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Animal Welfare Making Sense


and Sustainable of Population
Development Projections

Poverty UN Financing for


Development
Helping Update

People Help
Themselves Recycling
the Rubble in
Post-Disaster
Reconstruction

From Trash
Kidnapped! to Toys
Family
Involvement

October
2009
Vol. 27, No. 10
27
MONDAY
DEVELOPMENTS

Managing Editor/Art Director


Chad Brobst

Copy Editor
Kathy Ward 15
Advertising & Sales
Katherine Delaney

Communications Department
Nasserie Carew, Public Relations
Tawana Jacobs, Public Relations
Chad Brobst, Publications

Contents
Katherine Delaney, Publications
Tony Fleming, New Media
Leslie Rigby, Writer/Editor
Margaret Christoph, Admin Associate

Editorial Committee
10
InterAction Communications Team October 2009 • Vol. 27 • No. 10

InterAction
FEATURES
1400 16th Street, NW
Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036 Cover Story:
24
Tel: 202.667.8227
publications@interaction.org
The Last Frontier | 10
Bringing financial services to
ISSN 1043-8157 Africa’s poor.

Monday Developments is published 11 Kidnapped!


times a year by InterAction, the larg- Family Involvement | 13
est alliance of U.S.-based international
development and humanitarian non-
The third article in a continuing
governmental organizations. With more series covering a fictional
than 170 members operating in every kidnapping scenario and how
developing country, InterAction works to an NGO might respond.
overcome poverty, exclusion and suffer-
ing by advancing social justice and basic
dignity for all. Animal Welfare | 15
Sustainable development can
InterAction welcomes submissions of benefit from partnership with
news articles, opinions and announce- animal-focused organizations.
ments. Article submission does not guar-
antee inclusion in Monday Developments.
We reserve the right to reject submis- Population Projections | 16
sions for any reason. It is at the discretion Making sense of the reality
of our editorial team as to which articles behind the estimates. The UN Financing for Recycle the Rubble | 28
are published in individual issues. Development Process: The benefits of using recycled
Year in Review | 23 concrete aggregate.
All statements in articles are the sole Urban Displacement
opinion and responsibility of the authors. and Growth Amidst Key meetings in 2009 produced
significant steps forward, offer DEPARTMENTS
Articles may be reprinted with prior per- Humanitarian Crisis | 19
New realities require a new promise for 2010. Inside This Issue | 3
mission and attribution. Letters to the
editor are encouraged. strategy in Kabul.
Halfway There, But Not Inside Our Community | 4
A limited number of subscriptions are Investing in Health, Rights Halfway Done | 24 Inside InterAction | 5
made available to InterAction member The effectiveness of financing
agencies as part of their dues. Individual and the Future | 21 Step By Step Advocacy | 6
subscriptions cost $80 a year (add $15 The need for and benefits for development in Africa.
for airmail delivery outside the U.S.) of increased investment in Washington Update | 8
Samples are $5, including postage. reproductive health. Trash to Toys | 27
Additional discounts are available for Children demonstrate creativity
Events | 29
bulk orders. Please allow 4-6 weeks for
delivery. Advertising rates are available amidst adversity. Employment
on request. Opportunities | 30
INSIDE This Issue

Our Community’s Progress


Against Poverty
I
NTERACTION REPRESENTS THE COMMUNITY OF NON-
profits that has been the human face of U.S. foreign assis-
tance for more than 60 years. Before Congress enacted

PROGR
the Marshall Plan in 1948 and the Kennedy administra-
tion established USAID in 1961, privately funded interna-

AGA ESS
tional relief and development organizations were responding

I
to the needs of refugees and victims of conflict, getting food

N
POVER ST
to famine-stricken countries and building schools and health
clinics where none existed.
Today, our community continues to work with the world’s

W TY
poorest and most vulnerable people to enable them to lift

E
themselves out of poverty. Our members’ programs, man-

2 0
E
During C rdinary W K
aged by professional staff and skilled volunteers, reach mil-
lions of people in more than 190 countries every year. While
historically InterAction member organizations have received 0 9
the bulk of their funding from donor governments, contri-
butions by private aid actors—including foundations, cor-
porations and more than 13 million individual donors—now
exceed U.S. government funding by a ratio of 2 to 1.
Ex trao
These funds overwhelmingly go to support programs that
target the poorest people in the poorest countries. Within ha or
llenging k
those countries, InterAction members have established
networks and infrastructure that work with and build the Times
capacity of local institutions in both rural and urban areas.
Our coalition has tremendous reach and decades of experi-
ence working in particular districts, towns and villages. Our
collective approach to alleviating poverty is multifaceted and Poverty Week October 13–16, we invite you to join us in
reflects the diversity of the U.S. nongovernmental organiza- showcasing the advances we have made in the fight against
tion (NGO) community, ranging from adaption to climate poverty and strategize on what more we can achieve together.
change and expanding opportunity through microfinance We have made tremendous gains in development and
to protecting refugees, advancing the rights of women and humanitarian assistance, advancing the ability of people to
improving agricultural livelihoods. adapt to climate change, cope with disease and shape their
A common theme runs through our work, however, as futures. In the coming year, InterAction aims to work with
NGOs develop strong links with and through local institu- our members to gather the information needed to demon-
tions. When we partner with communities and local orga- strate the difference that we make—the resources our com-
nizations, we help people gain the skills they need to reach munity brings, the people we reach on a daily basis and the
markets and create better lives for themselves. A woman who best practices we have developed over years of experience
can’t read will never achieve a level of independence or access working in communities around the world. Let Poverty Week
to markets; a child who is hungry will struggle through be a time that encourages you to continue at this work and
school to learn and focus. A farmer without fair access to inspires you to work better as a community to reach the
markets will never rise above the daily challenges of a sub- world’s poorest and most vulnerable people and have a bigger
sistence farmer. For people without critical skills, education, impact. Thank you for your efforts. MD
good health or access to capital, “lifting themselves up” out
of poverty is a monumental and sometimes impossible task.
InterAction members work to bridge these gaps and help peo-
ple realize their rights and acquire the techniques and tools Sam Worthington
needed to improve their lives. President and CEO
As InterAction hosts our third annual Progress Against InterAction

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 3


INSIDE Our Community

(HKI) for its outstanding


Catholic Relief Services “Tweets” with a achievements in preventing
Zimbabwean Orphan blindness in the develop-
Recently, Catholic Relief Services allowed its Twit- ing world. In particular, its
ter followers to spend a day in the life of 14-year-old decades-long leadership in
Brenda from Zimbabwe. Brenda is an orphan living with the global control of vitamin
family members in Mabvuku Township, right outside of A deficiency—the leading
Harare. CRS staff spent time with Brenda and created a cause of childhood blind-
representative account of her daily life. This project used ness and a significant con-
Twitter as a platform to show CRS followers what daily tributor to childhood mortality—has helped to save the sight
life is like for beneficiaries overseas. and lives of millions of people around the world.
In the week leading up to International Youth Day The Antonio Champalimaud Vision Award was initiated in
on August 12, 2009, CRS followers on Twitter were 2006 and referred to as the “Nobel Prize for Vision” by the for-
directed to a landing page (available here: http://crs. mer President of India, A.P.J. Kalam who hosted the launch-
org/zimbabwe/day-in-the-life/) to provide background ing ceremony. The Award has the support of the World Health
information about Brenda Organization’s VISION 2020—The Right To Sight initiative.
and explain that, due to In order to provide maximum support for the fight against
time differences and tech- blindness, it concentrates both on practical blindness pre-
nical restraints, Brenda’s vention and on scientific research. In odd numbered years,
updates were based on starting in 2007, the Award is given for blindness prevention
prior conversations and on the ground, particularly in developing countries. In even
were posted by CRS staff. numbered years, beginning in 2008, the Award recognizes
This page also linked from most of Brenda’s updates outstanding scientific research. In 2007, the Vision Award
throughout the day. Approximately 20 updates demon- was given to India’s Aravind Eye Care System and in 2008 it
strating a typical day for Brenda were broadcast to CRS’ was jointly awarded to King-Wai Yau and Jeremy Nathans,
Twitter audience, including activities such as household from Johns Hopkins University.
chores, attending school and preparing meals.
This project’s audience consisted of CRS’ followers Up Date on Urban Development and
on Twitter, some of whom may have been recruited by Housing Legislation
promotions posted to Facebook. A few small web blogs Representatives Brad Miller and David Price from North
picked up the story and followers of CRS did re-tweet Carolina have introduced the Shelter, Land, and Urban Man-
(RT) and promote Brenda’s updates on Twitter. CRS also agement (SLUM) Assistance Act of 2009 (H.R. 1702) along
received feedback in the form of @replies, such as “bril- with Michael Castle, Jesse Jackson Jr., Gwen Moore and
liant job tweeting Brenda. Really enjoyed following her Keith Ellison. The Act calls on the President to develop an
today. Thank you,” and “Good Night Brenda. Be safe.” affordable housing and urban strategy that fosters sustain-
CRS used hashtag #Brenda to categorize all tweets and able urban development and expands access to basic urban
conversations. housing, essential services, and infrastructure for the poor.
Although the initial version of this project was success- It does not, however, authorize any additional funding. To
ful, additional promotion is necessary to make a greater date 20 Members of the House have signed on as cospon-
impact. Plans are being made for the next iteration of sors of the Bill. It might well be a slow uphill battle for this
the project, using a different CRS beneficiary in another Bill to see the light. Its message may ultimately be incorpo-
country or region. CRS hopes to continue these types of rated into broader foreign aid legislation, such as that intro-
experimental social media projects to foster engagement duced recently in the Senate. Senators John Kerry, Dick
and build awareness with online supporters. To follow Luger, Bob Menendez, and Bob Corker, along with original
CRS on Twitter, visit: www.twitter.com/CatholicRelief. co sponsors Ben Cardin and Jim Risch have introduced the
Foreign Assistance Revitalization and Accountability Act of
2009 (S. 1524). Among other things it would return the policy
Helen Keller International Wins Prestigious making function to USAID and require that USAID mission
$1.4269 Million Award directors be made responsible for the coordination of all U.S.
The Champalimaud Foundation, one of the largest global development and humanitarian assistance in the field.
science foundations, recently announced the recipient of its Whatever the outcome of these bills, the SLUM Assistance
2009 Vision Award. The €1 million (US$1.4 million) António Act is a milestone of sorts in the history of U.S. foreign assis-
Champalimaud Vision Award is the largest monetary prize tance. USAID has had an uneven relationship with housing
in the field of vision and among the largest scientific and and urban development, and the peak of its involvement
humanitarian prizes in the world. (largely through the Housing Guaranty Program) in the sec-
The award has been given to Helen Keller International tor is more than a decade past. In the meantime the inexora-

