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Submitted by:
Jamielyn Ramos
Submitted to:
Ms. Annie Rose Millendez

African Musical Instruments

A percussion instrument whose name is derived from the
African tribal language meaning pottery. It is based on a centuries-
old clay drum with tribal symbols, then fired, and painted with
natural earth pigments. You can create beautiful sounds and
vibrations that are both pure and spiritual.

Tanzania/ African Whistle
African whistle is a two-tone wooden whistle. The two sounds it
produces can be played simultaneously and can also be played one
at a time.

Kora is a 21-string bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa.
It is a harp built from a large calabash cut in half and covered with
cow skin to make a resonator with a long hardwood neck.

Nutshell Shaker
Shakers made of nut shells, quite loud with a sharp sound.
When shaken or tapped it produces a rattling, loud sound, which
can be heard over many drums.

Zulu Grass Rattle
Zulu grass rattle is another type of rattle that is handwoven,
also produces rattling but not that loud sound.

Talking Drums
Drums have many uses in African society and through the life
span of the African. One example is the talking drum. It is called
talking drum because they can produce a wide range of pitches
including high female sounds and low male sounds. There is a
language that is spoken with these magical sounding drums.

A primary traditional instrument of the Shona people, and has
been played for over 1,000 years at religious rituals, royal courts,
and social occasions. It consists of 22 to 28 metal keys mounted on a
hardwood soundboard and is usually placed inside a large gourd

Kpoko-kpoko rattle is hand carved by one of the finest
woodworkers in eastern Nigeria. It is not traditionally used as a
musical instrument, but as more of a tool by herbalists and in
masquerade dances.

African Cowhide Drum
Zulu cowhide drum originates from a small town in South
Africa called Ulundi and is where you will find the heart of the Zulu
nation. Traditional Zulu drums have always been a part of the Zulu
people and is used today in an expression of gratitude at weddings
and funerals.

Djembe is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with
bare hands.
Latin American Musical Instrument

Guiro is an open-ended, hollow gourd with parallel notches
cut in one side. It is played by rubbing a stick or tines along the
notches to produce a ratchet-like sound.

Maraca is a native instrument of Latin America. They are
percussion instruments, usually played in pairs. Originally, they
consist of a dried calabash or gourd shell or coconut shell filled
with seeds or dried beans.

Cencerro is played by striking it with a stick. It is typically
manufactured in copper, steel or alloy steel of different sizes. The
sound it produces is undetermined.

Claves are percussion instrument, consisting of a pair of short,
thick dowels. Traditionally they were made of wood, typically
rosewood, ebony or grenadilla.

Bongo Drums
Bongo drums are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument. The
drums are of different size. The larger drum is called in Spanish the
hembra and the smaller the macho.

Charango is primarily played in traditional Andean music,
but is sometimes used by other Latin American musicians. Many
contemporary charangos are now made with different types of wood.
It typically has 10 strings in five courses of 2 strings each, but other
variations exist.

Conga Drum
Conga drum is a tall, narrow, single-headed African drum.
The Cuban conga is staved, like a barrel. These drums may have
been salvaged barrels originally. They are used in the Carnaval
rhythm called conga, and is the principal instrument in rumba.

Cuatro is any of several Latin American instruments of the
guitar or lute families. Many cuatros are smaller than a guitar.
Cuatro means four in Spanish, although current instruments may
have more than four strings.

Castanets are consists of a pair of concave shells joined on one
edge by a string. They are held in the hand and used to produce
clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or rattling sound consisting
of a rapid series of clicks.

Zambomba is a very typical instrument in the holiday seasons,
often accompanied by the singing of carols and popular songs. It is
also used in traditional music in many other countries.