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1 1 Radiation physics 1 0

1.1 1.1 Structure of the atom 1 1
1.2 1.2 Electromagnetic radiation 3 3
1.3 1.3 Production of X-rays 5 5
1.4 1.4 The interaction of and gamma rays with matter 9 9
1.5 1.5 Filtration 15 15
1.6 1.6 Radiation dosimetry 16 16
1.7 1.7 Luminescence 19 19
1.8 1.8 Summary 20 20
2 2 Radiation hazards and protection 23 23
2.1 2.1 Ionizing radiation interactions with tissue 23 23
2.2 2.2 Radiation doses and units 24 24
2.3 2.3 Effects of radiation 25 25
2.4 2.4 Principles of radiation protection 29 29
2.5 2.5 The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 31 31
2.6 2.6 lonising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Reguiations 2000 38 38
2.7 2.7 Other legislation 41 41
2.8 2.8 Practical aspects of radiation protection 41 41
2.9 2.9 Summary 47 47
3 3 Imaging with X-rays 49 49
3.1 3.1 Image quality 49 49
3.2 3.2 Attenuation of X-rays by the patient 51 51
3.3 3.3 Effect of scattered radiation 54 54
3.4 3.4 Secondary radiation grids 55 55
3.5 3.5 Magnification and distortion 57 57
3.6 3.6 Unsharpness and blurring 57 57
3.7 3.7 Limitations of the X-ray tube 58 58
3.8 3.8 Summary 63 63
4 4 Film—screen radiography 65
4.1 4.1 Film—screen radiography: image formation 65 65
4.2 4.2 Characteristic curve 68 68
4.3 4.3 Film—screen sensitivity 70 70
4.4 4.4 Radiographic image quaiity 70 70
4.5 4.5 Film-screen radiography in practice 73 73
4.6 4.6 Mammography 74 74
4.7 4.7 Linear tomography 76 76
4.8 4.8 Summary 77 77
5 5 Digital radiography 79 79
5.1 5.1 Digital imaging 79 79
5.2 5.2 Imaging terminology 81 81
5.3 5.3 Computed radiography 83 83
5.4 5.4 Digital radiography 86 86
5.5 5.5 Picture archiving and communication systems 88 88
5.6 5.6 Summary 90 90
6 6 Fluoroscopy 91 91
6.1 6.1 The image intensifier 91 91
6.2 6.2 TV system 94 94
6.3 6.3 Automatic brightness control 94 94
6.4 6.4 Dose rates 96 96
6.5 6.5 Recorded images 97 97
6.6 6.6 Image quality 98 98
6.7 6.7 Digital subtraction angiography 98 98
6.8 6.8 Flat plate detectors 101 101
6.9 6.9 Summary 101 101
7 7 Computed tomography 103 103
7.1 7.1 Introduction 103 103
7.2 7.2 Equipment for computed tomography scanning 105 105
7.3 7.3 Image reconstruction 108 108
7.4 7.4 Helical and multislice scanning 110 110
7.5 7.5 Image quality 113 113
7.6 7.6 Image artefacts 115 115
7.7 7.7 Dose 116 116
7.8 7.8 Summary 119 119
8 8 Gamma imaging 121 121
8.1 8.1 Radioactivity 121 121
8.2 8.2 Radioactive transformation [decay] 122 122
8.3 8.3 Radiopharmaceuticals 125 125
8.4 8.4 Planar imaging 128 128
8.5 8.5 Tomography with radionuclides 132 132
8.6 8.6 Characteristics and quality assurance of gamma images 137 137
8.7 8.7 Dose to the patient 141 141
8.8 8.8 Precautions necessary in handling radionuclides 143 143
8.9 8.9 Summary 144 144
9 9 Imaging with ultrasound 147 147
9.1 9.1 Piezoelectric effect 147 147
9.2 9.2 Interference 149 149
9.3 9.3 Single transducer probe 150 150
9.4 9.4 Behaviour of a beam at an interface between different materials 153 153
9.5 9.5 Attenuation of ultrasound 154 154
9.6 9.6 A-mode [amplitude mode-echo-ranging] 155 155
9.7 9.7 B-mode (brightness mode imaging] 156 156
9.8 9.8 Real-time imaging 156 156
9.9 9.9 Image acquisition and reconstruction 160 160
9.1 9.10 Resolution 161 161
9.11 9.11 Artefacts 162 162
9.12 9.12 M—mode scanning [time—motion] 162 162
9.13 9.13 Doppler methods 163 163
9.14 9.14 Quality assurance 167 167
9.15 9.15 Safety considerations 167 167
9.16 9.16 Summary 168 168
10 10 Magnetic resonance imaging 169 169
10.1 10.1 The spinning proton 169 169
10.2 10.2 The magnetic resonance signal 171 171
10.3 10.3 Spin—echo-sequence 174 174
10.4 10.4 Spatial encoding 177 177
10.5 10.5 Other pulse sequence and imaging techniques 180 180
10.6 10.6 Specialized imaging techniques 183 183
10.7 10.7 Magnetic resonance image quality 186 186
10.8 10.8 Artefacts 188 188
10.9 10.9 Quality assurance 189 189
10.1 10.10 Magnets and coils 189 189
10.11 10.11 Hazards and safe practice 192 192
10.12 10.12 Summary 195 195