4 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


INSIDE InterAction

ble march to a developing world that is more than half urban InterAction Joins USCAN
continues, with the attendant proliferation of slums and To further facilitate InterAction’s engagement in climate
crushing poverty. The coming months will reveal whether change issues, it has decided to join forces with the US Cli-
Congress is intent on following through to better align foreign mate Action Network (USCAN). USCAN is the largest US
assistance with world demographic realities. network of organizations focused on climate change and
The International Housing Coalition, in concert with plays a critical role as the only network connecting organiza-
Habitat for Humanity International and CHF Interna- tions working on climate advocacy and policy development
tional, all InterAction members, have been trying to focus at all three levels of the debate: state/regional, federal, and
more attention on the challenges and opportunities posed by international. The extensive networks that USCAN mobilizes
an increasing urban world. for policy advocacy at the domestic and international levels
can amplify InterAction’s voice on climate change issues.
One of InterAction’s important goals is to address the
Joanne Carter Joins Global Fund Board causes and consequences of climate change within the devel-
Joanne Carter, executive director of RESULTS and oping world. InterAction pursues that goal through collabo-
RESULTS Educational Fund, was recently selected for ration in policy advocacy, and information sharing and
the position of Board Member for the Developed Country engagement on vital issues at the intersection of climate
NGO Delegation to the Global Fund Board, to serve for change, relief and development. The primary mechanism for
the next two years. Carter has a long history of leading InterAction’s activities in the area of climate change is its
RESULTS’ and Climate Change Working Group (CC WG). The group facili-
RESULTS Edu- tates and supports US NGOs in helping vulnerable develop-
cational Fund’s ing countries respond and adapt to the impacts of climate
advocacy efforts change. It also advocates actively on behalf of appropriate
related to the work of the Global Fund and global health, policies and legislation to mitigate and provide support for
including multi-country efforts to expand the fight against adaptation to climate change. MD
tuberculosis. This work intensified with the creation of
the Advocacy to Control Tuberculosis Internationally
(ACTION) project in 2005, with RESULTS Educational
Fund acting as the secretariat for the project.
Since 2005, ACTION has been working in seven coun-
tries to increase funding and improve policies for TB, a
disease of poverty that kills nearly two million people
annually, and has helped mobilize over half a billion
dollars to fight this global killer. In 2007, ACTION was
awarded a five-year renewal grant by The Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation to build on the project’s successes
and to continue advocating for needed resources and
global leadership to stop TB. Many of ACTION’s advocacy
efforts have been focused on increasing support for the
Global Fund because of the Fund’s critical role in expand-
ing countries’ ability to address TB, as well as AIDS and
malaria, and strengthen their health infrastructure.
“I am honored to take on this role.” said Carter. “The
Global Fund’s impact and innovation have made it a top
priority for my own organization and our network of vol-
unteer advocates in over 100 U.S. communities, and in
work we have helped lead with partners in the North and
South.” Looking to the future, Carter said, “The Global
Fund has already allowed countries to massively scale-
up their responses to these diseases and strengthen
their health infrastructure. It now faces a multibillion
dollar funding gap in no small part because of its suc-
cess—countries are now able to do more and ask for
more, and we must ensure that the Global Fund has the
full funding it needs to support countries to win the
fight.” MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 5


STEP BY STEP Advocacy

Advocacy
choose the conference venue, the way you present the infor-
mation and the mix of people you use to present the infor-
mation. However, conferences consume significant resources

Activities: Part 3 and often have little or no discernable influence on actual


policy-making. They should not be undertaken lightly. Care-
fully consider why you might hold a conference and make
BY JOHN RUTHRAUFF sure it will support your broader strategy.
SENIOR MANAGER OF MEMBER ADVOCACY, INTERACTION
Collaboration
Note: This is the seventh installment in a series of articles on Collaborating with key decision-makers on shared tasks
developing an effective advocacy strategy. The series began and goals is often the best road to influence. Working with
in the March 2009 edition of Monday Developments. Previous decision-makers, their staff and supporters can produce
installments have examined selecting an issue, defining your changes that otherwise would be difficult or impossible to
goal and “asks”, conducting a power analysis, building stra- obtain. Being generous in giving your collaboration partners
tegic alliances, developing objectives and advocacy activities credit for new ideas or successful changes is often helpful.
(parts 1 and 2).
Pilot projects

A
DVOCACY CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF PLANNED Pilot projects can demonstrate the usefulness of a particu-
activities that organizations undertake to press for lar idea. It is important to make sure you have the permis-
policy changes related to a specific issue. The activities sion and resources needed to complete a pilot project before
are the steps you use in your advocacy campaign to influence you begin one. You also need to keep complete records and
key actor(s) who can bring about your desired change. They conduct careful evaluations during and after the project in
should be based on a power analysis and designed to attain order to collect solid evidence that you can use to convince
an objective. Advocacy activi- decision-makers of the effec-
ties can strengthen allies, tiveness of the project. Involv-
increase pubic awareness of ing decision-makers or their
your issue, reduce the influ- staff in the project design and
ence of opponents, and/or evaluation can be helpful as
convince undecided actors to it allows them to more fully
join your effort. An advocacy understand the project.
campaign does not mean you
need to take to the streets in Capacity building
protest or physically confront It may be necessary to
anyone; in fact, doing so is strengthen capability of alliance
often counterproductive and members and/or decision-
can literally be dangerous. makers to perform functions
When choosing your activi- key to achieving your goals.
ties for a particular campaign, Capacity building can involve
make sure they take into training workshops, consulta-
account the local culture, reli- tions, conferences, study tours,
gious practices, social norms, and other activities.
and the political and secu-
rity situations. The activities Study tours
should also draw on and reflect the strengths and interests Study tours can introduce decision-makers and their staff
of your alliance members. In the last two installments we to new information and ideas, but they need to be part of
explored: (1) building relationships; (2) email, phone calls a broader strategy. Study tours are popular but consume a
Photo: Anatoly Tiplyashin - Fotolia.com

and letter writing; (3) meeting with individuals; (4) social great deal of resources. Without an advocacy strategy, care-
media: (5) negotiations; (6) media; (7) research and publica- ful planning, appropriate preparation, and follow-up study
tions; and (8) indirect persuasion. Other possible advocacy tours won’t move you towards your goal. You should also be
activities include: careful about the details of who will cover what costs on the
tour and possible issues concerning public perceptions for
Conferences participants if your study tour will be to an exotic or desir-
You can use conferences to present information about the able location or involve notable entertainment activities. (For
issue and your proposals to decision-makers, their staff and example, members of Congress have run into trouble in the
interested members of the public. To reinforce the legitimacy past for participating in all-expenses paid trips to places that
of the information you present, make sure you carefully might be seen as desirable travel destinations.)

6 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


Demonstrations, vigils and other public gatherings ies like Washington, DC or New York City it takes an
Demonstrations, vigils, marches, and other mass gather- extremely large demonstration to obtain media coverage
ings need to be used very selectively, be carefully planned, or have any impact.
and most importantly be part of an overall strategy. Demon- • To obtain media coverage it is important to have speak-
strations take a great deal of resources and effort, and they ers with a high public profile such as credible celebrities
may be ignored by decision-makers. This is particularly true or members of Congress.
if there is little or no media coverage of the event. Demonstra- • What are the logistical requirements necessary to trans-
tions do not need to involve confrontation. If confrontation port and supply the demonstrators (e.g., food, water,
is involved it must be strategic, carefully planned (not spon- sanitary facilities, public address system, housing and
taneous), and part of an overall strategy. Keep in mind that security)?
confrontation can have negative consequences for your cam- • You can’t always control participants in a demonstra-
paign and unless covered by the media will have very limited tion. If some want to commit violence it will be very diffi-
or no impact (and even media coverage may not produce a cult to stop and media will focus primarily or exclusively
positive impact if the media does not cover the situation in a on the violence and ignore your issue.
way that is sympathetic to your goals). Confrontation may • Media coverage is important to publicize an issue and to
inadvertently lead to arrests that will both use up resources strengthen an advocacy campaign. However the media
and be covered by the media. cannot be controlled and they may accentuate unpopular
If after selecting a goal, conducting a power analysis, and aspects of the campaign or focus on violence if it occurs.
setting objectives, you decide that a demonstration is the • What permits do you need for the demonstration you are
most effective means to achieve your goals, the demonstra- planning?
tion must be very carefully planned and executed. Some of • How can you protect the physical security of the demon-
the issues you need to consider include: strators both during the event and also while traveling to
• Who is the target of the demonstration? Will the demon- and from the site? MD
stration you plan influence him or her to support your
goal or oppose it? Part eight of this series, which will discuss developing
• What size demonstration do you need to attract media power to achieve your goal, will appear in the November edi-
coverage and have an impact on the target? In large cit- tion of Monday Developments.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 7


WASHINGTON Update

Shedding Light on
the first Monday in February 2010. This gives Congress time
to consider the request before they craft spending bills due to
be approved by September 30. The budget request lists the

a Many-Layered amounts of money the president is seeking for various “func-


tions” (subject areas) in the budget (such as National Defense

Process or International Affairs). It also requests specific amounts for


specific accounts and subaccounts within each function. For
example, the “International Affairs” function includes Global
BY MARGARET CHRISTOPH, SENIOR ADMINISTRATIVE ASSOCIATE Health and Child Survival, Migration and Refugee Assis-
FOR POLICY & COMMUNICATIONS, INTERACTION tance, Contributions for International Peacekeeping, and
several others.

R
EGULAR READERS OF THE WASHINGTON UPDATE
column in Monday Developments know how frequently Budget Resolutions
it focuses on the federal budget process, but they may After the president submits the budget request, the House
not be familiar with the process itself. It is confusing, to say and the Senate produce their own less detailed spending
the least, so we decided to use this month’s column to outline plans, proposing an overall spending limit and total amounts
the process. for each budget function. The final versions are called the
House Budget Resolution and the Senate Budget Resolu-
Non-Budget Bills tion. Like other bills, these originate in committee (the Bud-
For normal bills, a Representative or Senator and their get Committees) and then are considered by the full House
staff will draft a bill, which is then introduced and sent to and Senate. Unlike other bills, however, these do not go to
a Committee for consideration and possible amendment. If the president for signature, since they are not laws but sim-
the Committee agrees, the bill is scheduled for floor consid- ply spending plans to guide congressional spending bills—
eration and a vote by the full chamber. If the full House or “appropriations.” Additionally, the House and Senate con-
Senate approves it, the bill goes to the other chamber, where sider their budget resolutions at the same time instead of
the same process is followed. If both chambers approve a passing through the House first and then the Senate (or vice
bill, it then goes to a Conference Committee to reconcile any versa). Once both the House and Senate have passed their
changes made to the text during the second chamber’s pro- respective Budget Resolutions, the two resolutions go to a
cess of reviewing and approving the bill that the first cham- Conference Committee.
ber approved. Each chamber appoints a number of “confer-
ees” from among its members to work on this committee. The Appropriations Process
Once the conferees have reconciled the bill, each chamber After both chambers agree on the Budget Resolution, the
votes on it one last time. If both chambers approve the rec- Appropriations Process starts. The Budget Resolution tells
onciled version, it is sent to the president for approval. If the the Chairmen of the Appropriations Committees what their
president signs it, it becomes a law. If he vetoes it, it goes overall spending cap is for that year. The Chairmen in turn
back to Congress where only the House and Senate both vot- divide this total amongst their subcommittees, which roughly
ing by a two-thirds majority can override the president’s veto. correspond to the budget functions. The appropriations sub-
committees for the accounts InterAction tracks are called the
The Budget Process House and Senate “State, Foreign Operations, and Related
While a normal bill can be introduced at any time, the Programs” appropriations subcommittees. These subcom-
federal budget is on a timeline based on the federal govern- mittees each then write an annual appropriations bill speci-
ment’s fiscal year (FY), which is October 1 through Septem- fying how much money from their allocation goes to each
ber 30. For example, FY2011 will run from October 1, 2010 account within their function. This bill is considered, pos-
through September 30, 2011. The federal spending bills are sibly amended, and voted on (“marked up”) first by the sub-
supposed to be approved and signed by the day before the committee, then the full Appropriations Committee, and then
start of that fiscal year; so for FY2011 they must be signed the full chamber, just like other bills. Once each chamber
by September 30, 2010. If they are not, then the House and has approved each function’s appropriations, if the two bills
Senate must pass a Continuing Resolution (CR) to provide have different totals for the same functions and accounts,
funding so that the government does not shut down. CRs the two must be reconciled in a Conference Committee. After
maintain funding at the levels set for the previous fiscal year. the bill has been approved by the House and Senate after the
Conference Committee, it goes to the president for signature.
The President’s Budget Request
Instead of being drafted by a Representative or Senator, Supplemental Funding
the federal budget process begins with the president’s budget If, partway through the year, emergency funding is needed
request. The president must submit the budget request for for an account (for example, if more natural disasters occur
FY2011 between the first Monday in January of 2010 and continued on page 18

