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Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches

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Chemical Information Sources/Author and
Citation Searches
Introduction
Both straight author searching and citation searching are covered in this chapter. Author searching, whether for
individuals or corporations, is often easier than subject searching. Once the name is known, it is usually a matter of
figuring out how the system you are searching labels the author field or corporate source field in order to limit the
search to that index. Web systems will usually have a box labeled "author" which can be filled in.
The order of entry of a name, the punctuation, and on some databases, whether you must enter the name exactly as it
is found in the file are key points to learn before you attempt an author search in an online database. The famous
chemist Paul von Rague Schleyer in a note to CHMINF-L on March 23, 1997 lamented, "I was listed 17 different
ways in SCI [Science Citation Index] before complaining! . . . A CAS search for my publications yields only half of
them." Although suggestions for an author registry, paralleling the chemical registry system at CAS are sometimes
heard, to date there has been no movement in that direction by any abstracting or indexing service. It is still very
important to discover how the service you are using treats author names before beginning a search.
In terms of printed works, author indexes are found in even the very old literature of chemistry. It is usual for a
publisher to create an author index at the end of a journal volume or publishing year to allow easy access to the
articles published in the journal. Some even compile indexes that cover a decade or more of the journal's publication,
and those are sure to include an author index. An example is the Royal Society of London's Decennial Index,
1971-1980, which is an index of authors in their Proceedings, Philosophical Transactions, and Biographical
Memoirs publications. Chemical Abstracts Service also published collective five- or ten-year author indexes for the
printed volumes of Chemical Abstracts from its inception in 1907.
A bibliography at the end of an encyclopedia article is often a good source for the key names in a given subject area
when you are beginning research in a new field. Author indexes are found in abstracting and indexing journals, in
bibliographies, review serials, and in many other secondary works. In some instances, it may be worthwhile to look
for a company as an author. How (or even if) the corporate name is indexed will depend on the database. For very
common personal names, it is sometimes useful to combine a personal author name search with the corporate name
of the company for which the author worked at the time of publication.
In this chapter, we introduce the Web of Science (including Science Citation Index) and explain the interdisciplinary
nature of the Science Citation Index (SCI), a tool that was invented by Dr. Eugene Garfield. For coverage of new
items in the database, SCI includes only the most important scientific journals, but when searching for a known
citation, any document type published at any time in the past could be cited in a new journal article and thus form a
search key in SCI's citation search. For the Chemical Abstracts database, several different types of primary
documents are included (journal article, technical report, dissertations, patents, conference proceedings). With
SciFinder, author searching of the CA File is now relatively straightforward, and citation searching of the documents
that have appeared in the last decade or more is also possible.
It is rare in most disciplines of science today to find an article written by a single scientist. Thus, an article may have
3, 5, 10, or even more authors listed on the publication. The record is far in excess of 100 authors on a single article!
Abstracting and indexing journals usually limit the number of authors' names on a given article that will be included
in their printed author indexes or databases, and SCI is no exception. The "Source Index" covers a maximum of nine
authors. Such limitations are beginning to disappear in the computer environment. The SCI database now includes
all authors in their Web of Science version, and Chemical Abstracts Service, which had a limit of ten authors through
1996, raised the limit to 150 from 1997 onward. SCI uses only the initials of given names for an author, which
sometimes leads to retrieval of irrelevant references for a common name such as David Williams. Chemical
Abstracts Service will generally enter the author's name exactly as it appeared on the original document.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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The Science Citation Index, the Web of Science, and Related Products
A particular type of searching that is related to author searching by personal name is CITED REFERENCE
SEARCHING.
[1]
In this case, the references to a known author's work, as they appear in the bibliographies of new
literature, would be used to identify that new literature. In other words, a citation index is created to provide a link
between an older cited work which you know is on a topic of interest and newer citing works. The assumption is that
the more recent articles would have cited the older work only if they were on the same topic.
For many years, the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; now absorbed into Thomson Reuters) published the
Science Citation Index (SCI), with coverage in print format (and now also on the Web of Science) back to 1900.
Printed SCI in its complete form is a multi-disciplinary index that covers the most important scientific and technical
journals in the world (approximately 5,000 titles).
