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Samuel Barber : Medea: Ballet Suite, op.

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Proramme 6ote
Composer 6ote:
7he score o0 Medea 8as commissioned b! the (itson 9und o0 Columbia :ni2ersit! 0or Martha
Graham and 8as 0irst danced b! her and her compan! at the Macmillan 7heater o0 Columbia
:ni2ersit! in Ma! o0 $%&;. Miss Graham uses the title Ca2e o0 the 3eart 0or her ballet, but the
composer has pre0erred to use the oriinal source o0 the idea as the title 0or the suite 0or 0ull
orchestra. 7he score is dedicated to Martha Graham.
6either Miss Graham nor the composer 8ished to use the Medea-<ason leend literall! in the
ballet. 7hese m!thical 0iures ser2ed rather to pro=ect ps!choloical states o0 =ealous! and
2eneance 8hich are timeless.
7he choreoraph! and music 8ere concei2ed, as it 8ere, on t8o time le2els, the ancient
m!thical and the contemporar!. Medea and <ason 0irst appear as odli>e, super-human 0iures
o0 the Gree> traed!. 1s the tension and con0lict bet8een them increases, the! step out o0 their
leendar! roles 0rom lime to time and become the modern man and 8oman, cauht in the nets
o0 =ealous! and destructi2e lo2e? and at the end reassume their m!thical @ualit!. In both the
dancin and music, archaic and contemporar! idioms are used. Medea, in her 0inal scene a0ter
the denouement, becomes once more the descendant o0 the sun.
Beside Medea and <ason there are t8o other characters in the ballet, the #oun Princess 8hom
<ason marries out o0 ambition and 0or 8hom he betra!s Medea and attendant 8ho assumes the
part o0 the onloo>in chorus o0 the Gree> traed!, s!mpathiAin, consolin and interpretin the
actions o0 the ma=or characters.
7he suite 0ollo8s rouhl! the 0orm o0 a Gree> traed!. In the Parados the characters 0irst
appear. 7he Choros, l!ric and re0lecti2e, comments on the action 8hich is to un0old. 7he #oun
Princess appears in a dance o0 0reshness and innocence, 0ollo8ed b! a heroic dance o0 <ason.
1nother plainti2e Choros leads to MedeaBs dance o0 obsessi2e and diabolical 2eneance. 7he
Canti>os 1onias, an interlude o0 menace and 0orebodin, 0ollo8s MedeaDs terrible crime, the
murder o0 the Princes and her o8n children, announced at the beinnin o0 the 45odus b! a
2iolent 0an0are o0 trumpets. In this 0inal section the 2arious themes o0 the chie0 characters o0 the
8or> are blended toether? little b! little the music subsides and Medea and <ason recede into
the leendar! past.
-- Samuel Barber
Mo2ements:
$. Parodos
2. Choros. Medea and <ason
3. 7he #oun Princess. <ason
&. Choros
E. Medea
;. Canti>os 1onias
'. 45odos
Medea is a se2en-mo2ement suite that started out as a ballet scenario 0or Martha Graham called
Cave of the Heart. Barber composed the oriinal 0or $3 instruments )the same challene
Filliam Schuman and 1aron Copland 0aced 0rom the 4arth Goddess o0 Modern 1merican
(ance*. It 8as introduced at Columbia :ni2ersit! as Serpent Heart in Ma! $%&;? but a midto8n
production in 9ebruar! $%&' 8ith e5panded orchestration re2erted to Cave of the Heart. 9rom
this Barber made the suite he pre0erred to call Medea, "p. 23. 4iht !ears later he trans0ormed it
into a sinle mo2ement concert piece, re-christened Medea's Meditation and Dance of
Vengeance, "p. 23a -- 8hich a composer-colleaue curtl! dismissed as GMedeaDs cha-cha-chaG
)listen and !ouBll >no8 8hat he meant, especiall! in Marin 1lsopBs crisp but callo8 readin*.
Company
$%H3+H&. Strin Iuartet 6o. 2, JCompan!.K
1ppro5 '.3/ minutes.
I. Iuarter 6ote L %;
I. Iuarter 6ote L $;/
III. Iuarter 6ote L %/
IM. Iuarter 6ote L $;/
Philip GlassD Company
1 2oice comes to one in the dar>. Imaine.
7o one on his bac> in the dar> a 2oice tells o0 a past. Fith occasional allusion to a present and
more rarel! to a 0uture as 0or e5ample, #ou 8ill end as !ou no8 are. 1nd in another dar> or in
the same another de2isin it all 0or compan!. Iuic> lea2e him.
NSamuel Bec>ett, Company
Philip GlassD Company bean as a score 0or Mabou Mines, the 6e8 #or> theater compan!
that counted him as Juno00icialK composer 0or almost three decades. 7he score 8as oraniAed
into a brie0, stand-alone strin @uartet in $%H&, o00iciall! titled String Quartet No. 2. 1s such, it
represented his return to a enre that sa8 one o0 his 2er! 0irst JminimalistK 8or>s, the dronin
J0irstK Strin Iuartet o0 $%;;.
Company opens solemnl! but 8ith reat beaut!, slo8l! buildin up a s8irlin, melanchol!
melod! 8eihted 8ith a sense o0 loneliness. 7he 0eelin o0 sorro8 is almost s8eet, a solitude
bu00ered b! nostalia, and it establishes a center o0 ra2it! 0or the rest o0 the short piece, 8hich
8ill s8eep the basic 0iure throuh numerous trans0ormations. 7he second mo2ement
immediatel! pic>s up the pace, its churnin urenc! e2o>in a cloud o0 hal0-remembered
thouhts 0lutterin 0or attention. It ends abruptl!, leadin into the enimatic third mo2ement O a
entle, 0lo8in series o0 repetitions punctured in the middle b! a sudden passae o0 0rustrated
intensit!. 7he 0inal mo2ement starts bris>l!, buildin in momentum, surin ahead and then
recedin, re2isitin the melanchol!, the urenc!, and the 0rustrated proress o0 the pre2ious
mo2ements. 7he end comes too soon, an une5pected 0iAAlin out: Jin the end labour lost and
silence.K
7a>en out o0 its Bec>ettian conte5t, Company is @uite success0ul as an independent @uartet.
1 brie0 but memorable 8or>, it sho8s Philip Glass at his l!rical best, con=urin a Pomantic
sense o0 !earnin 8hile a2oidin sentimental clichQ. 7he propulsi2e rh!thms and the 0leet,
almost tauntin phrases 8hich 8hirl abo2e them brin to mind Bec>ettDs blea> tale? one can
easil! imaine an old man on his dar> bed, hauntin himsel0 8ith hal0-remembered 2oices. "0
course, a con2incin arument can be made that all o0 GlassD 8or>s re0lect a Bec>ettian
aesthetic O both artists ha2e been 0re@uentl! labeled minimalists, and both are enamored o0 a
repetiti2e use o0 basic structural components. But 8here another JminimalistK composer li>e
Morton 9eldman ma! better capture Bec>ettDs e5istential an5iet!, Glass points to a more
emotional Bec>ett, the author o0 lost souls dreamin in the dar>, hearts nearl! bro>en b! so
man! personal traedies and shattered illusions.
Liner notes 0rom the 6onesuch C(, Kronos Quartet erforms hi!ip "!ass
Liner notes written by Mark Swed:
Philip GlassD strin @uartets ma! contain his most intimate music. 7he! are 8or>s throuh
8hich a 2er! public composer, perhaps the most important opera re0ormer o0 our ae and a
lonstandin collaborator in lare-scale music theater, holds up a mirror to himsel0 and his 8a!
o0 composin.
42en GlassD most lo!al listeners ma! be surprised to learn that he has 8ritten eiht @uartets
to date. 3is 0irst three compositions, he sa!s, 8ere strin @uartets O student 8or>s, no8
discarded. 3is 0irst numbered @uartet 8as 8ritten in $%;;, in Paris, shortl! a0ter Glass had
0inished his studies there 8ith 6adia Boulaner and had been introduced to the music o0 India
b! Pa2i Shan>ar. It is the culmination o0 GlassD earliest attempts at a hihl! reducti2e st!le,
containin a series o0 short sections comprised o0 tin! repeated moti2es, and it pro2ed the
precursor to the classic minimalist techni@ue he 8as soon to de2elop.
Glass did not return to the strin @uartet medium until $%H3, 8hen he pro2ided incidental
music 0or a dramatiAation o0 Samuel Bec>ettDs prose poem, Company. (urin those se2enteen
!ears, Glass had 0ormed an ensemble and de2eloped his motoric, repetiti2e st!le in a series o0
increasinl! elaborate pieces 0or it? he had produced a lare bod! o0 music 0or dance, theater
and 0ilm, and he had 8ritten 0our operas. In the process, he had 0urther enriched his harmonic,
rh!thmic, melodic, and structural procedures 8ith each suceedin 8or>....
7he seeds o0 the 9ourth Iuartet, in its use o0 the 0our strins to create a 2aledictor!
ambiance, can be 0ound in the 0our 2er! short mo2ements o0 Company, 8ritten oriinall! to
accompan! a $%H& staed 2ersion b! Mabou Mines, the theater compan! 8ith 8hich Glass had
lon been associated. Company is a solilo@u! in 8hich a man, presumedl! at the end o0 his li0e,
hears a 2oice o0 his past and comes to terms 8ith a pro0ound solitude.
It 8as this introspecti2e nature o0 the solilo@u! that lead Glass to return to the strin @uartet
0orm, althouh he intended the score to stand on its o8n as a concert 8or> )String Quartet No.
2* as 8ell. In the stain, the music, as elliptical as Bec>ettDs prose, appears at moments o0
silences. JFhen I sent Bec>ett the music,K Glass recalls, Jhe said, R"h, 2er! ood. It 8ill appear
in the interstices, as it 8ere.DK Glass sa!s that he doesnDt >no8 8hat Bec>ettDs response to the
music itsel0 8as, or i0 he e2er sa8 the production, but that he a2e his appro2al.
Liner notes 0rom the 6onesuch C(, Kronos Quartet
Program notes written by Gregory Sandow:
Philip Glass, b! contrast, 8rites nothin dissonant. Company seems not so much modern as
neo-romantic? its drenchin melanchol! ma>es it a prime e5ample o0 his current, o0ten o2ertl!
emotional st!le. But his compositional method is still e5traordinaril! pure. 7he piece consists o0
trans0ormations o0 a sinle phrase? the trans0ormations bein riht at the start. Fe hear 2er!
little O and in the 0irst and last mo2ements none at all O o0 the rhetoric 8eDd e5pect in less
minimal music: introductions, sa!, or transitions, or the stretches o0 comparati2e rela5ation that
in a riorous older 0orm li>e a 0uue 8ould be called Jepisodes.K 7he 0our mo2ements o0 this
piece bean as incidental music 0or a $%H3 ,sic. production o0 Samuel Bec>ettDs pla! ,sic.
Company )hence the title o0 the piece* b! the 6e8 #or> e5perimental theater roup Mabou
Mines. 1s a uni0ied composition the! 0it toether remar>abl! 8ell, and almost in traditional
8a!s: the third mo2ement, 0or instance, 0unctions =ust as a slo8 mo2ement miht in Mahler or
Beetho2en, and the 0ourth is not hard to hear as a 0inale.
C( In0ormation
Compan! has had a some8hat unusual recordin histor!. 9irst recorded b! Cronos Iuartet,
it occurs in their catalo no less than three times: 0irst on their JdebutK C(, Kronos Quartet,
then on their mani0icent all-Glass C(, Kronos Quartet erforms hi!ip "!ass, and 0inall! in
the Cronos Iuartet bo5 set: 2# $ears. )6ot pictured abo2e.* Gidon Cremer has recorded an
e5panded 2ersion o0 Company 0or strin orchestra, 0ound on his C( Si!encio, 8here it is
accompanied b! 8or>s b! 1r2o PSrt and Mladimir Mart!no2.
Album für die Jugend Op. ! "omplete
Pobert Schumann
Arranger: 3o8ard 9eruson
#ditor: 3o8ard 9eruson
$ontents
• )untitled*, "p. ;H 6o. 2$
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• Countr! Son )Landliches Lied*, "p. ;H 6o. 2/
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• 6ordic Son )6ordisches Lied*, "p. ;H 6o. &/
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• PuAAle )Pebus*
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• SailorDs Son )Matrosenlied*, "p. ;H 6o. 3'
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• SoldiersD March )Soldatenmarsch*, "p. ;H 6o. 2
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• Mintae-time - 3app!-time )FeinleseAeit - 9rohliches Teit*, "p. ;H 6o. 33
• Fintertime I U II )FintersAeit I U II*, "p. ;H 6os. 3H and 3%
%ary Janos
&olt'n (odaly
3ar! <Vnos es una suite or@uestal e5traWda de la Xpera homXnima. Se trata de un persona=e del
0olclore hYnaro, sWmbolo de bra2ura 0rente a la potencia napoleXnica. 4stV compuesta de seis
mo2imientos, el primero de los cuales comienAa con un 0amoso GestornudoG musical a modo de
preludio al Cuento. 4l siuiente episodio es 4l relo= musical 2ienes con maderas, cornetas, piano
! campanas. Siue una CanciXn de la 2iola ! completa la saa la Batalla ! derrota de 6apoleXn
)con una cita de La Marsellesa*, un IntermeAAo ! una 0an0arria @ue anuncia el 0inal, con la
4ntrada del emperador ! su corte.
Peer Gynt
#dward Grieg
Peer G!nt era un pro!ecto encarado por Ibsen, @ue Grieg tardX dos aZos en lle2ar a cabo. La
mYsica incidental para esta representaciXn acabX con2irtiQndose en dos suites para or@uesta, @ue
reYnen ocho de las 22 pieAas oriinales. La mVs 0amosa es la Suite 6[ $, @ue empieAa con una
popular barcarola @ue describe el amanecer. Siue una eleWa 0Ynebre, mientras @ue la tercera
secciXn es una melodWa oriental, para acabar con una marcha. La Suite 6[ 2 contiene las pieAas
Lamento de Inrid, (anAa Vrabe ! 4l rereso de Peer G!nt, aun@ue la mVs 0amosa es la pieAa
0inal, la CanciXn de Sold2ei.
%'ry J'nos
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)*is arti"le needs additional "itations for +erifi"ation.
Please help impro2e this article b! addin reliable re0erences. :nsourced material ma! be
challened and remo2ed. %&une 2''()
Háry János is an opera in 0our acts b! ToltVn CodVl! to a 3unarian libretto b! BQla Paulini
and Tsolt 3arsVn!i, based on the comic epic *he Veteran )+, o-sitos* b! <Vnos Gara!. 9irst
per0ormance: Po!al 3unarian "pera 3ouse, Budapest, $%2;.
7he stor! is o0 a 2eteran hussar in the 1ustrian arm! in the 0irst hal0 o0 the $%th centur! 8ho sits
in the 2illae inn realin his listeners 8ith 0antastic tales o0 heroism: his supposed e5ploits
include 8innin the heart o0 the 4mpress Marie Louise, the 8i0e o0 6apoleon, and then sinle-
handedl! de0eatin 6apoleon and his armies. 6e2ertheless, he 0inall! renounces all riches in
order to o bac> to his 2illae 8ith his s8eetheart.
7he opera has a Sinspiel 0orm, 8ith spo>en dialo alternatin 8ith sons, 8hich are o0ten
modeled or e2en based on 3unarian 0ol> sons.
9rom the music o0 the opera, CodVl! e5tracted the orchestral H.ry &.nos Suite, one o0 the most
popular pieces in the classical repertoire. 7his notabl! includes the cimbalom, a traditional
3unarian 2ariant o0 the hammer dulcimer.
Both the suite and the opera bein 8ith a Bmusical sneeAeB, best e5plained in CodVl!Bs o8n
8ords: G1ccordin to 3unarian superstition, i0 a statement is 0ollo8ed b! a sneeAe o0 one o0
the hearers, it is rearded as con0irmation o0 its truth. 7he Suite beins 8ith a sneeAe o0 this
>ind\ "ne o0 3Vr!Bs roup o0 0aith0ul listeners ] sneeAes at the 8ildest assertions o0 the old
tale-spinner.G
,$.
1ccordin to CodVl!, 3Vr! <Vnos is Gthe personi0ication o0 the 3unarian stor!-tellin
imaination. 3e does not tell lies? he imaines stories? he is a poet. Fhat he tells us ma! ne2er
ha2e happened, but he has e5perienced it in spirit, so it is more real than realit!.G
,2.
7he mo2ements o0 the 3Vr! <Vnos Suite are as 0ollo8s:
$. Prelude? the 9air! 7ale Beins
2. Miennese Musical Cloc>
3. Son
&. 7he Battle and (e0eat o0 6apoleon
E. IntermeAAo
;. 4ntrance o0 the 4mperor and 3is Court
%'ry J'nos Suite
ToltVn CodVl! )$HH2-$%;'*
H.ry &.nos Suite/ 0p. 1#
$. Prelude
2. Miennese Musical Cloc>
3. Son
&. Battle and (e0eat o0 6apoleon
E. IntermeAAo
;. 4ntrance o0 the 4mperor and 3is Court
CodVl! 8rote this music in $%2; to accompan! an opera based on a poem b! <Vnos Gara!. 3Vr!
<Vnos )pronounced !ahnD-osh* 8as an old man 8ho in2ented stories about ad2entures he had
had 8hen he 8as !ouner - and CodVl! intended his music to be ta>en as seriousl! as the old
manDs claims.
7he suite starts 8ith a musical imitation o0 a sneeAe, and 0rom then on is pac>ed 0ull o0
e5citement and tension. 10ter the re!ude, the stor! beins 8ith 3Vr! at the 1ustrian 4mperorDs
court 8here he hears the cloc>s stri>e at midda!. 6eedless to sa!, plent! o0 percussion is used in
this mo2ement\ 7he emperor then sends 3Vr! on 2arious ad2entures]
6e5t there is a chane o0 pace 0or the Song. 7his beins 8ith a solo Miola, 8hich is then =oined
b! the cimbalom. 7he cimbalom is a 3unarian dulcimer - a bo5 8ith strins that are pla!ed
8ith small mallets - and has @uite a distincti2e sound. 1 3unarian 0ol> son suppl! the tune
used in this mo2ement.
7he most ludicrous o0 3Vr!Ds claims is that he sinle-handedl! de0eated 6apoleonDs arm!. 7he
2att!e and Defeat of Napo!eon beins 8ith a drum march, and its 2arious brass 0an0ares seem to
moc> rather than depict a battle. 7he mo2ement reaches a triumphant clima5, and then 0inishes
8ith slo8, sidin trombones, lea2in the listener 8ith no doubt about the authenticit! o0 the old
manDs stor!. 1 solo sa5ophone pla!s the concludin theme o0 the mo2ement.
6e5t comes the 3nterme,,o, the clima5 o0 the suite and 8ithout a doubt the most catch! tune\
7he st!le is that o0 traditional 3unarian dances, and the cimbalom is used once aain,
throuhout the 8hole o0 this mo2ement. 7he piece 0ollo8s 1B1 0orm, the middle section bein
slo8er but =ust as e5citin. (espite man! repeats, this mo2ement lea2es the listener 8antin to
hear more\
9inall!, 8e 8itness the 4ntrance of the 4mperor and His Court. Beinnin 8ith a march similar
to that at the start o0 the 2att!e, this @uic>-mo2in 0inale hints at themes used earlier - most
noticeabl! the 0inal bells sini0!in the cloc>s in Mienna stri>in once aain.
#ou ma! 8onder 8h! I describe the suite as bein e5citin. 7hat 8as the impression it made
the 0irst time I heard it, and one that has remained a0ter man! repeat listenins. It 8ould be an
accessible introduction to t8entieth centur! music, and is a 0ine e5ample o0 ho8 music o0 this
period - or JclassicalK music o0 an! ae 0or that matter - can be 0un.
Lieutenant (i,- .Prokofie+/
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So2iet poster ad2ertisin the $%3& 0ilm.
Lieutenant Kijé )Pussian: ^_`abcd ecfg, oruchi5 Ki,he* is a no2ella b! the So2iet author
#ur! 7!n!ano2 )$H%&O$%&3* published in $%2'. 7he plot is a satire on the bureaucrac! o0
4mperor Paul I o0 Pussia. In each episode, the 4mperorBs sub=ects 0aith0ull! o throuh the
motions to 0ollo8 his orders.
Ci=QBs name is based on a Pussian pun. 7he 0ictional lieutenant is GbornG 8hen the 4mperor
mishears a phrase in a militar! order G^_hi_`abcdc fg...G )G1nd the lieutenants, 8ho...G* as
G^_hi_`abcd ecfg...G )a nonsense name, translated b! Ginsbur as GLieuten. 6ants...G* and
the 4mperor assins Ci=Q to uard dut!. Fhen an ad2isor identi0ies the one 8ho shouted
G3elp\G under the 4mperorBs 8indo8 one niht as Ci=Q, the lieutenant is 0loed and marched
o00 to Siberia. 1 maid-in-8aitin is distressed to hear that her lo2er has been e5iled, so the
4mperor reinstates Lt. Ci=Q and has him marr! her. 7he! ha2e a child, and Ci=Q steadil! rises
throuh the ran>s. 7he 4mperor 0inall! summons General Ci=Q to recei2e appropriate
decorations? but, be0ore this can happen, the eneral is G>illed in battleG and is buried 8ith 0ull
militar! honors, recei2in his medals posthumousl!.
7he stor! 8as made into a 0ilm, directed b! 1le>sandr 9a=ntsimmer, 8hich is no8 remembered
primaril! 0or its music, 8hich 8as the 0irst instance o0 Pro>o0ie2Bs ne8 simplicit!.
$ontents
,hide.
• $ Suite 0rom Lieutenant Ci=Q
• 2 Mo2ements
• 3 Premiere
• & Instrumentation
• E Pecordins
• ; :ses in other media
o ;.$ 9ilm
o ;.2 Popular music
• ' Parallel characters
• H 45ternal lin>s
0edit1 Suite from Lieutenant Kijé
Serei Pro>o0ie2 composed music to the 0ilm 6ieutenant Ki78 in $%33. Pro>o0ie2 compiled a
suite 0rom the 0ilm music, in 8hich 0orm it has 0ound the most popularit!. 7he suite e5ists in
t8o 2ersions, one usin a 2oice and the other usin a sa5ophone. 7he music has also been used
as the score 0or a ballet b! the Bolshoi Ballet compan!. 7he troi>a is perhaps the best >no8n
mo2ement, 0re@uentl! used in 0ilms and documentaries 0or Christmas scenes and scenes
in2ol2in sno8. 7he moti2e 0or the suite 8as also used in the son 3 2e!ieve 3n 9ather
Christmas b! the enlish pop roup 4merson, La>e and Palmer.
0edit1 Mo+ements
7he suite, in 0i2e mo2ements and lastin 2/O2E minutes, broadl! 0ollo8s the plot:
$. Ci=QBs Birth: 4mperor Paul, listenin to a report, mishears a phrase and concludes that a
lieutenant e5ists. 3e demands that GCi=QG be promoted to his elite uard. It is an o00ence
to contradict the 7sar, so the palace administrators must in2ent someone o0 that name.
2. Pomance. 7he 0ictional lieutenant 0alls in lo2e. 7he double bass has an appropriatel!
hostl! @ualit!.
3. Ci=QBs Feddin. Since the 7sar pre0ers his heroic soldiers to be married, the
administrators concoct a 0a>e 8eddin. 7he 2od>a that the 7sar appro2es 0or this e2ent
is 2er! real.
&. 7roi>a . 7he 0air!-tale @ualit! o0 the stor! is illustrated b! a three-horse open sleih.
E. Ci=QBs Burial. 7he administrators 0inall! rid themsel2es o0 the non-e5istent lieutenant b!
sa!in he has died. 7he 7sar e5presses his sadness, and the ci2il ser2ants hea2e a sih
o0 relie0.
0edit1 Premiere
$%3', Paris )hence the 9rench spellin o0 GCi=QG*
0edit1 2nstrumentation
Baritone 2oice
2 0lutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, tenor sa5ophone )sometimes per0ormed on bassoon*, 2
bassoons, & horns, 2 trumpets, cornet, 3 trombones, tuba, 3 percussionists )c!mbals, little bells,
trianle, bass drum, snare drum, tambourine*, harp, piano or celeste, and strins.
0edit1 3e"ordings
• Chicao S!mphon! "rchestra , conducted b! 9ritA Peiner.
• Berlin Philharmonic "rchestra , conducted b! Sei=i "Aa8a.
• 7he 6etherlands Padio Philharmonic "rchestra , conducted b! 1ntal (orVti.
0edit1 4ses in ot*er media
0edit1 5ilm
• 7he $%EH British mo2ie *he Horse's Mouth, directed b! Ponald 6eame 0rom the no2el
b! <o!ce Car!, uses the suite 0or its soundtrac>.
• 7he suite is used in the $%'E Food! 1llen 0ilm 6ove and Death.
• 7he melod! 0or Ki78's :edding is used in the $%HH 0ilm Crossing De!ancey.
• Mladimir Cosma uses nearl! untouched melod! 0rom *he 2irth of Ki78 in the theme
;emem-ering the Hi!!s 0rom his score to #2es PobertBs $%%/ 0ilm 6a "!oire de mon
p<re.
• Part o0 the Feddin mo2ement is used in the $%%$ mo2ie Doc Ho!!y=ood directed b!
Michael Caton-<ones and starrin Michael <. 9o5.
0edit1 Popular musi"
• 7he 9ree (esin =aAAed up and added l!rics to the 7roi>a theme in their son Ki78's
0ui7a.
• 1 part o0 the 7roi>a mo2ement is used in the $%'& son 3 2e!ieve in 9ather Christmas
b! Gre La>e.
• Stin used the melod! 0rom the Pomance o0 6ieutenant Ki78 in the chorus o0 his $%HE
son ;ussians.
• Blood, S8eat U 7ears used the melod! 0rom the Pomance as one o0 se2eral themes
0rom other 8or>s 8o2en into their arranement o0 the son >'/''' Headmen, on the
album 2!ood/ S=eat ? *ears @.
0edit1 Parallel "*ara"ters
7he stor! o0 Ci=QNthe con2enientl! in2ented 0ictitious 8ar hero, 8ho ultimatel! must die as a
2ictim o0 his o8n successNis 0re@uentl! re0erenced and parodied in popular culture.
Geore "r8ellBs $%&% no2el Nineteen 4ightyA9our contains a brie0 passae in 8hich the
protaonist, Finston Smith, a 8or>er at the propaanda-producin Ministr! o0 7ruth, creates a
0ictitious hero GComrade "il2!G, a man dedicated to "ceania )the no2elBs totalitarian reime*
8ho GdiesG in the line o0 dut!.
Poul 1ndersonBs $%E3 no2elette Sam Ha!! 0eatures a disruntled bureaucrat 8ho creates 0a>e
records about a rebel named Sam 3all )a0ter the son* 8ho 0ihts aainst the totalitarian
o2ernment.
Lieutenant Ci=Q is parodied in the 0irst season episode o0 MB+BSBH, G7uttleG, also in the 8ar
hero GSchumannG 0rom :ag the Dog )$%%'*, and obli@uel! in the 2ra,i! )$%HE* openin
se@uence.
In her no2el, 4c!ipse of the Century )$%%%*, <an Mar> presents a deserter 0rom the Pussian arm!
8ho renames himsel0 Lieutenant Ci=Q, as a sin that he no loner e5ists.
In the eihth season episode o0 Seinfe!d, *he Susie )episode j$&%*, 4laine Benes inad2ertentl!
creates an alter eo named GSusie,G 8hom co-8or>ers belie2e is actuall! real. 7o a2oid con0lict,
4laine and the 0ictional Susie attend a con0lict resolution meetin 8ith the compan! president.
:ltimatel!, 4laine rids hersel0 o0 the non-e5istent Susie b! sa!in she has committed suicide? a
lare number o0 uests attend SusieBs 0uneral.
7he plot line o0 the 0ull lenth musical comed! Ci=e\, subtitled a Magica! Musica! 9airy *a!e,
re2ol2es around an imainar! hero o0 that name in the m!thical >indom o0 FuA. 7he pla! 8as
selected as Carneie Mellon :ni2ersit!Bs annual Sprin Musical and premiered in 1pril $%H/ in
Pittsburh, Penns!l2ania. 1uthor Scott McGreor reported that the plot came to him in a 0e2er
ridden dream state. 1s he slid in and out o0 consciousness listenin to a recordin o0 Pro>o0ie2Bs
"rchestral Suite his mind combined a brie0 description 0rom the record =ac>et 8ith imaes
deri2ed 0rom some :i,ard of 3d comic strips b! <ohnn! 3art he had 2ie8ed earlier that da!.
7he stor!line 8as 8ritten do8n a0ter the sic>ness ebbed. L!rics, 8ritten b! 1rthur 7. Ben=amin,
and Music, composed b! 1rthur (arrell 7urner, 8ere added later, enablin the pla! to 8in the
$%H/ contest.
Lieutenant Ci=e Suite, "p. ;/ )$%3&*
$. Ci=eBs Birth
2. Son
3. Ci=eBs Feddin
&. 7roi>a Son
E. Ci=eBs Burial
7he reat Pussian 0ilm director Serei 4isenstein mar2eled at Pro>o0ie2Bs enius 0or 0ilm music.
In the e2enin he 8ould 8atch a series o0 edited ta>es a 0e8 times, note do8n the number o0
seconds that certain e2ents lasted, then o o00 to his studio and return the ne5t da! at noon 8ith
the score o0 that scene per0ectl! attuned to the screen action. 7o 4isenstein, Pro>o0ie2 8as
capturin the inner rh!thm o0 the 0ilm in his music. Indeed, 4isensteinBs +!Cander Nevs5y is one
o0 those 2er! rare occasions 8hen a reat 0ilm is accompanied b! a superb score.
But Pro>o0ie2 had 8ritten 0ilm music be0ore meetin 4isenstein. 3is 0irst pro=ect on returnin to
Pussia in$%%3, a0ter !ears o0 sel0-imposed e5ile in the Fest, 8as the score to 6ieutenant Ki7e, a
satiric comed! set in the court o0 CAar Paul I. In the 0ilm the cAar misreads the report o0 one o0
his aides and creates a non-e5istent name out o0 the s!llable 5i, 8hich ended the aideBs name,
and a Pussian e5pleti2e 7i. 7he aide 8as a0raid to correct an imperial error, so Lt. Ci=e had to
e5ist. Fith a little conni2ance 0rom the courtiers, Ci=e assumed a paper e5istence 8hich >ept
e2er!one hoppin to pre2ent the cAar 0rom learnin the truth.
10ter completin the music 0or the 0ilm, Pro>o0ie2 arraned the popular suite in $%3&. Li>e the
music 0or +!Cander Nevs5y it is substantiall! re8ritten to stand on its o8n 8hile tracin some o0
the central incidents o0 the 0ilm - in this case the histor! o0 the 0ictitious hero: his birth, his
romantic ardor 8hen in lo2e, his marriae )combinin brie0 pomp 8ith unbuttoned 0esti2it! in
the ta2ern*, a ride in a troi>a, or carriae dra8n b! three horses, to the tune o0 a ta2ern son, and
the death o0 our hero. 7his is in no 8a! mourn0ul? on the contrar!, once Ci=e GdiesG, all those
in2ol2ed in maintainin the deception can at last breathe a sih o0 relie0.
Proram note b! Ste2ent Ledbetter
7elarc )C(-H/$&3*: Los 1neles Philharmonic "rchestra, 1ndre Pre2in
Prokofie+ .6!768679:/ 8 Suite: ;Lieutenant (i,-<
In re2olutionar! Pussia, 8hilst the JFhitesK and JPedsK 8ere
sluin it out, Pro>o0ie2 tried blushin a pale shade o0 pin>.
Fhen thins ot too hot he 0led to 1merica, oin east 2ia
Mladi2osto> to a2oid the haAards o0 8ar-torn 4urope. 9or !ears
a0ter the 8ar, he dri0ted bet8een 1merica and 4urope,
apparentl! ba00led that his punent music should attract
an!thin other than uni2ersal admiration. #ou could sa! that
Pro>o0ie2 han>ered a0ter a @uiet li0e, e2er see>in the ideal
e5istence o0 a creati2e artist in harmon! 8ith an appreciati2e
public. "n 2isits to his homeland he 0ound himsel0 0kted: all his
heartDs desires combined into a carrot made all the =uicier b!
the o00er o0 a Mosco8 apartment and a car. 3o8e2er, once he
had 0inalised his return to Pussia )$%3;*, the iron door o0 the
:SSP slammed shut behind him. 7he carrot 2anished, the stic>
appeared: Pro>o0ie2, the home-ro8n con@ueror o0 the 8ild
Fest, 8as no8 re@uired to con0orm.
42en i0 he didnDt >no8 ho8 se2ere the strictures reall! 8ere, he
must ha2e had some in>lin because he had 8or>ed in Pussia
durin his transition 0rom the Fest. 7o one alread! steeped in
theatrical music, the bureonin 0ilm industr! must ha2e
seemed a God-send. In the JrealismK o0 a 0ilm !our music
could hardl! be accused o0 J0ormalismK. #ou could,
comparati2el!, et a8a! 8ith murder - especiall! 8ith a CAar-
slain scenario. So, 8as it simple coincidence that his 0irst
JSo2ietK 8or> )$%33* 8as the score 0or the 0ilm 6ieutenant
Ki78l
7he concert suite broadl! 0ollo8s the plot, a loop! 2ariation on
*he 4mperorDs Ne= C!othes:
6. (i,e=s >irt*: Peadin a report, the CAar mista>es
Jparootchi>i =eK )Jthe lieutenants, ho8e2erK* 0or JParootchi>
Ci=QK. CAar-contradiction bein a capital o00ence, his ro!al
interest must per0orce be satis0ied. Panic-stric>en, 1dmin. must
in2ent a Jpaper lieutenantK . . .
?. 3oman"e . . . and ma>e it con2incin, b! i2in the host
romanticised substance. 7heir di00iculties are neatl!
encapsulated b! a double-bass, crea>in and roanin its 8a!
throuh a tune that a cello could eat 0or brea>0ast\
:. (i,e=s @edding: 7he CAar li>es his heroic lieutenants to be
8holesome 0amil! men, so a J8eddinK must be arraned. Ci=Q
ma! be merel! paper, but the 2od>a is all too real\
A. )roika: 1 0esti2e 0rolic on a three-horse open sleih, or
ma!be at some deeper, more meanin0ul le2el a subtle s!mbol
o0 the madcap paper =uernaut, or =ust Pro>o0ie2 sho8in o00 -
con=urin sleihbells b! sleiht o0 handl
9. (i,e=s >urial: 7he aides, rapidl! runnin out o0 steam,
brilliantl! resol2e their problem: the CAar is naturall! saddened
to learn o0 Ci=eBs untimel! death. 10ter the euloies, sihs o0
relie0 all round, and bliss0ull! dull normalit! is restored. "0
course, an! similarit! bet8een the CAar and the So2iet is
entire!y coincidental.
Big*t on >ald Mountain
9rom Fi>ipedia, the 0ree enc!clopedia
<ump to: na2iation, search
)*is arti"le may reCuire "leanup to meet @ikipedia=s Cuality standards.
Please impro2e this article i0 !ou can. %&une 2''E)
Modest Mussors>!
A Big*t on t*e >ald Mountain usuall! re0ers to one o0 t8o compositionsNeither a seldom
per0ormed earl! )$H;'* Bmusical pictureB b! Modest Mussors>!, St. &ohn's Night on the 2are
Mountain )Pussian: DEFGHEF GHIJ GF KLMHN OHPQ, 3vanova noch' na !Fsoy gore*, or a later
)$HH;* and 2er! popular B0antas! 0or orchestraB b! 6i>ola! Pims>!-Corsa>o2, + Night on the
2are Mountain )Pussian: RHIJ GF KLMHN OHPQ, Noch' na !Fsoy gore*, based almost entirel! on
Mussors>!Bs themes.
Inspired b! Pussian literar! 8or>s and leend, Mussors>! made a 8itchesB sabbath the theme
o0 the oriinal tone poem, completed on <une 23, $H;' )St. <ohnBs 42e*. St. &ohn's Night on the
2are Mountain and Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs Bmusical pictureB Sad5o )also composed in $H;'* share
the distinction o0 bein the 0irst tone poems b! Pussian composers.
,$.
1s 8ith so much o0 Mussors>!Bs music, the 8or> had a tortuous compositional histor! and 8as
arraned a0ter his death in $HH$ b! his 0riend and 0ello8 member o0 the 7he Miht! 3and0ul
Pims>!-Corsa>o2. It 8as ne2er per0ormed in an! 0orm durin Mussors>!Bs li0etime.
,2.
7he
Pims>!-Corsa>o2 edition premiered in $HH;, and has become a concert 0a2orite.
Note on the tit!e: 7he Pussian 8ord mnopqrs )ltsa!a* literall! means GbaldG, but is used in this
case 0iurati2el! 0or a mountain supposedl! barren o0 trees. 7here0ore, man! e5perts o00iciall!
title the piece + Night on the 2are Mountain, e2en i0 the! commonl! re0er to it as Night on 2a!d
Mountain.
$ontents
,hide.
• $ 3istor!
o $.$ Composition histor!
o $.2 Per0ormance histor!
o $.3 Publication histor!
• 2 Instrumentation
• 3 Proram
• & Mersions b! other hands
• E (iscoraph!
• ; Media
• ' 6otes
• H Pe0erences
0edit1 %istory
GNo =or5 of Mussorgs5y's has had a more confused history and none is !ess 5no=n.G
,3.
NGerald 1braham, $%&E
0edit1 $omposition *istory
6i>ola! Gool
)$H/%O$HE2*
Mladimir Staso2
)$H2&O$%/;*
Mladimir 6i>ols>!
)$H3;O$HH3*
Mil! Bala>ire2
)$H3'O$%$/*
7he 0ollo8in list traces the e2olution o0 the Night on 2a!d Mountain music:
Opera Pro,e"t: St. Jo*n=s #+e .6!9!/
1 sheet o0 paper apparentl! 0ound amon Mussors>!Bs manuscripts contains the 0ollo8in
statement: GProram o0 the opera St. &ohn's Night, in three acts, a0ter the tale b! Gool, 8ritten
b! P. Bobor!>in, in the presence and 8ith the help o0 Modest Mussors>!, 4uen Mussors>!,
and Masili!. Fitness to the proceedins: Mil! Bala>ire2.G
,&.
7his curious 0rament, dated
(ecember 2E, $HEH, has been interpreted as an indication o0 Mussors>!Bs intention o0 8ritin
an opera on the sub=ect o0 GoolBs short stor! St. &ohn's 4ve )Pussian: HIJIK LMNMLOLI PQMLM
ROSMTM, Vecher na5anune 3vana Kupa!a, St. &ohn's 4ve*. GoolBs blood! tale contains the
elements o0 de2ilr! and 8itchcra0t common to other stories in the 4venings on a 9arm near
Di5an5a collection, but does not, as is o0ten claimed, 0eature a 8itchesB sabbath. 1lthouh
Mussors>! ma! ha2e composed thematic s>etches 0or this pro=ect, his plans 8ere not
mentioned aain.
,E.
Opera Pro,e"t: )*e @it"* .6!S/
7he theme o0 a 8itchesB sabbath, the central theme in all subse@uent Night on 2a!d Mountain
pro=ects, appears to ha2e been deri2ed 0rom the none5tant pla! *he :itch )Pussian: HIUVWM,
Ved'ma, :itch* b! Baron Geor! Menden, a militar! 0riend o0 the composer. In $H;/
Mussors>! in0ormed Bala>ire2 that he had been commissioned to 8rite one act o0 an opera on
this sub=ect.
,;.
3o8e2er, as 8ith the pre2ious pro=ect, it is un>no8n 8hether an! materials 8ere
composed, and i0 so, 8hether the! 8ere trans0erred to subse@uent pro=ects.
@ork for piano and or"*estra .early 6!Ss/
Pims>!-Corsa>o2 declares in his memoirs )Chronic!e of My Musica! 6ife* that in the earl!
$H;/s Mussors>! had 8ritten a 2ersion o0 the Night on 2a!d Mountain music 0or piano and
orchestra, under the in0luence o0 LisAtBs *otentan,. 3o8e2er, it is belie2ed that Mussors>! did
not hear LisAtBs 8or> until $H;;, b! 8hich time he 8as plannin the orchestral tone poem St.
&ohn's Night on the 2are Mountain )see belo8*. 6o trace o0 a 8or> 0or piano and orchestra has
sur2i2ed outside Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs recollections, so it is assumed that the score 8as lost, or,
more li>el!, that it had ne2er e5isted.
)one Poem: St. Jo*n=s Big*t on t*e >are Mountain .6!T/
In $H;; Mussors>! 8rote to Bala>ire2 e5pressin a desire to discuss his plans 0or *he :itches,
his in0ormal name 0or his Night on 2a!d Mountain music.
,'.
In earl! <une $H;', he bean
composin the orchestral 2ersion o0 the piece, and 0inished the score on <une 23 )St. <ohnBs
42e*. 3e described the e2ent in a letter to Mladimir 6i>ols>!:
GM! St. &ohn's Night on the 2are Mountain )a 0ar better title than *he :itches* is, in 0orm and
character, Pussian and oriinal? and I 8ant to 0eel sure that it is thorouhl! in >eepin 8ith
historic truth and Pussian 0ol> traditionNother8ise it 8ould not be ood enouh. I 8rote it
@uic>l!, straiht a8a! in 0ull score 8ithout preliminar! rouh dra0ts, in t8el2e da!s. It seethed
8ithin me, and I 8or>ed da! and niht, hardl! >no8in 8hat 8as happenin 8ithin me. 1nd
no8 I see in m! 8ic>ed pran> an independent Pussian product, 0ree 0rom German pro0undit!
and routine, and, li>e m! Savishna, ro8n on our countr!Bs soil and nurtured on Pussian
bread.G
,H.
3e also statedN8ronl!, as it turned outNthat he 8ould ne2er re-model it: G8ith 8hate2er
shortcomins, it is born? and 8ith them it must li2e i0 it is to li2e at all.G 3a2in 0inall!
completed the 8or>, Mussors>! 8as crushed 8hen his mentor Mil! Bala>ire2 8as sa2ael!
critical o0 it. 7he score o0 this B0irst 2ersionB 8as put aside, and did not appear in print until $%;H.
4nfinis*ed Opera: Mlada .6!T?/
7he 0irst re-modellin o0 the 8or> too> place in $H'2, 8hen Mussors>! re2ised and recast it
0or chorus and orchestra as part o0 1ct III that he 8as assined to contribute to the collaborati2e
opera-ballet M!ada. In this ne8 2ersion the music 8as to 0orm the basis o0 the Night on Mt.
*rig!av )Pussian: XYJV LM ZYKI [K\ZTMQ, Noch' na gore *rig!av* scene. Mussors>! re0erred to
this piece under the title "!orification of Chorno-og in a list o0 his compositions i2en to
Staso2.
,%.
M!ada 8as a pro=ect doomed to 0ailure, ho8e2er, and this Bsecond 2ersionB lanuished
alon 8ith the 0irst.
4nfinis*ed Opera: )*e 5air at Soro"*yntsi .6!!S/
7he 8or>Bs Bthird 2ersionB, the Dream Vision of the easant 6ad )Pussian: ]YLLYI Q\UIL\I
SMKY^NM, Sonnoye videniye paro-5a*, came into e5istence eiht !ears later 8hen the composer
re2i2ed and re2ised the second 2ersion )see Night on Mount *rig!av abo2e* to 0unction as a
Bdream intermeAAoB in his opera *he 9air at Sorochyntsi )$H'&OH/*, a 8or> 8hich 8as still
incomplete at the time o0 his death in $HH$. Mussors>! oriinall! chose the end o0 1ct I o0 the
opera as the location 0or his choral intermeAAo. It is no8 enerall! per0ormed in the Shebalin
2ersion )$%3/* o0 the opera, 8here it is more loicall! relocated to 1ct III, =ust a0ter the peasant
ladBs dum>a. 7he theme o0 the dum>a also ser2es as one o0 the main themes o0 the ne8 @uiet
endin in this 2ersion )8hich also 0inds its 8a! into the Pims>!-Corsa>o2 edition*, thus
0ormin a musical 0rame to the intermeAAo.
0edit1 Performan"e *istory
• Mussors>!Bs oriinal tone poem St. &ohn's Night on the 2are Mountain )$H;'* 8as not
per0ormed until the 2/th centur!. Gerald 1braham ma>es the claim that this 2ersion
8as per0ormed b! 6i>olai Mal>o on 3 9ebruar!, $%32, apparentl! in 4nland.
,$/.

