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Radiation damage in silicon detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Volume

225, Issue 3, 1 September 1984, Pages 615-618 H.W. Kraner

A review is presented of the effects of radiation damage on silicon detectors, which are being considered for high energy physics
applications. The main degradation in performance is an increase in leakage current, which can be well characterized by an
empirical damage constant for many radiations. A summary of data on damage constants is given. A brief discussion of annealing
effects in terms of band gap level changes is included.

The use of the electron accelerator in solid state physics
P. Baruch, Nuclear Instruments and Methods
Volume 11, JanuaryMay 1961, Pages 196209

Among the many processes by which electrons in the energy range 300 keV to 3 MeV interact with matter, two are important for the
physics of crystalline solids: ionization and nuclear recoils.
The processes and their secondary effects are reviewed. Examples are given of their importance:
1. The ionization creates in semiconductors electron-hole pairs in large excess; these extra carriers relax, their recombination laws
are studied by various means, such as electron-voltac effect, excess conductivity decay, emission and decay of fluorescent light.
2. The nuclear recoils are the cause of radiation damage in most materials. The energy transfer in an electron collision is small, and
the incident electron energy has to be greater than a certain threshold to produce permanent displacements, thus creating lattice
defects. In electron irradiation these defects are simple point defects (vacancies and interstitials at low temperature, which can
combine into simple associations by warming). Electron irradiation can then be used to obtain knowledge of interatomic forces to
test the laws of displacement of atoms by radiation, or to introduce in a crystal point defects in a controllable way.
Examples are given such as measurement of threshold in metals, and study of lifetime in semiconductors. A curious phenomenon is
the failure of the reciprocity law: the magnitude of damage in germanium is dependent not only on the total dose, but also on the
dose rate.
Some emphasis is put on the experimental requirements for electron irradiation of solids: energy and intensity stability, beam
steering and controlling, large range of beam currents, including pulsed operation. The design and mounting of samples are also
discussed, specially for low temperature irradiation.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A:
Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume 377, Issues 23, 1 August 1996, Pages 244257
This paper reviews some important aspects of process- and irradiation-induced defects in silicon devices. Special attention is given
to the application of devices on high-resistivity silicon and radiation detectors. First some comments are given concerning the
availability of both standard and more advanced diagnostic tools. Before addressing the process-induced defects, a few theoretical
aspects of crystalline defects and contaminants in silicon are reviewed. The discussion of the process-induced defects is restricted
to two particular case studies, i.e. substrate quality and electrical performance and the impact of metallic contamination. The final
section highlights some important aspects and new insights concerning irradiation-induced defects in relation to bulk damage
caused by e.g. high energy protons and electrons. Not only the defect formation aspects are outlined, but also defect engineering
and possible remedies to overcome or to restrict the detrimental impact of these defects on the electrical device properties are

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators,
Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume 386, Issue 1, 11 February 1997, Pages 149155
Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Vertex Detectors
Overview of radiation damage in silicon detectors Models
and defect engineering
S.J. Watts
This paper reviews recent work in the area of radiation damage in silicon detectors. It is not intended as a comprehensive review,
but provides a snapshot guide to current ideas and indicates how the subject is expected to develop in the immediate future.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators,
Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume 340, Issue 3, 8 March 1994, Pages 442457
On quality requirements to the barium fluoride crystals
Ren-yuan Zhu