8 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


Photos: CARE

BY DR. HELENE GAYLE, PRESIDENT AND CEO, CARE, AND


GEOFFREY DENNIS, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, CARE INTERNATIONAL UK

10 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


MICROFINANCE

T
HE STORY OF AFRICA TODAY IS OFTEN TOLD Bank report shows a strong correlation between reduc-
in grim statistics. Three-quarters of those living on tions in poverty and the development of the financial
less than 50 cents a day are in sub-Saharan Africa. sector. If African countries are to achieve long-term
Africa has 11 percent of the world’s population, but 60 development, the poor in Africa must have access to an
percent of the world’s people living with HIV/AIDS, and array of flexible, cost-effective financial products and
the average life expectancy is actually decreasing in services targeted to their needs.
some places. The goal of microfinance is to adapt financial services
But there is a different story unfolding on the conti- to meet the needs of poor people who usually lack
nent as well: the story of women and families in some access to mainstream banks. Microfinance provides very
of the poorest communities in the world changing their small loans from $5 to $50—and accepts savings depos-
own lives. It is a story of hope, not despair. We have seen its of less than $1, which despite the small size, can be
firsthand that empowered, financially literate women essential to creating income-generating activities and
and girls are one of the world’s most powerful forces in sustainable livelihoods.
the fight against poverty.
Why does microfinance focus on women?
The power of financial services Since microfinance began in the early 1970s, approxi-
Nearly four decades of global microfinance experi- mately 70 percent of the clients of microfinance institu-
ence have shown that when poor people have access to tions—and often 100 percent—have been women. The
financial services—secure savings, credit, insurance and reason for this is deliberate and strategic. Women are
other products—they can change their lives and build the best conduit for ensuring that microfinance confers
stronger, more prosperous communities. A 2006 World the greatest possible benefit on the greatest number of

The Last Frontier Bringing financial services to Africa’s poor.

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 11


MICROFINANCE

people. ties, lack of infrastructure and unten- financial cooperatives. Sub-Saharan


Throughout the world, women are ably high costs per transaction have African countries accounted for only
responsible for the well-being of their kept microfinance institutions (MFIs) four percent of the global total, with
families. Most girls are obliged to start away. The low levels of savings and an average of four savings or loan
performing household chores at an demand for credit generated by such accounts per 100 people, compared
early age—sometimes as soon as they clients are usually not viable, even for to with 17 accounts per 100 people in
can walk—and this develops a work nimble MFIs that operate efficiently. Asia and the Pacific. In rural Niger, for
ethic and a sense of responsibility as Reaching the poorest of the poor has example, there is one bank branch for
nurturers, care-givers and educators been limited because the scale and every 844,000 people.
of their young siblings. When women structure of microfinance programs Without access to basic financial
earn money, they invariably invest have been defined by the need to build services, Africans are at risk of remain-
their earnings in improving the lives healthy institutions and a commitment ing at the margins of economic oppor-
of their children and families with bet- to provide services to the enormous tunity. In the past, most poor Africans
ter food, clothing, shelter, health care population of the unserved rural poor. relied on homegrown, often unreliable
and educational opportunities. When In densely populated areas of Asia and exploitative traditional services in
women earn, everyone benefits. and Latin America, providing credit has the form of deposit collectors and mon-
Moreover, poor women who have been the driving force of microfinance eylenders. Microfinance offers freedom
access to financial services have because opportunities to invest in from these traditional practices, allow-
proven themselves to be highly credit- income-generating activities are many. ing one to monitor their finances. But
worthy. Anecdotal evidence indicates But rural Africans have been left out, to finally reach the hundreds of mil-
that women repay their loans more mainly because they have been hard to lions of Africans without access to any
consistently than men. Necessity has reach and their bottom-rung economic form of financial services, microfinance
made women careful strategists who status makes savings a higher priority must become a much bigger piece of the
plan for the future, shrewd risk-takers than credit. microfinance landscape in Africa. MD
with an eye for economic opportunities, In 2006, the Consultative Group
and hard workers who put their fami- to Assist the World’s Poor (CGAP) This article is an excerpt from CARE’s
lies’ welfare first. Investing in the earn- conducted a global survey of formal “State of the Sector Report: Bringing
ing power of women pays big dividends institutions that offer savings and financial services to Africa’s poor”. To
for families, for society and for micro- credit services to lower income people, order a free copy, please email info@
finance institutions, enabling them to including microfinance institutions, care.org. It can also be downloaded
serve more and more clients. postal savings banks, state-owned from the CARE website: www.care.org.
Through microfinance, married banks, rural banks, credit unions and
women often gain greater control
over household assets, a more equal
share in family decision-making, and CARE’s innovative contribution to microfinance
greater freedom to engage in income- CARE has developed a radically different approach to building the financial health of
generating activities. Moreover, women Africa’s poor. It has found a way to enable isolated, often illiterate women to be their own
involved in microfinance groups are bankers. CARE’s experience has shown that the answer is not necessarily to bring banks
more motivated to take action to or microfinance institutions (MFIs) to Africa’s poor, but instead make it possible for Africa’s
improve their lives and those of their poor to create their own basic Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) without any
families and are more likely to engage outside funding.
in social and political activities. By mobilizing small amounts in savings and interest accrued from loans, CARE’s VSLAs
are already laying a foundation of economic security and expanding economic opportu-
Next Stop: Africa nities for 1.2 million Africans. In Niger, the world’s poorest county and the site of the first
In Africa, microfinance has caught VSLAs, nearly 200,000 women have collectively amassed $14 million in savings. Moreover,
on more slowly than in other regions 60 percent of the money these groups save is loaned out to members. The rest is redistrib-
of the developing world. While it has uted to the members with interest.
made some inroads, primarily in urban Since 1991, CARE has implemented VSLA’s in 16 African countries. The approach is
areas, the great majority of Africans based on savings and providing financial services such as savings, credit and insurance
who live off the land and in small towns to women and subsistence farmers in the sub-continent’s least developed regions. VSLAs
and villages have yet to be reached. build their assets, and disburse credit, solely from member savings. The self-managed,
Until very recently, the cost of bringing flexible system enables VSLA members to take advantage of economic opportunities that
financial services—even microfinance help them respond to unforeseen challenges such as illness that would otherwise drive
services—to remote parts of Africa has them into a cycle of uncontrollable, unpayable debt.
been prohibitive, and the logistics of The VSLAs are not in competition with MFIs, but complementary to them. Over time,
doing so daunting. VSLAs help create pools of clients who advance to receive the more sophisticated finan-
In Africa’s vast rural areas, where cial services as their resources, skills and confidence grows. The next step is the linking of
the world’s poorest people eke out a VSLAs to microfinance institutions and banks so that the poorest people in Africa have
living in sparsely populated communi- access to all of the financial services that can help them improve their lives.

12 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


KIDNAPPED!

CONTINUING SERIES: KIDNAPPED! she had reached out to them twice.


She explained that she did not have

Family Involvement
faith in Alpha to resolve the situation
and so she was taking matters into her
own hands. After she had hung up on
him, Vivek immediately picked up the
phone and called Alpha’s Mogadishu
BY JOSH KEARNS, ASSOCIATE SECURITY COORDINATOR, INTERACTION field office to explain the situation,
and instructed Abdi, the security focal
point, to convene the Incident Manage-
ment Team (IMT).
An IMT is a field-based equivalent
of the CMT, designed to help an orga-
nization cope with a crisis in the most
efficient way possible. The IMT is also
responsible for briefing the CMT as
events unfold. Abdi, always one step
ahead of the game, had made Alpha
Mogadishu staff practice convening the
IMT quarterly since he had taken the
post. The IMT consisted of Rex, Alpha’s
logistics person, acting as Coordinator
(in lieu of the Country Director who was
on R&R); Laila the administrator, acting
as “Boardman,” the person who keeps a
written log of events; and Abdi, acting as
Communicator. Abdi’s role as Commu-

F
This is the third in a four-part series OUR NGO WORKERS—TONY, nicator was crucial, as he was tasked
detailing a fictional kidnap scenario. Wali, Sally and Hamid—were not only with relaying updates to head-
The purpose of the series is to high- kidnapped 48 hours ago. As NGO quarters, but also reaching out to the
light appropriate and inappropriate Alpha scrambled to respond to families of local staff who were affected
responses that organizations might the incident, the driver Hamid’s dead by the incident. Currently, that involved
take and resources that are avail- body was found with a note stating “no visiting Hamid’s family in wake of his
able when faced with the kidnapping negotiation policy.” NGO Alpha head- murder at the hands of the kidnappers.
of staff. The scenario is based on a quarters has set up a Crisis Manage- Abdi was filled with a sense of dread
recent hostage incident management ment Team; NGO Bravo’s CEO has as he jumped into a Landcruiser with
training conducted by the InterAc- decided to step in and handle the situ- his driver. Hamid had been a close
tion Security Unit in conjunction with ation himself. Meanwhile, both orga- friend. He had also been the sole bread
InterAction’s Security Advisory Group. nizations’ field offices are awaiting winner for his wife Aziza, their chil-
All events and characters are entirely direction from headquarters, as are the dren, and several members of their
fictitious, as are all the organizations victim’s families and the media. extended family. In the Somalia con-
with the exception of United Nations Not long after NGO Alpha’s Crisis text, dealing with the family of his slain
Department of Safety and Security, the Management Team had convened at co-worker meant not simply extending
Federal Bureau of Investigation and headquarters, the organization received NGO Alpha’s condolences, but arrang-
Overseas Security Advisor Council. a call from Patricia, Sally’s mother. ing for the financial well being of his
Sally had been kidnapped nearly two family and, possibly, ensuring that the
days ago and Patricia, a wealthy widow, family did not attempt to take action
explained that she was at London’s against his killers. Adbi, though an
Heathrow Airport, awaiting her flight experienced field security professional,
to Nairobi, from where she planned to had never before been in this situation.
find her way to Mogadishu. Once there, When he arrived at Aziza’s home,
Photo: endostock - Fotolia.com

her intention was to pay the $1 million Abdi was greeted by Aziza and what
ransom herself. The call was patched appeared to be Hamid’s entire clan. The
through to Vivek, who had been tasked front room of the house was packed
by the CMT to liaise with the victims’ full of people. Abdi took a deep breath
families. Vivek pleaded with Patricia to and began by expressing his own grief
remain in the UK, but she would not for the loss of Hamid, his friend and
be swayed. She was outraged that NGO co-worker. Aziza thanked him for his
Alpha had not contacted her, while kind words, but told him that she held

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 13


KIDNAPPED!