Cal2ocoressi i2es the !ear as $%33.
,$$.
1ccordin to the Gro2e (ictionar! o0 Music this
2ersion premiered in Mosco8 in $%;H. 7his 8as presumabl! in Cir>orBs edition )see
belo8*.
• 7he score o0 "!orification of Chorno-og )$H'2* 0rom M!ada has not sur2i2ed and the
piece 8as ne2er per0ormed.
• 7he Dream Vision of the easant 6ad )$HH/* 8as 0irst per0ormed as part o0 ShebalinBs
per0ormin edition o0 *he 9air at Sorochyntsi, 8hich premiered in $%3$ in Leninrad,
at the Mal! 7heater, conducted b! Samuil Samosud.
• Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs edition o0 + Night on the 2are Mountain )$HH;* recei2ed its
premiere on $E "ctober, $HH;, in St. Petersbur, at Conono2 3all. It 8as per0ormed b!
the orchestra o0 the Pussian S!mphon! Concerts conducted b! Pims>!-Corsa>o2
himsel0.
0edit1 Publi"ation *istory
• 7he oriinal tone poem St. &ohn's Night on the 2are Mountain 8as composed and
orchestrated b! Mussors>! in $H;'. 1 ne8 edition 8as prepared b! Geori! Cir>or
and published in $%;H.
• 7he score o0 "!orification of Chorno-og )$H'2* 0rom M!ada has not sur2i2ed and 8as
ne2er published.
• Mussors>!Bs piano-2ocal score o0 the Dream Vision of the easant 6ad, intended as an
intermeAAo in the opera *he 9air at Sorochyntsi, 8as 0inished in $HH/. It 8as edited and
orchestrated b! Missarion Shebalin, and 8as published b! MuAiA in $%3&.
• Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs recomposition o0 Mussors>!Bs 8or>, titled + Night on the 2are
Mountain, 8as completed in $HH;, and 8as published that !ear b! M. Bessel and Co..
0edit1 2nstrumentation
Original )one Poem .6!T/
• Strings_ Miolins, Miolas, Cellos, (ouble Basses
• :ood=inds_ $ Piccolo, 2 9lutes, 2 "boes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons
• 2rass_ & 3orns, 2 Cornets, 2 7rumpets, 3 7rombones, $ 7uba
• ercussion_ 7impani, Bass (rum, Snare (rum, 7rianle, 7ambourine, C!mbals, 7am-
tam
3imsky (orsako+ #dition .6!!/
• Strings_ Miolins, Miolas, Cellos, (ouble Basses
• :ood=inds_ $ Piccolo, 2 9lutes, 2 "boes, 2 Clarinets, 2 Bassoons
• 2rass_ & 3orns, 2 7rumpets, 3 7rombones, $ 7uba
• ercussion_ 7impani, Bass (rum, C!mbals, 7am-tam, Bell
• 0ther_ 3arp
0edit1 Program
Original )one Poem .6!T/
Setting_
Pussian leend tells o0 a 8itchesB sabbath ta>in place on St. <ohnBs 6iht )<une 23-2&* on the
L!sa 3ora )Bald Mountain*, near Cie2.
rogram_
7he 0ollo8in proram is ta>en 0rom the score:
$. uv_` wghxy, cz {_ndc c ping{|c )1ssembl! o0 the 8itches, their chatter and ossip*
2. ^_g}h uq{q|o )Cort~e o0 Satan*
3. •€`|qr pnafvq, Messe noire )Blac> ser2ice, Blac> mass*
&. •qvq‚ )Sabbath*
More details and a 2ariation to this proram ma! be 0ound in a letter 8ritten b! the composer to
Mladimir 6i>ols>!:
GSo 0ar as m! memor! doesnBt decei2e me, the 8itches used to ather on this mountain, ossip,
pla! tric>s and a8ait their chie0NSatan. "n his arri2al the!, i.e. the 8itches, 0ormed a circle
round the throne on 8hich he sat, in the 0orm o0 a >id, and san his praise. Fhen Satan 8as
8or>ed up into a su00icient passion b! the 8itchesB praises, he a2e the command 0or the
sabbath, in 8hich he chose 0or himsel0 the 8itches 8ho cauht his 0anc!. OSo this is 8hat IB2e
done. 1t the head o0 m! score IB2e put its content: $. 1ssembl! o0 the 8itches, their tal> and
ossip? 2. SatanBs =ourne!? 3. "bscene praises o0 Satan? and &. Sabbath... 7he 0orm and character
o0 the composition are both Pussian and oriinalG.
,$2.
Glorification of Chornobog from Mlada .6!T?/
Mussors>!Bs score 0or the "!orification of Chorno-og portion o0 M!ada has not sur2i2ed. 7he
0ollo8in scenario is ta>en 0rom Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs later )$H%/* Bmaic opera-balletB based on
the same libretto.
Setting_
M!ada is set in the %th or $/th centur! cit! o0 Petra, in the )0ormerl!* Sla2ic lands bet8een the
Baltic Sea coast and the 4lbe Pi2er. 7his 8ould be the land o0 the pre-Christian Polabian Sla2s,
in the reion correspondin to the modern German areas o0 Morpommern, Mec>lenbur, or
3olstein.
7he M!ada scenario is the onl! Night on 2a!d Mountain settin that mentions a BMt. 7rila2B,
8here the supernatural e2ents o0 1ct III ta>e place. It is reasonable to assume that this Mt.
7rila2 is not the 0amous pea> in Slo2enia, some 'E/ >ilometers distant. It is certainl! not the
L!sa 3ora near Cie2, as is o0ten mentioned in proram and liner notes. 3o8e2er, the
description o0 it in the libretto, as possessin a sno8-co2ered pea>, ores, and laciers, ma>es
it di00icult to place it amon the lo8 mountains and hills o0 northeast German!. Incidentall!, the
name 7rila2 ,BtriB)three* - Bla2B)heads*. happens to be the name o0 an ancient three-headed
sla2ic deit! or a trinit! o0 deities.
!ot_
Mo!sla2a and her 0ather Msti2o!, the Prince o0 Petra, ha2e poisoned Mlada, the betrothed o0
#aromir, Prince o0 1r>ona. Mo!sla2a sells her soul to Morena, an e2il oddess, to obtain her aid
in ma>in #aromir 0oret Mlada so she ma! ha2e him to hersel0. In 1ct III, the shade )host* o0
Mlada leads #aromir up the slopes o0 Mt. 7rila2 to a pine 8ood in a ore on top o0 the
mountain. MladaBs shade =oins a atherin o0 the spirits o0 the dead. She e5presses in mime to
#aromir the 8ish to be reunited 8ith him in the >indom o0 dead souls. 3e is eaer to =oin her.
3o8e2er, there is a rumblin sound announcin the appearance, apparentl! 0rom underround,
o0 the 0ollo8in 0antastic characters:
3ussian )rans"ription Ues"ription
ƒnog hazc Tlt!e du>hi 42il spirits
„ghxyo MedBmt Fitches
ecdcy_`o Ci>imort 9emale hoboblins
•€`|_v_… Chornobo
BChornoB)blac>* - BboB)od*, an in0ernal Sla2ic deit!, in the 0orm o0
a oat
†_`g|q Morena 1n in0ernal Sla2ic deit!
eq‡gˆ Cashche! 1n ore 0amiliar 0rom Pussian 0ol>tales? pla!s a usli
•g`wx Cher2 Form, od o0 0amine
•ayq Chuma Plaue, od o0 pestilence
‰_igngŠ 7opelets B(ro8nerB, od o0 0loods
7he e2il spirits sin in a strane demon lanuae. Morena calls on Chornobo to help ma>e
#aromir 0orsa>e Mlada. Cashche! determines that Morena and Chornobo 8ill be success0ul i0
#aromir is seduced b! another. Chornobo commands #aromirBs soul to separate 0rom his bod!,
and 0or Iueen Cleopatra to appear. Instantl! the scene chanes to a hall in 4!pt, 8here the
shade o0 Cleopatra attempts to entice #aromirBs soul to her side 8ith a seducti2e dance. She
almost succeeds in doin so 8hen a coc> cro8 announcin the brea> o0 da! causes the entire
in0ernal host to 2anish. #aromir a8a>ens and ponders the m!sterious e2ents he has 8itnessed.
Dream Vision of the easant Lad from !he "air at #orochyntsi .6!!S/
Setting_
*he 9air at Sorochyntsi is set in and around the :>rainian 2illae o0 Mel!>i Soroch!ntsi, some
E// >ilometers east o0 Cie2 and the 0amous BBald MountainB )L!sa 3ora*, in the !ear $H//.
!ot_
7he peasant Solop! Chere2i>, his domineerin 8i0e Chi2r!a, and prett! dauhter Paras!a are
2isitin the Sorochintsi 9air. Paras!a is 8ooed b! Grits>o Golopupen>o, the Gpeasant ladG o0 the
title. Grits>o desires Chere2i>Bs consent to marr! his dauhter. 1lthouh Chere2i> is not aainst
the match, his 8i0e ob=ects because Grits>o had thro8n mud in her 0ace on the 8a! to the 0air.
Grits>o stri>es a barain 8ith a !ps! to assist him in 8innin Paras!a. 7he! ma>e use o0 the
superstitious 0ears o0 the 0airoers, 8ho belie2e that the location o0 the 0air this !ear is ill-
chosen, it bein the haunt o0 a de2il 8ho 8as thro8n out o0 hell, too> to drin>in, 8ent bro>e,
pa8ned his =ac>et, and has returned to claim it. 10ter 2arious pran>s and comic circumstances,
Grits>o achie2es his oal and all ends happil!.
1t the end o0 1ct $, Grits>o 0alls asleep some distance 0rom the 0air, and, because there has
been tal> o0 de2ilr!, has a dream o0 a 8itchesB sabbath. 7he 0ollo8in remar>s
,$3.
are ta>en 0rom
the score, 8hich is dated Ma! $/, $HH/:
1ct I, Scene II O (ream Mision o0 the Peasant Lad
• 1 hill! desolate area. 1n approachin subterranean choir o0 in0ernal 0orces.
• Fitches and de2ils surround the sleepin peasant lad.
• "n a hill appear 0ier! serpents. 7he approach o0 Chornobo.
• Chornobo climbs up 0rom underround. 9ollo8in him are Cashche!, Cher2, Chuma,
7opelets, Smert, and the remainin members o0 his retinue.
• Forship o0 Chornobo: d8ar0s bein to circle Chornobo and bo8 do8n. Behind them
are also 2isible demons. Chornobo i2es the sinal 0or eneral earthl! 8orship.
• Sabbath.
• Ballet.
• Stro>e o0 a mornin bell.
• Satan and his retinue 2anish. 7he scene is co2ered b! clouds.
Sur2i2in the trans0er 0rom "!orification of Chorno-og are the same supernatural characters,
althouh Morena has been replaced b! (eath )Pussian: uyg`{x, Smert'*. Chornobo and his
accomplices 0orm a >ind o0 Si5 3orsemen o0 the 1pocal!pse. 7he demon lanuae the
characters sin, o0 8hich Mussors>! 8as contemptuous in a letter, is preser2ed. Interestinl!,
Mussors>! does not di00erentiate Satan 0rom Chornobo clearl!, in either this scenario or the
ne5t.
7he 0ollo8in proram
,$&.
8as sent to Mladimir Staso2 b! Mussors>! about three months a0ter
its composition in $HH/:
G7he peasant lad sleeps at the 0oot o0 a hilloc> at some distance 0rom the hut 8here he should
ha2e been. In his sleep appear to him:
$. Subterranean roar o0 non-human 2oices, utterin non-human 8ords.
2. 7he subterranean >indom o0 dar>ness comes into its o8n -- moc>in the sleepin
peasant lad.
3. 9oreshado8in o0 the appearance o0 Chornobo and Satan.
&. 7he peasant lad le0t b! the spirits o0 dar>ness. 1ppearance o0 Chornobo.
E. Forship o0 Chornobo and the blac> mass.
;. Sabbath.
'. 1t the 8ildest moment o0 the sabbath the sound o0 a Christian church bell. Chornobo
suddenl! disappears.
H. Su00erin o0 the demons.
%. Moices o0 the cler! in church.
$/. (isappearance o0 the demons and the peasant ladBs a8a>enin.G
7his scenario parallels that 0ound in 1ct III o0 M!adaNboth Grits>o and #aromir 8a>e up in
the 8ilderness at the brea> o0 da! a0ter an e2enin o0 real or imained demonic re2elries.
3imsky (orsako+ #dition .6!!/
Setting_
9or Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs edition 8e apparentl! return to the BBald MountainB )L!sa 3ora* in or
near Cie2.
rogram_
JSubterranean sounds o0 unearthl! 2oices. 1ppearance o0 the Spirits o0 (ar>ness, 0ollo8ed b!
that o0 Chornobo. Glori0ication o0 Chornobo and celebration o0 the Blac> Mass. FitchesD
Sabbath. 1t the heiht o0 the or!, the bell o0 the little 2illae church is heard 0rom a0ar. 7he
Spirits o0 (ar>ness are dispersed. (a!brea>.K
0edit1 Versions by ot*er *ands
6i>ola! Pims>!-Corsa>o2
3imsky (orsako+ edition .6!!/
In the !ears a0ter Mussors>!Bs death, his 0riends prepared his manuscripts 0or publication and
created per0ormin editions o0 his un0inished 8or>s to enable them to enter the repertoire. 7he
ma=orit! o0 the editorial 8or> 8as done b! Pims>!-Corsa>o2, 8ho in $HH; produced a hea2il!
redacted edition o0 + Night on the 2are Mountain 0rom the Dream Vision of the easant 6ad
2ocal score and premiered at at the 0irst o0 the Pussian S!mphon! Concerts:
GFhen I started puttin it in order 8ith the intention o0 creatin a 8or>able concert piece, I too>
e2er!thin I considered the best and most appropriate out o0 the late composerDs remainin
materials to i2e coherence and 8holeness to this 8or>.G
N6i>ola! Pims>!-Corsa>o2
3e apparentl! did not ma>e use o0 the oriinal tone poem o0 $H;' in ma>in his re2ision. 7he
published score o0 his edition states GCompleted and orchestrated b! 6. Pims>!-Corsa>o2,
$HH;G. I0 he had the score o0 the $H;' tone poem at hand, he 8ould ha2e noticed that it 8as both
completed and orchestrated. 3e also did not remember Mussors>!Bs letter to him announcin
that he had 0inished the 8or> on St. <ohnBs (a!, and had composed the 8or> directl! into 0ull
orchestral score, a practice unusual 0or him. Mussors>!Bs manuscript is belie2ed to ha2e been
in the >eepin o0 Bala>ire2 at the time.
7he Pims>!-Corsa>o2 edition is b! an! standards a hihl! polished and e00ecti2e score 8hich
has pro2ed brilliantl! success0ul, becomin one o0 the most popular 8or>s in the orchestral
literature.
Leopold Sto>o8s>i.
Stokowski arrangement .67AS/
Millions o0 t8entieth-centur! listeners o8e their initial ac@uaintance 8ith Mussors>!Bs tone-
poem to the use 8ithin Falt (isne!Bs $%&/ 0ilm 9antasia o0 a speciall! produced 2ersion based
on the Pims>!-Corsa>o2 recomposition in 0orm and content but Mussors>!Bs oriinal in
orchestration, as edited and re2ised b! Leopold Sto>o8s>i. Sto>o8s>i 8as 0amiliar to some
e5tent 8ith Mussors>!Bs st!le, ha2in conducted the :.S. premiere o0 the oriinal 2ersion o0
2oris "odunov in $%2% and subse@uentl! produced a s!mphonic s!nthesis o0 2oris 0or concert
purposes.
,$E.
Sto>o8s>i 8ent on to produce an e2en more drastic recomposition o0 Night 0or
concert per0ormance. 7his 2ersion 8as shortened 0or use in 9antasmic\
Ot*er adaptations
• Stern $ombo MeiWen , an e5perimental proressi2e roc> band 8ith classical tendencies
)due to their sheer class more or less e5empted 0rom too strinent censorship b! the
authorities o0 the 0ormer 4ast German!+G(P* adapted Mussors>i=Bs oriinal 2ersion in
$%'' as #ine Ba"*t auf dem ka*len >erg on their 0irst 0ull lenth LP )album Stern
Com-o Mei`en publ. b! +miga records )HEE E;'* 67TT, also on compilation album >'
&ahre Stern Com-o Mei`en b! 2uschfun5 )(C( /'$&2* publ. ?SSA*. 7he recordin o0
SCMBs 4ine 6acht au0 dem >ahlen Ber occurred durin a time permeatin their late
$%'/s to earl! $%H/s period albums 8hen the band abstained 0rom usin uitar
instrumentation to 0urther challene their compositional enius.
Sources: http:++888.epr.net+st.html )scroll do8n this Gibraltar 4nc!clopedia o0 Proressi2e
Poc> 8ebpae to 0ind Stern Combo Meissen*? http:++888.>rautroc>-musi>Air>us.de+de,Stern-
Combo-Meissen‹;&$,6.html )German*? http:++888.ostbeat.de+SternCombo.htm )German*?
http:++888.ostmusi>.de+sternmeissenpl.htm )German*?
http:++888.audela.net+portualpro+Proressi2o‹e‹Classicos-2.html )Portuuese*?
http:++888.sterncombomeissen.de+(iscoraphie.html )German*.
• Isao 7omita Bs s!nthesised realisation appeared alonside his electronic interpretation o0
Stra2ins>!Bs 9ire-ird Suite in $%'E.
• Bob <amesB =aAA-0un> in0used rendition o0 the son appears on his $%'& album, "ne.
• 9ilm composer (oulas Gamle!Bs score to the $%'2 0ilm +sy!um.
• 7here is a disco 2ersion a2ailable on the Saturday Night 9ever soundtrac> entitled
G6iht on (isco MountainG.
• 7he German proressi2e+thrash metal band Me>on (elta per0ormed the metal 2ersion
o0 the poem on their album Dances of Death %and other :a!5ing Shado=s) in $%%/, it
also appears in its entiret! on their li2e album 6ive at an 4Cci-ition )$%%$* and the
compilation C!assics )$%%3*.
• Sto>o8s>iBs 9antasia 2ersion 8as adapted b! #o>o Shimomura 0or use in the 2ideo
ame Kingdom Hearts, in 8hich Chernabo appears. 1 2ersion o0 it also appeared on
the <apanese rerelease o0 Cindom 3earts, entitled Kingdom Hearts 9ina! MiC. 7he
trac> pla!s as the pla!er 0ihts Chernabo 0rom (isne!Bs mo2ie 9antasia at 4nd o0 the
Forld.
• 1n a cappella 2ersion b! Spiralmouth can be sometimes heard durin the G42ilocit!G
racetrac> in the 2ideo ame Crash 7a 7eam Pacin.
• 1nother abbre2iated 2ersion appears in the 2ideo ame 4arth8orm <im, as the
bac>round music 0or GFhat the 3ec>\lG, alternatin 8ith ele2ator music.
• 6e8 7rolls 1tomic S!stem released a s!mphonic roc> sinle based on Mussors>!Bs
2ersion in the earl! $%'/s. It is also 0ound on their sel0-titled album.
o 7he Italian proressi2e roc> band Buon Mecchio Charlie recorded a trac> in
$%'$ loosel! based on Mussors>!Bs piece, called +! uomo che racog!ie i
cartoni.,$.
• S8edish blac> metal band Mardu> re8or>ed themes 0rom the piece into ri00s 0or the
son GGlori0ication o0 the Blac> GodG on the album Heaven Sha!! 2urn... :hen :e +re
"athered
• In 7he FiAard o0 "A, an arraned 2ersion is pla!ed durin the scene 8here the
Scarecro8, the 7in Man, and the Lion rescue (oroth! 0rom the FitchBs castle.
• 7here ha2e been countless arranements 0or di00erent ensembles b! di00erent arraners.
Some o0 these remain true to the actual piece 8hen others barel! scratch the sur0ace.
• 7he 1merican proressi2e roc> band 9ireballet released the album Night on 2a!d
Mountain in $%'E, based on Mussors>!Bs composition
• In the 32nd episode o0 MaAiner T some 0amous parts are repeatedl! pla!ed.
• In BliAAard 4ntertainmentBs Forld o0 Farcra0t, an abbre2iated Night on 2a!d Mountain
pla!s durin the Illidan Stormrae encounter, one o0 the hardest boss encounters in the
ame.
0edit1 Uis"ograp*y
Original tone poem .6!T/
• Llo!d <ones, London Philharmonic "rchestra, $%'$
• 1bbado, London S!mphon! "rchestra, $%H/
• (ohnan!i, Cle2eland "rchestra, $%%$
• Cita!en>o, Beren Philharmonic "rchestra, $%%$
• 1bbado, Berliner Philharmoni>er, $%%3
• Cuchar, 6ational S!mphon! "rchestra o0 the :>raine, 2//3
• Salonen, Los 1neles Philharmonic "rchestra, 2//;
Uream Vision of t*e Peasant Lad .6!!S/
1s part o0 *he 9air at Sorochyntsi:
• 1rano2ich, Mosco8 Padio "rchestra and Chorus, $%;%
• 4sipo2, Chorus and "rchestra o0 the Stanisla2s>! 7heater, $%H3
Concert 2ersion:
• Pol!ans>!, Pussian State S!mphon! "rchestra, $%%'
• 1bbado, Berliner Philharmoni>er, $%%'
3imsky8(orsako+ edition .6!!/
Pecordins o0 Pims>!-Corsa>o2Bs re2ision are too numerous to catalo in this article.
Stokowski arrangement .67AS/
• Peiner, uhicao S!mphon! "rchestra, $%E'
• MaaAel, Berlin Philharmonic "rchestra, $%E%
• Le2i, 1tlanta S!mphon! "rchestra, $%%$
• Serebrier, Bournemouth S!mphon! "rchestra, 2//3
• CunAel, Cincinnati Pops "rchestra, $%%2
• Cnussen, Cle2eland "rchestra, $%%/
0edit1 Media