SCI covers the literature that was published from 1900 to the present and indexes it by author in the "Source Index"
to SCI. Think of the "Source Index" as the author index for the literature that was new at the time the index was
published. Since SCI includes the most important journals from all areas of science, it should be one of the first
sources consulted in a search for the publications of any scientist.
The really unique thing about SCI is that each volume also includes a "Citation Index" that in effect extends its
coverage much farther back than 1900. Thus, even if an article were written in 1873, as long as someone had cited it
in one of the journals covered by SCI after 1900, the bibliographic citation from the older article provides a link to
newer citing articles.
There is also a subject index to SCI, which will be discussed in a later chapter.
The Cumulative editions of the printed Science Citation Index were published for the following years:
Source Permuterm Citation
Years Index Subject Index Index
1945-54 x x
1955-64 x x
1965-69 x x x
1970-74 x x x
1975-79 x x x
1980-84 x x x
1985-89 x x x
etc.
All of the information from the printed Science Citation Index is now found in the Web of Science SCI database. The
online version of Science Citation Index is also available on both DIALOG and STN International where it is called
SciSearch. See the sample STN SciSearch record
[2]
.)
The problem with multiple authors on individual articles is that only one can be listed first. Consequently, the SCI
"Citation Index" will use the first author listed as the point of entry into the "Citation Index," EVEN if the first
author is not the most prominent scientist listed on the paper (the principal author). This is a reasonable approach,
since most people who encounter the publication in a bibliography would see it cited exactly as it appears in the
journal itself. However, think about the problem this causes when you want to find out how many people have cited
ALL of the publications co-authored by a given scientist. If over the course of a career, there had been instances
when the scientist was not listed as the first author, it would mean you would have to use each of those individual
references as a separate search key to find all articles that had cited the scientist's works. This is a very tedious task
in the print SCI and was not much easier to do in the database until recently. Nevertheless, it is a task that is often
desirable to perform for purposes of supporting promotion and tenure cases, identifying young researchers in a
particular area of research, etc.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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The Web version of SCI appeared in 1997 (also with coverage back to 1900 for the new source material). It is called
the Web of Science, now part of Thomson Reuters's Web of Knowledge. This version of the Science Citation Index
includes abstracts for many of the articles, and from 1997, e-mail addresses of the authors. One of the most powerful
features of the Web version is the capability to find citations to most of an author's journal publications even if the
author was not listed as the first author on the publication. [The articles must have been published in one of the more
than 5,700 journals covered by the Web of Science version of Science Citation Index.]
Sample Citation Search on the Web of Science's Science Citation Index
Let's look at a search for articles that have cited a 1995 publication by Dr. David E. Clemmer to see how this works.
The publication is:
Clemmer, D.E; Hudgins, R.R.; Jarrold, M.F. Naked protein conformations: Cytochrome c in the gas phase. J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 10,141-10,142.
Yes, that article starts on page 10,141! JACS is a huge journal, and as with most scientific journals, the pages are
numbered continuously throughout the year.
Step 1: Enter a Cited Reference search form with the minimal information--author, journal abbreviation, and
year--and perform a "Lookup" to see if the work has been cited by anyone.
Web of Science Citation Search Form
Step 2: Look at the references found by the search, paying special attention to variant forms that are obvious typing
errors.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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Web of Science Lookup Results
Note that the third and fourth Lookup candidates above have only one citation ("Hit") in a later journal article, but
the sixth item on the list has 140. It is likely that a typing error was made in the page numbers (1014 and 1041
instead of 10141) when the entries were made. A further clue that these are errors is the fact that the article abstract
is not hyperlinked to either citation, despite the fact that Dr. Clemmer is the first author and the Journal of the
American Chemical Society is one of the journals covered by SCI in the Source Index.
Step 3: Choose newer article(s) of interest.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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Web of Science Lookup Cited Reference Search Results
Step 4: Look at the full record in Web of Science, including the abstract.
Web of Science Link to a New Citing Article of Interest (2004 article that cited the original 1995 article)
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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Note the box above the abstract that is labeled "Find Related Records." These are records that have at least one cited
reference in common with the document. The Related Records feature is also found on STN's SciSearch, where it
can be searched as far back as 1974.