NGO Alpha responsible for Hamid’s satisfactory for all, and one that Hamid victims as human beings, increasing the
death. The note found on Hamid’s was sure he could convince Alpha to likelihood of their safe return.
body—“No negotiation policy”—was agree to. Finally, Hamid felt comfort- Not long after Hamid’s body was
a clear message that Alpha had not able enough to leave Aziza and return discovered in Mogadishu, Al Jazeera
acted quickly enough to secure the to the business of securing the release ran a story on the kidnapping, citing
hostages’ release. Did Alpha not care of the three remaining hostages. unnamed sources as saying that the
about their Somali staff? Why would In Los Angeles, NGO Bravo’s CEO, kidnappers had demanded ransom.
they not negotiate? Did they not realize Booker, had taken over management NGO Alpha’s CMT in New York called
that Hamid had people who depended of the incident. With little experience in NGO Bravo immediately to devise a
on him when they sent him out on a these matters he was in over his head. media statement. Their consultant had
dangerous road? Abdi maintained his Bravo did not have kidnap and ran- recommended that Sally’s and Tony’s
composure, explaining that NGO Alpha som insurance, nor did they have any parents give a joint statement, the
had indeed tried to reach out to the policies dealing with the kidnapping intent of which would be to humanize
kidnappers, but that the kidnappers incidents. Vijaya, Bravo’s Operations the victims and place the responsibil-
had used Hamid to force the families Director, pleaded with Booker to hire a ity for their safety on kidnappers. Since
of the American victims to pay a higher consultant to handle communications. Sally’s mother was en route to Nairobi
ransom. He was quick to point out She quickly prevailed. NGO Alpha had and unlikely to cooperate anyway, it
that responsibility for Hamid’s death suggested that Bravo hire the same con- was decided to contact Bruce, Tony’s
lay squarely with the kidnappers, and sulting company employed by Alpha, father. NGO Bravo set up a meeting
that NGO Alpha would work with the and Booker wisely agreed. However, two between Bruce and the consultant to
appropriate authorities to bring them problems remained for Bravo: dealing work out the details, and a press con-
to justice, once the other hostages had with the media, and with Tony and Wali’s ference was called soon after. Various
been freed. Finally, Hamid explained families. The media was the more imme- international media outlets were called
that NGO Alpha would continue to diate of the two concerns, because inac- in, and Bruce read a prepared state-
pay Hamid’s family’s finances for four curate or inappropriate media reports ment that highlighted Bruce’s per-
months. This was eventually negoti- could spell disaster for the kidnappers’ sonal background, his love for his fam-
ated up to eight months by Aziza and victims. A well crafted press statement ily, and his desire to make the world
her family, a settlement that seemed could help the kidnappers view their continued on page 30

14 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


ANIMAL WELFARE

Animal Welfare
Sustainable development can benefit from
partnership with animal-focused organizations.
BY LARRY WINTER ROEDER, JR., UNITED NATIONS AFFAIRS DIRECTOR, THE WORLD SOCIETY
FOR THE PROTECTION OF ANIMALS

A
LTHOUGH WE TACKLE Of course, many more hundreds of mil-
development and relief from lions depend on animals for food, jobs
different perspectives, the ani- and culture. Further, harming animals Organization), working and zoo ani-
mal welfare community has can spread disease, as we have seen mals in war-torn Afghanistan in 2004,
much in common with the traditional through the bush meat trade. Harm- and livestock harmed by the Myanmar
humanitarian community, which is ing animals also reduces productivity cyclone in 2008 (in partnership with
why we belong to InterAction. Indeed, on the farm and in the slaughterhouse. the UN Food and Agriculture Organiza-
neither can fully reach their potential Intensive farming hurts the climate tion). In Myanmar, an operation I sup-
without the other. and many poor farming practices dam- ported, we operated in a country with
I first saw this in the 1980s while age the environment in general. To the very worst human rights record; but
serving in the Sinai Peninsula on tackle those issues, like any respon- because without livestock the rice could
detached duty from the Department sible humanitarian NGO, The World not have been brought in, and because
of State. It was my third time living Society for the Protection of Animals without rice, people would have starved,
in Egypt. During my first stay in the (WSPA) is prepared to operate in any we went in. In 1992, WSPA was in war-
1950s, I learned to ride camels from a political or physical environment so struck Bosnia, providing assistance
police brigade near my home in Maidi long as effective animal welfare (in our to stray dogs, cattle and zoo animals,
and since the camels followed me home case) can be produced and so long as which in turn helped people. We did the
regularly, the police decided I needed to the staff involved can operate in rea- same in Gaza in 2009.
learn how to wash and ride them. Years sonable safety. After all, as with people, All these operations took place within
later while teaching desert survival animals in greatest need often live in the rubric of disaster management; but
and Bedouin culture, I realized that I harsh environments like droughts or what is often misunderstood is that
hadn’t ever been on a caravan longer floods, and in conflicts or lands man- disaster management is really just a
than about twenty miles, so I joined one aged by governments or local bands part of sustainable development. We
from Somalia into Cairo to learn how to with terrible human right records. The also work with farm animals to reduce
herd. I also did it so that when I entered animals did not ask to live there and cruelty from poorly managed slaughter-
a Bedouin camp, I would have a better should not be left without assistance houses, to foster better livestock care
idea of what motivated the inhabitants. simply due to an accident of residence. through model farms and protect wild-
One day in a market, a young camel We have been doing our work since life, zoo and entertainment animals; all
became angry and protested loudly. He 1964, when we first established a repu- have a role in sustainable development.
was beaten to the ground and burned tation of which we are proud by sending What that leads to is a need for collabo-
alive! I can still smell the flesh and hear an expert from Massachusetts named ration between the animal welfare and
his screams. What I saw was great cru- John Walsh and his volunteers to save development NGOs. After all, disaster
elty of course, but it was also a lesson in thousands of animals in an 870-square management and development is more
the interaction of development and ani- mile area of dense rain forest in Suri- than simply putting people in shelters
mal welfare. Killing the camel meant a name. A man-made flood related to the or about money. It is about fostering
loss of investment for the herders. Fur- building of a dam prompted a large- a sustainable recovery after an emer-
ther, the buyers lost a valuable asset scale human evacuation. The society gency and creating a society that can
needed to develop their farms. Every- took a moral stand that it could not resist hazards turning into crises. This
one lost, including the camel, most hor- passively sit by while animals died a requires a holistic approach that ben-
ribly. For less and more dramatic ways terrible death due to rising lake water. efits all parties. WSPA looks forward
Photo: Hamady - Fotolia.com

that is why our communities need to That willingness to tackle such a cri- to working with its fellow InterAction
collaborate more than we do. sis set the tone for four decades pro- members to that end.
Of the world’s one billion very poorest tecting animals: from floods in Europe Mr. Roeder retired from the U.S.
people, over 650 million totally depend and South America, to famine in India, Department of State in 2005 as the Pol-
on animals for a living, according to the earthquakes in Peru, abandoned ani- icy Adviser on Disaster Management in
UN. Take away their animals and the mals in the 1974 Cyprus conflict (in the Bureau of International Organiza-
people go from poverty to desperation. partnership with the World Health tion Affairs. MD

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 15


PROJECTIONS

Population
Projections
Making sense of the reality behind
the estimates.
BY ELIZABETH LEAHY MADSEN, RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, POPULATION
ACTION INTERNATIONAL

“It’s rather odd to talk about climate change and what we


must do to stop and prevent the ill effects without talking
about population and family planning.”
—Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, July 2009

“The Middle East is home to six percent of the world’s popula-


tion but just two percent of the world’s water. A demographic
boom and a shrinking water supply will only tighten the
squeeze.”
—Senator John Kerry, July 2009

“Over the next 20 years certain pressures—population,


resource, energy, climate, economic, and environmental—
could combine with rapid cultural, social, and technological
change… Looking ahead, I believe the most persistent and
potentially dangerous threats will come less from emerging
ambitious states, than from failing ones that cannot meet the
basic needs—much less the aspirations—of their people.”
—Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, July 2008

T
HESE RECENT STATEMENTS INDICATE THAT U.S.
administration officials and legislative leaders increas-
ingly recognize the importance of population trends in
development and foreign policy. Together with health,
human rights, security and other factors, changes in popula-
tion size and age composition influence individual well-being choices or lack thereof that, taken together, shape the direc-
and national development. However, population projections tion of the demographic future.
that are key for policy-making are unrealistic in some coun- Population change is driven by three major factors: fertil-
tries, and assume increasing provision of voluntary family ity, mortality and migration patterns. Fertility (the average
planning, reproductive and primary health care, and educa- number of children per woman) has by far the greatest effect
tion. on population trends. Although they remain far too high in
Demography offers a unique benefit for long-term plan- some places, mortality rates have declined around the world
ning because population dynamics over the next few decades and most children born today survive to adulthood. Even in
can be projected with a greater degree of confidence than the countries in southern Africa hardest hit by HIV/AIDS and
many other socioeconomic factors, given that the majority other illnesses, fertility rates are high enough to offset mor-
Photo: Jocelyn Cunningham

of the people who will comprise a country’s population 10 tality, ensuring population growth. Migration, meanwhile,
or 20 years hence are already alive today. However, popula- can affect population growth rates and age composition in
tion projections are not guaranteed, and their uncertainty is countries that send or receive a high proportion of migrants,
particularly notable in the least developed countries, where but the scale of its impact does not approach that of fertility.
much U.S. development assistance is directed. The accuracy Projections of global and national population change,
of population projections will be driven in large part by the therefore, must make assumptions about the future path
policy decisions made today and their impact on individual of fertility, migration and mortality. Population projections

16 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


PROJECTIONS

Figure 1.
World population under
different UN scenarios

are produced by a handful of organizations, but the most the world (7.1 children per woman in a 2006 survey). Niger’s
comprehensive and widely used are released biannually by population has doubled in the past two decades and is esti-
the United Nations Population Division, with eight variants mated at 16 million in 2010. If fertility stays constant at the
for every country over the century between 1950 and 2050. current level, the population would more than quadruple
Most of the UN projections’ variants are related to differ-
ent assumptions about fertility. The most commonly cited
“medium-fertility variant” assumes that all countries’ fertil-
ity rates will ultimately converge at a universal rate of 1.85
children per woman, regardless of whether current fertility
rates are significantly above or below that figure. The model
only takes recent trends into account over the next five to
10 years; beyond that period, the projections assume regu- 2009 NGO Headquarters  
lar changes in fertility rates towards the universal level. The Salary and Benefits Survey  
fertility variants also assume gradual improvements in life  
expectancy from current levels, and roughly a status quo • The average salary of CEOs in Washington, D.C. 
effect for migration. is...  
The differences and assumptions underlying the popula-
tion projections may seem technical or mundane, but policy- • The average merit increase budgeted for the 
makers and program managers must carefully select which upcoming year is… 
projection variant to use, based on which demographic • Organizations have increased their employee 
assumptions they feel are most likely. Played out over health contribution by...   
decades, seemingly minute differences in fertility rates can
have a major impact on a population’s growth or decline. For Answers to these questions and many more are 
example, a slight increase in Kenya’s total fertility rate from available to survey participants. The survey is open 
4.7 to 4.8 children per woman earlier this decade nearly dou- during the month of September.  
bled the country’s projected total population for 2050 under Contact us! We will be happy to answer your ques‐
the medium-fertility variant. This in turn has major implica-
tions for demands on health care and education systems,
tions about this survey or tell you more about other 
labor markets, social welfare programs and infrastructure. InsideNGO resources and services. 
Although the “constant-fertility” variant functions primar-
ily as an intellectual exercise, given that most countries have
experienced declines in fertility as they pass through the Contact: info@InsideNGO.org or call
demographic transition, the medium-fertility variant does 202-684-3684
not appear to be a realistic possibility in some cases. Con- www.InsideNGO.org
sider Niger, which currently has the highest fertility rate in