6iht on Bald Mountain
Per0ormed b! the S>idmore Collee "rchestra. Courtes! o0 Musopen
• ro-!ems p!aying the fi!esa See media he!p.
Piano 2ersion o0 6iht on Bald Mountain
0edit1 Botes
$. X Cal2ocoressi )$%E;: p. 'H*
2. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. 2$*
3. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. $'E*
&. X Cal2ocoressi )$%E;: p. 3$*
E. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. 2/*
;. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. 2/*
'. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. 2/*
H. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. 2$*
%. X Cal2ocoressi )$%E;: p. $$*
$/. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. $'E*
$$. X Cal2ocoressi )$%E;: p. '&*
$2. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. $';*
$3. X Catalo o0 autoraphs o0 M. P. Mussors>!
$&. X Cal2ocoressi, 1braham )$%'&: p. $;2*
$E. X Seberier, <ose, notes 0or 6a5os H.EE';&E, Mussorgs5yASto5o=s5i *ranscriptions.
0edit1 3eferen"es
• Cal2ocoressi, M.(. , 1braham, G., Mussorgs5y/ 'Master Musicians' Series, London:
<.M.(ent U Sons, Ltd., $%&;+$%'&
• Cal2ocoressi, M.(., Modest Mussorgs5y_ His 6ife and :or5s, London: Poc>li00, $%E;
• Cata!og of autographs of M. . Mussorgs5y in the manuscript department of the St.
eters-urg Conservatory ,in Pussian. )1ccessed (ecember 2;, 2//'*,
Œhttp:++biblio.conser2ator!.ru+7oda!+Public+Miller/2.htm•
• Pims>!-Corsa>o2, 6., Chronic!e of My Musica! 6ife, 6e8 #or>: Cnop0, $%23
Petrie2ed 0rom Ghttp:++en.8i>ipedia.or+8i>i+6iht‹on‹Bald‹MountainG
Grieg=s musi"
See a!so_ eer "ynt Suites
Ibsen as>ed 4d2ard Grie to compose incidental music 0or the pla!. Grie composed a score
that pla!s appro5imatel! ninet! minutes. 1s IbsenBs lon pla! is @uite an underta>in to put on
stae, and since GrieBs incidental music had an ine00able @ualit! that destined it to become an
all-time classic, this music started to lead a li0e o0 its o8n: Grie e5tracted t8o suites o0 0our
pieces each 0rom the incidental music )"pus &; and "pus EE*, 8hich became 2er! popular as
concert music. "nl! one o0 the sung parts o0 the incidental music ended up in these suites )the
last part o0 2nd suite, So!veig's Song, the solo part no8 pla!ed b! 2iolin rather than sun, thouh
the 2ocal 2ersion is sometimes substituted*. )"riinall!, the second suite had a 0i0th number,
*he Dance of the Mountain King's Daughter, but Grie 8ithdre8 it.* Grie himsel0 declared
that it 8as easier to ma>e music Gout o0 his o8n headG than strictl! 0ollo8in suestions made
b! Ibsen. 9or instance, Ibsen 8anted music that 8ould characteriAe the GinternationalG 0riends in
the 0ourth act, b! meldin the said national anthems )6or8eian, S8edish, German, 9rench and
4nlish*. Peportedl!, Grie did not ha2e the riht temperament 0or this tas>.
Later the music o0 these suites, especiall! the Morgenstemning )GMornin MoodG* startin the
0irst suite, 3n the Ha!! of the Mountain King, and the strin lament bse's Death reappeared in
numerous arranements, soundtrac>s, etc.
Peer Gynt, suites Nº 1 y Nº 2 de Edvard Grieg
por Martín Llade
Melómano nº 88, junio 2004
BYmero de p'ginas: :
1 ? : siguiente ZZ
eer Gynt o el en"uentro de dos genios noruegos
4n $H'; 4d2ard Grie contaba treinta ! tres aZos de edad ! habWa empeAado a despuntar dentro
del Vmbito musical de su paWs con composiciones como el cQlebre Concierto para piano en !a
menor ! las ie,as !cricas para piano. 4n ellas se apreciaba !a una per0ecta 0usiXn entre el
espWritu romVntico de autores como Schumann ! el 0ol>lore de su paWs, @ue empeAX a emplear
abiertamente racias a la in0luencia de su amio Pi>ard 6ordraa>, autor del himno nacional
norueo. Casualmente, 6ordraa> era primo del dramaturo B=Žrnst=erne B=Žrnson, para cu!as
obras componWa mYsica incidental. 9allecido 6ordraa> repentinamente a los 23 aZos, B=Žrnson
recurriX a Grie, cu!o ma!or a2al artWstico en ese momento era la admiraciXn @ue habWa
suscitado en LisAt, @ue le in2itX a 2isitarle en Poma. La 0ructW0era colaboraciXn entre el mYsico
! el escritor dio como resultado partituras incidentales como la ho! aYn popular Sigurd
&orsa!far e incluso pro!ectaron lo @ue pudo haber sido la primera Xpera nacional noruea, 0!af
*rygvason/ pero esta idea se truncX al entrar en escena, ! nunca me=or dicho, 3enri> Ibsen.
1utor de tWtulos tan uni2ersales como Casa de mudecas/ Hedda "a-!er/ 4! pato sa!va7e o en
enemigo de! pue-!o/ Ibsen acababa de escribir alo totalmente di0erente a su tXnica habitual: un
drama en cinco actos @ue tomaba como base el 0ol>lore ! la mitoloWa nacional para contar la
2ida de un ambicioso muchacho @ue 2i2e insXlitas a2enturas. 4n un principio esta obra estaba
concebida para ser leWda ! no representada, dadas las enormes di0icultades escQnicas @ue
planteaba. Sin embaro, aluien le con2enciX de @ue la introducciXn pro0usa de una partitura
permitirWa los traba=osos cambios de decorado entre escena ! escena sin @ue el pYblico acusase
las pausas, ! decidiX recurrir a Grie, produciQndose el memorable encuentro entre la me=or
pluma ! el me=or mYsico de 6oruea de todos los tiempos. 4l 0ruto de esta con=unciXn de
talentos 0ue eer "ynt ! el propio Ibsen siempre se 2erWa obliado a admitir @ue parte del Q5ito
@ue cosechX la obra se debWa a a@uellos nYmeros musicales, en un principio destinados a rellenar
huecos. Por su parte, Grie, @ue admiraba pro0undamente a Ibsen, temWa no estar a la altura de
las circunstancias ! tu2o @ue superar numerosas di0icultades hasta lorar una mYsica @ue se
a=ustase per0ectamente al te5to.
Peer G!nt es un tra2ieso muchacho de aldea @ue sueZa con ser rico ! poderoso, pero en el @ue
sub!ace tambiQn un alma de artista. Sin embaro sus 2ecinos no de=an de @ue=arse de su
comportamiento, para disusto de su madre, 1se. Peer acude a una boda, donde conoce a
Sol2ei, pero el rechaAo inicial de la muchacha le omnubila ! secuestra a la no2ia, Inrid, en
plena ceremonia, para abandonarla despuQs en unas montaZas. Posteriormente Peer seduce a la
hi=a del re! de las montaZas ! los trolls amenaAan con comQrselo si no se casa con ella. 1un@ue
la perspecti2a de heredar el reino le atrae, Peer comprende @ue acabarV por con2ertirse tambiQn
en monstruo ! consiue escapar. Posteriormente se encontrarV con la hi=a del re! de las
montaZas, @ue ha tenido un hi=o monstruoso de la esporVdica uniXn entre ambos. 7ras la muerte
de 1se, Peer 2ia=a a •0rica donde se con2ierte en tratante de escla2os ! mercader. 7omado por
pro0eta, un =e@ue lo alo=a en su sQ@uito, pero Ql secuestra a la bella 1nitra, @ue 0inalmente
escapa de sus arras, de=Vndole a su suerte en el desierto. Poco despuQs G!nt 2uel2e con sus
ri@ueAas a su paWs, pero una tormenta hunde su barco 0rente a las costas ! su rereso se demorarV
aYn mVs. Pasados 2einte aZos es un hombre cansado, @ue se encuentra con un e5traZo persona=e,
la Sombra, @ue de aluna manera siempre ha estado presente en sus a2enturas. La Sombra le
hace 2er @ue su destino estV en braAos de la mu=er enamorada @ue aYn lo espera, Sol2ei.
9inalmente, el a2enturero reresa ! encuentra la redenciXn en los braAos de a@uella @ue siempre
lo habWa esperado ! lo acuna en sus braAos mientras le canta una nana.
1nte el entusiasmo del pYblico, Grie decidiX @ue su mYsica tu2iese 2ida propia en los
escenarios ! escribiX dos suites, @ue se encuentran entre las obras mVs populares de la llamada
mYsica clVsica. (e una ran belleAa e inspiraciXn, son parte del patrimonio cultural 6orueo !
representan a este paWs tanto como pueden hacerlo los 0iordos o la literatura ibseniana. Sin
embaro, como es habitual con las suites, la obra oriinal, superior en todos los aspectos, ha
@uedado eclipsada, dada la di0icultad @ue supone e=ecutarla 0uera del Vmbito teatral, ! la ma!or
parte del pYblico inora su e5istencia. 4s por ello @ue, seuidamente, analiAaremos ambas suites
teniendo en cuenta la procedencia del material en ellas contenido ! su 0orma oriinal.
Suite B[ 6
$% La ma&ana
La pieAa de apertura de la primera de las suites ocupaba en realidad el nYmero $3 en la partitura
de la obra de teatro ! hacWa las 2eces de preludio del IM acto. Sin embaro, la celebQrrima
melodWa de la 0lauta !a habWa aparecido en el nYmero anterior, sin desarrollarse, ! con
resonancias ciertamente cQlticas. MYsica del amanecer por e5celencia, un solo de 0lauta e5pone
el conocido tema, @ue poco despuQs toma el oboe, iniciVndose un delicioso diVloo entre ambos,
hasta @ue la cuerda e=ecuta el tema con randiosidad desarrollVndolo por completo. 9inalmente,
la trompa lo repite una 2eA mVs, con sua2idad, iniciando un lento decli2e @ue conclu!e con del
des2anecimiento de las notas en el aire, como si el amanecer se hubiese trocado en manso
atardecer sobre las auas del mar norueo. 6a madana es uno de los mVs randes loros de la
mYsica descripti2a, por cuanto @ue todo o!ente occidental ha sabido siempre identi0icar lo @ue
representaba inorando su tWtulo o procedencia. 4l empleo de la madera dibu=a en la
imainaciXn del o!ente bandadas de pV=aros remontando sua2emente el 2uelo sobre 2erdes
montaZas, mientras @ue el crescendo or@uestal, tras los tWmidos esboAos de la 0lauta ! el oboe,
parecen corresponderse a la imaen ma=estuosa del sol emeriendo ro=iAo en el horiAonte. Sin
embaro, hubo alo en lo @ue puede decirse @ue 0allX Grie, puesto @ue la acciXn se sitYa en el
6orte de •0rica, donde Peer G!nt se ha asentado tras la muerte de su madre, con2irtiQndose en
un prXspero comerciante ! tra0icante de escla2os? ! ciertamente, su mYsica no puede sonar mVs
a escandina2o.
'% Muerte de (se
4n el acto III del drama 0allece 1se, la cariZosa madre del protaonista, @ue siempre le ha
reprochado sus tra2esuras. Grie escribiX entonces un nYmero de un dramatismo e5tremo, en
G1ndante dolorosoG, con0iado por entero a la cuerda con sordina. 1 pesar de lo desarrador de
la pieAa, sorprendentemente tambiQn transmite una enorme serenidad, @ue se e5plica por el
contenido de la escena @ue la inspirX: en ella Peer sostiene con su madre moribunda un
e5tra2aante diVloo, en el @ue le=os de mostrar tristeAa aluna, la con2ence del buen
recibimiento @ue tendrV en el cielo, mientras @ue la anciana se muestra preocupada por las
locuras @ue cometa su hi=o cuando ella !a no estQ. 1caso consciente de @ue en seme=ante
conte5to la mYsica pasarWa un tanto desapercibida, Grie hiAo @ue sonase tambiQn pre2iamente,
como preludio al acto III. 4n la Muerte de +se @ueda per0ilada per0ectamente la tWpica eleWa
escandina2a para or@uesta de cuerda @ue tantos compositores de esa cultura, empeAando por
Sibelius, culti2arVn sin descanso posteriormente. La desolaciXn @ue e2oca este nYmero lo ha
con2ertido en banda sonora 0recuente de documentales de uerra.
)% Dan*a de (nitra
Sorprende @ue con todo el material temVtico disponible en la partitura oriinal Grie desechase
nYmeros tan lorados como la Dan,a de !a hi7a de! rey de !as montadas/ la Nana de So!veig o la
Cancifn de !os peregrinos ! seleccionase la simpVtica pero banal Dan,a de +nitra para las
suites. 7ras el recibimiento triun0al @ue un rupo de de2otas muchachas Vrabes dispensan al
0inido pro0eta Peer G!nt, la =o2en 1nitra, a la @ue Qste planea raptar, baila para Ql en la tienda
de un =e@ue esta danAa rVcil ! tran@uila, a ritmo de maAurca, dominada por el piAAicato de los
2iolines ! el triVnulo. 4l mismo acorde sua2e inicial, acaso e2ocador de una racha de 2iento en
el desierto, pone tambiQn punto 0inal a la danAa.
+% ,n la cue-a del rey de las monta&as
Correspondiente al octa2o nYmero de la partitura oriinal es uno de los mo2imientos mVs
populares de la historia de la mYsica de todos los tiempos, reconocible por cual@uier o!ente,
melXmano o no. 1 su 2eA, 9ritA Lan lo introdu=o en su obra maestra M/ e! vampiro de
Dgsse!dorf de 0orma un tanto in@uietante: era la tonada @ue silbaba el asesino de niZos
encarnado por Peter Lorre ! a tra2Qs de la cual es identi0icado por un cieo. Sin embaro, a
pesar de esta 0ama son mu! pocos los @ue saben @uQ describe e5actamente esta mYsica ni @uiQn
es el susodicho re! de las montaZas, en cu!o reino 2i2en trolls, duendes ! nomos. 4n la
mitoloWa noruea los nomos no son esos amables hombrecillos de orro puntiuado @ue se
saludan 0rotVndose la nariA, sino seres sanuinarios @ue de2oran a @uien se adentra en sus
dominios. Peer G!nt se adentra en estos dominios para seducir a la hi=a del re! de las montaZas
! consiue su propXsito, pero cuando @uiere huir siilosamente de la ruta empieAa a sentir @ue
miles de o=os in!ectados en sanre le obser2an ! echa a correr. Los nomos entonan un coro
in0ernal, clamando G:n hi=o de cristianos ha osado entrar en la cue2a del re! de las montaZas
•Matadlo\G ! se arro=an sobre Ql mientras cada nomo e5ie la parte de Peer @ue @uiere de2orar
! un anciano suiere @ue traian hielo para mantenerlo 0resco. 6aturalmente, en la suite
desapareciX el coro, siendo sustituido de nue2o por la cuerda, lo @ue le resta parte de la
espectacularidad @ue poseWa en su 2ersiXn incidental. Sin duda, de los ocho nYmeros de la suite
es en Qste en el @ue mVs se percibe una acciXn concreta: el comienAo e2oca la oscuridad de la
cue2a ! el paso liero en e5tremo de Peer G!nt tratando de salir de ella. 4l 0aot, el 2iolonchelo
! el contraba=o suenan de 0orma casi imperceptible, de 0orma pesante, recreando sus pasos. 1l
poco se le unen el oboe ! los 2iolines en piAAicato, suiriendo ine@uW2ocamente @ue anda de
puntillas, pero entonces la mYsica acelera su ritmo ! el crescendo conduce a un tutti
estruendoso, donde oriinalmente estaba el coro, en el @ue suren de repente todos los duendes
! trolls, 0uriosos. 1trapado el protaonista, un redoble contundente conclu!e esta bre2e pieAa de
apenas dos minutos ! medio de duraciXn.
4l nYmero @ue sucedWa a Qsta en el drama, la Dan,a de !a hi7a de! rey de !as montadas en la @ue
este persona=e baila para Peer G!nt mientras estV atado, estu2o a punto de 0ormar parte de la
suite 6[ 2, pero 0inalmente Grie decidiX omitirla.
Suite B[ ?
$% Lamento de .ngrid
Casi al comienAo de la obra el in@uieto Peer G!nt, al cual consideran en su aldea de la piel de
BarrabVs, acude a una boda donde conoce a Sol2ei, de la @ue @ueda prendado. Sin embaro,
Qsta se escandaliAa de su 0orma de ser ! le rehu!e, pro2ocando en el =o2en una 0uria ciea @ue le
lle2arV a secuestrar a la no2ia de la boda, Inrid, a la cual colma de promesas. Pero en cuanto
tiene ocasiXn la abandona ! se lanAa a buscar nue2as a2enturas. 4ste pasa=e, situado casi al
principio de la obra de Ibsen, recrea la desesperaciXn de Inrid al 2erse sola ! traicionada. Los
2iolentos acordes en allero 0urioso del principio, dominados por la percusiXn, dan paso a un
andante de ran tristeAa, aun@ue sin llear a los e5tremos de la Muerte de +se. Cuando este
andante se e5tinue, con la resinaciXn de la no2ia despechada a 2ol2er a la aldea a a0rontar su
2er‘enAa, el aresi2o pasa=e del principio 2uel2e a repetirse.
'% Dan*a árabe
<unto con la de 4! cascanueces Qsta es la denominada danAa Vrabe mVs popular de la mYsica,
aun@ue en ambos casos es e2idente @ue ni Grie ni 7chai>o2s>i estaban 0amiliariAados con
dicho 0ol>lore. 7odo ello responde a la obsesiXn por el e5otismo @ue 2i2iX 4uropa en la seunda
mitad del silo ’I’ ! de la cual serWan partWcipes mYsicos como Pims>i-Corsa>o2, BiAet o Lalo,
culminando con las Xperas orientales de Giacomo Puccini, a principios del ’’, Qstas !a mVs
documentadas. Lo @ue Grie propone como danAa Vrabe es una pieAa 2i2aA escrita en compVs de
&+&, en la @ue la percusiXn =uea un importante papel de principio a 0in. :na =uuetona melodWa,
en la @ue 2an turnVndose los instrumentos de madera da paso a la rQplica de la or@uesta, @ue en
el oriinal era el coro de hurWes, lideradas por 1nitra, @ue toman a Peer G!nt por un pro0eta. Su
cVntico ensalAaba las supuestas loas de este pro0eta ! arro=aban a su paso pQtalos de 0lor ante la
mirada socarrona del aludido. Lueo los 2iolines toman la iniciati2a en el episodio central,
reproduciendo lo @ue era la canciXn de 1nitra, escrita para tesitura de meAAosoprano, ! en la
@ue se siue lison=eando a Peer G!nt. Ciertamente, al iual @ue 4n !a cueva de! rey de !as
montadas ! 6a cancifn de So!veig la reducciXn a suite, prescindiendo de la 2oA, hace resentirse
a este nYmero, especialmente por@ue era el Ynico en el @ue participaban tanto el coro como una
2oA solista. La 0esti2a brillanteA del principio cierra la danAa.
)% ,l regreso de eer Gynt
6Ymero 2$ del oriinal ! preludio del acto M, tambiQn se titulaba 6oche tormentosa en el mar.
4l prXspero Peer G!nt decide 2ol2er a 6oruea para estar al lado de Sol2ei ! hacer ostentaciXn
de cuanto ha anado, pero la suerte se le 2uel2e en contra ! una tormenta hace nau0raar su
barco 0rente a las costas de su paWs, perdiendo toda su 0ortuna. 10errado a los restos del na2Wo, la
corriente lo lle2arV mu! le=os de su hoar, retrasando 2arios aZos mVs su rereso. La recreaciXn
de tormentas en la historia de la mYsica tiene a Beetho2en, con su Pastoral, como su mVs ilustre
predecesor, pero e5isten otros e=emplos como la de Pioletto u "tello de Merdi, hasta, por
supuesto, 4l holandQs errante de Faner. (e una 0uerAa impresionante, la tormenta del norueo
emplea la madera para reproducir la sensaciXn de las rachas de 2iento @ue poco a poco 2an
amainando, mientras los acentos sombrWos de la cuerda ra2e, la percusiXn ! las trompas imitan
las en2estidas de las olas iantescas @ue destroAan el barco en el @ue 2ia=a el protaonista. 4n
la obra de teatro al lamento de Peer G!nt a la deri2a le sucedWa la canciXn de Sol2ei, causando
un bellWsimo e0ecto de calma tras la tormenta, @ue anticipa la redenciXn 0inal ! el compositor
@uiso mantenerlo en esta suite, colocando inmediatamente despuQs dicha canciXn.
+% Canci/n de #ol-eig
Sol2ei representa, =unto a 1se, el otro persona=e 0emenino positi2o de la obra, lo @ue no es
cosa baladW teniendo en cuenta @ue suriX de la misma pluma @ue creX a la 6ora de Casa de
mudecas . Las otras mu=eres @ue se nos 2an presentando, como la inenua e in0iel Inrid,
1nitra, la hi=a del re! de las montaZas, o las tres muchachas, son meras caricaturas, a las @ue el
protaonista seduce con 0acilidad. Sin embaro, la bella ! sencilla Sol2ei lora con@uistarlo
con su dulAura ! serV ella @uien lo espere, como PenQlope, durante 2einte aZos, mientras Ql
reresa de su particular odisea. 4n sus braAos es donde halla el hQroe la redenciXn, ! es una
2erdadera lVstima @ue Grie no introdu=ese en las suites la nana con la @ue lo recibe, poniendo
asW punto 0inal a la obra. La conmo2edora canciXn de Sol2ei corresponde al nYmero $% de la
mYsica incidental oriinal ! lueo se repite, con distinta letra, en el 23. Concebida para 2oA de
soprano, Qsta es nue2amente sustituida en la suite por los 2iolines, perdiendo ran parte de su
encanto. La cuerda domina casi por completo este nYmero, e5puesto con una mansedumbre
brumosa, e2ocadora de un atardecer tran@uilo sobre el mar escandina2o. 4n ella Sol2ei e5presa
su 0e en @ue su amado Peer, en esos momentos al otro lado del mundo, reresarV a buscarla,
aun@ue pase el in2ierno, desapareAca la prima2era, ! con el 0in del 2erano termine el aZo. # si
acaso Ql ha muerto, seuirV esperVndole allW, hasta el momento en @ue puedan reunirse para
siempre.
Otros nYmeros de inter-s fuera de las suites
Pese a @ue las suites a!udaron rVpidamente a populariAar la obra ! permitieron @ue dis0rutase de
2ida propia 0uera de los escenarios, mVs de la mitad del material escrito @uedX releado al
ol2ido, pese a @ue Grie hubiera podido, de haber @uerido, e5traer una o dos suites mVs, por
e=emplo de nYmeros como los siuientes, todos ellos de una calidad a la altura de los !a
conocidos por el pYblico:
8 "bertura.
-La boda )6[ $*
-Peer G!nt ! las tres muchachas )6[ E*
-Peer G!nt ! la mu=er de 2erde. )6[ ;*
-Por el caballo se reconoce al caballero. )6[ '*
-(anAa de la hi=a del re! de las montaZas. )6[ %*
-Peer G!nt canta a 1nitra )6[ $'*
-Peer G!nt ante los colosos de Memnon. )6[ 2/*
-3imno de los pererinos. )6[ 2E*
-6ana de Sol2ei. )6[ 2;*
Uis"ograf\a re"omendada:
8Suites B[ 6 y B[ ?: Bornemouth S!mphon! "rchestra, director: Paa2o Berlund )- Dan,as
sinffnicas) 4MI.
8#]tra"tos de la mYsi"a in"idental del drama: 4ll! 1melin )soprano*, Geraldine Falther
)2iola*, Coro ! "r@uesta de San 9rancisco, director: 4do de Faart )- suite 3olber*. P3ILIPS
8Versi^n \ntegra: eer "ynt op. 2@ , 7oral2 Maurstad )Peer G!nt hablado*, :rban Malmber
)Peer G!nt cantado*, Barbara Bonne! )Sol2ei*, Fenche 9oss )1se*, Marianne 4>lo0 )1nitra*.
"r@uesta Sin0Xnica ! Coro de Gothebur, director. 6eeme <Sr2i )- Siurd <orsal0ar*.
(4:7SC34 GP1MM"P3"64.
L=Arl-sienne .>i_et/
9rom Fi>ipedia, the 0ree enc!clopedia
)Pedirected 0rom LB1rlQsienne Suites*
<ump to: na2iation, search
7he incidental music to L0(rlésienne 8as composed b! Geores BiAet to the pla! o0 the same
name. Fhile the music consists o0 short pieces 8ith 2oice and chorus, as is common 8ith
incidental music, it is most commonl! heard in t8o separate suites 0or orchestra. Suite 6o. $
8as arraned b! BiAet himsel0, and Suite 6o. 2 8as arraned b! 4rnest Guiraud a0ter BiAetBs
death. Since their debut, the 8or>s ha2e become popular musical 8or>s, o0ten per0ormed b!
pro0essional orchestras.
$ontents
,hide.
• $ Suite number one
o $.$ Bac>round
o $.2 Mo2ements
o $.3 7he music
• 2 Suite number t8o
o 2.$ Bac>round
o 2.2 Mo2ements
o 2.3 Music
o 2.& Pecordins
• 3 See also
• & 6otable :ses
• E Pe0erences
• ; 45ternal lin>s
0edit1 Suite number one
0edit1 >a"kground
7he music 8as 8ritten to accompan! the pla! o0 the same name 8ritten b! 1lphonse (audet in
the same !ear. "riinall! 8ritten as incidental music in 2' numbers and arraned 0or chorus and
small orchestra, the piece recei2ed poor re2ie8s at 0irst. 7he numbers raned 0rom short solos to
loner entrBactes. (espite the poor re2ie8s, BiAet arraned his 8or> into a suite o0 0our
mo2ements. 6o8 >no8n as L0(rlésienne #uite 1umber 2ne, the suite utiliAed an orchestra but
8ithout chorus.
0edit1 Mo+ements
7he 0our mo2ements o0 the 0irst suite 8ere:
• I. 1llero deciso? )prelude*
• II. Minuet, 1llero iocoso )minuetto* )7he endin o0 this mo2ement is slihtl!
e5panded 0rom the 2ersion in the incidental music.*
• III. 1daietto )In the incidental music, this number is preceded and 0ollo8ed b! a
melodrama that, in the suite, 0orms the central section o0 the concludin Carillon. 9or
this purpose it is transposed up a semitone.*
• IM. Carillon - 1llero moderato )45panded as indicated abo2e.*
0edit1 )*e musi"
7he suite opens 8ith a stron, eneretic theme, 8hich is based on the Christmas carol GMarch o0
the CinsG, pla!ed b! the entire orchestra. 10ter8ards, the theme is repeated b! 2arious
sections. 10ter reachin a clima5, the theme 0ades a8a!. It is 0ollo8ed b! the theme associated
8ith LBInnocent )the brother o0 9rQdQri, the hero*. 7he PrQlude concludes 8ith the theme
associated 8ith 9rQdQri himsel0. 7he second mo2ement, resembles a minuet, 8hile the third is
more emotional and muted. 7he last mo2ement, Carillon, 0eatures a repeatin Bell-tone pattern
on the 3orns, mimic>in a peal o0 church bells.
0edit1 Suite number two
0edit1 >a"kground
L0(rlésienne #uite 1umber !3o, also 8ritten 0or 0ull orchestra, 8as arraned and published in
$H'%, 0our !ears a0ter BiAetBs death, b! 4rnest Guiraud, usin BiAetBs oriinal themes )althouh
not all o0 them 8ere 0rom the 6'+r!8sienne incidental music*. 7he second suite is enerall!
credited to BiAet since he 8rote the themes and the basic orchestration.
0edit1 Mo+ements
7here are also 0our mo2ements in the second suite.
• I. Pastorale
• II. IntermeAAo
• III. Menuet
• IM. 9arandole
0edit1 Musi"
7he second suite beins 8ith an introduction b! the 8ind section, 0ollo8ed b! the melod! in the
strins. 7he melodies are repeated b! 2arious sections throuhout the 0irst mo2ement. In the
suite, the openin section returns and concludes the piece. In the oriinal 2ersion, the GcentralG
section, 8hich 8as a 8ordless chorus sun b! 8omen, ends the piece. 7he second mo2ement
0eatures utiliAation o0 lo8 tones and beins 8ith the 8ind section. Guiraud adds t8el2e
additional bars to the concludin section. 7he menuet, 8hich is not 0rom 6'+r!8sienne, but
BiAetBs $H;; opera *he 9air Maid of erth, 0eatures solos b! harp, 0lute, and, later, sa5ophone
)this replacin the 2ocal parts o0 the oriinal*? it is the most subdued and emotional mo2ement.
7he 0inale, the 0arandole, incorporates the theme o0 the March of the Kings once aain. 7his is
an e5panded combination o0 numbers 22-2& o0 the oriinal incidental music, in 8hich the
0arandole appears 0irst on its o8n. It is a0ter8ards brie0l! combined 8ith the march.
0edit1 3e"ordings
7he suites ha2e been recorded man! times, but there are also at least t8o recordins o0 the
complete incidental music 0or the pla!, one o0 them conducted b! Michel Plasson. 7he Plasson
recordin uses a 0ull orchestra and chorus. Plasson has also recorded both suites.
0edit1 See also
• LB1rlQsienne
• LB1rlQsienne )pla!*
• Geores BiAet
0edit1 Botable 4ses
7he LB1rlesienne suite 8as pla!ed e5tensi2el! in the episode o0 G7he PrisonerG, G3ammer Into
1n2ilG.
7he 0ourth mo2ement o0 the LB1rlesienne suite is used on Pla!house (isne!Bs Little 4insteins. It
8as also used in a 2er! success0ul media campain in Puerto Pico launched in the late $%H/s b!
the local importers o0 9inlandia Mod>a. It 0eatured 9rench-born photorapher Gu! PaiA! pla!in
the role o0 a sophisticated, 8omaniAin classical orchestra conductor. 7he campain is still
remembered in the island nation, almost t8o decades a0ter its inception.
1lbanian dictator 4n2er 3o5ha adopted the 9irst SuiteBs Prelude as a militar! march durin his
rein.
7he 7rans-Siberian "rchestra uses the theme o0 the farando!e 0or their son G7he March o0 the
Cins+3ar> the 3erald 1nelG.
7he =apanese roup mihimaru G7 uses the theme o0 the farando!e 0or their son G7heme o0
mihimaLIM4 2G.
0edit1 3eferen"es
• 6e8 #or> Cit! "pera: Geores BiAet
• Classical 6otes - LB1rlQsienne Suite 6o. $
• Suite 6o. $, LB1rlQsienne
• Finton (ean , BiAet )<.M. (ent U Sons, Ltd., London, $%&H*
0edit1 #]ternal links
• LB1rlQsienne Suites : 9ree scores at the International Music Score Librar! Pro=ect.
Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
"L’Arlésienne": Suite No.1
Prélude
Minuetto
Adagietto
Carillon
When, in 1872, Bizet was commissioned to compose incidental music for a production of
Alphonse Daudet’s play "L’Arlésienne", he had for the first time in his career the opportunity of
working with a writer whose gifts equaled his own. The play caught his imagination, and he
responded with a suite of 27 short numbers scored for chorus and small orchestra. The music
ranged from brief mélodrames (played underneath the action on stage) to substantial entr’actes
and preludes. It responded both to the colourful Provençal setting of the drama and the
psychology of the individual characters to an extent which was unusual for 19th century French
theatre, where the incidental music to a play was generally considered to be rather less
important than the actors’ hairstyles. The production ran for only 21 performances, to largely
empty houses. The audience’s objections seem baffling today; some appear to have resented the
fact that the title character, the "Girl from Arles", does not actually appear in the play, while
others, sad to say, felt that there were "too many overtures". Despite this, Bizet’s faith in the
quality of his music was unshaken, and he took immediate steps to ensure its survival outside
the theatre. He drew a four-movement concert suite from the score, arranged for full orchestra,
and this was performed within a month of the play’s closing at one of Jules Pasdeloup’s
concerts of contemporary music. As a suite, the music was an immediate success, so much so
that the orchestrator Ernest Guiraud created a Second Suite from "L’Arlésienne" four years after
Bizet’s death. Both suites have held the repertoire ever since, although the First Suite,
performed tonight, was the only one sanctioned by Bizet himself.
Set in Provence, "L’Arlésienne" is the story of two young peasants, Fréderi, who is obsessed by
a girl from Arles, and his simple brother, known as "L’Innocent". The girl from Arles never
appears but is a femme fatale in the mould of Bizet’s most celebrated dramatic creation,
Carmen. Fréderi’s unrequited passion gradually drives him to distraction, and at the climax of
the play he throws himself from a high window as the villagers dance a farandole in the streets
below. To the Parisian of 1872 Provence was every bit as exotic as Spain, and the plot gave
Bizet ample opportunity for sun-drenched orchestral colours and folk melodies, as well as some
sensitive musical character-studies. The Prélude is in three sections; first a short set of variations
on the Marcho dei Rei, a melody of unknown Spanish or Provençal origin, then the expressive
saxophone melody which characterises "L’Innocent", and finally the impassioned, chromatic
music associated with Fréderi’s hopeless longing. The graceful Minuetto, with its flowing trio
section, was one of the entr’actes to which the original audience objected so strongly, while the
touching Adagietto (for strings alone) is a mélodrame, originally played beneath a scene in
which two elderly peasants, childhood sweethearts, are re-united. The suite closes with the
sonorous Carillon, the prelude to Act 4 of the play – the bells of the village ring out to celebrate
the festival which will be the setting for the drama’s tragic climax. The short central section,
pastoral in character, comes from another mélodrame, after which Bizet skillfully re-introduces
the bell music to bring the suite to a vigorous conclusion.
R.G. Bratby, 2000
Suite No. 1, "L'Arlsienne"
Georges !i"et
#1$%$&'()
The suite "L'Arlésienne" is one of the two which Bizet arranged as incidental music to
Daudet's play of the same name. It is written in four moements ! "# Allegro deciso$ %#
&inuet# Allegro giocoso$ '# Adagietto$ (# )arillon * Allegro moderato.
The prelude# in march tiome# opens with a igorous theme gien out in unison +y the
woodwinds# horns and iolins. After repetition in the woodwinds# the clarinet haing the
harmony# the theme is wor,ed up the followed +y a su+-ect# arying the theme. It is
then ta,en up fortissimo in full orchestra and gradually dies away. An intermezzo
follows# with a peculiar alternating accompaniment in the clarinet. the moement comes
to its close with a charming melody in the muted strings# accompanied +y the
woodwinds and +rasses. The second moement is a minuet in the usual form with a
trio in imitation of the +agpipe# and third# a tender romanza for the muted strings. The
last moement# )arillon# as its title suggests# imitates a +ell chime. The +ells sound an
accompaniment# a repetition of three notes# against a sprightly little dance theme in the
iolins and other instruments# which is followed +y a pastoral su+-ect of a .uaint sort. At
its conclusion the carillon effect is reproduced and the suite comes to its close.
Ma M`re l=Oye
Ue @ikipediaa la en"i"lopedia libre
Saltar a na2eaciXn, bYs@ueda
Ma M`re l=Oye )MamV Ganso*, es una obra musical del pianista ! compositor 0rancQs Maurice
Pa2el.
Pa2el oriinalmente escribiX Ma M<re !'0ye como un dueto de piano para los niZos Godebs>i,
Mimi ! <ean, de ; ! ' aZos. Pa2el dedicX esta obra para cuatro manos a los niZos, asW como
habWa dedicado un traba=o anterior, Sonatine, a sus padre. <eanne Leleu ! Gene2i~2e (uron!
estrenaron la obra.
La pieAa 0ue transcripta para solo en piano por <ac@ues Charlot, amio de Pa2el, el mismo aZo
en @ue 0ue publicada )$%$/*.
1mbas 2ersiones para piano lle2an el subtWtulo GCin@ pi~ces en0antinesG )Cinco pieAas
in0antiles*. Las cinco pieAas mencionadas son:
• I. avane de !a 2e!!e au -ois dormant
Pa2ane de la Bella (urmiente
Lent
• II. etit oucet
Pularcito
7r~s modQrQ
• III. 6aideronnette/ 3mp8ratrice des pagodes
6iZita 0ea, 4mperatriA de las Paodas
Mou2t de Marche
• IM. 6es entretiens de !a 2e!!e et de !a 2hte
Con2ersaciXn de la Bella ! la Bestia
Mou2t de Malse tr~s modQrQ
• M. 6e 7ardin f8eriiue
4l <ard“n de las 3adas
Lent et ra2e
4n 2arias de las partituras, Pa2el inclu!X notas para indicar claramente lo @ue pretendWa e2ocar.
Por e=emplo, para la seunda pieAa:
GIl cro!ait trou2er aisQment son chemin par le mo!en de son pain @uBil a2ait semQ
partout o” il a2ait passQ? mais il 0ut bien surpris lors@uBil ne put retrou2er une seule
miette: les oiseau5 Qtaient 2enus @ui a2aient tout manQ. )Ch. Perrault.*G
,G4l creWa poder encontrar con 0acilidad el camino, por el pan @ue habWa esparcido por
donde habWa pasado? pero se encontrX mu! sorprendido de no encontrar si@uiera una
mia: las a2es habWan lleado para comerse todo.G.
2e!!a Duriente ! u!garcito 0ueron basadas en 0Vbulas de Charles Perrault, mientras @ue Nidita
fea/ 4mperatri, de !as agodas 0ue inspirada en una historia de la Gri2alG de Perrault, Marie-
Catherine, Condesa de 1ulno!. 4n Qste mo2imiento, Pa2el apro2echa la escala pentXnica. 2e!!a
y 2estia estV basada en la 2ersiXn de <eanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont. 4l orien de 4! &acn
de !as Hadas se desconoce. 4l GMou2t de MarcheG de Nidita fea usa armonWa de cuartos:
Imaen:Pa2el Ma Mere lB"!e Laideronnette.P6G
4n $%$$, Pa2el or@uestX la obra. 4n $%$2 la e5tendiX a ballet areando nue2os mo2imientos e
interludios: GPrQludeG )Preludio* ! G(anse du rouet et sc~neG )4scena ! (anAa e la rueda
iratoria*.
Ma m~re lB"!e
Subtitled )in its 2ersion 0or piano, 0our hands* Gcin@ pi~ces en0antinesG, the GMother GooseG
suite dra8s upon the 0air!-tales o0 Perrault, Mme dB1ulno!, and Mme de Beaumont 0or its
inspiration, and Pa2el souht to 8rite piano music that could be pla!ed b! children, as 8ell as
re0lectin the 8orld o0 childhood. 7he 0i2e oriinal pieces are:
$. Pa2ane de la Belle au Bois (ormant
2. Petit Poucet
3. Laideronnette, impQratrice des paodes
&. Les 4ntretiens de la Belle et de la Bkte
E. Le <ardin 0Qeri@ue.
6o.$ 8as 8ritten in September $%/H, and then, 8ith the encouraement o0 his publisher <ac@ues
(urand, Pa2el 8rote the others in 1pril $%$/. 7he! are dedicated to the t8o children o0 his
0riends the Godebs>is, Mimie and <ean, 8ith the intention that the! 8ould i2e the 0irst
per0ormance. In the e2ent, it pro2ed too di00icult 0or them, and the 8or> 8as per0ormed at a
concert in the Salle Ga2eau on 2/.i2.$%$/, b! the $$-!ear old <eanne Leleu and the $&-!ear old
Gene2i~2e (uron!.
In $%$$ Pa2el 8rote an orchestral 2ersion o0 the suite, and this became the basis o0 the ballet
8hich 8as per0ormed in <anuar! $%$2. 9or this Pa2el 8rote some additional pieces )a PrQlude
and (anse du rouet et sc~ne* as 8ell as some connectin interludes.

