in southern England. With such discoveries, it now appears that we
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Volunteer Sophie Laidlaw in Trench 14


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are dealing with an entirely new group of sites within the wider Atlantic Iron Age landscape, and with the excavations at High Pasture, we have the opportunity to take these initial interpretations forward and shed light on a little-understood aspect of Iron Age life in Scotland.

“ it now appears that we are dealing with an entirely new group of sites within the wider Atlantic Iron Age landscape ”
Martin Wildgoose and Steven Birch are freelance archaeologists based on the island of Skye. They hope to conclude fieldwork in 2009 with a view to publishing in 2012. With thanks to partners Historic Scotland, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Highland 2007 Fund, Skye and Lochalsh Leader, university archaeology departments, post-ex specialists and the volunteers. For further details see Reference 1. Bradley, R., Ritual and Domestic Life in Prehistoric Europe, Routledge (2005).
Granite saddle quern recovered from base of stairwell

Excavating in Bone Passage

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Putting the Past into Perspective
Past Horizons talks with Nigel Hetherington
Are there pyramids in Luxor? Did the Pharaohs have electricity? Was Cleopatra a Hollywood beauty? Was there really a mummy’s curse? Was there a mummy on the Titanic? Most experts would say the answer to all these questions is no, but we have seen the contrary in many documentaries and films throughout the years. Yet nobody actually sets out to make a bad show or mislead the public, but these mistakes are normally made because of either a lack of time or knowledge. for production teams working in documentary and fiction. Launched independently by archaeologist Nigel Hetherington in 2005, Past Preservers provides historical and archaeological consultancy and professional support to the media industry.

After five years working for Avid Technology as a financial manager, Nigel decided to go back to university to study a life-long passion; Egyptology. Little did he know that his new interest would bring him back to A lot of research work is done at home and polished by working in the media five years on. A BA and a Masters interviews with experts on location. But what happens from University College London later, Nigel was working as an archaeologist in Egypt where the first concept for when the crew goes home and the experts go to bed? Past Preservers was born. He was working with worldA new business operating out of Cairo and London renowned archaeologist, Dr. Kent Weeks, at the Valley of has hopefully filled a market niche. Past Preservers is the Kings in Luxor and met many production companies the first historical and cultural consultancy company coming to the Valley to film and looking for expert

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opinion on aspects of Egyptology from talking heads and local experts. The opportunity to make a business around guiding production teams in their choice of locations and check that they did not make any archaeological blunders was apparent. As the idea germinated in the back of his mind, Nigel had more contact with the media through his work for The Theban Mapping Project and became increasingly set on the idea of creating some kind of hub between the often misunderstood archaeological world and the media. “I wanted to see quality programs about the history of Egypt being made; it is such as well-loved topic that it deserves to be portrayed in a way that all can appreciate without glossing over the details,’ says Nigel. ‘I saw an opportunity to provide expert counsel throughout the creative process.” Recent examples of on location work include a live telecast from the Valley of the Kings in Luxor where the crew debated over the location of the cameras. Tutankhamun’s tomb was the final choice because Past Preservers informed them that it was the only tomb with a royal mummy in situ. A recently commissioned biographical documentary for Channel 4 did most of its research at home, but needed someone like Past Preservers to give a local interpretation to the desk-based work.

in documentaries are keeping us all on our toes.” Post-production review of material might just keep the scandal hungry at bay. Most companies can get the ground work done at home, but a company like Past Preservers can give a programme the authentic edge it needs in a increasingly competitive environment. The company has now diversified beyond the limits of Egyptology and has a database of experts and talent broad enough to cover most historical and cultural questions a production team might have. Even with the producer and director involved in postproduction, the sequence of events and narrative put together in the editing suite are prey to misconceptions and errors that can affect the quality of the final product. How many programmes have suffered from a lack of critical review at the last moment? In our present day market perhaps a more holistic approach is needed to ensure a competitive advantage. From modest beginnings Nigel hopes to take the company further. “We have worked with some big names now, but I would like to look further into the possibilities of working on our own treatments for production companies as well as offering guidance after the idea has already been conceived.”

