You are on page 1of 12

# Lecture 5 (Feb.

6)

Pressure

## Measuring device: uid pushes against

spring, deduce force from displacement

## Pressure exists at all points, not just walls

(like tension in string)

## Pressure increases with depth in liquid (not

in gas)
p =
F
A
(SI units: 1 N/m
2
1 Pa)
master
formula
Causes of Pressure

## Difference in pressure between liquids and

gases due to (in)compressibility

## compare 2 jars containing mercury liquid

and gas: without gravity (outer space) and
with gravity

2 contributions to pressure:
(i) Gravitational: uid pulled down, exerts
forces on bottom and side
(ii) Thermal: collisions of gas molecules with walls
Pressure in Gases

## For lab.-size container, gravitational

contribution negligible pressure is
same at all points

## increases with density (more collisions with

wall)
Atmospheric pressure

## Density decreases as we go away from

earths surface atmospheric pressure
decreases

unit)

## Fluid exerts pressure in all directions

net force = 0 (sucking force due to no air
on one side)
Pressure in liquids (I)

## Gas lls entire container (compressible) vs.

liquid lls bottom, exerting force:
gravitational contribution dominant

## Pressure at depth d (assuming density

constant: not for gas):
mg +p
0
A = pA
m = A
p = p
0
+gd
master
formula
pressure at surface
Pressure in liquids (II)

## Connected liquid rises to same height in all

open regions of container

line

## Pascals principle: change in pressure same

at all points:
p = p
0
+ gd p

= p
1
+ gd
(change in pressure at surface)
p = p
1
p
0
for all d
master formula
Strategy for hydrostatic
problems

F/A (piston)

## pressure same along horizontal line

p = p
0
+gd
Measuring Pressure

## Barometer (for atmospheric pressure)

p
1
= p
gas
equal to
p
2
= p
atm.
+ gh
p
gas
= p
atm.
+ gh
p
1
= p
atm.
equal to
p
2
= 0 + gh
p
atm
= gh
1 atm. = 101.3 k Pa h = 760 mm of mercury
Gauge pressure, = p - 1 atm.
p
g
Hydraulic Lift

## Use pressurized liquids for work (based on Pascals

principle): increase pressure at one point by
pushing piston...at another point, piston can push
upward

Force multiplication:

## Additional force to move heavy object thru

p
1
=
F
1
A
1
+p
0
equal to p
2
=
F
2
A
2
+p
0
+ gh
F
2
= F
1
A
2
A
1
ghA
2
V
1
= A
1
d
1
equal to V
2
= A
2
d
2
d
2
=
d
1
A
2
/A
1
F = g (A
1
+ A
2
) d
2
d
2
A
2
A
1
> 1
Buoyancy: Archimedes
principle

## Buoyant force: upward force of a uid

Buoyant force, =
weight of displaced uid,
F
B

f
V
f
g
To oat or sink?

Net force:

## ...rather for 1st case pushed up till only

partly submerged:

## Boats: steel plate sinks, but geometry

(sides) allows it to displace more uid than
actual steel volume:

avg.
=
m
0
Ah
<
f
F
B
=
f
V
f
g = w =
0
V
0
g
V
f
< V
0

avg.
<
f
or
avg.
>
f
or
avg.
=
f
F
B
w

f
V
f
g

avg.
V
0
g
master
formula