GBet8een $%/; and $%/H 8e used to ha2e lon holida!s at m! parentsB house in the countr!, La
Granette at Mal2ins. It 8as there that Pa2el 0inished, or at least brouht us, Ma m~re lB"!e. But
neither m! brother nor I 8as o0 an ae to appreciate such a dedication and 8e rearded it rather
as somethin entailin hard 8or>. Pa2el 8anted us to i2e the 0irst public per0ormance b! the
idea 0ill me 8ith a cold terror. M! brother, bein less timid and more i0ted on the piano, coped
@uite 8ell. But despite lessons 0rom Pa2el I used to 0reeAe to such an e5tent that the idea had to
be abandoned.G )Mimie Godebs>a Blac@ue-Belair ,$%3H., translated b! 6ichols ,$%H'., p.2$*.

G Ma m~re lB"!e, pi~ces en0antines pour piano • @uatre mains, date de $%/H. Le dessein
dBQ2o@uer dans ces pi~ces la poQsie de lBen0ance mBa naturellement conduit • simpli0ier ma
mani~re et • dQpouiller mon Qcriture. <Bai tirQ de cet ou2rae un ballet @ui 0ut montQ par le
7hQ–tre des 1rts: lBou2rae 0ut Qcrit • Mal2ins • lBintention de mes =eunes amis Mimie et <ean
Godebs>i.G )Pa2el ,$%3H.*.

888.maurice-ra2el.net
>ol-ro
<ust be0ore departin on his 1merican 7our in $%2H, Pa2el recei2ed a commission 0rom Ida
Pubinstein 0or a ballet, to be called 9andango. 3is intention 8as to orchestrate some pieces
0rom 3-eria b! 1lbQniA, but as he 8as beinnin 8or> on it in <ul!, he disco2ered that the rihts
to the music 8ere alread! assined to the Spanish composer 4nri@ue 1rbXs. Pa2el 8as initiall!
disma!ed and at a loss ho8 to 0ul0il his commission. 3o8e2er 8hile continuin his holida! in
Saint-<ean-de-LuA, he de2eloped a Spanish-soundin theme 8hich had about it G@uel@ue chose
dBinsistantG.
"L'homme de la rue se
donne la satisfaction
de siffler les premières
mesures du Boléro,
mais bien peu de
musiciens
professionnels sont
capables de reproduire
de mémoire, sans une
faute de solfège, la
phrase entière qui
obéit à de sournoises
et savantes
coquetteries."
( Émile uillermo!,
"#$%&', p.&&(&$).
2o!8ro, as the 8or> 8as renamed, lasts appro5imatel! $E
minutes, and repeats each o0 the themeBs t8o parts % times in
the same >e!, usin di00erent orchestrations to 2ar! the te5ture
and to create a radual crescendo. )7he pattern is 11 BB
repeated & times, and then a sinle repeat o0 1B, leadin to the
modulation 8hich i2es the piece its catacl!smic endin.*
Pa2el 8as insistent that the 8or> should be pla!ed at a stead!
and un2ar!in tempo )as his o8n recordin demonstrates*.
GCBest une danse dBun mou2ement tr~s modQrQ et constamment
uni0orme, tant par la mQlodie @ue par lBharmonie et le r!thme,
ce dernier mar@uQ sans cesse par le tambour. Le seul QlQment
de di2ersitQ ! est apportQ par le crescendo orchestral.G )Pa2el,
,$%3H.*. 10ter a per0ormance in $%3/, he reprimanded
7oscanini 0or ta>in the 8or> too 0ast and 0or speedin up at
the clima5. )Coppola, ,$%&&., p.$/E*
1t the 0irst per0ormance o0 her ballet production, at the
"pQra in 6o2ember $%2H, Ida Pubinstein danced the
role o0 a 0lamenco dancer 8ho is tr!in out steps on a
table in a bar, surrounded b! men 8hose admiration
turns to lust0ul obsession. Pa2el did not entirel!
*n concert performances,
+oléro became ,avel's most
popular -or., and it is
reputed to be the -orld's
most frequentl/ pla/ed piece
appro2e? his o8n conception 8as an outdoor scene in
0ront o0 a 0actor! 8hose machiner! pro2ides the
in0le5ible rh!thm? the 0actor! 8or>ers 8ould emere to
dance toether, 8hile a stor! o0 a bull0ihter >illed b! a
=ealous ri2al 8as pla!ed out. ) Chalupt, ,$%E;., p.23'*.
It 8as per0ormed in this 8a!, 8ith desins b! LQon
Le!ritA, at the "pQra on one occasion a0ter Pa2elBs
death.
of classical music. 0he
ro/alties earned b/ the -or.
up to 122# have been
estimated at 342 million5 an
article outlining the strange
histor/ of this mone/
appeared in 0he 6uardian
on 17 8pril 122#.
Much has been 8ritten about BolQro. "ne detailed anal!sis o0 its structure appears in (eborah
Ma8erBs chapter, GBallet and the apotheosis o0 the danceG, in *he Cam-ridge Companion to
;ave!, ,2///., pp. $EE-$;$. 7he impact o0 its repetiti2e techni@ue )e.. &/3' drum beats* is
considered b! Sere Gut in GLe phQnom~ne rQpQtiti0 cheA Maurice Pa2el: de lBobsession •
lBannihilation incantatoireG, in 3nternationa! ;evie= of the +esthetics and Socio!ogy of Music,
2ol.2$)$* ,<une $%%/., pp.2%-&;. ,9or those 8ith access to <S7"P, an online 2ersion o0 this
article is a2ailable..
Claude LQ2i-Strauss considers the semiotics o0 the 8or> in GBolQro de Maurice Pa2elG, in
6'Homme, 2ol.$$)2*, ,$%'$., pp. E-$&.
1nd 0rom a per0ormerBs perspecti2e, <ean (oua! has 8ritten about the role o0 the trombone -
and ho8 to pla! it - in G7houhts to Ponder: Fhat Fould Pa2el 7hin>l--More 7houhts on
Pa2elBs BBoleroBG, in 3*+ &ourna!, 2ol.2;)2*, ,Sprin $%%H., p. 23.
S"`nes >o*-miennes de b LA JOL2# 52LL# U# P#3)% c Georges >2&#) .6!:! d 6!T9/
LDopQra La =olie 0ille de Perth est moins connu et sou2ent considQrQ comme une oeu2re
mineure. Pourtant, • la crQation au 7hQ–tre l!ri@ue • Paris en $H;', il eu un immense succ~s,
sans doute plus @ue tous les autres opQras du compositeur.
Il 0ut Qcrit entre =uillet et dQcembre $H;;. LDaction se dQroule en 4cosse o” une bohQmienne se
substitue • Catherine pour con@uQrir le c—ur du duc de Pothsa!.
CDest de cet opQra @ue sont e5traites les Sc~nes bohQmiennes pour orchestre @ue "LP1P 2ous
interpr~te au=ourdDhui:
I. PrQlude
II. SQrQnade
III. (anse bohQmienne
martes, 12 de noviembre de 1229
El pianismo final de Brahms
8utor5 Juan Antonio González Fuentes ( Lecturas":&2' ;omentarios"2'
8rtes en +log personal por <=sica
La música escrita para piano por Brahms en el final de su vida es un diario
preciso cara a cara con la muerte
<uan 1ntonio GonAVleA 9uentes

1 punto de cumplir sesenta aZos, ! acompaZado de un pe@ueZo rupo de amios, >ra*ms
iniciX su octa2o ! Yltimo 2ia=e a su adorada Italia, ! mVs concretamente a la isla de Sicilia. 1l
rereso se instalX en 2s"*l, una localidad balneario cercana a Miena eleida aZos atrVs por Ql
como luar de retiro ! meditaciXn. 4n Ischl es donde >ra*ms encontrX la serenidad necesaria
para en0rentarse a los @ue serWan sus Yltimos traba=os pianWsticos, los nue2os 5!avierstgc5e )op.
$$;, op. $$', op. $$H ! op. $$%*, composiciones @ue dentro del conte5to de la mYsica
brahmsiana suponen el inicio de la Yltima etapa creati2a, la 0ormada entre otras obras por las
sonatas para clarinete o los preludios para Xrano, todas esenciales dentro del uni2erso musical
tardorromVntico.