However, when the footage comes home and post- For more details visit production get their hands on it, the link between the local research knowledge and the editing suite can be lost. Nigel comments that, “Time restrictions and money issues can force us to play a hand that, even with the best of intentions, might give an inaccurate portrayal of a topic. The recent BBC scandals over mis-information

click to view Past Preservers Theban Mapping Project


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by David Connolly

17th Lancers Graffiti on the Gate of Nations , Persepolis, Iran

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Vandalism or social commentary, it can all depend on your viewpoint. Graffiti has been with us since the first humans made marks on cave walls
Past Horizons investigates and also provides a simple guide to recording graffiti

rom earliest times, humans have found the need to leave their mark, as an expression of self, a statement that they existed. Graffiti, as we understand it today can range from a scratched name on a wall to spray painted gang names declaring territorial rights. Modern materials of course make it much easier to make graffiti on a huge scale, but whatever the method it will always sit in a grey area between vandalism and social commentary. From an archaeological point of view graffiti can be of great historical interest as it can provide a more honest glimpse into the lives of ordinary men and women within society, their hopes, feelings, likes and dislikes. Instead of the official accounts of history written by those in power, it can tell us about political ambitions and affiliations of the time, provided in often direct and frank statements.


In 1856 archaeologist Raphael Garucchi actually used the word graffiti when researching Pompeii. He wanted to make a distinction between official inscriptions found on the walls and the unofficial inscriptions of the ‘common people’. The common graffiti often used colloquialisms not found in the official language, and consisted of curses, magic spells, literary quotes, political slogans and declarations of love. Perhaps some of the most interesting graffiti that archaeologists have examined is that of the prisoner graffiti at Edinburgh Castle. Carved into one of the doors of the cells is thought to be one of the earliest depictions of the American Stars and Stripes. Another
“Graffiti is a social comment on who we are and what we stand for”

shows a gallows with the inscription ‘Lord North’, the One of the earliest examples of ‘modern graffiti’ depicting British Prime Minister during the American Revolution. the oldest job in the world can be found at Ephesus in The defiant etching was in response to his proposal that Turkey and is thought to lead the reader to a nearby American prisoners be categorised as pirates or rebels, brothel. In fact there are many references to prostitution rather than prisoners of war with all the attending in the graffiti of the classical world which opens a debate privileges. In this way they could be held indefinitely on the differences in attitude to that particular trade in unless they enlisted with the Navy ancient times. Graffiti is universal, it is a social comment on who we The first person to look at graffiti seriously was an Italian are and what we stand for. Although we might wince Antonio Bosio. In 1632 he published a systematic when we see it, we should not forget the legacy that it description of all the official and non-official inscriptions leaves for the future. Whether it is ‘Ban the Bomb’ or (he never referred to them as graffiti) to be found in the part of an expression and catalyst for the Rose Revolution Roman Catacombs. Interestingly, he then went on to in Georgia, there is obviously a desire by some to be leave his own signature in the Priscilla Catacomb. The represented in this way. Viewed from this angle, the graffiti found in the catacombs helps inform researchers preservation of graffiti by formal recording will be a about the extent of knowledge these early Christian valuable resource for the future. pilgrims had of the names and events mentioned in the Bible.
Opposite page top, from left: brothel advert, Ephesus, c. 1st century AD. Above, from left: Roman political graffiti, Pompeii, c 79AD; Stars and Stripes, Edinburgh Castle, 1778/9; Hand prints in Beza, Spain, 20th century AD; Rose Revolution graffiti, Tbilisi, 2003