Likewise, be aware that SCI provides author addresses. It is a good place to find that information, assuming the
author has not moved since the article was published.
SciSearch on STN International
It is now possible to enter a search on STN's SciSearch (or on the Web of Science, as seen in the above example) and
do a fairly thorough job of finding all of the publications covered by SCI which have cited a given author's
publications. On STN, this is done using the SELECT CIT feature as a bridge from databases where comprehensive
author searching is allowed. We could perform an author search for the publications of Ernest R. Davidson in STN's
CA file and find everything published by him since 1967 in an answer set L4, for example. The search algorithm for
the SmartSELECT feature on STN will extract the relevant search keys from answer set L4 and run the search in
SciSearch when the following commands are entered:
=> FILE SCISEARCH
=> S L4<CIT>
Chuck Huber provided this step-by-step procedure in a 9/26/2006 posting on Scholartalk, CAS's closed circulation
discussion list for SciFinder Scholar administrators:
1) Search for your author's publications in CAPLUS, SCISEARCH and/or other appropriate databases.
2) Use the DUPLICATE command to remove duplicates from the combined answer set.
3) Use SELECT CIT to create a set of citation search keys.
4) Search the resulting E# in CAPLUS and SCISEARCH to find a set of citing references. Deduplicate the answer
set and you'll get a final number of citing references.
5) If your author wants to know who has been doing the citing, or a year distribution, or which of his/her articles are
being cited, use the ANALYZE command to generate a table of authors or publication years or hit references.
Warning: This approach, while quick and (relatively) inexpensive will miss most of those erroneous citations
(misspelled cited author, wrong volume, wrong page number, wrong publication year) and so will err on the low side
of total citation count.
Corporation or Organization Name Searches
Searches on the "Corporate Source Index" can be performed in SciSearch. For example on STN, the search
statement:
=> S DOW FREEPORT/CS
will yield publications by the researchers at the Freeport location of The Dow Chemical Company.
A corporate search is also possible on the Web of Science, as shown below. A General Search includes an Address
option where geographic place names and postal numbers, as well as words from the corporate name can be entered.
In the example below, we are looking for all articles published by people in the Indiana University Department of
Chemistry in Bloomington, Indiana (ZIP=47405). Note the use of the same operator to keep all of the words in the
same logical unit (sentence). However, this approach would obviously not cover a case where a faculty member who
visits another institution, perhaps while on sabbatical leave, and publishes from that location.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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Web of Science Corporate Source Search
Author and Corporate Searches in the Printed Chemical Abstracts
It is possible to search the printed Chemical Abstracts (CA) all the way back to 1907, and there are author indexes
for the entire period. In fact, searching for authors is made easy by the five- and ten-year cumulative indexes for
Chemical Abstracts.
To effectively use the printed author indexes to CA, you must know that the alphabetization of the names takes into
account only the first letters of the given names (first and middle names) EVEN THOUGH the full name is listed in
the indexes. Thus we find the following order of names in the index:
Davidson, Eugene Abraham
Davidson, Ernest Roy
Davidson, Elizabeth West
which is exactly the opposite of what would be expected if all letters of all parts of the names figured into the
alphabetical sequence. There are many other rules for determining where names fall in the author index of Chemical
Abstracts, and you can refer to the work itself for those.
CA includes in its coverage much more than just scientific and technical journals (over twice as many journal titles
as does Science Citation Index throughout most of the period since World War II). It also covers dissertations,
conference proceedings, reports, patents, technical reports, and other primary literature. In 1995 Chemical Abstracts
Service began to include entries for electronic journal articles in the CAPlus file.
A special type of author entry found in CA is for a PATENTEE, the person who has applied for and received a
patent. CAS also indexes the PATENT ASSIGNEE, normally the company the patentee works for. Patentees are
not found in the "Source Index" of Science Citation Index since that product covers only primary journals, but
patents account for about 1/6 of the documents added to the CA database each year. In the printed CA indexes, the
letter "P" is inserted between the volume number and abstract number in the author index to designate that a
document is a patent, e.g.,
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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103:P160286w.