La crWtica ha seZalado en multitud de ocasiones @ue le correspondiX al piano el e=ercer de puerta
de entrada a los di2ersos periodos producti2os del compositor hamburuQs. La mYsica para
piano le sir2iX siempre a Brahms como espacio de trVnsito ! e5perimentaciXn, buscando en su
sonido las cla2es @ue le a!udasen a cerrar una etapa creati2a e inauurar otra. 4n este sentido
los Yltimos 5!avierstgc5e no 0ueron una e5cepciXn.




4scritas en los aZos $H%2 ! $H%3, estas cuatro colecciones se presentan con0ormadas por pieAas
de di2ersa naturaleAa )caprichos, intermedios, romanAas, una -erceuse...*, lo @ue da una idea de
la rica 2ariedad de 0uerAas @ue recorren las partituras. Brahms rechaAaba lo literario o
proramVtico en relaciXn a lo estrictamente musical, ! los 5!avierstgc5e postreros permanecen
a=enos a cual@uier retXrica @ue no tena @ue 2er con desnudar el espWritu de 0orma tierna !
sincera. Sergio Martinotti e5plica @ue Brahms Jsupo adecuar el amor por las cosas terrenas a
a@uella nostalia de ideales repetidamente @ue=osos, cuando se abrWan los 2acWos e5istenciales de
su Vnimo ! cuando, transcurridas las horas de traba=o ! rela=aciXn, al artista le inundaba el
tedium vitae..., la 2anidad ! el dolor del mundo, el sentimiento de soledad ! de pro5imidad de la
muerte. Por estos rasos, de los @ue los traba=os 0inales para piano son en 2erdad un diario
precioso e Wntimamente sincero, Brahms se con2ierte en el primer ran e5ponente del
decadentismo, entendido como conciencia de la propia posiciXn histXricaK.

4ste JpianismoK 0inal de Brahms con0orma las con0idencias 0inales de un hombre maduro @ue
camina hacia la muerte sumerido en la soledad ! la meditaciXn, a=eno a lo @ue Ql mismo
denominaba la JturbulenciaK de la ciudad. Con0idencias construidas siuiendo la clVsica 0orma
tripartita del !ied, con dos partes simQtricas @ue encierran un tema central con el @ue establecen
relaciXn de carVcter 2ariable, ! donde no es di0Wcil 2islumbrar las alaradas sombras de
S"*umann ! S"*ubert. # en esta escritura para piano Yltima ha! alo tambiQn de e2ocaciXn
=u2enil puesta en lWrica relaciXn con la pasiXn otoZal? ha! tierna 2italidad, melancXlica audacia,
! sobre todo emocionante con0idencialidad. (el con=unto la pieAa @ue siempre ha despertado
ma!or interQs es el 3ntermedio nj k, probablemente la obra maestra del pianismo tardWo de
Brahms? una Jtraedia condensadaK en palabras de 5uller8Maitland, donde cara a cara con la
muerte Brahms concentra toda la 0uerAa emoti2a de los intermedios anteriores ! la sobrepasa,
mostrando una decadente adhesiXn al sentir romVntico, pero abriendo paso ademVs a otros
reistros @ue apuntan un horiAonte e5presionista.