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Recording Graffiti
Making a record of graffiti is an easy activity to carry out, and will be a real benefit to future researchers. The three main types of graffiti are scratched/ etched, drawn with pencil or chalk, painted/sprayed. As with the example below-right, the scratched names are only visible with a raking light to catch the shadows and then the letters picked out in red, using Photoshop. Most graffiti is best recorded with a camera and with a note of the date and location as well as the material used to create it. Some graffiti needs quite a bit of work to make it visible like the ship drawing to the right. This was achieved by manipulating the original photograph and then overpainting in Adobe Photoshop. You never know what you will find or record! For example, below, the political graffiti demanding “Independence for Scotland” is written in chalk and will disappear in a matter of days, but when photographed, the social history of a moment in time is recorded.

Pen drawing of ship from Edinburgh Castle

Political graffiti in Edinburgh; Image courtesy of Strevo:

Before and after: Photograph using a raking light on graffiti, with overlaid transcription.

KELBURN Castle Graffiti Project

The idea is simple and original: take the vibrant and often transient art form of Brazilian graffiti out of its predominantly urban context, and apply it to the ancient and permanent walls of a historic rural castle in Scotland
To watch the video, click the play button on the controls above and then zoom in.
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Where does our responsibility Start?
Many of us who have worked abroad will recognise this scene. We
arrive in a dusty village and take up residence for a month or two. The villagers are friendly and make us welcome, inviting us into their lives as we excavate their past. We employ them as the labour force and stay in their houses, but what is the lasting effect on the local population beyond this? In many of the sites I have worked on abroad (but by no means all), I have seen a dislocation of purpose between what we want from the experience and what the locals might expect. This forms the basis of my challenge. Surely we have a responsibility to these often impoverished communities which goes beyond the bounds of the trench?

Discussions on local issues, Nokalakevi.

To illustrate this, in 2004, I was privileged to visit a joint Anglo-Georgian expedition to the site of Nokalakevi in western Georgia where investigations continued on the Hellenistic, Byzantine and Colchian city. Students from both Southampton and Tbilisi were trained by professionals, and a well formed research strategy underpinned the expedition ( ). Whilst there, it became apparent that the infrastructure of the village was in need of serious overhaul, and the museum, which once served the site, had been badly damaged by the fighting of the 1990s. The museum had been given computers by an international aid agency, but with intermittent electricity they could not be used. The dig houses and research building had been damaged in the fighting and moral was understandably low. After discussion with the local museum staff and villagers, it was decided that the minimum requirement would be a generator, fuel and money to repair the roof and windows of the museum, with additional funds to allow the dig house to be upgraded. An appeal fund was created and soon donations came pouring in. The Georgian government was so impressed by the commitment, it also decided to provide funding, including the resurfacing of the pot-holed road to Nokalakevi. The museum was restored, an education room created that could make use of the computers, the dig house refurbished, and work began on the research centre. The benefits to the community were tangible and lasting, and given time, a sustainable future for the village will have been built on the foundations laid by an archaeological project.

An isolated case…?
These examples show how archaeology can benefit more than just archaeologists: Çatal Höyük in Turkey Butrint in Albania Crow Canyon Archaeological Centre in Colorado

David Connolly
Should this be one of the primary objectives for all expeditions?

What do you think?
If you want to comment, write to us at


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History in your Hands

left to right Painstaking paint removal revealed the original silver, gold and cream paint scheme of the chapel of a 17th century Manor house in Oplotnica, Slovenia. The municipality has gone on to complete the restoration initiated by HCN and their local preservation partners. credit: Judith Broeker Led by preservation contractor Bill Black, Jr. of Paducah, Kentucky, volunteers worked to save the delicate detailing of the Queen Anne-style Kornthal Parsonage. credit: Katie Dorn The 1887 Francis Mill in Waynesville, North Carolina, in July 2004 before the first HCN workshop. credit: Kelli Gantt The Francis Mill with restoration almost complete after four years of hard work by HCN and the Francis Mill Preservation Society. credit: Tanna Timbes HCN volunteers prepare a historic adobe wall for a new coating of lime plaster, Mesilla, New Mexico. credit: Judith Broeker