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 17


PROJECTIONS

Figure 2.
Total population in
high and low fertility
countries under
different UN scenarios

to reach 88 million in 2050. The UN medium-fertility vari- large part be attributed to government and donor investment
ant, however, projects that Niger’s fertility rate will steadily in voluntary family planning and reproductive health pro-
decline to 3.8 children per woman by mid-century, resulting grams, provision of primary health care and increased rates
in a total population of 58 million—one-third smaller than of girls’ education. However, as the example of Niger dem-
under the constant-fertility scenario. Given that Niger’s fertil- onstrates, this success has not been replicated everywhere.
ity rate today is the same as in 1992 and only five percent of Fertility rates have stalled or never begun to decline across
married women are using a modern contraceptive method, it much of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Middle East,
is, unfortunately, overly optimistic to assume a speedy and where the unmet need for family planning ranges as high as
rapid decline in the future without a strong policy response. 51 percent among married women. These stark differences
The projection of a universal fertility rate is also optimistic underscore that population projections cannot possibly be
for the countries where fertility rates have reached very low achieved—and in fact should be treated carefully—unless
levels, a smaller group than those with persistently high fer- policy and funding changes provide women, men and young
tility but one where current trends also call the prospect of people with the services they desire and need. MD
rapid demographic change into question. In Ukraine, the fer-
tility rate has already been lower than the replacement level
of 2.1 for a generation and was estimated at 1.15 children Washington Update
per woman in the early 2000s, nearly half the level needed continued from page 8
to maintain a stable population. At this level, the country’s
population will decline from over 45 million today to fewer in a year than expected and therefore not enough emergency
than 31 million in 2050. The medium-fertility variant proj- response funding was appropriated in the normal budget
ects that fertility in Ukraine will reverse its long decline and process), the president will propose a supplemental funding
rise to 1.85 by mid-century, leaving the population to still bill. Like regular appropriations bills, a supplemental appro-
decline, but by 10 million instead of 15 million people. priations bill generally must go through the whole process of
The different trajectories of Niger and Ukraine illustrate subcommittee, full committee, floor consideration and vote,
not only the significant levels of uncertainty inherent in conference committee, and presidential signature. In recent
population projections, but also the disparities within cur- years supplemental appropriations were used to cover sig-
rent demographic trends. It is fairly well understood that nificant amounts of spending that some would argue could
developing countries, in general, will continue to experience have been included in the regular budget process (e.g., fund-
population growth for decades to come while developed coun- ing for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and funding for a
tries are addressing population aging and, in some cases, number of humanitarian efforts). The Obama administration
the prospect of decline. This simple demarcation only tells has stated that it does not want to continue that trend, but it
part of the story. Within the developing world, many regions is too early to tell exactly how that will play out in the budget
and countries are headed on different demographic paths. In process over the next few years. MD
Eastern Asia, fertility has on average already dropped below
replacement level, and is at or below 2.5 children per woman Ken Forsberg, Senior Legislative Manager at InterAction,
in the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and South America. The contributed to this article, and writes legislative pieces for
fertility declines in these regions in recent decades can in InterAction’s weekly e-mail update for public policy issues.

18 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


DISPLACEMENT

Urban Displacement
and Growth Amidst
Humanitarian Crisis
New realities require a new strategy in Kabul.
BY CHARLES A. SETCHELL, SHELTER, SETTLEMENTS, AND HAZARD MITIGATION
ADVISOR, USAID/OFDA, AND CAROLINE N. LUTHER, SENIOR INFORMATION OFFICER,
USAID/OFDA

B
Y 2008, AN UNPRECEDENTED lion people, with returning refugees
half of the world’s population and migrants (both those economically
resided in urban areas. The motivated and those forcibly displaced)
current total population of 6.8 constituting 80 percent of the change.
billion people is projected by the Pop- In 2002, only 22 percent of Afghani-
ulation Reference Bureau to increase stan’s population lived in urban areas.
to more than 8 billion by 2025, with The figure may have increased to as
a majority of growth occurring in the much as 35 percent by 2009, indicat-
urban centers of developing countries. ing unprecedented urban growth coun-
While sufficiently daunting, the pro- trywide, a trend data suggest will con- additional challenges to urban recovery
jections fail to capture urban growth tinue for the foreseeable future. planning in the capital city.
attributable to displacement. Enduring Volatility amid continuing efforts to Urban displaced populations are often
conflict and frequent natural disasters eradicate the insurgency, the ravages difficult to count, invisible amongst sig-
in parts of the developing world encour- of recurrent drought and environmental nificant numbers of other urban poor.
age or force rural migration to urban degradation, limited employment oppor- Rarely do displaced households reside
centers at rates that accelerate and tunities, and natural disasters in com- in designated areas, but rather with
exacerbate the urbanization process. In munities with poor risk management host families, in demographically diverse
recent years, for example, cities such and response capacities continue to informal settlements, or in abandoned
as Freetown, Khartoum and Prishtina, erode coping mechanisms in rural areas buildings.
among many others, have experi- and prompt residents to flee to Kabul The absence of mechanisms to locate
enced dramatic population increases and other cities. Current and future displaced individuals living in the
(far beyond projections) that confound migration rates remain indeterminable city, in part a consequence of limited
efforts to promote urban recovery and and unpredictable, respectively, adding humanitarian engagement in the urban
development. A new approach to urban
recovery that addresses humanitarian
concerns and incorporates risk reduc- Urban Displacement: A Burgeoning Area of Study
tion strategies is required to address http://blogs.odi.org.uk/blogs/main/archive/2009/06/19/world_refugee_day.aspx
needs generated by rapid urban growth,
reverse the cycle of perpetual humani- • Over the next two years, the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas
tarian crisis among a largely invisible Development Institute (ODI) will be studying urban displacement in partnership
segment of urban populations, and with the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) and in collaboration
ultimately lay the foundation necessary with the Feinstein International Center at Tufts University, UN-Habitat and the
for successful urban development. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
• Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) research on urban
An often ignored phenomenon displacement includes:
The manifold challenges confronting http://www.unhcr.org/research/RESEARCH/4a1d33252.pdf
Photo: USAID/OFDA

Kabul include, most predominantly, http://www.unhcr.org/research/RESEARCH/487b4c6c2.pdf


rapid growth—perhaps the fastest in • Preparations for the December 2009 High Commissioner's Dialogue on Protection
the world. In the years since Septem- Challenges and ‘Urban Displacement,’ further details of which can be found at:
ber 11, 2001, Kabul’s population has http://www.unhcr.org/protect/PROTECTION/4a12a6ce2.pdf
tripled in size to approximately 4.5 mil-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 19


DISPLACEMENT

context, allows government and interna- Further, although “substantial,” many


USAID tional actors to downplay the displace- structures remain vulnerable to col-
Office of U.S. Foreign ment crisis, advocate for status quo pro- lapse during seismic events—the latter
Disaster Assistance grams, and ignore a growing segment of a critical consideration in one of the
the population, many of whom require world’s most seismically active and vul-
USAID/OFDA programs account for immediate assistance after arriving nerable cities courtesy of the Chaman
unique vulnerabilities, natural hazard in Kabul with limited or no resources. fault and low-quality building materi-
risks, cultural context, existing social and Efforts by the humanitarian community als and practices. As a result of location
economic systems, and the role of Kabul to distinguish between the urban dis- and poor services, settlements are more
Municipality: placed and urban poor—and, therefore, vulnerable to other disasters as well,
demarcate humanitarian assistance including floods, waterborne diseases,
The multi-sectoral KASS project: and development assistance—have gen- physical damage or loss of life caused
• Provides seismic-resistant erated controversy among both policy- by falling boulders in the hillsides, and
transitional shelter and basic makers and assistance providers. Two landmines from earlier conflicts.
services and infrastructure using clear facts emerge as indisputable, how-
local labor and resources; ever: humanitarian needs exist among Responding to needs
• By generating livelihoods, promotes Kabul’s population, due in large part to The case of Kabul clearly demon-
recovery and local ownership of rapid and untenable growth, and these strates the need for humanitarian and
projects; needs are often more acute for house- development actors to re-think urban
• By accounting for risks, incorporates holds displaced from rural areas. interventions. A new strategy that
long-term view to support addresses humanitarian needs caused
development; and Informal settlements become the norm by rapid urban growth and displace-
• By investing in existing communities The time-warp speed at which Kabul ment in a manner that supports long-
to upgrade and expand shelter and grew in the last eight years hardly term development goals is required. As
services, ensures cost-effective, afforded government officials the lux- the preceding assessment illustrates,
timely humanitarian assistance, ury of foresight to effectively plan for the current situation is a complex
while building on established social and accommodate growth when war- intertwinement of significant humani-
and economic networks. and disaster-ravaged resources and tarian needs and basic development
infrastructure precluded even mini- needs, compounded by the effects and
Capacity building in Kabul municipality: mal responses to meet the most basic high-level risks associated with natural
• USAID/OFDA partners build the needs. Surprisingly, however, a signifi- and human-generated hazards.
urban recovery management cant majority of the population occu- Given the sheer number of structures,
capacity of Kabul Municipality. pies what the World Bank describes the minimal resources in Kabul Munici-
• Means include technical assistance, as “substantial” structures, generally pality coffers, and the need to quickly
advisory services and technology made from mud bricks. The govern- address pressing humanitarian needs,
transfer. ment considers only 0.5 percent of the improving the informal settlements
• Urban planning advisors address population homeless. The buildings remains the most viable option at pres-
strategy and policy issues related to where people live, however, form high- ent. Two questions then arise related to
large-scale urban displacement and density, crowded settlements precari- supporting long-term development: how
growth. ously balanced on steep hillsides and to develop and service settlements in a
buttressing towering and dilapidated sustainable manner while strengthen-
For additional information, please see: buildings in the city center. The con- ing local capacity to assume ownership
• Shelter and Settlements Sector struction of settlements kept pace with of urban recovery; and how to mitigate
Update, Sept 2009 the high rate of displacement and three- risks in order to protect progress and
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/ fold increase in population, resulting in maintain a foundation for develop-
humanitarian_assistance/disaster_ a four-fold increase in land devoted to ment. For an overview of how the U.S.
assistance/sectors/shelter.html urban activities. Unfortunately, con- Agency for International Development
• Overview of the KASS Project tinued government reliance on a 1978 (USAID), through the Office of U.S. For-
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/ master plan designed to accommodate eign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), contin-
humanitarian_assistance/ only two million people resulted in one ues to answer these questions through
disaster_assistance/sectors/files/ of the highest rates of informal hous- the Kabul Area Shelter and Settlements
kass_summary.pdf ing in the world. Thus, although Kabul (KASS) Project and capacity building
• Delivery of Humanitarian Shelter avoided a homelessness crisis, approxi- programs, please refer to the sidebar. MD
in Urban Areas: The Case of “KASS” mately 80 percent of the total popula-
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/ tion resides in officially unauthorized The views expressed in this article are
humanitarian_assistance/disaster_ and unrecognized areas that lack ade- the personal views of the authors and
assistance/sectors/files/case_of_ quate drainage, refuse disposal, grav- do not necessarily represent the official
kass.pdf eled roads, water and sanitation facili- views of the United States Agency for
ties, and safe drinking water sources. International Development.

20 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


REPRODUCTION

billion in lost productivity every year.