7uesda!, 6o2ember 2%, 2//E
Pobert SchumannBs Creisleriana - H 9antasies 0or Piano
)6ote: Fhile !ou are readin this, be sure to do8nload the man! di00erent recordins o0 this
8or> 8ith eMusicBs 0ree trial. #ou et E/ mp3s 0or 0ree no matter 8hat 8ith no obliations.*
It onl! too> Pobert Schumann & da!s in 1pril o0 $H3H to 8rite Creisleriana, H 9antasies 0or
Piano, "p. $;. In the score, Schumann dedicated the 8or> to Chopin. 3o8e2er, li>e man! o0 his
compositions, Creisleriana is reall! a testament o0 his lo2e to Clara Fiec>.
Schumann 8rote o0 Creisleriana that Gthe title is understandable onl! to Germans. Creisler is a
0iure created b! 4.7.1. 3o00mann ... an eccentric, 8ild and cle2er Capellmeister.G 7he piece
has all o0 those @ualities that Schumann described o0 Creisler, but it is also, at times, 2er! tender
and passionate.
7he 0irst 0antas! is titled G1usserst be8etG 8hich translates as G45tremel! mo2in.G It beins
8ith a 8ild section in the >e! o0 ( minor. Soon there is a transition into a l!rical B 0lat ma=or
central section. 7he mo2ement concludes 8ith a return to the >e! o0 ( minor.
7he ne5t 0antas! is GSehr inni und nicht Au raschG )Mer! in8ardl! and not too @uic>l!*. It
beins 8ith a slo8, re0lecti2e B 0lat ma=or section. 7his leads into a @uic> IntermeAAo in G
minor 0ollo8ed b! a return to the openin section. 10ter the recap o0 the openin section,
another IntermeAAo in G minor appears this time in a more passionate uise. 7he IntermeAAo
mo2es into dar> chromaticism that 0inds its 8a! bac> to the 0inal appearance o0 the openin.
GSehr au0ereG )Mer! aitated* also contains another l!rical slo8 mo2ement in the >e! o0 B 0lat
ma=or that is 0lan>ed b! t8o outer @uic> section in G minor that are 2er! similar to those o0 the
0irst mo2ement.
GSehr lansamG )Mer! slo8l!* is once aain in B 0lat ma=or. 7his is one o0 the most l!rical and
poetic o0 the eiht mo2ements. 7he mo2ement sets a tran@uil atmosphere re0lecti2e o0
SchumannBs lo2e 0or Clara.
6e5t comes GSehr lebha0tG )Mer! li2el!*. Consists o0 t8o trios in G minor in triple-time. In this
ScherAo-li>e mo2ement, the 0irst trio is capricious and merr! 8hile the second builds to a
po8er0ul clima5.
1nother GSehr lansamG mo2ement 0ollo8s. 7his mo2ement, the essence o0 Creisleriana, starts
in 8ith another s8eet melod! in B 0lat ma=or but soon trans0orms into a spirited C minor and
then bac> to the the B 0lat ma=or section.
7he most 0ier! o0 the set, GSehr raschG )Mer! 9ast* comes ne5t. In C minor, the mo2ement
heihtens to a 0e2erishl!-pitched 0uato until it 0inall! resol2es into a calm conclusion.
7he set concludes 8ith GSchnell und spielendG )9ast and pla!0ul*. In the >e! o0 G minor, the
riht hand Aips alon 8ith a sprihtl! melod! 8hile the le0t hand accompanies 8ith slo8
octa2es that are slihtl! out o0 time. 7he set comes to a slihtl! uncertain end 8ith a slo8, @uiet
descent into the lo8er reaches o0 the >e!board.
Li>e the dual personalities o0 Creisler, SchumannBs Creisleriana also seems to alternate
personalities. 1t times it is 8ild, eccentric and cle2er li>e Schumann described o0 Creisler.
3o8e2er, it is e@uall! tender, l!rical and romantic at other times.
See also: Pobert SchumannBs S!mphonic 4tudes
M:SIC "9 (4SIP4
CP4ISL4PI161
Cop!riht ˜ 2///, Iori 9u=ita
)*e Se"ret of (reisleriana
Fh! did Pobert Schumann name this 8or> as GCreislerianaGl 7his @uestion made me start to
thin> about its enima and complicated intention o0 Pobert to8ards this 8or>. Creisleriana is
2er! special 0or me and, ma!be, 0or e2er! classic music enthusiast. Fhen I 8as t8ent! !ears
old, I heard this 8or> 0or the 0irst time.
42er! critic has said almost the same thins li>e 0ollo8in?
GSchumannBs Creisleriana 8as based on a 0ictional character created b! the 8riter
4.7.1.3o00mann, 8ho 8as a musician, too. 3e had in2ented poor <ohannes Creisler as a
s!mbol 0or the misunderstood musician, paintin him as a >ind o0 clo8n. Creisler, some said,
8as 3o00mann himsel0, 0reed 0rom the shac>les o0 societ! b! the BmadnessB o0 music.G
7he truth ma! be?
7he 0ictional Creisler pla!ed the Goldber Mariations in the beinnin part o0 the short no2el b!
4.7.1.3o00mann. But Pobert Schumann actuall! 8as not 0amiliar 8ith the Goldber Mariations
so much as 8e anticipated, e2en he 8as deepl! interested in 0ues and canons o0 <.S.Bach. I0 he
had 0ound out the healin po8er o0 that 8or>, he 8ould ha2e li2ed a little more com0ortable li0e
8ithout se2ere insomnia. Clara could ha2e pla!ed it 0or him to so0ten his aon!.
GSchumann 8as obsessed b! 3o00mannBs creation, possibl! because his o8n di00iculties 8ith
societ! are leion, and he reconiAed that Creisler is a clo8n onl! because people did not >no8
ho8 to ta>e him seriousl!. 42entuall! the clo8nBs underl!in seriousness dri2es him mad.G
7he truth ma! be?
In !ouner da!s, Pobert 8as not a man 8ho underestimated himsel0. 3e 8as briht and eliible.
Fh! had he to ma>e himsel0 0ool li>e a clo8n to8ards belo2ed Claral Instead he intended to be
a reat musician. 1nd he seriousl! needed ClaraBs e5istence beside him.
3o8 man! o0 !ou ha2e read 3o00mannBs 8or>sl I dared to read some o0 them. Fhat I can sa!
a0ter readin them is that it is not necessar! 0or !ou to read an! o0 3o00mannBs 8or>s in order to
e5perience Creisleriana comprehensi2el!.
GIn 1pril $H3H Schumann 8rote to his 0uture 8i0e, Clara, that he had 8ritten a piece 8hich he
8as oin to call Creisleriana and that she 8ould smile 8hen she disco2ered hersel0 in it. She
must indeed ha2e smiled, 0or in se2en o0 eiht mo2ements appears a theme she hersel0 had
8ritten, a simple line o0 0i2e descendin steps )onl! 6o.' is 8ithout it*.
G42en in those da!s o0 his comparati2e !outh, the e2errecurrin strule bet8een rationalit! and
irrationalit!.G
GCreisleriana, sini0icantl! subtitled 9antasien, 8as 8ritten in 0our da!s, its inspiration 0loodin
li>e a sprin ri2er in 0ull spate. 1s so o0ten 8ith Schumann an elaborate literar! proramme
thinl! disuise an essentiall! personal touch. Fritin to his belo2ed Clara, he said GPla! m!
Creisleriana o0ten. 1 positi2el! 8ild lo2e is in some o0 the mo2ements, and !our li0e and mine,
and the 8a! !ou loo>.G
7he musicBs stri>in chromatism e5presses as much as an!thin in rh!thmic intricac! 8hich
caused Clara, a lad! o0ten inclined to con0use her husbandBs deepest con0idences 8ith obscurit!,
to complain o0 needless cloudiness. G
G7he second intermeAAo 0rom 2 in particular is startlin e2en toda!, and has been aptl!
characteriAed as BromanticiAed baro@ueB.
GMost o0 the pieces are in rondo 0orm 8ith contrasted and related intermeAAi. 7he concludin
march in one o0 those spectral dances, its turnin more and more 0re@uentl! 0rom a happ!
e5tro2erted openness to disturbinl! tormented 8orld o0 his o8n. G
7he truth should be?
Pobert 8anted to name this 8or> as BClara, m! Lo2eB or BI 8ant !ou, ClaraB. But he 8as in 0iht
8ith her 0ather 8ho intended to disrace Pobert Schumann to a2oid their marriae. 7hese
situations are 8ell>no8n.
So actuall! he could not name it li>e those. But o0 course Clara undersood the real meanin o0
this name. So she miht ha2e smiled.
M:SIC "9 (4SIP4
CP4ISL4PI161
Cop!riht ˜ 2///, Iori 9u=ita
---------7his is a 0iction.---------
Cipher
1 transposition cipher is one in 8hich the letters o0 the plainte5t are retained but are mo2ed
0rom their normal position. 1n anaram, such as B34BS 1 SP41C4P.B 0or BS31C4SP41P4B, is
a t!pe o0 transposition cipher.
1naram
It is a 8ord or phrase made b! transposin the letters o0 another 8ord or phrase.
1 CL1MI4P
I am loo>in at G 1 CL1MI4P G. #ou ma! 0ind G IB2e Clara.G Is that riht l So I can dream o0
!ou.
Clara\ #ou\ Pure\
CL1P1 SI4 P4I6
C P 4 I S L 4 P I 1 6 1
CL1P1 SI4 P4I6
Clara\ #ou\ Pure\
Clara
Pobert al8a!s treated me as an ob=ect o0 desire, and at the same time onl! as a
per0ormin pianist 0or him. I didnBt li>e his 8a! o0 thin>in. I could not
endure this >ind o0 thin.
)*e 2llness of 3obert S"*umann
Pobert Schumann came to li2e and stud! 8ith Fiec> in $H3/, and as>ed permission to marr!
Clara in $H3'? Fiec> ob=ected, and did all he could to pre2ent the 8eddin be0ore ClaraBs 2$st
birthda! 8hen she 8ould be leall! able 8ithout his consent? Pobert and Clara 0iled a la8suit,
and 8on, but out o0 spite 8ent ahead and married the da! be0ore her birthda!, September $2,
$H&/.
"n the da! 0ollo8in their 8eddin, Pobert Schumann a2e a ne8 diar! to Clara 0or her
birthda!, recommendin that the! 8rite and e5chane the diar! 8ee>l!, so that each could pen
re0lections on music the! had heard, pro=ects the! 8ere 8or>in on, and an! personal notes to
the other that spo>en 8ords could not e5press. 7he! also 8rote about the people the! met, those
8ith 8hom the! dined and per0ormed their music.
Pobert needed Clara so badl!.
Clara and Pobert had eiht children )ten prenancies*, and their proli0ic medical histor!
continues to be the sub=ect o0 man! boo>s. Because o0 the ph!sical and mental instabilit! o0 her
husband, Clara too> man! o0 the 0amil! responsibilities upon hersel0. 7hese >ept her 0rom
practicin, per0ormin, and composin. 1lso, the pro5imit! o0 their t8o pianos o0ten made it
impossible 0or Pobert and Clara to 8or> at home simultaneousl!? the! distracted each other.
Ine2itabl!, Clara 8ould set her music aside in de0erence to Pobert.
7he! 0irst li2ed in LeipAi 8here the! both tauht in the Conser2ator! there? the! mo2ed to
(resden in $H&&, to (uesseldor0 in $HE/.
7heir children 8ere: Marie )$H&$-$%2%*, 4lise )$H&3-$%2H*, <ulie )$H&E-'2*, 4mil )$H&;-&'*,
Lud8i )$H&H-%%*, 9erdinand )$H&%-%$*, 4uenie )$HE$-$%3H*, 9eli5 )$HE&-'%*.
<ohannes Brahms )$H33-$H%'* met the Schumanns in $HE3, and remained a dear 0riend o0 both
8hile the! li2ed.
7he circumstance o0 the $H&% re2olution in (resden 2i2idl! illustrates the role that Clara pla!ed
in their 0amil!. Fhen it seemed that Pobert miht be dra0ted into the con0lict, the! e2acuated
8ith their 0irst dauhter Marie to nearb! Ma5en and the relati2e sa0et! o0 the castle belonin to
9riedrich Serre. Clara then returned across battle lines 8ith t8o other 8omen to retrie2e her
other three children ™ all this 8hile she 8as se2en months prenant.
PobertBs mental health 8as poor, and 0ollo8in a suicide attempt in $HE&, he 8as committed
to the as!lum at 4ndenich? he is said to ha2e su00ered 0rom manic depression and ps!chosis.
Pobert Schumann died in the as!lum at 4ndenich near Bonn on <ul! 2%, $HE;.
)*e @is* of $lara
1s the dauhter o0 a 0amous piano teacher 9riedrich Fiec>, she 8as i0ted 0rom 0ine trainin
and a heritae o0 musical talent. Fiec> @uic>l! reconiAed ClaraBs prodiious talents and
de2eloped her career as a piano 2irtuosa 0rom 2er! earl!.
9ollo8in PobertBs death in $HE;, Clara de2oted hersel0 to editin his 8or>s and
correspondences, and concertiAin 8idel! to support the 0amil!. 7he reason 8h! she did so is
that she intended to conceal his secrets. 3e said somethin 8ron to her man! times. But he
>ne8 nothin about his o8n mal intention. 3er li0e 8as sometimes happ! and man! times
reret0ul. 1n abnormal enius and a normal enius, 8hich had to ta>e care o0 the otherl
1s Creisleriana Clara tried to conceal the se5ual intention o0 Pobert b! thro8 some letters 0rom
him a8a! 0ore2er.
)*e A"*ie+ement of Vladimir %orowit_
Pecorded in 9ebruar! and (ecember $%;% in 6e8 #or> Cit!
Peleased in $%'/
Pa!in time about 32 minutes
GI ha2e been a health! man all throuh m! li0e.
1n!thin could not beat me do8n. 7he reason 8hich made me decide to pla! Creisleriana 8as
not sure e2en 0or me. But I did m! best 0or it. In that !ear, the LP 8as the best classical hit o0
the 8orld.G
Mladimir 3oro8itA set the Mariations on the 7heme b! Clara Fiec> in ad2ance 8ith
Creisleriana 0or his LP record. 7his combination is supernatural. But 8h!l
3oro8itA 8as born in Pussia, $%/3. 3e died in 6e8 #or> Cit!, $%H%.
Fhat did Mladimir 3oro8itA sa! about Pobert Schumann and+or Creisleriana l
(reisleriana
Ue @ikipediaa la en"i"lopedia libre
Saltar a na2eaciXn, bYs@ueda
Pobert Schumann en $H3%.
Kreisleriana )op. $;* es un rupo de ocho pieAas tempranas, para piano, compuestas por Pobert
Schumann, ! publicadas ba=o el tWtulo de hantasien fgr das ianoforte. La obra 0ue compuesta
en abril de $H3H ! estV dedicada a 9rQdQric Chopin. Suele decirse @ue es mu! dramVtica ! @ue es
una de las me=oras pieAas para piano de Schumann.
Parece e2idente, aun@ue no e5iste una re0erencia e5plWcita a esto, @ue la Kreis!eriana estV
basada en el persona=e de 0icciXn <ohannes Creisler, de 4.7.1. 3o00mann. Como Creisler, estas
pieAas tienen partes contrastantes, lo @ue parece una re0erencia al comportamiento manWaco
depresi2o del persona=e, ! @uiAVs los caracteres imainarios @ue representaban al mismo
Schumann, 9lorestan ! 4usebius. MVs 0ormalmente, las pieAas estVn escritas en 0orma de rondX,
con una secciXn media normalmente rVpida.
<ohannes Creisler aparece en 2arias obras de 3o00man, pero mVs notablemente en la titulada
9antasiestgc5e in Ca!!ots Manier )9antascas a !a manera de Ca!!ot, $H$&*.
Schumann mencionX 0recuentemente en su correspondencia esta pieAa. 1 su esposa, Clara
Schumann, le escribiX lo siuiente:
*oca mi Creisleriana a menudo. 4n a!gunos movimientos hay ciertamente un amor
sa!va7e/ y tu vida y !a mca/ y cfmo eres.
3eferen"ias 0editar1
• Schumann. 6a mlsica para piano, <oan Chissell, Idea Boo>s, S.1., Barcelona
"btenido de Ghttp:++es.8i>ipedia.or+8i>i+CreislerianaG
#nigma Variations
9rom Fi>ipedia, the 0ree enc!clopedia
<ump to: na2iation, search
Variations on an Original )*eme for or"*estraa Op. : .e#nigmae/, commonl! re0erred to
as the e#nigmae Variations, is a set o0 a theme and its 0ourteen 2ariations 8ritten 0or orchestra
b! 4d8ard 4lar in $H%HO%%. It is 4larBs best->no8n lare-scale composition, 0or both the
music itsel0 and the enimas behind it. 4lar dedicated the piece to Gm! 0riends pictured
8ithinG, each 2ariation bein an a00ectionate portra!al o0 one o0 his circle o0 close
ac@uaintances.
$ontents
,hide.
• $ 3istor!
• 2 Music
o 2.$ "rchestration
o 2.2 Structure
 2.2.$ 7heme )1ndante*
 2.2.2 Mariation $ )LBistesso tempo* GC.1.4.G
 2.2.3 Mariation 2 )1llero* G3.(.S-P.G
 2.2.& Mariation 3 )1lleretto* GP.B.7.G
 2.2.E Mariation & )1llero di molto* GF.M.B.G
 2.2.; Mariation E )Moderato* GP.P.1.G
 2.2.' Mariation ; )1ndantino* G#sobelG
 2.2.H Mariation ' )Presto* G7ro!teG
 2.2.% Mariation H )1lleretto* GF.6.G
 2.2.$/ Mariation % )1daio* G6imrodG
 2.2.$$ Mariation $/ )IntermeAAo: 1lleretto* G(orabellaG
 2.2.$2 Mariation $$ )1llero di molto* GG.P.S.G
 2.2.$3 Mariation $2 )1ndante* GB.G.6.G
 2.2.$& Mariation $3 )PomanAa: Moderato* Gš š šG
 2.2.$E Mariation $& )9inale: 1llero Presto* G4.(.:.G
• 3 7he enima
• & Pe0erences in other music
• E 6otable recordins
• ; Pe0erences in popular culture
• ' Pe0erences
• H 45ternal lin>s
0edit1 %istory
"ne account o0 the pieceBs enesis is that a0ter a tirin da! o0 teachin in $H%H, 4lar 8as
da!dreamin at the piano. 1 melod! he pla!ed cauht the attention o0 his 8i0e, 8ho li>ed it and
as>ed him to repeat it 0or her. So, to entertain his 8i0e, he bean to impro2ise 2ariations on this
melod!, each one either a musical portrait o0 one o0 their 0riends, or in the musical st!le the!
miht ha2e used. 4lar e2entuall! e5panded and orchestrated these impro2isations into the
G4nimaG 2ariations.
7he piece 8as premiered at St <amesBs 3all, London, on $% <une $H%%, conducted b! 3ans
Pichter. Critics 8ere at 0irst irritated b! the la!er o0 m!sti0ication, but most praised the
substance, structure, and orchestration o0 the 8or>. It has been popular e2er since.
0edit1 Musi"
0edit1 Or"*estration
7he 8or> is scored 0or 2 0lutes )one doublin piccolo*, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B 0lat, 2 bassoons,
contrabassoon, & horns in 9, 3 trumpets in 9, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, side drum, trianle,
bass drum, c!mbals, oran )ad lib* and strins.
0edit1 Stru"ture
7he 8or> consists o0 the theme, 0ollo8ed b! $& 2ariations. 7he 2ariations sprin 0rom the
themeBs melodic, harmonic and )especiall!* rh!thmic elements, and the e5tended 0ourteenth
2ariation 0orms a rand 0inale.
4lar dedicated the piece to Gm! 0riends pictured 8ithinG and in the score each 2ariation is
pre0aced 8ith either a nic>name or initials, a clue to the identit! o0 the 0riend depicted. 7he
sections o0 the piece are as 0ollo8s.
0edit1 )*eme .Andante/
7he theme consists o0 t8o contrastin melodic 0raments, 8ith the 0irst one bein the
main theme:
7he main theme is pla!ed b! the 0irst 2iolins at the beinnin. It is pla!ed 0or a second
time, 8ith a slihtl! di00erent accompaniment, a0ter the second melod! has been
introduced b! the 8ood8inds. Both 0raments are 0urther de2eloped in the 0ollo8in
2ariations.
0edit1 Variation 6 .L=istesso tempo/ e$.A.#.e
Caroline 1lice 4lar, 4d8ardBs 8i0e. 7he 2ariation contains repetitions o0 a 0our-note
melodic 0rament 8hich 4lar reportedl! 8histled 8hene2er arri2in home to his 8i0e?
8ith a little imaination, somethin li>e G(ar-lin, IBm homeG...
0edit1 Variation ? .Allegro/ e%.U.S8P.e
3e8 (a2id Steuart-Po8ell, a pianist 0riend 8ith 8hom 4lar and Basil 6e2inson )o0
Mariation $2* o0ten pla!ed chamber music.
0edit1 Variation : .Allegretto/ e3.>.).e
Pichard Ba5ter 7o8nsend, an amateur actor and mimic, capable o0 e5treme chanes in
the pitch o0 his 2oice, a characteristic 8hich the music imitates.
0edit1 Variation A .Allegro di molto/ e@.M.>.e
Filliam Meath Ba>er, s@uire o0 3as0ield, Gloucestershire and builder o0 9enton, Sto>e-
on-7rent, 8ho Be5pressed himsel0 some8hat enereticall!B. 7his is the shortest o0 the
2ariations.
0edit1 Variation 9 .Moderato/ e3.P.A.e
Pichard Penrose 1rnold, the son o0 the poet Matthe8 1rnold, and himsel0 an amateur
pianist. 7his 2ariation leads into the ne5t 8ithout pause.
0edit1 Variation .Andantino/ efsobele
Isabel 9itton, a 2iola pupil o0 4lar. 7he melod! o0 this 2ariation is pla!ed b! the 2iola.
0edit1 Variation T .Presto/ e)roytee
1rthur 7ro!te Gri00iths, an architect. 7he 2ariation ood-naturedl! mimics his
enthusiastic incompetence on the piano.
0edit1 Variation ! .Allegretto/ e@.B.e
Fini0red 6orbur!, a 0riend 4lar rearded as particularl! eas!oin, hence the
relati2el! rela5ed atmosphere. 1t the end o0 this 2ariation, a sinle 2iolin note is held
o2er into the ne5t 2ariation, the most celebrated o0 the set.
0edit1 Variation 7 .Adagio/ eBimrode
1uustus <. <aeer, 4larBs best 0riend. It is said that this 2ariation, as 8ell as an attempt
to capture 8hat 4lar sa8 as <aeerBs noble character, depicts a niht-time 8al> the t8o
o0 them had, durin 8hich the! discussed the slo8 mo2ements o0 Lud8i 2an
Beetho2en. 7he 0irst eiht bars resemble, and ha2e been said to represent, the beinnin
o0 the second mo2ement o0 Beetho2enBs 4ihth Piano Sonata )Patheti@ue*. 7he name o0
the 2ariation punninl! re0ers to an "ld 7estament patriarch described as a miht!
hunter, the name <aeer bein German 0or hunter.
7his 2ariation has become popular in its o8n riht and is sometimes used at 0unerals,
memorial ser2ices, and other solemn occasions. It is al8a!s pla!ed at the Cenotaph in
London on Pemembrance Sunda! )the Sunda! nearest to $$th 6o2ember*.
45cerpt per0ormed b! the Po!al Scottish 6ational "rchestra.
Complete 2ariation per0ormed b! the Chicao S!mphon! "rchestra conducted b!
(aniel Barenboim.
Complete 2ariation per0ormed b! the Massed Bands o0 the 3ousehold Ca2alr! at the
2//' Pemembrance (a! at the Cenotaph.
0edit1 Variation 6S .2nterme__o: Allegretto/ eUorabellae
(ora Penn!, a 0riend 8hose stutter )or lauh, dependin on the source* is depicted b!
the 8ood8inds. (ora 8as the stepdauhter o0 the sister o0 Filliam Meath Ba>er,
inspiration 0or the 0ourth 2ariation, and sister-in-la8 o0 Pichard Ba5ter 7o8nsend,
inspiration 0or the third. She 8as also the recipient o0 another o0 4larBs enimas, the so-
called (orabella Cipher.
0edit1 Variation 66 .Allegro di molto/ eG.3.S.e
Geore Pobertson Sinclair, the eneretic oranist o0 3ere0ord Cathedral. More
speci0icall!, the 2ariation also depicts SinclairBs bulldo (an, and a 8al> b! the Pi2er
F!e 8ith Sinclair and 4lar 8hen (an 0ell into the ri2er.
0edit1 Variation 6? .Andante/ e>.G.B.e
Basil G. 6e2inson, a 8ell >no8n cellist, 8ho ets a cello melod! 0or his 2ariation.
Later, 6e2inson inspired 4lar to 8rite his Cello Concerto.
0edit1 Variation 6: .3oman_a: Moderato/ eg g ge
Because o0 the lac> o0 initials, the identit! o0 this person is unclear and remains an
enima 8ithin the 4nima. 3o8e2er, the music includes a @uotation 0rom 9eli5
MendelssohnBs concert o2erture Ca!m Sea and rosperous Voyage )Meeressti!!e und
g!gc5!iche 9ahrt*, 8hich leads to speculation that it depicts either Lad! Mar! L!on,
local noble8oman on a 2o!ae to 1ustralia at the time, or 3elen Fea2er, 8ho 8as
4larBs 0iancQe be0ore she emirated to 6e8 Tealand in $HH&. 1t certain inter2als, the
timpani create a sound reminiscent o0 a shipBs enines, b! means o0 hard stic>s or,
traditionall!, coins.
0edit1 Variation 6A .5inale: Allegro Presto/ e#.U.4.e
4lar himsel0, 4du bein his 8i0eBs nic>name 0or him. 7he themes 0rom the 0irst and
ninth 2ariations are echoed. 7he oriinal Mariation $& is $// bars shorter than the
2ersion no8 usuall! pla!ed. In <ul! $H%%, one month a0ter the oriinal 2ersion 8as
0inished, 4larBs 0riend <aeer, the person depicted in Mariation %, ured 4lar to ma>e
the 2ariation a little loner. 4lar e2entuall! areed, and added an oran part.
)6ote: on some recordins, the 7heme and the $st 2ariation are con0lated into a sinle trac>.*
1s 8as common 8ith painted portraits o0 the time, 4larBs musical portraits depict their sub=ects
at t8o le2els. 4ach mo2ement con2e!s a eneral impression o0 its sub=ectBs personalit!? in
addition, most o0 them contain a musical re0erence to a speci0ic characteristic or e2ent, such as
(orabellaBs stutter, Fini0red 6orbur!Bs lauh, or the 8al> in the 8oods 8ith <aeer.
0edit1 )*e enigma
7he G4nimaG o0 the title re0ers to t8o puAAles. 7he 0irst puAAle is to determine 8hich o0 4larBs
0riends each 2ariation represents, and this has been sol2ed 8ith some certaint! as outlined
abo2e. 4lar himsel0 e2entuall! pro2ided brie0 notes on the sub=ects to accompan! a piano roll
2ersion o0 the Mariations. 3o8e2er, there also is a second, hidden theme, upon 8hich all
2ariations are based, 8hich is ne2er heard. In a note he 8rote 0or the 0irst per0ormance, 4lar
declared:
*he enigma 3 =i!! not eCp!ain A its 'dar5 saying' must -e !eft unguessed/ and 3 =arn you
that the apparent connection -et=een the Variations and the *heme is often of the
s!ightest teCturem further/ through and over the =ho!e set another and !arger theme
'goes'/ -ut is not p!ayed.... So the principa! *heme never appears/ even as in some !ate
dramas ... the chief character is never on stage.
4lar did 8rite about the theme in a set o0 notes issued 8ith pianola rolls published in $%2%. 3e
said:
*he a!ternation of the t=o iuavers and t=o crotchets in the first -ar and their reversa!
in the second -ar =i!! -e noticedm references to this grouping are a!most continuous
%either me!odica!!y or in the accompanying figures A in Variation n333/ -eginning at -ar
11 o#'@p/ for eCamp!e). *he drop of a seventh in the *heme %-ars @ and >) shou!d -e
o-served. +t -ar ( %" ma7or) appears the rising and fa!!ing passage in thirds =hich is
much used !ater/ e.g. Variation 333/ -ars 1'.1k. o1'k/ 112p A 4.4.
"thers, ho8e2er, ha2e thouht that the hidden theme 8as itsel0 a 2ariation on some 8ell >no8n
tune. Man! ha2e uessed at 8hat this miht be.
9red Childs on 6PP, (ecember 2', 2//', inter2ie8ed a chemical enineer 8ho said that he had
determined that the musical puAAle o0 the enima is the mathematical 2alue o0 Pi )3.$&2*.
Some ha2e proposed the tune o0 the British national anthem, GGod Sa2e the IueenG as the
enima themeBs inspiration? others pre0er G1uld Lan S!neG transposed to a minor >e!, 8hich
suits the sub=ect o0 Gold ac@uaintanceG. Some music scholars belie2e the theme ma! be based on
part o0 MoAartBs GPraueG S!mphon!, 8hich 8as on the proram at the G4nimaG MariationsB
premiere in $H%%. 1lso proposed has been the traditional Penaissance theme La 9olia, 8hose
chords rouhl! 0it the theme, althouh 4larBs use o0 accented se2enth notes 8ould ha2e been a
decidedl! nineteenth-centur! adaptation. 1 currentl! popular theor! is that the theme is related
to the Gne2er, ne2er, ne2erG section o0 GPule BritanniaG? in particular, the phrase is clearl!
audible in the 0irst 0i2e notes o0 the 8or>, and there are se2eral other possible hints in 4larBs
o8n statements, in particular GSo the principal 7heme never appears, e2en as in some late
dramas ... the chie0 character is never on stae.G 3o8e2er, the 8ord Gne2erG can be related as
8ell to the second line o0 1uld Lan S!ne G1nd ne2er brouht to mindG, 8hich 0its )also
musicall!* 8ith the theor! postulated b! 4ric Sams in $%'/. 7he most recent theor!, proposed
b! Cli2e McClelland o0 the :ni2ersit! o0 Leeds, suests that the hidden theme is the h!mn
tune G6o8 the da! is o2erG. :nli>e most theories, this deals con2incinl! 8ith all 2& notes o0
the main theme? the l!rics too 0it in eleantl! 8ith 4larBs Bdar> sa!inB.
,$.
"thers belie2e that the unheard theme is actuall! a countermelod! to some other tune N in
other 8ords it 8ould 0it in 8ith it, but does not necessaril! contain any o0 its characteristics
other than the most eneral harmonic or structural outline.
It is usuall! assumed that the unheard theme is a melod!, but it should be noted that 4lar did
not e5plicitl! state that this 8as so.
1nother theor!, postulated b! Pro0essor Ian Parrott, 0ormer 2ice-president o0 the 4lar Societ!,
in his boo> on 4lar )GMaster MusiciansG, $%'$* 8as that the Gdar> sa!inG, and possibl! the
8hole o0 the 4nima 8as related to the Mulate 2ersion o0 $ Corinthians $3:$2 8hich reads:
G2idemus nunc per speculum in enigmate tunc autem 0acie ad 0aciem nunc conosco e5 parte
tunc autem conoscam sicut et conitus sumG 8hich reads accordin to the 1uthorised Mersion:
G9or no8 8e see throuh a lass, dar>l!? but then 0ace to 0ace: no8 I >no8 in part? but then
shall I >no8 e2en as also I am >no8n.G. 7his 2erse is 0rom St. PaulBs essa! on lo2e. 7he
4nimatic 7heme that BoesB, but is not pla!edG Gthrouh and o2er the 8hole setG is the reat and
central theme o0 Christian scripture - lo2e.
0edit1 3eferen"es in ot*er musi"
• 4lar himsel0 @uoted man! o0 his o8n 8or>s, includin Nimrod )Mariation %*, in his
choral piece o0 $%$2, *he Music Ma5ers.
• In $%%E, Pob (ouanBs hit son Clubbed 7o (eath 0eatured a piano part reminiscent o0
the 7heme and 2ariations $ and $2, that could be seen either as a ne8 $Eth 2ariation, or
his attempt at recreatin the enimatic hidden theme. )1n MP3 0ile 8ith onl! the 4lar-
in0luenced piano parts is a2ailable in the lin>s 0or 9urious 1nels.* 7his son, and thus
the 7heme, 8as pla!ed on soundtrac> to the $%%% mo2ie 7he Matri5, durin the G7he
Lad! in the Ped (ressG scene.
• Ste2e Spiel included a =aAA 2ersion o0 Mariation j% in his album 4nigma.
• 7he theme o0 the 4nima Mariations 8as used b! "n 7horns I La!, a Gree> roc> band,
in the son + 2!ue Dream, 8hich appears in the 0rama album )$%%'*.
• 7he score to Batman 9ore2er 0eatures a cue titled B6!ma MariationsB, named a0ter the
character 4d8ard 6!ma.
• M6M 6ationBs B9utureper0ectB album opens 8ith a s!nthesiAed strin 2ersion o0 6imrod.
• In the Mountain Goats son G3orseradish PoadG 0rom G7he CoronorBs GambitG album
)2///*, the protaonist is listenin to Gthe 4nima Mariations on the radioG.
0edit1 Botable re"ordings
• 4d8ard 4lar conductin the Po!al 1lbert 3all, 4MI, recorded $%2;
• 1drian Boult conductin the London S!mphon! "rchestra, 4MI, recorded $%'/
• Bernard 3aitin> conductin the London Philharmonic "rchestra, Philips, recorded $%'3
• #ehudi Menuhin conductin the Po!al Philharmonic "rchestra, Philips, recorded $%H;
• Mernon 3andle! conductin the London Philharmonic "rchestra, 4MI, recorded $%H3
• Sir Geor Solti conductin the Chicao S!mphon! "rchestra, (ecca, recorded $%'3.
Later $%%; re-recordin 8ith the Mienna Philharmonic "rchestra
• Sir 1ndre8 (a2is conductin the BBC S!mphon! "rchestra, 7eldec, recorded $%%$
• Leonard Bernstein conductin the BBC S!mphon! "rchestra, (eutsche Grammophon,
recorded $%H2
• Pierre Monteu5 conductin the London S!mphon! "rchestra, (ecca, recorded $%;2
• Sir <ohn Barbirolli conductin the Philharmonia "rchestra, 4MI, recorded $%;2
• Sir <ohn 4liot Gardiner conductin the Mienna Philharmonic "rchestra, (eutsche
Grammophon, recorded $%%H but released in 2//2
0edit1 3eferen"es in popular "ulture
• In 4pisode 3.$3 $3. GGrandstand,G o0 Mont! P!thonBs 9l!in Circus, the cast o0 7he
(irt! Micar S>etch accepted their a8ard 0or G7he Cast Fith the Most 18ardsG 8hile
Mariation 6o. % )G6imrodG* pla!ed in the bac>round.
• In the $%%H 0ilm G4liAabethG starrin Cate Blanchett and directed b! She>har Capur,
Mariation 6o. % )G6imrodG* is pla!ed durin Iueen 4liAabeth IBs 0inal con0rontation
8ith Lord Pobert (udle!, pla!ed b! <oseph 9iennes.
0edit1 3eferen"es
$. X Shado8s o0 the 42enin: 6e8 Liht on 4larDs Rdar> sa!inDD Musica! *imes Mol $&H
6o $%/$ )Finter 2//'*
• 6ice, (a2id )$%%;*. 4d=ard 4!gar_ an essentia! guide to his !ife and =or5s. London:
Pa2ilion. ISB6 $-HE'%3-%''-H.
• Peed, F 3: 4!gar, London, < M (ent U Sons, $%3%.
7he Mariation, 6imrod, is also used as the 7heme Music 0or the 0ilm G#oun FinstonG )$%'2*,
starrin Simon Fard, 1nne Bancro0t U Pobert Sha8.....CPB,888.imdb.com+title+tt//;%E2H+.
0edit1 #]ternal links
• Piano adaptation o0 4nigma Variations in MI(I 0ile )$/&CB* 7he theme and its $&
2ariations are located at ca. ,//://, //:EE, /2:/E, /2:EE, /&:2/, /&:E/, /;:2E, /':3/,
/H:2H, /%:E/, $2:22, $&:EE, $E:E3, $':3H, $%:$3. in this 2&-min trac>.
• 4nima Mariations : 9ree scores at the International Music Score Librar! Pro=ect.
• <ulia 7re2el!an "man 1rchi2e :ni2ersit! o0 Bristol 7heatre Collection, :ni2ersit! o0
Bristol
• Mariations on an "riinal 7heme )R4nimaD* )$H%HO%*
• Discovering Music 4nima Mariations ).ram 0ile*
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Cateories: Compositions b! 4d8ard 4lar œ Mariations
Variations on an Original )*eme .h#nigmai/ .6!7!d7/
$ C. 1. 4.
2 3. (. S.-P.
3 P. B. 7.
& F. M. B.
E P. P. 1.
; #sobel
' 7ro!te
H F. 6.
% 6imrod
$/ (orabella
$$ G. P. S.
$2 B. G. 6.
$3 š š š )PomanAa*
$& 9inale: 4. (. :.
7he 0irst per0ormance o0 4larDs R4nimaD Mariations too> place at St <amesDs 3all London on
$% <une $H%%, conducted b! 3ans Pichter. It 8as 4larDs most ambitious orchestral 8or> to date
and a 0urther per0ormance in (‘sseldor0 in $%/$ 8ent on to establish him as a composer o0
international importance: Pichard Strauss declared that Rhere 0or the 0irst time is an 4nlish
composer 8ho has somethin to sa!D.
Li>e most o2erniht successes, it 8as the result o0 !ears o0 hard 8or>. 4lar 8as &2 !ears old
8hen he completed the Mariations and, despite bitter disappointments and 0rustrations, had
steadil! built up a reputation, 0irst pro2inciall!, then at a national le2el. In particular, a series o0
cantatas o0 increasin siAe had re2ealed 4larDs brilliant orchestration and ro8in master! o0
lare 0orms. 6o8 that master! 8as demonstrated on a s!mphonic scale throuh the time-
honoured 0orm o0 7heme and Mariations, in2itin comparisons 8ith the reatest classical
masters. But it 8as 4larDs uni@uel! personal approach to the 0orm that a2e the R4nimaD
Mariations its initial no2elt! and lastin appeal.
4lar himsel0 recalled ho8 the 8or> came to be concei2ed on the e2enin o0 2$ "ctober $H%H:
10ter a lon da!Ds 0iddle teachin in Mal2ern, I came home 2er! tired. (inner bein o2er, m!
dear 8i0e said to me, R4d8ard, !ou loo> li>e a ood ciar,D and ha2in lihted it, I sat do8n at
the piano. In a little 8hile, soothed and 0eelin rested, I bean to pla!, and suddenl! m! 8i0e
interrupted b! sa!in, R4d8ard, thatDs a ood tune.D I a8o>e 0rom the dream: R4h\ tune, 8hat
tune\D and she said, RPla! it aain, I li>e that tune.D I pla!ed and strummed, and pla!ed, and then
she e5claimed, R7hatDs the tune.D 1nd that tune is the theme o0 the Mariations.
Man! !ears later 4larDs dauhter Carice recounted the same incident in a BBC broadcast:
M! 0ather 8as at the piano, smo>in his pipe, and 8hen I 8ent to bed I heard him pla!in 8hat
I thouht 8ere prett! tunes. M! mother told me he 8as in2entin music about his 0riends, and
he turned to her and said, RFhoDs that li>elD M! mother replied, RI canDt @uite sa!, but itDs
e5actl! the 8a! FMB oes out o0 the room.D
7he rand scheme 8as established at the outset: $3 2ariations, $3 musical s>etches o0 Rm!
0riends pictured 8ithinD, as the dedication e2entuall! ran, and a 0inal $&th 2ariation representin
the composer himsel0.
Fhat o0 the R4nimaD o0 the titlel Be0ore the 0irst per0ormance, 4lar said:
7he R4nimaD I 8ill not e5plain O its Rdar> sa!inD must be le0t unuessed, and I 8arn !ou that
the apparent connection bet8een the Mariations and the 7heme is o0ten o0 the slihtest te5ture?
0urther, throuh and o2er the 8hole set another and larer theme RoesD, but is not pla!ed . . . So
the principal 7heme ne2er appears, e2en as in some late dramas O e Maeterlinc>Ds LDIntruse
and Les sept Princesses O the chie0 character is ne2er on stae.
More in> has probabl! been spilt o2er these sentences than on an! other 4larian topic, each o0
the doAens o0 proposed solutions addin !et another la!er o0 m!ster! to an alread! ambiuous
pronouncement. Fhat is clear is that the name R4nimaD applies onl! to the theme itsel0 and not
to the 8hole 8or>. Fritin in $%$$ 4lar re2ealed that this 8or>, commenced in a spirit o0
humour U continued in deep seriousness, contains s>etches o0 the composerDs 0riends. It ma! be
understood that these personaes comment or re0lect on the oriinal theme U each one attempts
a solution o0 the 4nima, 0or so the theme is called. 7he s>etches are not RportraitsD, but each
2ariation contains a distinct idea 0ounded on some particular personalit! or perhaps on some
incident >no8n onl! to t8o people.
So there appear to be not one, but t8o enimas here: the title itsel0 )8h! call it R4nimaD in the
0irst placel* and the re0erence to the Rlarer themeD that Roes, but is not pla!edD. Man!
commentators ha2e attempted, 8ith 2ar!in derees o0 inenuit! and success, to sho8 that the
7heme is a counterpoint to another tune, usuall! o0 popular oriin and ranin 0rom RPule\
BritanniaD and RGod Sa2e the IueenD to RPop Goes the FeaselD and R1uld Lan S!neD. 7he! are
probabl! 8astin their time, because 4lar clearl! stated that Rthrouh and o2er the 8hole setD a
larer theme oes. In other 8ords, the Rlarer themeD runs across the Mariations, not the 7heme.
It seems li>el! there0ore that the larer theme is not musical, but conceptual: a bond that lin>s
the $& indi2iduals. Perhaps the bond is simpl! 0riendship O or lo2e. Gi2en 4larDs en=o!ment o0
cross8ords, perhaps his Rdar> sa!inD is a cr!ptic re0erence to St PaulDs 0irst epistle to the
Corinthians, 8ith its 0amous 8ords R8e see throuh a lass dar>l!D )or, perhaps, Rthrouh a
mirror, in a riddleD*, its ne5t 2erse proclaimin )in the Cin <ames Mersion* R0aith, hope, charit!?
these three? but the reatest o0 these is charit!D. 7hat 4lar pre0erred a more modern
interpretation o0 the $'th-centur! 4nlish, 8here the 8ord Rcharit!D is replaced b! Rlo2eD is
implied b! a remar> made in $%/H concernin his o8n 9irst S!mphon!: Rthere is no proramme
be!ond a 8ide e5perience o0 human li0e 8ith a reat charit! )lo2e* U a massi2e hope in the
0uture.D
I0 this is the correct interpretation, the bond o0 lo2e that lin>s the Mariations ma>es a tellin
contrast 8ith its 7heme and the one un-enimatic statement 4lar is >no8n to ha2e made about
it, 8hen, in a letter o0 $%$2, he claimed that the 7heme Re5pressed 8hen 8ritten )in $H%H* m!
sense o0 the loneliness o0 the artist ] and to me, it still embodies that senseD.
$ 7heme )R4nimaD*
7he theme is in G minor 8ith a central contrastin passae in the ma=or, be0ore the openin
returns. 4lar himsel0 pointed out that the rh!thm o0 the 7hemeDs 0irst bar O t8o short notes
0ollo8ed b! t8o lon ones O is immediatel! re2ersed and that Rre0erences to this roupin are
almost continuous.D
$ C. 1. 4. )Caroline 1lice 4lar*: a lo2in and dini0ied tribute to the composerDs 8i0e.
2 3. (. S.-P. )3e8 (a2id Steuart-Po8ell*: an amateur pianist, 8ho o0ten pla!ed piano trios
8ith 4lar and Basil 6e2ison. 3is characteristic 8arm-up routines are entl! parodied in a
manner 4lar described as Rchromatic be!ond 3. (. S.-P.Ds li>in.D
3 P. B. 7. )Pichard Ba5ter 7o8nshend*: a 8riter and amateur actor, 8hose theatrical
presentations o0 an old man amused 4lar, Rthe lo8 2oice 0l!in o00 occasionall! into RsopranoD
timbre.D
& F. M. B. )Filliam Meath Ba>er*: a countr! s@uire 8ith an abrupt manner and a tendenc! to
ban doors behind him 8hen lea2in a room.
E P. P. 1. )Pichard P. 1rnold*: a music-lo2er and pianist )son o0 the poet Matthe8 1rnold*
8hose pla!in had, accordin to 4lar, a 8a! o0 Re2adin di00iculties but suestin in a
m!sterious 8a! the real 0eelin. 3is serious con2ersation 8as continuall! bro>en up b!
8himsical and 8itt! remar>s.D
; #sobel )Isabel 9itton*: an amateur 2iola pla!er 0rom Mal2ern. 7his 2ariation contains one o0
4larDs pri2ate =o>es, the leadin 2iola melod! in2ol2in a tric>! little e5ercise in crossin 0rom
the 0ourth to the second strin 8ithout accidentall! catchin the third.
' 7ro!te )1rthur 7ro!te Gri00ith*: a Mal2ern architect and close 0riend o0 the 4lars. 7his
eneretic, rh!thmicall! disrupted 2ariation recounts 4larDs desperate, and ultimatel! aborti2e,
attempt to teach him to pla! the piano.
H F. 6. )Fini0red 6orbur!*: this 2ariation is more a portrait o0 a race0ul $Hth-centur! house
than the lad! 8ho inhabited it. 3er characteristic lauh is, ho8e2er, suested in the central
section.
% 6imrod )1uust <aeer*: in the Boo> o0 Genesis 6imrod is Rthe miht! hunterD? the name
<aeer means RhunterD in German. <aeer 8as 4larDs closest musical 0riend, the man 8ho
edited his music and 8hose =udement he trusted more than an!one elseDs. 7heir shared lo2e o0
Beetho2en is enshrined in this pro0ound 1daio, the most celebrated o0 all the Mariations.
$/ (orabella )(ora Penn!*: 4larDs nic>name 0or her 8as ta>en 0rom MoAartDs Cos“ 0an tutte
and his 0lirtatious relationship 8ith this attracti2e !oun 8oman is re0lected in this 8himsical
2ariation, 8hose entl! haltin rh!thm alludes to her sliht stutter.
$$ G. P. S. )Geore Pobertson Sinclair*: oranist o0 3ere0ord Cathedral. Sinclair had a bulldo
called (an, o0 8hom 4lar 8as immensel! 0ond, o0ten 8ritin a musical RMood o0 (anD in the
2isitorsD boo> at SinclairDs home. 7he openin bars recall (an 0allin into the ri2er F!e,
s8immin upstream and scramblin to the ban> 8ith a triumphant bar>.
$2 B. G. 6. )Basil G. 6e2inson*: a 0ine amateur cellist 8hom 4lar described as Ra serious and
de2oted 0riendD.
$3 š š š )PomanAa* 7he identit! o0 the 0riend concealed beehind the three asteris>s remains the
sub=ect o0 speculation. Some thin> she 8as Lad! Mar! L!on, a societ! lad! 8ho 8as on a
2o!ae to 1ustralia around the time the Mariations 8ere composed. "thers identi0! her as 3elen
<essie Fea2er, 4larDs 0irst lo2e, to 8hom he 8as enaed as a !oun man. She later emirated
to 6e8 Tealand, 8here she died. In either case the eleiac @uotation 0rom MendelssohnDs Calm
Sea and Prosperous Mo!ae, abo2e the @uiet throb o0 a shipDs enines, is apposite and poetic.
$& 9inale: 4. (. :. )R4dooD 8as 1liceDs pet name 0or her husband*: a dashin sel0-portrait O
accompanied in the middle section b! a re0erence to C. 1. 4. hersel0, dra8in the musical
threads toether in a s!mphonic 0inale o0 masterl! conception and d!namic ener!.
Proramme note • <ohn Pic>ard, 2//E
Enig*a No. 1+
,-e Na*es o. t-e 1/ "0riends Pi1tured 2it-in"
The names of the indiiduals depicted in the music are identified in the score only +y
initials# asteris,s# and nic,names. /oweer# with one e0ception# the identities of these
persons hae all +een reealed$ indeed# they are listed in the notes of irtually any
recording of the music. Below# I discuss each
ariation and the person +ehind it.
Most of this discussion is a direct paraphrase from
Robert Anderson's biograph of !lgar, e"en using
some of Anderson's e#act $ording %to gi"e credit
$here it is due&'

1ariation "
(nitials)*ic+name, -'A'!'
).A.2. is 2lgar's wife# )aroline Alice 2lgar.
This ariation is essentially a continuation 3without pause4 of the theme presented in a
gently flowing manner. There are "romantic and delicate additions" to the theme.