by Jamie Donahoe
Archaeologists and conservation professionals know first hand the thrill of uncovering something from our past, whether it’s a fossil or a hidden room concealed by long-ago changes. For non-professionals and students, volunteer vacations provide an exciting way to participate in this process of discovery and preservation. These vacations are a meaningful way for volunteer travellers to give something back, make a positive contribution, and in some cases, improve other people’s lives and livelihoods. Heritage Conservation Network, a building conservation non-profit group based in Boulder, Colorado, enables volunteers to put history in their own hands. HCN volunteers helped bring the Francis Mill in Waynesville, North Carolina, from near collapse to working condition and saved the beautifully detailed wooden porch at the Kornthal Parsonage in Jonesboro, Illinois. Looking globally, HCN has worked in Europe and Africa and is now planning its first projects in China. Information on HCN projects, past, present and future, is available at their website; A pioneer in the field of conservation volunteer vacations, HCN uses a “Habitat for Humanity-style” model to match volunteers

to conservation projects around the world. Groups of 8-10 gather at a site to work with preservation professionals to accomplish the task at hand, such as repairing adobe walls or restoring a historic masonry bridge. Volunteer groups often include students heading into the field of historic preservation, but no expertise is necessary to join an HCN team. Workshop participants receive training and work directly with building conservation professionals. Tasks on site can vary, and volunteers can choose a vacation based on the type of work that matches their interests and abilities. Participants sometimes know each other before the workshop, but often they arrive as strangers to leave as friends. This makes HCN workshops a great team-building opportunity for colleagues, co-workers and community groups. The primary goal of each HCN project is the restoration of a historic building, but volunteers soon learn that their work is about more than the building itself. HCN volunteers help save buildings that might otherwise be lost, restoring them to their original use or equipping them for a new purpose such as a community center. They help jumpstart cultural heritage tourism in economically depressed or undeveloped areas. They restore people’s homes, their lives, and their pride in their heritage. This is especially true in regions affected by natural disaster. In 2006, HCN brought five teams of

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Heritage Conservation Network
International Hands-on Workshops for Architectural and Site Conservation

volunteers to work in historic neighborhoods in New Orleans and Bay St. Louis which were among those hardest hit by Hurricane Katrina. Founded by two conservation specialists with a passion for educating the general public about the importance of historic preservation, HCN has been putting history in the hands of volunteers for the past six years. HCN teams have completed projects at 23 sites in five countries, and at present, another 15 workshops are in the planning stages. In 2007 alone, volunteers slung mud in New Paltz, New York, slapped on white wash in Virginia City, Montana, and documented wall paintings in Serravalle, Italy. They also helped restore a stone chief’s house in a village in Ghana. Volunteers do not need to be in tip-top physical shape as there’s a way for everyone to participate at each project. Where physical strength and stamina are essential, this is noted clearly in the project description. Volunteers range in age from 18 to 80 and often report that the mix of participants is one of the highlights of the experience. The backlog of projects waiting for HCN’s volunteers and technical experts continues to grow. Planning is currently underway to restore the Naa Laingoye House in Accra, Ghana, to be used as a bed and breakfast

with a catering school to train local residents. Workshops are also being planned for Bijapur, India, and Kaiping, China. To meet the needs of these projects, and more importantly, these communities, HCN has launched a major drive for volunteers, for donations of materials and supplies, and for scholarship funds. If you would like to be involved with HCN or join any of its projects, let HCN know. They can be reached at +1303 444 0128 or via email at

Heritage Conservation Network

HCN volunteers and local residents and participants at the Ablekuma chief’s house in Ghana.
Photo courtesy of Sarah Hatcher


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by Rona Walker
Rona undertook 10 weeks of fieldwork in Israel as a volunteer before recently completing her degree.