This is unacceptable.
UNFPA has joined together with the
World Bank, UNICEF and the World
Health Organization to reduce the
needless deaths of women and new-
borns. In countries where women have
access to a full range of comprehensive
reproductive health services, maternal
death is rare.
Together, we support governments
and civil society to strengthen health
systems, address the shortage of skilled
health workers, and scale up quality
health services to deliver reproduc-
tive health care. This package includes
family planning, skilled attendance at
delivery and emergency obstetric and
newborn care, ensuring coordination
with HIV prevention and treatment.

Investing in Health,
We are also tackling the root causes
of maternal death and disability,
including gender inequality, poor
access to education—especially for

Rights and the Future girls—child marriage and adolescent


pregnancy. And to ensure we are on
track, we are strengthening systems of
monitoring and evaluation.
The need for and benefits of increased investment in We estimate that access to voluntary
reproductive health. family planning could reduce mater-
nal deaths by 25 to 40 percent, and
BY THORAYA AHMED OBAID, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, UNFPA, THE UNITED NATIONS child deaths by as much as 20 per-
POPULATION FUND cent. The World Bank estimates that
ensuring skilled care in delivery, espe-

T
HIS YEAR MARKS TWO IMPOR- birth, largely from problems that can be cially access to emergency obstetric
tant occasions: the 40th anni- prevented. For every woman who dies, care, would reduce maternal deaths by
versary of UNFPA, the United 20 other women suffer injuries and dis- about 74 percent—the target of MDG5.
Nations Population Fund, and abilities that can last a lifetime. The personal, social, economic and
the 15th anniversary of the historic The sad and shocking truth is that demographic benefits of reproductive
International Conference on Popula- maternal mortality is the largest health health services will be even higher.
tion and Development. This provides inequity in the world. African countries Reproductive health is not only a right,
an opportunity for reflection. have rates at least 100 times those in but also a critical factor in population
At the international conference in developed countries. The result: of all dynamics—the size of a country’s popu-
Cairo 15 years ago, 179 governments the MDGs, the one to improve maternal lation, its growth rate, its age structure.
agreed to work towards universal health is lagging the furthest behind. Today almost all population growth
access to reproductive health by 2015. It is not lack of knowledge that is is occurring in less developed coun-
This target now appears in the Millen- hindering progress; it is weak capacity tries, where young people under age 25
nium Development Goals, under MDG and a lack of political will. Decision- are nearly half of the total population.
5 to improve maternal health. makers must act to protect the health Yet national systems are already failing
But this is an area where we need and rights of women, especially their to meet growing demands for educa-
to make far greater progress. Today, right to decide freely the number and tion, healthcare, employment, sanita-
poor reproductive health is a leading timing of their children. tion and housing.
killer and disabler of women in the The world is paying a high price Access to reproductive health care,
Photo: Benjamin Edwards

developing world. This causes vast and for not allowing women to live up to particularly family planning, lets
needless death and suffering, and it is their full potential. While the loss of a women and girls avoid unintended
dragging down economic growth and mother is beyond measure for her child pregnancy and unsafe abortions.
stalling efforts to reduce poverty. and family, the loss to the world has Women stay healthier, are more pro-
Every year, more than half a million actually been measured: maternal and ductive, and have more opportunities
women die during pregnancy and child- newborn mortality costs the planet $15 for education, training and employ-

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 21


REPRODUCTION

At the moment, just oped countries. Today, each woman there bears 4.4 children
on average, and the nine billion projection assumes that by
one in four married 2050 they will each have 2.4 children—in other words, two
children fewer than they are having today. This will require a
women in the least- dramatic expansion in access to voluntary family planning.
developed countries At the moment, just one in four married women in the
least-developed countries is using modern contraception.
is using modern A further one in four has an unmet need for family plan-
contraception. ning. So the need to expand these services is urgent while the
funding for international family planning, as a percentage of
population spending, has been falling for the past decade.
ment. This benefits entire nations: more and healthier Think of the many crises the world faces today: the food
women in the labor force earn more income, which means crisis, the water crisis, the financial crisis, the crisis of cli-
less poverty and faster economic growth. mate change, the energy crisis. None of these can be man-
Yet despite the benefits, some 200 million women today aged unless greater attention is paid to population issues.
who want to plan and space their births lack access to safe Stronger action must be taken to implement the Programme
and effective contraception. If they were able to exercise this of Action of the International Conference on Population and
right, it would help to slow population growth so as to be Development.
more in balance with economic growth, giving governments Investments in women and reproductive health are critical
more time to provide schooling, medical care and other ser- for overcoming poverty and achieving the MDGs, and they
vices to individuals and families. are also cost-effective. An investment in contraceptive ser-
Whether family planning services are provided and vices can be recouped four times over—and sometimes much
expanded to meet rising need will determine whether global more over the long term—by reducing the need for public
population grows from today’s 6.8 billion people to 9 billion spending on health, education, housing, sanitation and
by 2050, the UN’s most likely projection, or to the high pro- other social services.
jection—a staggering 11 billion people. When a mother survives, when a young girl gets an educa-
I make this point because I do not think it is widely appre- tion and grows into a life filled with opportunities, the con-
ciated that the projection of nine billion people by mid-cen- sequences reach far beyond these individuals. The return on
tury assumes further reduction in fertility in the least-devel- our investment is a better world for all. MD

22 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


FfD

The UN Financing for


ment forward by preparing strategic
policy interventions for their participa-
tion in roundtables and a civil society

Development Process:
address to the plenary of the UN con-
ference. The forum also helped build
synergies with governments and insti-
tutional stakeholders, with a view to

Year in Review intensifying the quest for comprehen-


sive and enduring solutions to the glo-
bal economic and financial crisis.
In preparation for the UN conference,
Key meetings in 2009 produced significant steps the president of the General Assembly
forward, offer promise for 2010. appointed a commission of experts,
headed by former Chief Economist of
BY MATT SIMONDS, POLICY ASSOCIATE, INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION CONFEDERATION the World Bank and Nobel Laureate
Joseph Stiglitz, to produce a report out-

S
INCE THE INTERNATIONAL the UN Doha Declaration on Financing lining key components of the crisis and
Conference on Financing for for Development. providing recommendations. CSOs and
Development held in Monterrey Many CSOs developed critiques of NGOs had the opportunity to contribute
Mexico in 2002, NGOs and civil the Doha Declaration. For example, the to the report through on-line consulta-
society organizations (CSOs) have been International Trade Union Confederation tions set up between the Office of the
actively convening and participating in felt that “in general, the language of the President of the General Assembly and
initiatives aimed at monitoring progress Doha Declaration was non-prescriptive, the United Nations Non-Governmental
and holding governments accountable and failed to establish clear commit-
to their commitments made in Monter- ments and monitorable goals. Member “In general, the
rey. They have worked on key Financ- States merely promised to do their best to
ing for Development (FfD) themes such honor commitments and formulate poli- language of the Doha
as the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) and poverty eradication, capi-
cies to address the issues of the Monter-
rey Consensus with a view to achieving
Declaration was non-
tal flight, debt cancellation, labor rights the internationally agreed development prescriptive, and failed
and employment issues, and financ- goals, including the MDGs.”
ing for gender equality and women’s However, CSOs welcomed the Doha to establish clear
empowerment. This has proved of great
value in advancing the FfD goal of pol-
Declaration mandate to hold a follow-up,
high-level conference to take stock of the
commitments and
icy coherence, given that FfD is among global financial and economic crisis and monitorable goals.”
the most holistic and inclusive global craft a lasting response. Subsequently,
processes. It brings together multiple President of the 63rd UN General Assem- Liaison Service (UN-NGLS). While the
stakeholders to discuss a wide range of bly Miguel d’Escoto Brockman spear- report was intended to inform discus-
development-related themes. headed the preparations and chaired sions at the UN conference, many NGOs
From November 2008 to July 2009, the conference at UN headquarters in and CSOs felt that the conference out-
the FfD agenda has advanced substan- New York in June 2009. come document did not sufficiently
tially through three important meetings. reflect the findings of the experts’ report.
UN Conference on the Financial and While the outcome of the conference
The Doha International Review Economic Crisis and its Impact on did not meet the expectations of many
Conference on Financing for Development CSOs and NGOs, it provided the basis
Development The June follow-up conference was for the establishment of an ongoing
FfD thematic issues have been the only place other than the G20 sum- process within the UN to promote lasting
championed by key UN member states mits in Washington, DC and London and comprehensive reform of the exist-
(countries) and given greater promi- where the financial and economic cri- ing global economic governance frame-
nence at the United Nations. This sis was specifically addressed at the work—namely, through the creation of
progress began with the Doha Review intergovernmental level, with the nota- an ad-hoc working group and a panel of
Conference in November/December ble distinction being that 172 countries experts. Other positive elements in the
2008. The conference brought together that are not members of the G20 were conference outcome document included:
officials from more than 160 countries, also present at the negotiating table at recognition of the International Labour
including some 40 heads of state. CSOs the June UN conference. Organization’s Global Jobs Pact as an
participated actively in the conference A civil society forum was also held important roadmap for a sustainable
through roundtables, side events, lob- just prior to the UN conference. The recovery to the crisis through a job-
bying and media activities. The confer- forum offered a unique opportunity for intensive approach; strengthening inter-
ence concluded with the adoption of CSOs and NGOs to carry their engage- national cooperation on tax matters; and

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 23


FfD

emphasis on the importance of the role


of debt in the crisis, providing the pos-
sibility for debt standstills.

The General Segment of the


Substantive Session of ECOSOC
The UN Economic and Social Coun-
cil (ECOSOC) recently met in Geneva to
take stock of the past year’s work and
review reports of its subsidiary bodies.
An important agenda item was a reso-
lution that would provide a more prom-
inent space for the FfD process at the
UN. CSOs and NGOs were pleased with
the outcome of negotiations, as the
agreed upon resolution accomplishes
this goal by formally strengthening the
FfD follow-up process.
The resolution moved to raise the pro-
file of the ECOSOC annual high-level
spring meeting by changing its timing
so that it will be held no less than five
weeks before, and therefore be better
positioned to influence, the high-profile
spring meetings of the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
Other key provisions in the resolu-
tion give FfD more prominence at both
the four-week annual Substantive Ses-
sion of ECOSOC and at the General
Assembly, with high priority given to
the biennial High-level Dialogue on
Financing for Development.