This report summarizes the quality requirements to the barium fluoride (BaF2) crystals for constructing a high precision
electromagnetic calorimeter at future hadron colliders. The basic property of BaF2 crystals and the design and performance of a
BaF2 calorimeter are presented. The emphasis of the discussion is in the radiation resistance of the current production BaF2 crystals.
An approach to implement optical bleaching in situ is also presented. By using optical bleaching current production quality
BaF2 crystals could serve as an excellent candidate to construct a precision calorimeter at future hadron colliders.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods
Volumes 182183, Part 1, 15 April1 May 1981, Pages 457476
Ion-induced defects in semiconductors
James W. Corbett,
James P. Karins
The status of our knowledge of ion-induced defects in semiconductors will be reviewed, including the charge-state dependence of
defects, novel defect migration mechanism and enhanced damage production mechanisms. The main emphasis will be on defects
in silicon where a panorama of defects is emerging which encompasses the evolution of damage from vacancies and interstitials
and their aggregates to stacking faults and dislocations to disordered zones and the development of an amorphous layer.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B:
Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Volume 218, June 2004, Pages 492497
Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Radiation Effects in Insulators
Study of heavy-ion induced modifications in BaF2 and
LaF3 single crystals
A.S. El-Said
M. Cranney
N. Ishikawa
A. Iwase
R. Neumann
a, ,
K. Schwartz
M. Toulemonde
C. Trautmann

BaF2 and LaF3 single crystals were irradiated with different ions from Ne to U having energies between 1.4 and 13.3 MeV/u and
were subsequently analyzed with scanning force microscopy (SFM), optical spectroscopy and surface profilometry. Similar to
numerous other ionic crystals, ion-induced hillocks were observed by SFM, the mean size on the nanometer scale depending on the
electronic energy loss. BaF2shows optical color-center absorption spectra, which consist of broad bands ascribed to F-center
aggregates, whereas LaF3 does not exhibit any specific absorption bands. Depending on the beam parameters (energy, fluence,
etc.), the irradiation of both crystals leads to more or less pronounced out-of-plane swelling. In order to study the thermal behaviour
of ion-induced modifications, isochronal annealing has been performed. Both crystals show a decrease of the relative step height
and the areal density of the hillocks with increasing temperature.

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials
2012, Pages 6598
Volume 1: Basic Aspects of Radiation Effects in Solids/Basic Aspects of Multi-Scale Modeling
1.03 Radiation-Induced Effects on Microstructure*
S.J. Zinkle
Atomic displacements associated with energetic particle irradiation can produce a wide variety of microstructural changes in metals
and ceramics. Typical radiation-induced microstructures include faulted and perfect dislocation loops, network dislocations, stacking
fault tetrahedra, cavities, precipitates, and crystalline-to-amorphous phase transitions. Examples are given for each of these
microstructural features produced under irradiation. This chapter provides an overview of the key parameters that influence the
microstructural evolution of irradiated materials (metallic and ceramic). Irradiation dose and temperature are the two most i mportant
extrinsic variables that influence microstructure evolution in irradiated materials. The primary knock-on atom energy may also
strongly affect microstructural changes, including direct creation of defect clusters or amorphous regions. Additional variables of
potential importance include crystal structure, atomic weight, atomic bonding, dose rate, proportion of ionizing to displacive
radiation, and the concentration and distribution of solute atoms (including alloying additions, impurities, and nuclear transmutation
products). Some of the key consequences of microstructural changes are briefly summarized, including amorphization, thermal and
electrical conductivity degradation, low temperature radiation embrittlement, irradiation creep, irradiation growth, void swelling, and
high temperature helium embrittlement.
Defect clusters;
Dislocation loops;
Displacement damage;
Electron irradiation;
Ion irradiation;
Microstructural evolution;
Neutron irradiation;
Radiation effects;
Stacking fault tetrahedron;
Transmission electron microscopy;

Comprehensive Nuclear Materials
2012, Pages 357391
Volume 1: Basic Aspects of Radiation Effects in Solids/Basic Aspects of Multi-Scale Modeling
1.13 Radiation Damage Theory
S.I. Golubov
This chapter presents an overview of the basic radiation damage theory (RDT), including older and more recent models, to provide
a framework within which radiation effects, such as void swelling, can be rationalized. A complete review of the literature is not
attempted, but sufficient references are given to provide a good introduction to a large number of publications in the field. Many
derivations are different from and, in our view, more elegant than the original publications. The work is directed toward both
theoreticians and experimentalists and, especially, toward those passionate individuals who are going to take the RDT into the
Point defect clusters;
Point defects;
Radiation effects;
Spatial correlations;
Void swelling