An I

Hazor at dawn

I have had a love of archaeology from an early age and chose to study a combination of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University of Edinburgh. During my four year MA degree I took the archaeology fieldwork choice.

Where you chose to excavate was up to you, and due to my love of sun and the unpromising Scottish summer I decided I wanted to excavate abroad. A poster for a Canaanite site in Israel caught my eye; it looked like it would be an amazing opportunity and experience. As a student, I had to make sure that the university approved of the site but after that it was up to myself to organise everything else. I emailed the supervisor of the excavation, introduced myself and begged to be part of his team. The excitement of visiting Israel and being able to excavate with such big names in Israeli archaeology Iron Age pottery from the excavation. quelled any worries I had about the trip and travelling by myself. My plan was to excavate for a full two months at Tel Hazor, a major biblical-era site in North Israel in the Galilee, but due to the outbreak of the war between Israel and Lebanon I had to leave this site and finished my excavation experience at Tel Yarmuth, a site further south. Despite this, it was a truly rewarding experience which opened my eyes to the in-depth workings of field excavation. The excavations were similar. Hazor features in the narrative of the Bible (for example: Joshua 11:10) concerning the Israeli conquests and the fall of the past horizons

Up until that point I hadn’t even thought about how to fund it but that was obviously the next step. Volunteers are generally expected to pay for their travel, accommodation - everything really! Archaeology students are given a small payment from their universities to help towards their excavation placements but as I chose to go to Israel, obviously this covered just a fraction of what I had to pay. I wrote to different organisations explaining my hope to excavate, especially at the Canaanite site (you can use the internet or a library to find out about local organisations or rotary clubs that offer financial help). People were extremely supportive and between my own savings, the university and cheques I received, I funded my entire trip to Israel.


Israeli Adventure

late Bronze Age Canaan. Yadin Yagael, the first main excavator of Hazor, was motivated by the desire to confront this Biblical narrative, and concluded that the history of the site was faithfully reflected by the account in the Bible. Amnon Ben-Tor, from the University of Jerusalem, headed the renewed excavations from 1990, which were intended to ‘check’ Yadin’s strategic observations on which he based his conclusions.

attempted to understand its relationship and status in the process of urbanisation in the Southern Levant.

The excavating could at times be nerve-wracking: I constantly worried about hacking through something of relevance! However, the professionals took a step back now and then to allow us amateurs to ‘go for it’, which helped gain experience, build confidence and increase a connection with the trench. This increased incentive and Tel Yarmuth is also a Biblical-era site, which has been heightened excitement about the excavation as a whole. identified as the ‘Yarmuth’ mentioned in Joshua 10 due As mentioned earlier, the Israeli and Lebanon war to its location and settlement history. Nestled in the continued over the page Judean foothills five kilometres south of the modern A fellow volunteer carefully excavates a complete pot.. city of Beth Shemesh, it was initially excavated in the 1970s by Amnon Ben-Tor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and of course, Hazor. Yarmuth covers 600 acres and consists of a fortified small acropolis and larger lower city.

“it was a truly rewarding experience which opened my eyes to the in-depth workings of field excavation”
Excavations were being carried out in the lower city under the supervision of Pierre de Miroschedji of the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, and were funded by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The excavations addressed why Yarmuth was so prosperous, why it was eventually abandoned and


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broke out whilst we were excavating in the north of the country. Due to rockets being fired a little to close for comfort we were forced to move down the country town by town until it was eventually decided that we would take refuge in Jerusalem. I moved to Tel Yarmuth soon after to excavate until I returned home. Despite this trouble, Israel was a positive experience, and my time at both sites can only be described as amazing. Excavations are hard work, especially in hot countries, but the whole process, from letter-writing, to the hard excavation, to the weekend travels, was well worth it!
The author has a break on site