Staying Engaged
Since last November, the financing for
development process has grown signifi-
cantly in importance. It also gave birth to
the UN conference on the financial and
economic crisis which allowed for the
establishment of an ad hoc working of Halfway There, But
Not Halfway Done
the general assembly to follow up issues
contained within the outcome document.
The outcome document has also given
ECOSOC a fresh mandate to develop a
new mechanism, namely, a panel of
experts to follow up on the UN Confer-
The effectiveness of financing for development in Africa.
ence. Additionally, with the FfD process BY MARTIN TSOUNKEU, GENERAL REPRESENTATIVE, AFRICA DEVELOPMENT
taking on a more prominent role at the INTERCHANGE NETWORK (ADIN)
UN, ECOSOC now has a stronger man-

A
date to tackle important development FRICAN ECONOMIES ARE financial institutions and bilateral and
issues. Therefore, it is imperative that mainly characterized by grow- multilateral partnerships, have had
civil society organizations stay engaged ing poverty, a result of the very little success.
with these parallel processes as they economic crisis that has lin- This article is based on a contribution
Photo: Azra Kacapor

move into the up-coming 64th UN Gen- gered since the late 1980s. Since that by Africa Development Interchange Net-
eral Assembly (September 2009 to time, the continent has suffered con- work (ADIN) to the Civil Society Consulta-
August 2010) with a goal of monitoring tinuously in terms of trade degradation tion on Innovative Development Financ-
their effectiveness in achieving a more and growing debt. Various solutions, ing Mechanism held in Dakar, Senegal in
just and equitable world. MD including assistance from international April of 2008. It illustrates the socioeco-

24 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


FfD EFFECTIVENESS

nomic situation in Africa using the case vision for fighting poverty with the the public investment budget. Foreign
of Cameroon to appraise the financing clear objective of achieving the Millen- assistance funds supplement the domes-
for development process. It reviews pov- nium Development Goals (MDGs). The tic financing to address needs not met
erty reduction policies and challenges, PRSP was approved by the World Bank by domestic funds. The financial system
financing for development mechanisms, and the IMF in 2003 and has seven (which includes banks and microfinance
and concludes by highlighting the need main objectives: institutions) suffers from multiple weak-
for a new approach to financing for • Promoting a stable and growth- nesses, including mismanagement in
development that takes better advantage enhancing macroeconomic envi- the selection of projects to fund and in
of domestic financing opportunities and ronment; the expenditure structure.
better implements the resource recycling • Strengthening growth through eco- Another major challenge is the dif-
scheme of the HIPC (Highly Indebted nomic diversification; ficulty in obtaining access to needed
Poor Countries) process. • Empowering the private sector as investment. Small and medium size
Cameroon offers a good example of the main engine of growth and a enterprises and other underground
what has happened in sub-Saharan partner in delivering social services; structures are the backbone of the
Africa. After some signs of prosperity in • Developing basic infrastructure economy, but they find it difficult to
the late 1970s and great hope of rapid and natural resources in an envi- access available financial resources as
development in the early 1980s, Cam- ronmentally sustainable manner; they generally cannot afford the related
eroon, like many sub-Saharan Afri- • Accelerating regional integration banking and credit conditions. Nor do
can countries, has sunk into an eco- within the framework of the Eco- traditional financial facilities generally
nomic crisis. Twenty years of economic nomic Community of Central Afri- meet the financing needs of the rural
adjustment under World Bank and can States (CEMAC); sector, which is also very important. In
International Monetary Fund (IMF) pro- • Strengthening human resource short, the system does not respond to
grams have not produced an effective development and boosting social the need. People would very much like
solution; and many challenges remain services; and to get credit in rural areas, but funding
across the continent, including growing • Improving the institutional frame- is out of reach.
unemployment and poverty, corrup- work, administrative management
tion and public mismanagement, and and governance. In Cameroon, a Poverty
fragile sociopolitical environments and
impaired democracy. In Cameroon, as in a number of other Reduction Strategic
In February 2008, Cameroon experi-
enced social unrest, partially because
countries in sub-Saharan Africa, imple-
menting the PRSP has been a night-
Paper has been in effect
of the high cost of living. The unrest mare with poor results. When Camer- for more than five years,
served as a strong warning that the oon’s PRSP was drafted, four out of ten
people’s suffering had reached an Cameroonians lived below the poverty but serious challenges
unsustainable level. Other African
countries faced similar situations.
line, locally estimated at CFA Francs
232,547 (US $465) per year as of 2001.
remain and progress
Since then, any improvements that has been limited at best.
HIPC and poverty reduction PRSP implementation efforts might have
strategic papers produced have been washed out by the Foreign aid, HIPC and other financ-
The time period since 1987 has actu- recent economic hardships character- ing sources. The development strat-
ally seen a worsening of economic con- ised by the very high cost of living, which egy in sub-Saharan Africa has always
ditions across the continent – despite likely contributed to the social unrest included foreign assistance: bilateral
programs with the World Bank and the in February 2008. In fact, four years of and multilateral financing agreements
IMF (including structural adjustment PRSP implementation have brought very intended to complement domestic
plans) and other similar efforts. In fact, little livelihood improvement and few of financing. Official development assist-
many countries in sub-Saharan Africa the objectives set out in the PRSP have ance and foreign direct investment,
have actually moved down the eco- been met. The government effectively highly promoted by governments have
nomic ladder so that they now qualify acknowledged this in an assessment of traditionally been regarded as crucial.
as HIPC nations. the implementation process that led to As in other African nations, Cameroon
In Cameroon, a Poverty Reduction adjustments and a revised version of the has also relied on international finan-
Strategic Paper (PRSP) has been in PRSP in June 2008. cial institutions. Besides the IMF and
effect for more than five years, but seri- World Bank economic adjustment facil-
ous challenges remain and progress Mechanisms for financing ities, the country also receives financ-
has been limited at best. Domestic financing. The state is the ing from the African Development
As in many African nations, Camer- main source of domestic financing for Bank, the Islamic Bank and the Inter-
oon’s National Development Strategy development in Cameroon, as in many national Fund for Agriculture Develop-
essentially focuses on poverty reduc- African countries, through public funds ment (IFAD).
tion. In this respect, Cameroon’s PRSP from the annual national budget in two While these institutions have funded
lays out the government’s strategic parts: the current working budget and numerous projects, the results have

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 25


FfD EFFECTIVENESS

generally failed to meet expectations. Failure and early project lization rate of the funds has remained very low in Camer-
termination have most often been the result. Major rural oon (around 30 percent on average), and the program has
development projects like the Priority Integrated Action Zone, remained inefficient because of:
funded by the World Bank in the 1970s to boost rural produc- • the conditions attached to the use of the funds;
tion in eastern Cameroon through more efficient community • insufficient information on the availability of the funds
structuring, turned out to be a debt burden booster. Similarly, and on the financing process;
all of the projects funded by the International Fund for Agri- • incompatibility between French-imposed conditions for
cultural Development have come into question, including the access to the funds and the operational processes of the
Community Development Support Project ($18.3 million), the local bureaucracy; and
Roots and Tuber National Development Programme ($21.7 • some public service corruption.
million) and the Support Project to Microfinance Programme
($22.5 million). When visiting Cameroon in 2008, the presi- Another significant problem is ensuring that projects respond
dent of IFAD raised the issue of how best the country could to people’s most pressing needs. One reason for the current
deal with funding from his institution and a subsequent IFAD shortcoming in this matter is that civil society is not really
review mission found situations of management incoherence allowed to fully participate in choosing or shaping projects.
in almost all IFAD-funded projects.
In a few African countries, the HIPC process has increased Moving forward
the resources available for achieving the MDGs. For example, We can see that the financing for development process in
in Cameroon, $426 million was made available for funding Cameroon, as in many African countries, is still very weak
of social projects between 2001 and 2006. When the country and the efficiency of resource allocation is doubtful. The pri-
reached the HIPC completion point in 2006, the available fund- mary reasons are mismanagement and lack of proper priori-
ing increased dramatically with the potential to reach a total tization. Now, at the halfway point to the 2015 deadline for
debt relief amount of $2 billion if the related conditions are met. achieving the MDGs, we are behind where we should be and
Other bilateral initiatives provide additional resources. the quality and quantity of available financing is lacking. It is
For example, since 2006 the French government’s Contrat time for solutions. Two changes that could make a significant
Désendettement Développement (Debt Relief for Development difference are the improved use of domestic financing and
Contract) has made $172 million in French debt relief funds better implementation of HIPC resource recycling schemes.
available for eligible projects in Cameroon. However the uti- Improving the impact of domestic financing. It is cru-
cial to try to draw all possible benefits from domestic financ-
ing opportunities by gearing efforts toward enhancing the
capacity of local resource generation. This should include:
• Establishing an effective micro-development bank for
local small size initiatives;
• Microfinance systems built on production potential at
the grassroots level and in rural areas in particular;
• The writing and enactment of financial regulations that
Master’s degrees ensure real accessibility to financing resources for all,
including the rural poor; and
for Global Social Change • Empowering civil society to play a central role in deci-
sion-making on financing allocations and utilization,
MA in Sustainable Development parallel to traditional donor/international financial insti-
MA in Conflict Transformation tution co-operation with governments.
MS in Management of Nonprofits and NGOs
Implementing better HIPC resource recycling schemes.
and It is important that HIPC financial resources are allocated to
relevant socioeconomic projects. These projects should be
NEW: Fall 2009 designed by the people themselves at the community level and
should reflect their needs. To reduce dependence on external
in the Sultanate of Oman
assistance, priority must be given to sustainable projects capa-
Master of Global Management ble of generating permanent additional resources. HIPC and
other poverty alleviation resources should then be treated as a
source of capital investment for poverty reduction and should
www.sit.edu/graduate be plowed back into the system to fund the next cycle of sus-
tainable projects. Using this as a means to establish an innova-
tive, self-sustaining financing mechanism for poverty allevia-
tion, offers a promising solution that could address many of
the shortcomings of the current situation. It is crucial to design
“Innovative Financing Mechanisms” for development in Africa.
continued on page 30

26 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


TOYS

Trash to Toys W
HEN PEOPLE THROW
their trash away, little do
they know that it could end
up in the hands of children
around the world who not only make
the best of their situations, but also
Children demonstrate creativity amidst adversity. manage to transform such overlooked
items into innovative toys.
BY LEANNE SCHREIBSTEIN, MARKETING CONSULTANT, INTERACTION Through ChildFund International’s
program “The Power to Play: From
Trash to Treasure,” children from areas
of Africa, South America, and Asia show
off their ingenuity in creating toys from
materials such as bottle caps, worn
flip flops and old beer cans. These toys
are conceived by children who inhabit
some of the harshest environmental,
political, and economic conditions. At
an August event at the National Press
Club in Washington, ChildFund Inter-
national’s President and CEO, Anne
Lynam Goddard, declared that “these
are children who have experienced all
the grinding burdens the developing
world can inflict on childhood—famine,
war, poverty, sickness. But the toys
they make offer dramatic proof that—
through it all—children can retain
their sense of wonder, their desire to
play, their indomitable spirit, and their
ability to imagine and create.”
On display were soccer balls, dolls,
cars and boats; common toys, yet also
one-of-a-kind crafts that not only
entertain, but provide a sense of pride
and self-esteem for the children who
have made them. MD
Photos: Leanne Schreibstein

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 27


RECONSTRUCTION

Recycle the Rubble


tion (i.e. single-story concrete homes).
Exploring the structural integrity and
strength of newly generated concrete
with RCA, Falkner, Sun and Xiao (2005)
performed a series of experiments sup-
The benefits of using recycled concrete aggregate. porting the use of RCA in concrete
framed structures in areas with seis-
BY JONATHAN N. NOGGLE, M.S., FACILITIES MANAGER, U.S. GENERAL SERVICES mic activity. Using concrete mixes
ADMINISTRATION, AND SCOTT A. GLICK, PH.D., ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF consisting of zero percent, 30 percent,
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY 50 percent and 100 percent RCA, seis-
mic performance was tested under a