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam
Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Volume 122, Issue 1, 1 January 1997, Pages 6372

Study of radiation-induced optical effects in heavy crystals
V.G. Vasil'chenko
Yu.A. Krechko
Yu.D. Motin
B.P. Sobolev

The article reports the results of a comparative study of radiation-induced optical effects obtained when
irradiating a series of heavy-element crystals based on BaF2, LaF3, CeF3, CdF2, PbF2, Y3Al5O12,
Bi4Ge3O12 and lead glass -113 in stationary -quanta and intense pulsed neutron and -quanta fluxes.
The main results pertaining to the development of optical materials with the radiation resistance over
Gy are analysed.

Applied Surface Science
Volume 186, Issues 14, 28 January 2002, Pages 352357

Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses
Florenta Costache
a, b, ,
Matthias Henyk
Jrgen Reif
a, b

Crater morphology is investigated after femtosecond laser ablation of wide bandgap insulators (BaF2 and
CaF2). Experiments performed at a weak laser ablation rate show a particular elastic, sound wave-like
structure, frozen on the surface, with a periodicity in the order of some microns and a modulation depth
up to 0.5 m. When superimposed, a periodic fine structure (ripples) is generated, the origin of which
cannot be explained in the classical ripple model. We observe a periodicity ranging from 100 to 500 nm,
dependent on the laser intensity rather than on the laser wavelength. Based on our recent results,
demonstrating an explosive surface decomposition, we assume self-organizing relaxation of a non-
equilibrium surface to be responsible for the structures.
Femtosecond laser ablation;
Sound waves;

Applied Surface Science
Available online 22 March 2014
In Press, Corrected Proof Note to users

Surface modifications of BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals by slow highly
charged ions
A.S. El-Said
a, b, c, 1, , ,
R. Heller
R.A. Wilhelm
a, d
S. Facsko
F. Aumayr

Avem pdf

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Volume 49, Issue 3, 1988, Pages 273278

Radiation effects in hydrolysed CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2
J.I. Pea,
P.J. Alonso,
R. Alcal

Radiation damage of CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 crystals after thermal treatments in air at high temperatures
(above 700C) has been studied and compared with that of as grown samples. An enhancement of
the Vk-centres' production efficiency was found in the three compounds under LNT X-irradition. Interstitial
atomic hydrogen (H
i) and OH

-interstitial fluorine complexes were also found in SrF2, and BaF2 but not in
CaF2, irradiated at LNT. RT irradiation produces H
i in CaF2 and H
i, OH

-interstitial complexes and

substitutional hydrogen ions (H

s) in SrF2 and BaF2. A different behaviour of the EPR signal of the

i centres created at RT and LNT was observed at increased microwave power.
optical absorption;

Surface Science
Volumes 357358, 20 June 1996, Pages 155159

I. Surface structure
Electron irradiation effect on CaF2(111) studied with He atom scattering
T. Miyake
E.S. Gillman,
I. Oodake,
H. Petek

Elastic He atom scattering was used to investigate nonintrusively the effect of electron irradiation on a
high-symmetry cleaved CaF2(111) surface. Diffraction was observed in the [1̄01] and
[2̄11] directions for this surface using a He supersonic beam of 64 meV. The diffraction patterns
for the cleavage plane correspond to transitional symmetry of an ideal, unreconstructed CaF2(111)
surface with a lattice vector length of 3.86 . Layer-by-layer modification of the CaF2 surface by the 112
keV e

beam was investigated by monitoring the intensity of the specular He reflection. Formation of
surface F-centers is proposed to account for an increase in the specular intensity.
Alkaline earth metals;
Atom-solid scattering and diffraction;
Insulating surfaces;
Radiation damage