1ariation %
(nitials)*ic+name, .'/'012'
/.D.5.*6. is /ew Daid 5teuart*6owell# a pianist. /e had played cham+er music with
5ir /u+ert 6arry 3the 1ictorian composer4 while at 70ford as a student and later with
2lgar.
2lgar claimed the music was a humorous depiction of 5teuart*6owell's "characteristic
diatonic run oer the ,eys +efore +eginning to play." The first section of the theme
appears eentually on the cellos and +asses. The ariation almost sounds li,e it
depicts a pianist's figurations# with a sort of rippling effect.

1ariation '
(nitials)*ic+name, R'3'4'
This depicts 8ichard Ba0ter Townshend. /e is depicted as a whimsical character in
amateur dramatics with his "low oice flying off occasionally into 'soprano' tim+re."
Townshend was an e0plorer# prospector for gold# taught classics# translated the 8oman
historian Tacitus# and wrote a num+er of +oo,s. 5upposedly# a portion of this ariation
depicts him riding a large tricycle that he had 3the 2nglish 1ictorians could +e
eccentric94. 7erall# the music has a good natured# cheeful# +reezy feel to it.

1ariation (
(nitials)*ic+name, 5'M'3'
This is :illiam &eath Ba,er# descri+ed as a "country s.uire# gentleman# and scholar."
/e was the +rother*in*law of Townshend.
The music depicts him entering a room in his house to read out to his guests the
arrangements for the day$ he then hurriedly leaes the room with a +ang of the door.
&ost of the music is loud and peremtory# e0cept for a portion depicting the "teasing
attitude of the guests."

1ariation ;
(nitials)*ic+name, R'2'A'
This is 8ichard Arnold# son of the poet &atthew Arnold 3of "Doer Beach" fame4. 2lgar
en-oyed the fact that "his serious conersation was continually +ro,en up +y whimsical
and witty remar,s." The music is generally melancholy# introspectie# and dar,.

1ariation <
(nitials)*ic+name, 6sobel
"=so+el" is the nic,name for Isa+el >itton 3the nic,name is an "olde 2nglish" ersion of
the name that 2lgar deised4. 5he was an amateur iola player from a musical family
liing in &alern# where 2lgar resided.
The music has a somewhat shy# reticent# yet warm character. At the end# the solo iola
sounds li,e its player is practicing an e0ercise of crossing the strings.

1ariation ?
(nitials)*ic+name, 4rote
"Troyte" is Arthur Troyte @riffith# an architect# water colorist# and trusted friend of
2lgar's for many years. Troyte also indulged in "maladroit essays to play the
pianoforte." These# said 2lgar# formed the +asis of this ariation# with the "uncouth
rhythm of the drums and lower strings." It +egins with a rolling# ram+unctious part for
the ,ettledrums and continues with energetic# fast# loud# music that is good*natured
and rollic,ing.

1ariation A
(nitials)*ic+name, 5'*'
:inifred Bor+ury conducted illage choirs and was closely associated with 2lgar as a
-oint secretary of the :orcestershire 6hilharmonic 5ociety. /er niece descri+ed her as
"ery sedate and calm# rather li,e a ,ind goerness with him Ci.e.# 2lgarD# +ut had a
sense of humour and I +eliee he purposely ,ept on +eing tiresome till he had got the
laugh**rather li,e a deep +ell."
/oweer# 2lgar hinted that the music was more "suggested +y an "Ath century house#"
the Bor+ury home at 5herridge$ yet it is for :.B. that "a little suggestion of a
characteristic laugh is gien."

1ariation E
(nitials)*ic+name, *imrod
This is the most famous ariation and the centerpiece of the entire set 3+oth in its
position among the "(**a+out halfway through the piece**and in its emotional intensity4.
"Bimrod" is a depiction of 2lgar's pu+lisher# August Faeger. Faeger was +orn in
@ermany# +ut lied much of his life in 2ngland. In @erman# the word "-aeger" means
"hunter." In the Bi+le 3@enesis "G!A#E4# Bimrod is descri+ed as a mighty hunter. Thus#
Faeger's nic,name with his friends was "Bimrod."
The "Bimrod" ariation was apparently inspired +y a conersation 2lgar and Faeger
had one summer eening discussing the su+limity of the slow moements in
Beethoen's music. 3There is# for e0ample# some similarity +etween the "Bimrod"
ariation and the slow moement of Beethoen's 2atheti7ue piano sonata.4

1ariation "G
(nitials)*ic+name, /orabella
Dora 6enny was the step niece of :.&.B.# the su+-ect of 1ariation (. 5he ac.uired her
nic,name# Dora+ella# from the character in &ozart's -osi fan 4utte. The danceli,e
lightness of the music was directly suggested +y Dora+ella's delight in deising dances
to 2lgar's piano playing. The music has a gentle# furtie character. 2lgar du++ed this
ariation "Intermezzo#" presuma+ly to indicate that it represents a lightening up after
"Bimrod#" in preparation for the final ariations and finale.

1ariation ""
(nitials)*ic+name, 8'R'0'
@eorge 5inclair was organist at the cathedral in :orcester. /oweer# the ariation
supposedly depicts his +ulldog Dan paddling in the 8ier :ye after falling in the water.
This is perhaps the most depictie ariation! you can certainly hear the dog paddling in
the water# as well as +ar,ing upon arriing on shore. A short# fast# +reathless ariation.

1ariation "%
(nitials)*ic+name, 3'8'*'
Basil Beinson was an amateur cellist who played cham+er music with 2lgar. Li,e the
ariation depicting &r. Arnold 31ariation ;4# it is a melancholy ariation with strong
emotional undercurrents as it wells up to a clima0. A solo cello rounds out the ariation.

1ariation "'
(nitials)*ic+name, 999
This is the one ariation with neither an initial nor nic,name attached to it# only three
cryptic asteris,s. 5o we hae yet another enigma here! to whom do the asteris,s referH
There are two theories as to the identity of the person!
• Lady &ary Lygon# a local no+lewoman
• /elen :eaer# 2lgar's one*time fiancee
The ariation .uotes 3on clarinet4 the second theme from &endelssohn's -alm 0ea
and 2rosperous :oage 7erture# which ma,es either woman a plausi+le candidate!
Lady Lygon sailed for Australia around this time 3"AEA4 and :eaer emigrated to Bew
Iealand in the "AAGs 3she had +een 2lgar's fiancee for a period of time4.
The ariation starts out optimistically +ut soon settles down to another melancholy
ariation that# at its center# includes a dar, 3een ominous4 section. 5ome hae
suggested that it is 2lgar's regret oer this failed romance# +ut this is pure speculation.
3The ariation is su+titled "romanza#" +ut this pro+a+ly has nothing to do with
"romance." The musical definition of "romanza" is "a short instrumental piece of song*
li,e character."4
This ariation also includes an interesting orchestral effect! the tympani are drummed
to imitate the hum of a ship's engines. To +e honest# few recordings successfully
create this effect. In some# you can +arely hear the "engines" at all$ in others# they -ust
sound li,e dim# muddied tapping on the drums off in the distance. 5eeral recordings
get -ust the right sound howeer# nota+ly 7rmandy and 5inopoli. In these# a
mechanical# humming effect is perfectly reproduced. I +eliee the effect is created +y
drumming the tympani with snare drum stic,s# although I hae read that 2lgar
sometimes instructed the player to achiee the effect +y using pennies9

1ariation "(
(nitials)*ic+name, !'/';'
The set concludes with a musical depiction of the composer. "2doo" was Alice 2lgar's
nic,name for him 3pronounced similar to the first part of the >rench name "2duard#" I
+eliee4.
This is the longest ariation# and some interpret it as 2lgar musically depicting his
triumph as a composer 3up to this point in his career# he had e0perienced only modest
successes and endured criticism +y in*laws and relaties who dou+ted he would eer
amount to much4.
The music is indeed +old and assertie# though the first ariation 3).A.2.4 ma,es a
3re4appearance# +alancing the loud sections with more .uiet# meditatie music 3the
composer's wife loo,ing oer his shoulder as he wor,s# perhapsH4. Bimrod**the
composer's strongest supporter +esides his wife**also reappears# +oldly proclaimed in
the +rass# -u0taposed against the composer's music.
The piece ends in a +laze of triumph# including a thunderous organ +ac,ing up the
orchestra. 3In most recordings# you can +arely hear it. Bryden Thomson's ersion
pro+a+ly has the strongest organ. Bernstein's is audi+le at times# +ut almost sounds
li,e a cheesey electronic organ94

)onclusion
Listening to the 2nigma 1ariations# I find it interesting how 2lgar ta,es what are
essentially +rief character pieces 3literally# since they depict his friends4 and yet creates
a wor, of symphonic scope and magnitude. It's also fascinating how he ta,es a highly
technical form**ariations**yet ma,es them seem natural and spontaneous$ not at all
academic. And as &ichael Jennedy has pointed out# the ariations gel to form an
almost symphonic structure# as follows!
• Theme and 1ariation "! slow introduction
• 1ariations %**A! short s,etches
• 1ariation E! slow moement
• 1ariation "G! intermezzo
• 1ariation ""! scherzo
• 1ariations "%**"(! miniature tone poems
The last ariation +ecomes a +old finale summing eerything up**een .uoting
preious ariations# including those depicting Alice 2lgar and Faeger. The original
ersion of the final ariation was apparently shorter and later e0panded +y 2lgar at
Faeger's suggestion. )onductor &ar, 2lder and the /alle 7rchestra recently recorded
the original ending as a supplement to their recording of the ariations$ it's on the
/alle's own la+el and was released in %GG'. /oweer# I suspect Faeger's suggestion
was fully warranted# and we pro+a+ly wouldn't want to hear the original anyway9
Enig*a No. 2+
,-e Meaning o. t-e Enig*a 3tsel.
2lgar said the following concerning the meaning of the enigma itself!
<4he enigma ( $ill not e#plain11it's 'dar+ saing' must be left unguessed'<
&ost 2lgar authorities agree that the enigma**that is to say# the actual# original#
glorious theme that we hear in the music**almost certainly represents 2lgar himself.
&ichael Jennedy# in his "EA% +iography of 2lgar# indicates that in a "EG" letter to his
friend Dora 6enny 3who is depicted in 1ariation "G4# 2lgar clearly identified himself with
the first four notes of the theme. To .uote from Jennedy!
=Regarding the first four notes of the theme,> the name !d$ard !lgar <goes< in almost
natural speech1rhthm' ?urther confirmation can be found in the score of The &usic
&a,ers, $here the !nigma theme is 7uoted to illustrate the loneliness of the creati"e
artist, !lgar, sitting b desolate streams, just as, in bohood, he had sat b the 0e"ern
=Ri"er>'
Enig*a No. %+
,-e 4n5layed ,-e*e
2lgar said the following!
<4hrough and o"er the $hole set another and larger theme 'goes' but is not plaed ' ' ' '
so the principal 4heme ne"er appears, e"en as in some late dramas11e'g',
Maeterlinc+'s L'Intruse and Les 5ept 6rincessess11the chief character is ne"er on the
stage'"
:hat is the unplayed themeH Is there an actual musical theme running as a ,ind of
counterpoint to the whole wor,H
Two of the most eminent 2lgar authorities are &ichael Jennedy and Ferrold Borthrop
&oore. Both agree that the answer to this enigma 3if there eer was any4 died with
2lgar. /oweer# that has not stopped a multitude of people from proposing possi+le
solutions. @uesses hae ranged from "Auld Lang 5yne" to a medieal mass3H94.
5ome hae suggested that the hidden theme is not a musical theme# +ut an intellectual
idea# nota+ly the concept of friendship. They argue that this would +e appropriate#
since each ariation is a musical portrait of 2lgar# his friends# and their relationships.
Kltimately# no one truly ,nows 3and the piece remains en-oya+le# een to those who
,now nothing of these matters4.
I will ne0t discuss two of the most popular theories! the "8ule Britannia" theory and the
&ozart "6rague" 5ymphony theory.
6ule !ritannia ,-eory
The perceptie critic# Denis 5teens# addressed the
.uestion in an 2lgar reiew in the Boem+er "EAE
Musical America. /e cites research +y one Theodore
an /outen which postulates that the "unplayed"
theme is "8ule Britannia"**and in particular# the
"neer# neer" portion of the refrain "8ule# Britannia9
Britannia# rule the waes9 Britons neer# neer# neer
shall +e slaes9" Allow me to .uote directly from the
Decem+er "EAE edition of Musical America 3p. ;(4!
<5hen !lgar penned the program notes for the
premiere under .ans Richter in @8AA, he $as at
pains to point out that 'the principal theme ne"er
appears'' .e +ne$ that nobod $ould guess his real
meaning, the principal theme11'*!:!R'11appears' ' ' '
he +ne$ that fe$ if an $ould trouble to go through
the 4homas Arne)Bames 4homson song11'5hen 3ritain ?irst at .ea"en's -ommand'11
until the reached the refrain, 'Rule, 3ritanniaC 3ritannia, rule the $a"esC)3ritons ne"er
=ne"er, ne"er> shall be sla"es''
<4he three 'ne"er's' are sung to a simple pattern' ' ' $hich opens "ariations 8 and A,
both %li+e the song& in the major +e' 0ince the theme and the first fe$ "ariations are in
the minor, the public remained in the dar+' %!lgar called it 'a dar+ saing''& (n "ariation
D, the fragment disappears altogether as a tune but remains as a "iolent rhthmic
pattern, t$o short, t$o long %ne"er, *!:!R&' (n the late @8A0s, !lgar often staed $ith
R'2' Arnold %"ariation E&, $ho li"ed in 3ritannia 07uare, 5orcester'
<5hen another friend, /ora 2enn %*o' @0&, as+ed the composer $hat the enigma
$as, he replied '6ou of all people should ha"e guessed'' (f /ora had loo+ed at a
:ictorian penn, she $ould ha"e seen on the flip side a helmeted 3ritannia, 7uite
clearl ruling the $a"es, since a lighthouse and ship are also in "ie$' A ship can be
heard in *o' @F, the timpani roll mar+ed to be plaed $ith side1drumstic+s' 3ut $hen
!lgar himself conducted, he $ould as+ the timpanist to use penniesC<
5teens is coninced that this is the solution to the 2nigma# +ut I should add that
others +y no means agree. All I can say is that I find the a+oe "solution" more
plausi+le 3and a lot simpler4 than many other proposed solutions.
Mo"art "Prague" Sy*5-ony ,-eory
This theory was e0plained in the Boem+er
?# "EE" issue of the *e$ 6or+ 4imes# from
which I paraphrase. The proponent of this
theory is Foseph )ooper# a pianist and
e0pert at hiding# discoering# and
identifying tunes 3he was a mem+er of a
BB) musical .uiz show4.
/e came upon his solution while attending a performance in London of &ozart's
"6rague" 5ymphony 3Bo. 'A in D# J. ;G(4 around "E<G. 3&ozart appears on the left.4
/e was listening to the music and reading along with his score when# a+out two
minutes into the second moement of the wor,# he thought he heard 3minuet*li,e and in
@ ma-or4 echoes of the theme in 2lgar's sweeping @*minor opening.
The &ozart and the 2lgar are not identical rhythmically# +ut +oth passages start with a
+ass @ tonality# with a rest +efore the start of their themes. 6layed one after another#
the su+theme of the &ozart slow moement and the opening of the 2lgar ariations do
+ear a remar,a+le resem+lance to each other. It's almost li,e the 2lgar is a dreamli,e
transformation of the &ozart.
Bac, in "E<G# &r. )ooper immediately noted the similarity# +ut shared his idea with
only his wife. 2entually# she persuaded him to contact Ferrold Borthrop &oore# the
2lgar authority# and propose this solution to the !nigma :ariations for consideration.
&r. &oore# after careful study# came to the conclusion that it was the most plausi+le#
li,ely solution he had yet encountered.
>urther information +uttresses the theory.
>irst# 2lgar had heard the &ozart "6rague" 5ymphony a few wee,s +efore coming up
with his theme while strumming the piano one eening. 3)ould it hae +een almost
su+consciously at the +ac, of his mindH4
5econd# the "6rague" 5ymphony was also one of the wor,s featured on the same
program with the !nigma :ariations at its premiere in "AEE. 3&ere coincidenceH 7r did
2lgar share the story +ehind the ariations with the conductor who conducted that
programH4
According to the BB)# Foseph )ooper died in %GG" at the age of AA after a short
illness. Born at :est+ury on Trym# in Bristol# )ooper won a music scholarship to )lifton
)ollege followed +y an organ scholarship at Je+le )ollege# 70ford. /e +ecame a
church organist# teaching piano in his spare time# +efore landing a -o+ penning music
for @67 >ilm Knit documentaries# alongside poet :/ Auden and Ben-amin Britten.
)ooper later esta+lished himself as a noted concert pianist# +ut the out+rea, of war put
his musical career on hold until "E(<. After the war# his recordings +ecame +est*
sellers# and radio wor, led to an initation to wor, on the show ")all the Tune#" in "E;(.
In conclusion# no one will eer ,now the true identity of the music that inspired the
piece. And ultimately# it has no +earing on our en-oyment of it. Beertheless# it remains
a fertile guessing ground for 2lgarians9
+orodin5 >olovetsian ?ances5
+orodin -as, in his terms, "a @unda/ ;omposer." Ae -as a ?octor of
<edicine and a noted >rofessor of ;hemistr/ -ho composed in his spare
time. Largel/ self taught, the opera >rince *gor -as one of his greatest
-or.s. *t -as completed and largel/ orchestrated b/ ,ims./(Borsa.ov and
6la!unov. >rince *gor depicts the #1th centur/ -ar of the ,ussians against
the nomadic >olovtsians. 0he famous dances from the second act, -ith their
scintillating choruses, have long been a favorite among audiences and
performers.
?ramaticall/, this opera has it all. 6reed, po-er, religion, true love, lo/alt/,
love of countr/, etc., are all in pla/. >rince *gor and his son, ladimir, pra/
to 6od for safet/, and go off to fight the >olovtsians in order to protect their
native land and people from Bhan Boncha., sort of a @addam Aussein of his
time. Chile he is gone, his -ife mourns and -orries for his safet/. Ais
ruthless brother(in(la-, on the other hand, tries to steal his to-n from him.
>rince *gor and ladimir are captured b/ the >olovtsians. Chile the/ are
captured, ladimir falls in love -ith the one person in the -orld he is
forbidden to be -ith, Bhan Boncha.'s daughter, Boncha.ovna. 0his is sort
of the ,omeo and Duliet E Cest @ide @tor/ side theme. 0he might/ Bhan
suggest to *gor that the/ should rene- an earlier militar/ alliance and that
together the/ -ould be able to subFugate other nations. *gor reFects the
offer for he is not interested in hurting innocent people. *n order to
persuade the ,ussian prince to accept his plan, and to demonstrate the
delights of >olovtsian life, the Bhan orders him to be entertained -ith
singing and dancing. Aence, the >olovtsian ?ances, -hich are the finale to
8ct ** of the opera.
Bhan Boncha. is basicall/ a male chauvinist pig, and he tells *gor that he
can have an/ of these -omen from be/ond the ;aspian @ea if he -ill Foin
forces, and ta.e over ever/one else's land -ith him. *n the dances, slave(
girls, maidens, bo/s, men, and all, praise Bhan as if he is 6od 8lmight/ (
probabl/ because the/ .no- if the/ don't, Bhan -ill have them .illed. Chat
the/ reall/ -ant is to go home to the land of their childhood. 0he/ miss
home, but are enslaved b/ Bhan for his pleasure. Bhan even offers his o-n
daughter to ladimir if *gor -ill accept. *gor not onl/ has a -ife at home,
-hom he still loves, but also is not interested at all in ta.ing over innocent
people's land. 0hus he reFects momentar/ pleasure for -hat he feels is
right.
<ean-hile, during the time *gor -as captured, the >olovtsian arm/ has
been -rec.ing his home to-n. Ao-ever, in the end, things are happ/. 0rue
love prevails as ladimir and Boncha.ovna get together, *gor escapes,
returns home safel/, and is reunited -ith his home to-n. >erhaps the moral
to this stor/, the heartfelt message, is that it is more noble to stand up for
-hat is right than to give in to temptation and hurt other people for
personal gain.
Botes by Patri"ia Sparti
)*e Georgetown 4ni+ersity Or"*estra
atricia C. Sparti/ Music Director
Polo+etsian Uan"es
9rom Fi>ipedia, the 0ree enc!clopedia
<ump to: na2iation, search
7he Polo+etsian Uan"es )or Polo+tsian Uan"es* are perhaps the best >no8n selections 0rom
1le5ander BorodinBs opera rince 3gor. 7he! are o0ten pla!ed as a stand-alone concert piece as
one o0 the best >no8n 8or>s in the classical repertoire.
,citation needed.
In the opera the dances are
per0ormed 8ith chorus, but concert per0ormances o0ten omit the choral parts. 7he dances do not
include the GPolo2etsian MarchG 8hich opens 1ct III )6o. $H*, but the o2erture, dances, and
march 0rom the opera ha2e been per0ormed toether to 0orm a suite 0rom rince 3gor. In the
opera rince 3gor the dances occur in 1ct II )in the oriinal edition*.
$ontents
,hide.
• $ 7he dances
• 2 7ranslation
• 3 Pe0erences in popular culture
• & Pe0erences
0edit1 )*e dan"es
7he 0irst dance, 8hich uses no chorus and is sometimes omitted in concerts, is 6o. H, entitled
G(ance o0 the Polo2etsian MaidensG ,G^nrpdq i_n_wgŠdcz hgwa‚gdG.: Presto, ;+H, 9 Ma=or? it
is placed directl! a0ter the GChorus o0 the Polo2etsian MaidensG 8hich opens the act and is
0ollo8ed b! GConcha>o2naBs Ca2atinaG. 7he dances proper appear at the end o0 the 1ct as an
uninterrupted sinle number in se2eral contrastin sections listed as 0ollo8s )basic themes are
indicated 8ith letters in brac>ets and notated in the accompan!in illustration
• 6o. $', GPolo2etsian (ance osicp 8ith ChorusG ,G^_n_wgŠdqr inrpdq p z_`_yG.
o ,a. Introduction: 1ndantino, &+&, 1 Ma=or
o ,b. Glidin (ance o0 the Maidens ,^nrpdq hgwa‚gd inqw|qr.: 1ndantino, &+&,
1 Ma=or
o ,c - a. Fild (ance o0 the Men ,^nrpdq yafbc| hcdqr.: 1llero 2i2o, &+&, 9
Ma=or
o ,d. General (ance ,žv‡qr inrpdq.: 1llero, 3+&, ( Ma=or
o ,e. (ance o0 the Bo!s ,^nrpdq yqnxbcd_w. and 2nd (ance o0 the Men ,^nrpdq
yafbc|.: Presto, ;+H, ( Minor
o ,bD - eD. Glidin (ance o0 the Maidens )reprise, soon combined 8ith the 0aster
dancin o0 the bo!s*: Moderato alla bre2e, 2+2
o ,eDD. (ance o0 the Bo!s and 2nd (ance o0 the Men )reprise*: Presto, ;+H, (
Minor
o ,cD - aDD. General (ance: 1llero con spirito, &+&, 1 Ma=or
1s an orchestral sho8piece b! an important nineteenth-centur! Pussian composer, this 8or>
ma>es a spectacular impression. 6otable instrumental solos include the clarinet )in 6o. H and
the MenBs (ance ,c.* and the oboe and 4nlish horn )in the FomenBs (ance ,b.*.
0edit1 )ranslation
7he te5t o0 the 0irst stanAa o0 this particular section in the opera is i2en belo8.
$yrilli" #nglis* )ranslation )ransliteration
Ÿng{qˆ |q d`onxrz wg{`q
{o w d`qˆ `_h|_ˆ, `_h|qr
igp|r |q‚q,
{ahq, …hg yo {gvr pw_v_h|_
ignc,
…hg von_ {qd i`cw_nx|_ |qy
p {_v_.
9l! a8a! on the 8ins o0 the
8ind
to our homeland, o nati2e
son o0 ours,
thither, 8here 8e 0reel! san
!ou,
8here it 8as so 0ree 0or me
and !ou.
:leta! na >r!lB!a>h 2etra
t! 2 >ra! rodno!, rodna!a
pesn!a nasha,
tuda, de m! teb!a s2obodno
peli,
de b!lo ta> pri2olBno nam s
tobo!u.
0edit1 3eferen"es in popular "ulture
Lists of mis"ellaneous information s*ould be a+oided. Please relocate an! rele2ant
in0ormation into appropriate sections or articles. %9e-ruary 2''E)
Most o0 the themes 0rom 6o. $' 8ere incorporated into the $%E3 musical Kismet, best >no8n o0
8hich is the 8omenBs dance )GGlidin (ance o0 the MaidensG*, adapted 0or the son GStraner
in ParadiseG. 7hirteen !ears earlier, in $%&/, 1rtie Sha8 recorded GM! 9antas!G )credited to
composers Fhiteman-Mes>itt-4d8ards* 8hich has a tune 2irtuall! identical to this dance.
More recent adaptations o0 the music include the 0ollo8in:
• British strin @uartet bond recorded an instrumental 2ersion o0 the 8omenBs dance in
their album GShineG, renamed GStrane ParadiseG to 0it 8ith Kismet's use o0 the melod!.
• (i00erent adaptations o0 6o. $' GGlidin (ance o0 the MaidensG ha2e been 0eatured as
bac>round music in se2eral 7M series, includin rincess *utu, Noir, and Kare Kano,
8hile it is i2en a special sini0icance in ;ahnephon. 7he trac> G7he Garden o0
42er!thinG on the top $/ Maa!a Sa>amoto sinle G7une the Painbo8G uses it as a sub-
melod!.
0edit1 3eferen"es
• Borodin, 1. 6e rince 3gor. Partition pour chant et piano. 4dition M.P. Belaie00.
%;ussian/ 9rench/ and "erman teCt.)