O
N OCTOBER 8, 2005, THE low-frequency cyclic lateral load with
7.6-magnitude Kashmir Earth- constant vertical actions, similar to
quake in Pakistan demolished what would be experienced during
the homes of four million peo- an actual earthquake. Utilizing RCA
ple. Even more destructive, the 7.9 East- produced from the Shanghai Interna-
ern Sichuan Earthquake of 2008 dam- tional Airport runway deconstruction
aged or destroyed 26 million buildings in material, the researchers determined
China. When regions encounter natural that increasing the percentage of RCA
disasters, half-demolished structures resulted in a decrease in the general
provide unsafe havens for impoverished batch plants to disaster reconstruction seismic behavior; however, a concrete
individuals and families, while creating sites. Demolishing and reconstructing structure with a high percentage of
undefined new landfills that contribute simultaneously using on-site materi- RCA will still resist an earthquake
to the degradation of the environment. als shortens the construction schedule according to Chinese national building
Because concrete has been the pre- and allows local residents to focus their standard GB 50011-2001. In fact, the
ferred building material for over 2,000 efforts on rebuilding their communities lowest compressive strength of a speci-
years, much of the debris caused by rather than becoming refugees. men cast with 100 percent RCA broke
earthquakes and other natural disasters at 3160 psi, supporting the use of RCA
exists as concrete rubble. In areas with Applications for Utilizing RCA in structural concrete. The research-
a substantial amount of concrete debris, Following a disaster, a decision must ers’ conclusion stresses the impor-
constructing cast-in-place concrete be made concerning what to do with tance of quality control by stating that
homes using locally produced recycled the construction debris. In underde- any concrete mix (i.e. with or without
concrete aggregate (RCA) provides a low- veloped or impoverished countries, few RCA) must be designed properly for a
cost solution for disaster reconstruction. designated or regulated landfills exist; structure to withstand an earthquake.
therefore, construction debris is often
RCA and Sustainability dumped in rivers, drainage-ways or Economics of Producing RCA
Crushing, screening and transform- shorelines. Within the last thirty years, The potential for using RCA is clear;
ing concrete debris into RCA provides the life cycle of concrete has extended however, little research exists that
several environmental, societal and beyond manufacturing, placement, explores the monetary costs associated
economic benefits. Referred to as the demolition and transporting to the with disaster relief efforts in which
triple bottom line, these benefits par- landfill or other dump location. Once RCA produced on-site is used in con-
tially stem from concrete’s sustainable concrete’s intended use becomes non- crete mixes for the construction of low-
characteristics, which include signifi- functional, the material can be crushed income, cast-in-place concrete homes.
cant energy savings once in place, min- and reused in new concrete generated Research was conducted that
imized life-cycle costs, high insulation for pavements, shoulders, median bar- assesses the assumption that construct-
values, improved air quality, reduced riers, sidewalks, curbs and gutters, ing simple-designed concrete homes
maintenance costs, and post-consumer bridge foundations, structural grade with RCA instead of virgin aggregate
waste minimization, as described by concrete, stabilized cement aggregate provides an economical solution to low-
the Environmental Council for Con- pavement bases, lean-concrete, bitu- income housing in disaster locations
crete Organizations. Generating RCA in minous concrete and aesthetic design, with severe building and infrastructure
disaster locations for use in new con- as stated by the Portland Cement Asso- damage. To explore these costs, market
crete mixes decreases the total societal ciation. Oftentimes, these opportuni- research was gathered from ready-mix
Photo: Jean Marie Stratigos

impact of the reconstruction process by ties for reapplication become necessary and aggregate suppliers and incorpo-
reducing the need for raw aggregates. after earthquakes and other disasters. rated into the structural RCA concrete
In turn, CO2 and NO2 emissions caused In addition to the reuse of concrete design mixes suggested by Falkner, Sun
from blasting, crushing and transport- for the previously mentioned construc- and Xiao. These researchers also com-
ing raw aggregate decrease, as well as tion applications, a multitude of case pared the unit price cost for a cubic yard
harmful emissions released from ready- studies recommend its application for of concrete fabricated in the field using
mix trucks transferring concrete from structural use in residential construc- locally produced RCA versus the cost

28 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009


per cubic yard of concrete delivered to
a disaster site from a stationary con-
Events
crete batch plant. After incorporating
the mobilization costs of concrete recy- SEPTEMBER 17 October
cling equipment ($42,500) and a porta- International Day for the
ble concrete batch plant ($60,000), this 24-25 September Eradication of Poverty
research found that a cost savings will G-20 Summit
be experienced once 4,043 tons of RCA David L. Lawrence Center 24 October
is generated and used to produce 4,492 Pittsburgh, PA UN Day 2009
cubic yards of concrete. (These costs and www.pittsburghsummit.gov
quantities assume all roads and infra- 29 October
structural components are accessible.) 25 September OFDA/PRM/InterAction
Once this break-even point has been OCHA / InterAction Monthly Meeting
achieved, the savings for producing Monthly Meeting National Press Club, 7th Floor
concrete on-site for the production of UN Secretariat Building Washington, DC
concrete homes increase by $22.82 per New York, NY Contact: ebellardo@interaction.org
cubic yard of concrete. To aid with visu- Contact: lpoteat@interaction.org
30 October
alization, once approximately 150 homes
28 September OCHA / InterAction Monthly Meeting
that are each 20 ft. by 20 ft. have been
InterAction Member Discussion on UN Secretariat Building
built using 4,043 tons of RCA, a savings
Urban Poverty: Who’s Doing What? New York, NY
of $22.82 per cubic yard of concrete will
What Should InterAction Do?  Contact: Lpoteat@interaction.org
be experienced for ongoing construction
in which concrete is utilized. InterAction Offices
Washington, DC NOVEMBER
Opportunities and Future Markets Contact: jharvey@interaction.org
The market for this type of applica- 2-7 November
tion will most likely be created through 29-30 September Network of African Youths for
humanitarian responses initiated by 2009 Global Youth Enterprise Development (NAYD) Summit 2009
Conference Nairobi, Kenya
governments and adequately funded
The George Washington University http://www.nayd.org/Summit_2009.
disaster relief organizations following
Cafritz Conference Center htm
disasters. Environmental and social
Washington, DC
responses to disaster relief and recon-
Contact: whitney@makingcents.com 17-18 November
struction will also encourage govern-
ments to seek alternative disposal HIV/AIDS Capacity Building Summit
methods for concrete debris and new National Press Club
OCTOBER Washington, DC
rebuilding techniques. While a private
Contact: HIVsummit@pactworld.org
company working for a government 1-2 October
entity could potentially experience a 2009 Global Corporate Citizenship
profit by transporting all the equipment Conference DECEMBER
and materials to the site at the begin- U.S. Chamber of Commerce Business
ning of a disaster relief and reconstruc- Civic Leadership Center 7-9 December
tion project, a non-profit organization Washington, DC InterAction CEO Retreat
could use the break-even point previ- Contact: bclc@uschamber.com Washington, DC
ously identified to develop a humanitar- Contact: dheiberg@interaction.org
ian relief effort without the profit motive; 6-7 October
resulting in more potential reconstruc- World Bank Annual Meeting 7-18 December
tion impacts for those affected by the Istanbul, Turkey United Nations Climate Change
disaster. In some situations, infrastruc- Contact: jruthrauff@interaction.org Conference
ture loss may make it more economical Copenhagen, Denmark
to transport the materials and equip- 12-16 October www.en.cop15.dk/
ment (i.e. concrete crushing plant, por- Progress Against Poverty Week
table concrete batch plant, earthmoving InterAction Offices JANUARY 2010
equipment, cement) via air. Once logis- Washington, DC
tics, operations, management proce- Contact: tjacobs@interaction.org 9-29 January
dures, and all issues have been worked World Learning
out, the organization could potentially 14 October Policy Advocacy Seminar
restructure and transform into a suc- International Day for Washington, DC
cessful for-profit, private company with Disaster Reduction Contact: policyadvocacydc@
a humanitarian agenda. MD Contact: kazima@interaction.org worldlearning.org

MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 29


MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS

EMPLOYMENTOPPORTUNITIES
COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALIST FfD Effectiveness
Washington, DC continued from page 26
IFPRI seeks a Communications Specialist for its Communications Divi-
sion. Duties include obtaining coverage of IFPRI research in developed
and developing countries, organize and participate in media outreach The role for civil society. No government in Africa is
campaigns; managing press events; writing and editing press materi- capable of achieving a good solution on its own. Civil soci-
als and other content; develop and maintain relationships with journal- ety should force its way into the African development pro-
ists ; monitoring news outlets; Requirements: Bachelors in Journalism,
cess and take a more proactive role by working closer and
Communications, International Development, or related field; Minimum
of three years experience in media relations, experience in project man- more efficiently with local communities and people at the
agement, excellent communication skills. For a complete job description grassroots level. It must shape projects that can be pressed
and to apply, go to www.ifpri.org and click on “Careers” and then click on on decision-makers as the price for political support. Ways
“Other” to link you to Position # 09-152- Communications Specialist, COM. should also be found to allow civil society to deal directly with
international financing institutions where necessary.
InterAction's Job Networking Event Civil society in Africa can help foster effective solutions.
Wednesday, October 14, 9am-11am Drawing on its independence and community-oriented mind-
By attending this recruitment event, you will: set, which contrasts with the mindset in government which is
• Meet HR directors from InterAction member organizations. far too affected by corruption, self-centered decision-making
• Listen to a round table talk about what NGOs look for in including a desire to retain or expand one’s own power, and
prospective employees in the current job climate. subservience to foreign interests that sometimes conflict with
• Talk with them directly about your skill set. local needs. Civil society organizations can help identify
• Receive a voucher for ONE-MONTH of FREE ACCESS to In- promising opportunities for policies and programs that could
terAction’s Online Job Board! really make a difference. It can publish and publicize informa-
• A light breakfast will be provided. tion that is important in selecting and monitoring projects
and that demonstrates the performance of implementing and
regulatory institutions. It can also use its position to help
communities upgrade their project management systems and
arrange for a platform that will allow for ongoing communica-
tion and negotiation between communities and officials from
the government and international financing sources. MD
For more information or if you have comments please con-
tact the author at martsou@yahoo.com.

Kidnapped!
continued from page 14

a better place. Vivek then expressed similar sentiments on


behalf of Sally. Now that a cogent message had been funneled
through the media, both NGOs hoped that the kidnappers
would soften their approach.
Meanwhile, in Mogadishu, Alpha’s IMT met to discuss the
looming arrival of Sally’s mother, Patricia. Abdi reckoned
that she would get hung up in Nairobi, but he wasn’t tak-
ing any chances. He decided to designate Laila to depart for
Nairobi the next morning to meet with Patricia. Though he
was losing a valuable staff person from his IMT, he felt it
important that someone with strong interpersonal skills be
sent on this important mission. It also served the purpose of
removing one more staff person from a very dangerous situ-
ation as Abdi suspected that NGO Alpha had been specifi-
cally targeted by the kidnappers. Laila’s instructions were to
prevent Patricia from coming to Mogadishu and to enlist the
help of the U.S. embassy if possible. At the conclusion of the
IMT meeting, Abdi picked up the phone and dialed Tony’s
Thuraya satellite phone number. After two rings one of the
kidnappers picked up the phone. MD
Next month: Resolution and post-incident management.

30 MONDAY DEVELOPMENTS October 2009 To advertise, call 202-667-8227 ext 548 or email publications@interaction.org
Job Openings Preservation
Director, Cultural
Heritage Program
Baghdad, Iraq

Monitoring and
Evaluation Team
Leader
Kabul,
Afghanistan

Grants/
Subcontracts
Manager
Kabul,
Afghanistan

Deputy Chief of
Party, Finance and
Administration
Kabul,
Afghanistan

1621 North Kent Street For more


Fourth Floor information,
Arlington,VA 22209 contact Christine
P: 703.248.0161 Dalpino at
F: 703.248.0194 703.248.0161 or
www.ird.org visit www.ird.
org and click on
“careers.”
1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 210
Washington, DC 20036
Phone: (202) 667-8227
Fax: (202) 667-8236
publications@interaction.org
www.interaction.org

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development and humanitarian nongovernmental
organizations. With more than 170 members operating in every
developing country, we work to overcome poverty, exclusion
and suffering by advancing social justice and basic dignity for all.

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