Reasons to volunteer…
Choice of excavations:
Anyone of any age can join an excavation as a volunteer and there are many to choose from. I began my search to find excavations on the internet sites such as “Other good places to look are in up-todate archaeological journals. If you are at university, the archaeology department usually has posters up advertising different excavations.” The work: “Work included practical excavation, administration and post excavation work. We did pottery washing and “pottery reading”, activities that I believe are important for student and archaeology-lover alike, allowing time for everyone from different areas of the excavation to be together.” The variety of people: “The staff consisted mainly of Israelis with the odd Canadian, Russian and Spanish. The supervisors ranged from those who were qualified in archaeology to those who just
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loved local archaeology but all had been excavating at Hazor for a number of years.” Social life: “Excavations provide the chance to visit new countries and meet people who are enthusiastic about similar things as yourself. We worked five or six days a week and this allowed me time to explore places and do the ‘touristy’ things, such as visit the Dead Sea. The social aspect was also great for hearing about different archaeological experiences, past and present, and hearing others’ archaeological anecdotes is definitely a good learning process.”
The excavation at Tel Hazor


Dig In.....

get involved with archaeological projects around the world

The project aims to study, restore, protect, and eventually present a unique prehistoric megalithic tomb “Dzhubga” to the public. 20 July – 20 September 2008 Website: Excavation of the fortified acropolis of the Piatra Detunata site will continue and expect to expose a significant part of the fortification system. 1 June – 5 July 2008 Website:

Russian Federation: Giant Prehistoric Dolmen with Petroglyphs

Transylvania: Dacian Fortress

A unique adventure, new learning and personal challenges and an opportunity to play an active role in furthering our understanding of the Maya culture. 26 May – 27 July 2008 Website:

Belize: Maya Research Program

Founded in the 4th century B.C. by Philip of Macedon this was one of the key urban centres on Via Egnatia road connecting Rome and Asia Minor. 16 – 30 July 2008 Website:

Macedonia: Heraclea Lyncestis Excavation Project

Scotland: Scottish Episcopal Palaces Project - Fetternear

The summer palace of the medieval bishops of Aberdeen. The site forms part of a project designed to study the development of bishops’ palaces. 30 June – 25 July 2008 Website:

Portugal: Evoramonte Axis Mundi

Castle and fortified town that may have once been the lost town of Dipo that existed during the Romanization of the region of Lusitania. 30 June – 1 August 2008 Website:

Kazakhstan: Geoarchaeological Study of the Talas Valley

The volunteer archaeology camp aims to continue a full geoarchaeological study of the valley of the Talas river. 15 July – 30 August 2008 Website:

England: Combe Martin Silver Mine Research and Preservation Society
A community archaeology initiative carried out by volunteers who are taught the skills necessary for quality excavation and is inclusive and accessible to all. 12 – 20 July 2008 Website:

Active rock art centre that organises annual archaeology fieldwork at Paspardo, giving the opportunity to research and study the rock art of Valcamonica. 14 July – 4 August 2008 Website:

Italy: Valcamonica Archaeology and Rock Art Fieldwork

This is only a small selection of scores of sites, many more can be found here:
Past Horizons: Archaeological Institute of America:


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Recipes for Archaeologists
here’s more art to cooking for field projects than you might expect. Sure, it’s a challenge to work in the kind of basic kitchens that make most good cooks cringe but there are other issues to be considered. Annie Evans The Dig Cook With the usual blended workforces of people from many parts of the world, fieldwork cooking also requires a degree of culinary tact. You have to deal with and satisfy people whose taste runs from bland to hot and spicy, as well as the carnivores and the vegetarians. And let’s not forget the project director with a sharp eye on the budget.


as well as the fresh fruit, vegetables, meat and/or fish needed for the first day or two. About halfway through the season you need to start winding down on your food stock – and without doing any damage to the quality of the food produced. The goal of any good field cook is to leave the site with very little of the provisions still unused. The last thing you want on the closing day of a project is a fridge stuffed with perishables and unused packages of flour, herbs, or anything else.