Corporate bodies are also indexed in the CA author indexes. Bear in mind that companies which include a personal
name will have the name inverted in the printed author index, e.g., "Lilly, Eli, and Co."
Author Searching in CAS Databases
The "Company Name/Organization" search option in SciFinder is one of the main search Explore choices, and it is
also an option to refine a set of answers retrieved in some other manner of searching on the product.
The filing idiosyncrasies of the printed CA are usually not a problem in the STN or other versions of the CA
database. With STN's SciFinder product, an algorithm finds likely candidates that match the search criteria (e.g., a
misspelling of "Hieftje" as "Heiftje"). (However, it probably would not find a typing error such as, "Hleftje.")
Name Lookup in SciFinder (Reproduced with permission of CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society.)
Several years ago, Chemical Abstracts Service introduced citation searching into the SciFinder product line. It is
now possible to find new articles published from 1997 to the present by refining a search using the "Citing
References" option. For example, suppose you wanted to know what articles published 1997 or later had cited Dr.
Gary M. Hieftje's 1994 publication:
Wu, Min; Madrid, Yolanda; Auxier, Jake A.; Hieftje, Gary M.. New spray chamber for use in flow-injection plasma
emission spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta (1994), 286(2), 155-67. CODEN: ACACAM ISSN:0003-2670.
CAN 120:234885 AN 1994:234885 CAPLUS
When you view the full record for that entry, the "Get Related" option leads to this screen:
SciFinder's "Get Related" Options (Reproduced with permission of CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society.)
Choosing the "Citing References" option leads to these newer articles:
Cited Reference Search Results on SciFinder (Reproduced with permission of CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society.)
Author Searching in Beilstein
The Beilstein database covers the literature of organic chemistry as far back as the last third of the 18th century.
Thus, it is a useful adjunct to the Chemical Abstracts and Science Citation Index databases. However, the file was
not really designed for author searching, so one must be careful to include names that might be the desired author
even if only the last name was entered into the database. With that precaution in mind, author searching can be done
in Beilstein on the Reaxys system.
Author or Corporate Name Searching in Other Databases
Certain patent databases utilize codes for company names (patent assignee codes). For example, Derwent's World
Patent Index assigns a code to about 21,000 companies worldwide that have 50 patents or more. The parent
company, subsidiaries, and related companies are retrieved. For Hoffmann-La Roche, the code is 39424.
NLM's PubMed
[3]
, a version of the Medline database, includes "Related Articles." Although not quite the same as a
true citation search, the effect is similar.
Public domain citation searching is possible with CiteSeer
[4]
. CiteSeer creates digital libraries by searching versions
of scientific articles that have been posted on the Web.
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches
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Summary
Author searching has been available for scientific journal articles since the 19th century. Virtually every abstracting
or indexing service and most other types of secondary literature provide author search capabilities. Many even allow
you to search for a company or other corporate entity. A unique way of finding new journal literature is to perform a
citation search, using the bibliographic information from an older document of interest.
CIIM Link for further study
SIRCh Link for Author and Citation Searches
Problem Set on this topic
[5]
References
[1] http:/ / scientific. thomson.com/ tutorials/ citedreference/ crs1. htm
[2] http:/ / www. indiana. edu/ ~cheminfo/ C471/ 400f0401.html
[3] http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm.nih. gov/ entrez/ query.fcgi?DB=pubmed
[4] http:/ / citeseer. ist. psu. edu/
[5] http:/ / www. indiana. edu/ ~cheminfo/ C471/ 471ps1.html
Article Sources and Contributors
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Article Sources and Contributors
Chemical Information Sources/Author and Citation Searches  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=2012753  Contributors: Adrignola, Gary Dorman Wiggins
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Web of Science search 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_of_Science_search_1.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gary Dorman Wiggins
File:Web of Science search 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_of_Science_search_2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gary Dorman Wiggins
File:Web of Science search 3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_of_Science_search_3.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gary Dorman Wiggins
File:Web of Science search 4.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_of_Science_search_4.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gary Dorman Wiggins
File:Web of Science search 5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_of_Science_search_5.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gary Dorman Wiggins
License
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