Best of Both Worlds

I hope in future editions of this column to explore some of the other issues that I’ve experienced in ten years of cooking for archaeologists but for my Finding the Right entrée piece here’s a dish Ingredients that exists in two worlds: that of the carnivores and Above and beyond all the vegetarians. By keeping of these issues there are questions of the meat component separate, both in the supply. Finding the right ingredients in cooking and on the table, people can please village shops, markets or supermarkets, themselves which version to eat. where cultural differences mean that ingredients you normally pick up really The recipe that follows is composed for easily are simply not to be found, poses thirty to thirty-five people but quantities a problem that sometimes requires a little can easily be bulked up for larger numbers. imaginative ad-libbing. A determined It can be adapted to local produce anywhere search for hokkien noodles for a popular in the world. Asian dish in a Nicosia supermarket a few years ago came up with no result. This This is a hearty, healthy and tasty dish that store was totally noodle-less. The work- all of my dig families love. around was to substitute thick spaghetti and the resulting dish - chicken with ‘hokkien’ noodles - was a great success.

Annie Evans

A less obvious issue for the field cook is Dig Cook’s website (click to view): the fact that most projects run for around six weeks. At the start, after a colossal clean-up of the dodgy old kitchen which is the usual run of things at most sites, there’s a big shopping expedition. Here’s where you stock up on all of the basics, past horizons


2 kg (4lb) couscous grains (very fine wheat pasta) 1 1/2 kg (3lb) dried chickpeas, soaked overnight 125ml (4ozs) peanut oil (ground nut oil) 1kg (2lb) sliced onions 10 cloves garlic (crushed) 2 small hot red chillies or 4 mild long red chillies 1kg chopped green capsicum (bell peppers) 1/2 kg chopped red capsicum (bell peppers) 1kg carrots, sliced into rounds 1kg courgettes (zucchini) sliced into rounds 2kg (4lb) potatoes, cubed 1kg (2lb) pumpkin, cubed (optional), or sweet potato 5 litres (8 pints) water 500g (1lb) sultanas 2kg (4lb) broad beans, okra or green beans 4tspn cayenne pepper 8tspn ground cumin 4tspn paprika 200gms (7ozs) butter 4kg (9lb) local sausages, such as chorizo, loukaniko or similar, cut into rounds Drain and wash soaked chickpeas, cover with salted water. Bring to the boil and simmer until tender. Drain and set aside. Place couscous grains in a large bowl and pour over 1 1/2 litres (3 pints) boiling water. Season with salt and pepper. Allow to stand for 30 minutes, then stir through with a fork to separate the grains. Add more boiling water if necessary and stand again. Couscous should be plump and separate, not sticky. In a very large, deep, thick-based saucepan heat peanut oil. Add onions, garlic, chilli, peppers and carrots and fry gently until onions are soft. Stir in the diced potatoes and pumpkin or sweet potato and pour over the water. Bring to the boil, reduce heat, cover and simmer for 20 minutes. Add sliced courgettes, okra or beans and cook another 15 minutes. Stir in reserved chickpeas, sultanas, cayenne pepper, cumin, paprika and season with salt and pepper. Bring to a gentle simmer again. Put couscous in a muslin-lined colander, set on top of vegetable stew saucepan and allow to heat through. Add butter to the couscous and stir through. Taste and adjust seasonings. Test vegetables for tenderness. While the couscous is heating through and the stew is finishing off grill or oven bake the sliced sausage and have crisp and ready. Serve vegetable stew on a bed of couscous, topped with sausage for the carnivores, or just as it stands for the vegetarians.


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Professor David Kennedy lectures at the
University of Western Australia, Classics and Ancient History Department. His current projects are aerial archaeology in Jordan and the Jarash Hinterland Survey.
Where do you go on holiday? Port Bouvard 80 km south of Perth (Australia) What has been your ultimate find? Haven’t found it yet! How do you want to be remembered? Frequently What keeps you awake at night? Worrying about how many e-mails I will have in the morning before I can get to the business of the day What is your most treasured possession? My copy of Poidebard’s La trace de Rome dans le Désert de Syrie, 1934 Which person do you most admire? Aung San Suu Kyi What is the worst job you have done? Joint first: an excavation in Warrington in 1972 and cleaning toilets in Wolfson College Oxford in 1974 How do you relax? Reading, walking, cycling, music What is your favourite country and why? Italy – stunningly beautiful in so many places What makes you angry? People who drop their rubbish in our landscape If you weren’t an archaeologist, what would you be? Lawyer

What was your first archaeological experience? A test-trench across a Roman road at Sandbach in Cheshire, England in 1971 What is your current obsession? Shifting my Aerial Archaeology in Jordan Project to a higher “plane” – so to speak Are you dirty hands or inky fingers? Both What is your most satisfying archaeological moment? The first flight I was able to take over Jordan for archaeology after twenty years trying Do you prefer teaching or doing? Mainly doing Will you always be an archaeologist? Probably! Have you had any life or death moments? Plane struck a petrol-bowser landing at a small Polish airport and we all had to be evacuated down slides If you could go back in time, where would you go? Nowhere earlier that did not have decent anaesthetics at the dentist. Probably last Tuesday just before I went through that speed trap What is your best travel tip? Relax – there is nothing more you can do till you land What is the last book that you read? Cullen Murphy, Are We Rome?

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26. See 35 across. 29. Hoard-rich island (7). 31 . Roman fort, thought to be supply depot for Hadrian’s Wall (6). 32. Old Norse epic (4). 34. Chemical compound first made in England during postmedieval period (4). 36. See 35 across. 37. Statues on Rapa Nui (4). 38. One of the Warring States of China (3). Come back next issue for the answers. compiled by J. Welsh HINT: Some of the answers can be found on Past Horizons

Scribble pad

5. Wooden defensive boundary (8) . 8. Former summer palace of the Bishop of Aberdeen (10). 10. (5) Mound, prehistoric British/Irish feature of debatable function. 13. Heraldic charge animal (4). 14. Or Myanmar (5). 15. Viking god (4). 16. Extinct giant armadillo (10). 18. Receptacle in the wall of a columbarium (5). 21 . University which hosts the Centre for Manx Studies (9). 23. See 4 down. 27. Town on Slovak-Hungarian border (4). 28. Believed to be largest Iberian villa (5,2,5). also 42 across. 29. Form of landscape art found in Tarapaca (8). 30. Type of Roman ceramic (8). 32. Pithouses found in Fraser Valley, BC (6). 33. (5) Glava, Serbian copper mining site, possibly oldest in Europe. 35. Research project looking at WWI archaeology in Jordan (5,4,6,7). Also 36, 26, and 25 down. 38. Area in China where traditional cave dwellings are still occupied (5).

39. Early medieval Slavic fortress town (5). 40. Largest lake by volume (6). 41. A grove of Oiana and two of Caligula’s pleasure barges were found here (4). 42. See 28 across.

1. (2) Fa, Gallo-Roman site. 2. Loch-dwelling (7). 3. See 4 down. 4. Relict landscape in France associated with saltmaking (10,2,2,6). Also 23 across and 3 down. 6. British living history park (11) . 7. A people of southern Alaska (7). 8. An area of the Western Sahara (4,4). 9. Largest medieval Welsh city (8). 11 . Square fort found in Kazakhstan (7). 12. Largest reconstruction project in North America (8,2,10). Also 17 down. 17. See 12 down. 19. Direction used in site grid (4). 20. Source of decomposed organic matter which can be dried for fuel (3). 22. Chilean desert, driest on Earth (7). 24. Ziyaret (4), Assyrian city site. 25. See 35 across.

Craig Swanson (c) at


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