8eiewed +y 8odney )or,in

Sy*5-ony No.1 in 7 *a8or 95.21

6eriod of composition! "?EE*early "AGG. Date of 6u+lication! Decem+er "AG"# +y
/offmeister L Juhnel# dedicated to Baron @ottfried an 5wieten.
!a1:ground details+
After leaing Bonn in Boem+er "?E% to +egin life as a pupil of /aydn in 1ienna# we
had to wait a further eight years for Beethoen to produce his first symphony. This
reason for this delay has traditionally +een put down to Beethoen's respect for
&ozart and /aydn# and his am+ition to produce a wor, on e.ual terms with these
symphonic masters. /oweer Beethoen had considered symphonic composition
earlier in his life# producing e0tensie s,etches for a symphony in ) in "?E;ME< while
he was studying with Al+rechts+urger. 2arlier still there is a s,etch in ) minor
la+eled 'sinfonia'. 7p. %" was first performed on April %nd "AGG at the Burgtheater in
1ienna. Beethoen's 5eptet# and one of his piano concertos 37p."; or 7p."E4 were
also performed. A correspondent from the Allgemeine &usi,alische Ieitung was at
the concert and descri+ed the symphony as haing 'considera+le art# noelty and a
wealth of ideas'# the only flaw +eing 'the wind instruments were used too much# so
that there was more harmony than orchestral music as a whole.'
Musi1al outline !
5tylistically# the symphony is rather resered wor, when compared to the emotion
and raw passion of some of his other compositions of this period such as the '5onata
6atheti.ue' 7p."'# or the slow moements of 7p.? or 7p."G no.'. )learly#
Beethoen had decided to introduce himself to the symphonic world +y staying on
safe ground +efore enturing off to horizons new. The first moement opens with a
slow introductory 'Adagio molto' +efore moing to a igorous 'Allegro con +rio' who's
first theme has +een compared to that of &ozart's 'Fupiter' symphony. The following
slow moement isn't particularly slow# +eing 'Andante canta+ile con moto'# and is
almost the minuet that the third moement isn't. It is in sonata form and is
lightweight# although modern performances tend to add more +readth and graity
than is strictly re.uired here. The third moement is titled '&enuetto! Allegro molto e
iace'# though it has the character more of a scherzo than a minuet. The final
moement has great wit# with its famous '-o,e' introduction 3Adagio4 that had its
origins in the a+andoned "?E; s,etches# +efore the /aydnish 'Allegro molto e
iace'. The piece ends in a thoroughly Beethoenish manner howeer# with the
march*li,e coda.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
I haen't any e0eptional recommendations# Fohn 2liot @ardiner and the 7rch. 8e. et
8om. 3Archi4 offer good .uic, tempi +ut the sound lac,s any am+ience. The
/anoer Band's 3Bim+us4 pace in the first moement more rela0ed +ut the sound is
ery am+ient and colourful# although the +rass could hae more prominence. These
are +oth period instrument ersions.
Sy*5-ony No.2 in ; *a8or o5.%<
6eriod of composition! "AG"*"AG% Date of 6u+lication! "AG(# +y Junst und Industrie
)omptior# dedicated to 6rince Jarl on Lichnows,y.
!a1:ground details+
If proof were needed that 'the true artist creates out of his total e0perience'# as Denis
&atthews put it# then one need only loo, at the circumstances surrounding the
composition of op.'<. >or this +rilliant and original piece was completed during
Beethoen's summer +rea, in /eiligenstadt in "AG%# the time of his greatest despair
on realization that his increasing deafness could +e a permanent affliction. The
symphony was first performed on ; April "AG' at a concert at the Theater an Der
:ien which also included the premieres of Beethoen's ) minor piano concerto and
oratario ')hristus am 7el+erge'. The critic present from the Allgemeine &usi,alische
Ieitung descri+e the new symphony typically# as "a wor, full of new# original ideas#
of great strength# sensitie in orchestration and intellectual in concept# +ut one that
would surely +enefit from the a++reiation of some passages and the deletion C9D of
others# for the modulations are entirely too eccentric."
Musi1al outline+
The igorous independence that Beethoen had shown in his cham+er wor,s had
now surfaced in the world of the symphony# though it +ears features reminicant of
&ozart's '6rague' symphony. Thayer# who purposefully ,ept musical criticism to an
a+solute minimum in his 'Life of Beethoen' could not contain himself when
discussing this composition * "a wor, whose grand and imposing introduction *
+rilliant Allegro# a Larghetto so loely# so pure and amia+ly conceied...a 5cherzo as
merry# wayward# s,ipping and charming as anything possi+le...and a >inale# the ery
into0ication of a spirit 'into0icated with fire'* made it...an era +oth in the life of its
author and in the history of instrumental music." 6assionate words from the usually
resered Thayer9 After the opening call*to*attention# the slow introduction is rather
more imposing than that of the first symphony with a powerful D minor clima0 that is
reminicant of the opening of the first moement of the Binth 5ymphony. The main
Allegro has great drie with and ends with splendid coda. The lyrical Larghetto casts
a +ac,ward glance at the preious century# with phrases that suggest /aydn or
&ozart. It is howeer# a su+stantial and serious affair in sonata form and# li,e the
>irst 5ymphony# withholds timpani and trumpets 3the instruments of war94. :ith the
third moement Beethoen ac,nowledges it as '5cherzo' rather than la+our it with
the more traditional '&enuetto' as he did with the >irst. This is pure Beethoenian
humour# with a three note figure that is passed around the orchestra.The itality of
the finale 3Allegro molto4 is apparent from the e0plosie opening gesture. It is in
sonata*form without repeats 3the impression of a repeat occurs +ut this merely forms
to opening of the deelopment4. The coda is massie# ta,ing up more than a third of
the whole moement. A reiewer in "AG( descri+ed this finale as "an unciilized
monster# a wounded dragon# refusing to die while +leeding to death# raging# stri,ing
in ain around itself with its agitated tail." * fanciful# +ut perhaps appropriate9
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
I can recommend three e0cellent period instrument ersions +y The /anoer
BandM/uggett 3Bim+us4# The 7rchestre 8eolutionnaire et 8omanti.ueM@ardiner
3Archi4 and The London )lassical 6layersMBorrington 32&I4.
Sy*5-ony No.% in E&.lat *a8or, o5.(( #"Eroi1a")
6eriod of composition! "AG' 3earliest s,etches "AG%# final touches +eginning "AG(4.
Date of 6u+lication! "AG<# +y Junst und Industrie )omptoir# dedicated to 6rince
>ranz Foseph on Lo+,owitz.
!a1:ground details+
5chindler states in his +iography "Beethoen As I Jnew /im" that it was the
am+assador of the >rench 8epu+lic to the Austrian )ourt# @eneral Bernadotte# who
suggested that Beethoen should "honour the greatest hero of the age in a musical
composition." The hero +eing# of course# Bapoleon Bonaparte# whom the repu+lican
Beethoen had admired for +ringing political order out of the chaos of the +loody
>rench reolution. /oweer when Bapoleon proceeded to crown himself 2mperor#
the enraged Beethoen# cursing the "new tyrant"# ripped the title page 3enscri+ed
simply with the words 'Bonapart' at the top and 'Beethoen' at the +ottom4 of his
score in two and tossed it to the floor. The title page of a later score still e0ists with
Baploeon's name iolently scri++led out +y Beethoen himself. As a result of this#
Beethoen eentually settled with the title '/eroic 5ymphony composed to cele+rate
the memory of a great man'. It is interesting that# in his later life# Beethoen's attitude
towards Bapoleon +ecame more sympathetic.
The 5ymphony receied its first semi*pu+lic performance in April "AG; at the Theater
an der :ien# with Beethoen as the conductor. The music was awaited with much
anticipation for the story regarding its dedication were already well ,nown. A critic
present from the Allgemeine &usi,alische Ieitung had the following to say! "This
long# most difficult composition is an e0tremely drawn out# +old# and wild fantasy.
1ery often# though# the wor, seems to lose itself in musical anarchy" with "too many
garish and +izarre elements." Bo sign yet of Beethoen pandering to popular taste9
:hen in "A"? the poet )hristoph Juffner as,ed Beethoen which was his faorite
amongst the symphonies# his reply was 'the 2roica'# though the Binth was yet to
come.
Musi1al outline+
The third 5ymphony was a demonstration of Beethoen's desire to deelop a new#
more e0panded form of composition at this time. The first moement in sonata form
3Allegro con +rio4 opens simply with two arresting 2*flat chords. >rom the s,etches it
is clear that the familiar first su+-ect idea was fi0ed from the start# with a 2*flat
arpeggio turning to a mysterious ) sharp. :hat follows is a wealth of su+sidiary and
transitional ideas that culminates in the oerwhelming clima0 of the deelopment.
The coda +rings us the first su+-ect in its most 'ideal' form. This techni.ue of ',eeping
the +est until last' was a deelopment of Beethoen's that assisted the forward
progression of the music from +eginning to end. Important to the correct portrayal of
this moements character is a true o+serance of the 'con +rio' mar,ing. The modern
tendency to play this piece 'moderato' undermines its fundamental drie and
'electricity'.
Then follows the &arcia >une+re 3Adagio assai4. This piece caused much confusion
for the early critics# and was not well li,ed# which may seem surprising considering
its influence on later generations of composers. &any hae pondered why B ',illed
off' the hero +y the second moement# +ut a symphony is not a +iography depicting
feelings rather than eents. /oweer there is a good logic to haing a funeral march
in a symphony dedicated to heroism! what greater hero is there than one who is a
martyr to his causeH It proceeds in rondo form with the rum+ling +ass strings
enhanced +y the tragic wailing of the o+oe. A more tender episode follows in ) ma-or
which is deeloped into a triumphant fanfare. After the return of the march the
second episode# the tragic heart of the piece +egins * a dou+le fugue. In the coda the
march theme disintegrates and ends with a final agonising wail from the o+oe.
The third moement is a scherzo 3Allegro iace4. Its opening pianissimo on the
strings follows logically after the grief of the &arch# and ma,es up half of the
moement as a whole. :ith the melody carried +y the flute or o+oe in B flat or >
ma-or# the home 2*flat is not achieed until the sudden +ut long*delayed dou+le
*forte passage. The main feature of the trio is the fanfare an the >rench horns 3where
Beethoen scores for three rather than the more usual pair of instruments4.
>or the finale 3Allegro molto4 we hae a theme and ariations. This theme had
+ecome something of a o+session with Beethoen# it first saw light in a set of
)ontredances 3:o7"(4# then was used in the finale of his +allet 'Die @estopfe des
6rometheus' and then still further as the te0t for the piano ariations 7p';# +efore
appearing in the Third 5ymphony. 5uch recycling of material was untypical of
Beethoen# +ut he shows us his amazing way with 'old +ottles and new wine9' The
coda is a tour de force of the utmost +rilliance.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
@ood ersions e0ist on period instrument. These include The London )lassical
6layersMBorrington 32&I4# although the sound is rather 'dry'$ The /anoer
BandM@oodman 3Bim+us4 is e0cellent. The 7rchestra 8eolutionnaire et
8omanti.ueM@ardiner 3Archi4 has +een well receied# although the tempos of the
last two moements are rather too la0 for this writer# and the sound is somewhat
compressed compared to the others.
Sy*5-ony No./ in !&.lat *a8or, o5.<=
6eriod of composition! 5ummer "AG< Date of 6u+lication! "AGA# +y Junst und
Industrie )omptoir# dedicated to )ount >ranz on 7ppersdorff.
!a1:ground details+
After composing the '2roica'# Beethoen ne0t started wor, on what is now the ;th
5ymphony# +ut this wor, was laid aside when Beethoen receied a symphonic
commission from the 5ilesian )ount 7ppersdorff. :hy the ;th was laid aside in not
,nown# it may hae +een that Beethoen thought a wor, of the nature of the ;th
would not hae +een to the )ounts taste# +ut Beethoen may hae realised that the
'5turm und Drang' of the ;th would hae made less impact after the grandeur of the
'rd and that a more contrasting piece was re.uired. The )ount was a most ,een
music loer and insisted that all who were in his serice played a musical instrument.
The resulting orchestra performed the %nd 5ymphony for Beethoen at the )ount's
castle in "AG<. The )ount had possession of the piece for si0 months +efore
Beethoen was free to pu+lish it. Little else is ,nown regarding the (th's composition.
The piece was first performed at a Benefit concert for its composer in &arch "AG?
and according to 5chindler receied a faoura+le reaction from the general pu+lic#
"its impact was stronger than any of the others...een that of the first symphony in )
ma-or." The 1iennese critics for once hailed the new symphony "without resere or
.ualification# an honour that had granted to almost no other instrumental composition
+y Beethoen#" as 5chindler put it.
Musi1al outline+
The more /aydnes.ue approach shown in the (th 5ymphony has +een gien as the
reason for its early acceptance. )ertainly its ,ey was a faourite of /aydn's later
orchestral music# and there are fewer elements within it that# to the critics# would
appear '+izzare' compared to the others. The positioning of the 5ymphony +etween
the 'rd and ;th has certainly led to the neglect# and the piece as a whole is +y no
means lightweight. 5chumann's well ,nown description of the piece as a "slender
@ree, maiden +etween two Bordic giants" has done the (th no faours# nor is it a
particularly accurate statement.
The opening Adagio of the first moement# with the disconcerting 2*flat repeated
along its course immediately reeals Beethoen's middle period style despite its
comparisons with /aydn. The mystery is put aside in faour of a +rash and -oyfull
igor as the main Allegro 1iace gets underway. In performance it is important that
this iacity is o+sered literally for the point to +e made.
The second moement is Adagio with a light delicate te0ture that is continuously
interrupted +y a repeating figure prominent on the timpani and trumpets that wishes
to spoil this idyll. The seriousness of these interruptions is reealed in the
deelopment# although the status .uo is soon restored and the piece ends with the
repeating figure ethereally su+dued. Beethoen's metronome mar,ing for this
moement indicate a considera+ly .uic,er tempo than is traditionally performed
today# howeer# if if o+sered fairly literally# the use of Beethoen's figure reeals a
completely new nature to the piece# more dynamic while maintaining its delicacy and
the deelopment certainly +enefits from the .uic,er tempo.
The silence is shattered with the +oisterous scherzo * Allegro iace. The minuet*li,e
trio is repeated twice for the first time in the symphonies. Beethoen's use of this A*
B*A*B*A structure for a scherzo was the result of his .uest to e0pand his writing
musically and structurally at this time.
The final Allegro ma non troppo is also liely and demonstrates that# for Beethoen
at least# the proiso "ma non troppo" does not necessarily mean that the piece +e
played more moderately as a whole# rather the piece has more contrasting elements#
that is the full*+odied allegro 'te0ture' is not so constant.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
The /anoer +and offer an e0cellent and e0citing ersion on the Bim+us la+el. /ere
the iacity is maintained throughout and this slow moement is gien a far swifter
treatment than is the norm# to great +enefit.
Sy*5-ony No.( in 7 *inor, o5.<'
6eriod of composition! "AG( * "AGA Date of 6u+lication! "AGE# +y Breit,opf and
/artel# dedicated to 6rince >ranz Foseph Lo+,owitz and )ount Andreas
8azumos,y.
!a1:ground details+
The hugely successful (th 5ymphony o+iously impressed )ount 7ppersdorff 3who
commissioned the piece4 as much as it did the critics# for the )ount swiftly offered
Beethoen a new commission for another symphony. Beethoen too, this
opportunity to resurrect the s,etches he had laid aside from "AG(*"AG< to satisfy the
)ount. The )ount offered ;GG florins for the wor, 3as he did for the (th 5ymphony4
and paid %GG in adance. /oweer the )ount neer receied the symphony as
Beethoen# foreer on the loo,*out for a good deal# saw it fit to sell the piece to
pu+lishers Breit,opf and /artel in "AGA as part of a pac,age deal that included the
<th 5ymphony# the )ello 5onata 7p.<E and the 6iano Trios 7p.?G.
The piece was first performed at a mammoth +enefit concert on %% Decem+er "AGA
which included the <th 5ymphony# (th 6iano )oncerto# the aria "Ah 6erfido"#
e0cerpts from the &ass in )# an improisation +y Beethoen himself and the )horal
>antasy 7p.AG9 The applause howeer was somewhat muted. The a+ility to
comprehend such a olume of magnificent and e0traordinary music was# perhaps#
too much to e0pect. Also# as the concert lasted oer four hours# the audience must
hae +een a+solutely frozen * Beethoen haing no money left to pay for heating9 A
hum+le +eginning for what is pro+a+ly the most widely ,nown piece of 'classical'
music eer written.
Musi1al outline+
The four note motto of the opening Allegro con +rio is so ingrained into the modern
psyche that it is almost impossi+le to distance ourseles and assess it o+-ectiely9
According to 5chindler Beethoen said of the opening +ars! "Thus >ate ,noc,s at the
door9" :hether this is true or not# there is certainly a sense of doom which
permeates throughout the moement. The con +rio must +e fully o+sered for the
true fearfulness of the piece to +e realised. Fohn 2liot @ardiner argues conincingly
that the ">ate" theme has its origins in a song of the >rench 8eolution. These
opening +ars are played on strings and clarinets alone and are actually am+iguous
tonally 3the ,ey of ) minor is confirmed only as the piece continues4# with the full
orchestra +eing resered for the recapitulation and the coda. The horn heralds the
second su+-ect and +riefly ) ma-or is allowed to triumph +efore ultimately +eing
destroyed in the coda where ">ate " has the last word.
In the second moement# Andante con moto# we find an unusual mi0 of ariation and
free writing# with the galant theme +eing interrupted on three occasions +y a martial
fanfare in ) ma-or# and the ariations themseles +ecoming more improisatory in
manner.
:ith the 5cherzo and Trio we return to the world of ) minor. The opening theme#
looms .uestioningly out of the dar,ness on the cellos and +ases. The .uestion is
answered star,ly +y the second martial theme# introduced +y the horns# that is
reminiscent of the ">ate" motif of the opening Allegro. The trio displays a irtuoso
introduction from the +ass that is increasingly ta,en up +y the rest of the orchestra.
The trio is played twice# in common with other wor,s of the period such as the (th#
<th and ?th 5ymphonies +ut there is some dispute as to whether it should +e played
only once as happened at the premiere. The ommision of the repeat is
understanda+le considering the great length of this concert# +ut surely for normal
purposes the moement should +e played complete to hold its own in such a
monumental and powerful wor, as this symphony.
The 5cherzo leads without a +rea, into the final Allegro ia a mysterious
transitionary passage with long held notes on the strings and military tappings on the
timpani. 7ut of this a crescendo arises in the last moment +ursting forth the most
+rilliant light of ) ma-or. :hat proceeds from here is the ultimate musical sym+ol of
triumph and this music also has the flaour of the >rench reolution. /ere the
trom+ones and piccolo# which up until now had remained silent# hae their say.
Beethoen had discussed the inclusion of these instruments# noelties for a
symphony at that time# with )ount 7ppersdorff# and it is not impossi+le that the
)ount had influenced Beethoen in this regard. The e0position repeat is rarely
o+sered in performance +ut it is essential to +alance the weight of the 5cherzo of it
is played with the full 'da capo'. The coda is a +rilliant affair along the lines of the
finale of the 'rd 5ymphony.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
The /anoer BandM/uggett and The 7rchestre 8eolutionnaire et
8omanti.ueM@ardiner offer e0cellent ersions of this symphony# with the period
instruments reealing the true reolutionary spirit of the wor,.
Sy*5-ony No.< in 0 *a8or, o5.<$ "Pastoral"
6eriod of composition! "AGA Date of 6u+lication! "AGE# +y Breit,opf and /artel#
dedicated to 6rince >ranz Foseph Lo+,owitz and )ount Andreas 8azumos,y.
!a1:ground details+
Although a small num+er s,etches are to +e found in Beethoen's so*called '2roica'
s,etch+oo, of "AG'# serious wor, on the <th 5ymphony did not +egin until the "AGA.
The piece was composed# li,e the ) minor 5ymphony# at Beethoen's summer
retreat in the illage of /eiligenstadt. &uch later he showed 5chindler the e0act
locations of great +eauty that had stimulated many of the musical ideas we hear in
the composition. Beethoen's great loe of nature is well ,nown# though for him it
was not merely the appreciation of the +eauty of the countryside. 8ather# he shared
the feeling that# +y ,nowing nature# one could ,now @od# a sentiment popular in art
since the time of ancient @reece through to the >rench 2nlightenment.
The idea of a pastoral composition was not a new one# we hae from /aydn 'The
5easons'# pastoral sinfonias are to +e found in the oratarios of Bach and /andel.
Then of course there is 1ialdi's 'The >our 5easons.' Fustin Jnecht 3"?;%*"A"?4 had
written a symphony titled 'The musical portrait of nature' which has a fie moement
plan with a first moement descri+ing a +eautiful sunlit countryside# a storm in the
'rd moement and the finale titled 'Bature raises her oice towards heaen offering
to the creator sweet and agrea+le songs.' Bow it is certain that B ,new of this wor,#
een if he neer heard it performed * 5ir @eorge @roe discoered that this
symphony +y Jnecht was actually adertised on the coer of Beethoen's early
'2lectoral' sonatas :o7(?. /oweer Beethoen was generally contemptuous of
other composers' attempts at 'tone painting'# and although he himself would not
disdain on occasion from including 'imitation' into his wor,# the difference +etween
Beethoen and the others was# as Thayer puts it# "they undertoo, to gie musical
imitations of things essentially unmusical * he neer."
Although the original inspiration may hae stemmed from his genuine loe of nature#
the +usinessman in Beethoen may hae realised# after the success of /aydn's
composition 3which neertheless# Beethoen scolded mercilessly4# the financial
+enefits to +e gained from a wor, of this genre. )ommercial considerations may
hae also played a part in Beethoen's decision to gie each moement a title.
/oweer in the pu+lished edition he puts the disclaimer "more an e0pression of
feeling than painting" no dou+t in an attempt to play down the effect of the imagery
'painted' +y these titles.
The wor, was premiered at the same +enefit concert in 1ienna as the ) minor on %%
Decem+er "AGA# surely one of the greatest concerts of all time9 Ironically# gained
little profit from the concert in his honour. After paying the musicians in adance#
Beethoen had no money left at all for lu0uries such as heating# thus the whole
audience were frozen. The receipts +arely coered his outgoings.
Musi1al outline+
The first moement is Allegro ma non troppo and is entitled ')heerful feelings on
arriing in the countryside.' It opens in a rela0ed manner and the opening +ars
proide the material from which the rest of the moement is largely deried. :hen
we arrie at the first theme proper the rustic world is immediately apparent in the
droning +ass and its -oyous hunt*li,e fanfare# the emphasis of which is important for
the point to +e made in performance# on the >rench horns# together with the iolins.
The second second group is more rela0ed and closes with again a droning +ass
cadence*theme. 8epetition plays an important part in the moement# giing a sense
of natural growth# this is especially the case in the deelopment.
The following Andante molto mosso has a more specific title * '5cene +y the +roo,'.
The apparent simplicity of this moement drew scorn from the early critics# who
thought it childish. The sense of water flowing is maintained +y the melodic pattern
played on the lower strings. >or some time there is an outpouring of great lyricism in
the home ,ey of B*flat yet the flow remains un+ro,en as an e0ploration through more
distant ,eys is underta,en in the deelopment. The moements famous +ird*calls are
heard in the coda. The species are een identified in the score * nightingale# .uail
and cuc,oo * Beethoen honoura+ly ac,nowledging the assistance his feathered
friends hae proided9
The last three moements are played without a +rea,. The first of these is an Allegro
entitled '6easants &erryma,ing'. The moement e.uates to the scherzo with trio#
which is played twice. This ABABA structure was a common practice for Beethoen
at this time and which sered as a graity gaining mechanism that allowed the
scherzo to command a similar stature as the other moements whose own structure
Beethoen had e0panded and deeloped during his 'middle period'. The 'scherzo'
section is at one moment light and playful then at another the merryma,ing is more
+oisterous. The 'trio' is a rustic dance of great igour and e0hilaration and was first
s,etched in the '2roica' s,etch+oo, of "AG'. After the second playing of the trio# the
third statement of the opening is suddenly cut short +y a rum+ling on the +asses
suggesting the distant roll of thunder# and on the strings a staccato figure
representing the onset of rain. A storm is approaching...
The '5torm' 3Allegro4 seres as a lin, +etween the third and fifth moements# and
could +e seen as a more su+stantial e.uialent of the transition lin, +etween the
third and fourth moement of the ) minor 5ymphony. /ere the influence once again
of >rench music is apparent and the piece has +een compared to the storm in
)heru+ini's opera '2liza'. In addition to the thunder and rain# lightning is proided +y
sharp attac,s on the timpani. /ere a piccolo and two trom+ones are heard for the
first time. 2entually the storm a+ates as the +ass rum+le dies away and the
'raindrop' minims are replaced +y heaenly .uaers that announce the return of
tran.uility and sunlight# a time for than,sgiing...
The finale 3Allegretto4 is entitled '5hepherds song * -oyful than,sgiing after the
storm.' It is a radiant sonata*rondo whose theme is introduced +y the >rench horn.
The rondo eentually comes to a clima0 in the coda# though the true emotional
clima0 occurs in the closing +ars# with the hushed transformation of the rondo theme
and the distant horns echo the opening theme once more +efore the moement ends
simply# and hum+ly# with two short chords.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
The /anoer BandM@oodman 3Bim+us4 and The London )lassical
6layersMBorrington 32&I4 +oth offer sensitie yet e0hilarating performances
Sy*5-ony No.' in A *a8or, o5.>2.
6eriod of composition! "A""*"A"% Date of 6u+lication! "A"<# +y 5teiner# dedicated to
)ount &oritz on >ries.
!a1:ground details+
Although Beethoen had considered the production of a seenth symphony as early
as "AGA# possi+ly intended for )ount 7ppersdorff# it was not until "A"" that
Beethoen finally started s,etching such a piece. By then he had in mind not one +ut
a set of three symphonies. The s,etches reeal that the ?th and Ath 5ymphonies
were realised side +y side# although the ?th was finished first with the main +ody of
writing +eing underta,en and completed in the spring of "A"%. The s,etches of "A""
also reeal some preliminary attempts at what was to +ecome the choral section of
the Eth 5ymphony.
Beethoen had hoped that the ?th 5ymphony could +e performed at the time of the
6entecost in "A"%# +ut the pro-ect fell through and it was not until the Ath of
Decem+er "A"'# that the piece was first heard at a charity concert in aid of Austrian
and Baarian troops wounded in the +attle with Bapoleon's army at /anau. The
concert too, place in the Kniersity /all in 1ienna and also included Beethoen's
'Battle of 1itoria' 7p.E"# +etter ,nown as the 'Battle 5ymphony'. The timing of the
concert was perfect# such -u+ilant and ictorious music at a time of pu+lic relief when
Bapoleon's army was all +ut smashed. By all accounts it was a stupendous success
and the whole concert was repeated four days later. A correspondent from the
Allgemeine &usi,alische Ieitung attended +oth and wrote "the applause rose to the
point of ecstasy." Beethoen had reached the zenith of his popularity.
Musi1al outline+
In one respect the ?th 5ymphony could +e a summation of Beethoen's symphonic
e0perience during his so*called middle period! it included the daring rhetorical style
of the 'rd and ;th# yet also includes structural and lyrical aspects deeloped from the
(th and <th. A strong sense of rhythmic motion perades the whole wor,# though the
description of the 5ymphony +y :agner as 'the apotheosis of the dance' is perhaps
too narrow.
Li,e the (th 5ymphony# the piece opens with a slow introductory section# though that
of the present wor, is a more commanding '6oco 5ostenuto' compared to the
'Adagio' of the (th. This rather ague mar,ing has led to a great diergence in
interpretation regarding the tempo of the opening. /oweer if one pays attention to
the motie strength of the semi.uaer scales that appear alongside the opening
minims# one should deduce that the 'sostenuto' should not +e oerdone. The
opening is lin,ed to the main sonata form '1iace' +y a series of solitary e0changes
+etween the wind and the strings that almost +rings the music to a complete halt#
until the dotted rhythm on the '1iace' is gently generated. This rhythm is then
maintained igorously throughout the remainder this +arnstorming moement of
energy on a cosmic scale. The ,eys of ) ma-or and > ma-or play an important role in
the deelopment and indeed are a unifying factor in all four moements. In the coda
the +izarre grinding +ass 3which led :e+er to declare Beethoen 'ripe for the
madhouse'4 seres to +uild up enormous tension +efore the release of the final
clima0.
Then follows the slow moement in the minor ,ey 3Allegretto4. >rom the outset this
moement was of great popularity with the audiences of the day# and to hae it
repeated at concerts was the norm. 7n occasion it was een su+stituted in place of
the e0isting slow moements of his earlier symphonies during performances of these
wor,s9 In reality# howeer# the moement is not 'Allegretto'# +ut 'Andante'. This can
+e maintained on two leels * firstly# on the original printed musical parts the second
moement were mar,ed 'Andante'# and early reiews indicated this also. 5omehow#
in later editions of the score# 'Allegretto' had +een su+stituted. That Beethoen was
aware of this error is reported +y 5chindler who stated that "in later years the master
recommended that the first designation +e restored." 5econdly# one can deduce
Andante from the music itself. The moement is .uasi*ariational in design# the
theme +eing the haunting and melancholic march# with two interening pastoral
episodes in the ma-or featuring the clarinet . It was typical of Beethoen to use a
march*li,e Andante theme as the source for a ariation moement# +ut not an
Allegretto. By definition Andante 3Italian for 'to go' or 'to wal,'4 is the ideal tempo for
such a march as this$ Allegretto is altogether something more liely. The ariants
themseles are confined to accompanying figures# for the theme itself is always
present. The theme eentually ta,es on a fugal form that deelops to a clima0 +efore
the coda scatters the theme .uietly amongst the instruments.
The third moement is a scherzo 36resto4 in > ma-or. /ere the sense of motion is
accelerated with great energy. The structure of the moement ta,es the +y now
familiar ABABA with the trio 3in D ma-or4 repeated twice. Apparently the theme for
the trio has its origins as an Austrian 6ilgrim's /ymn. :hether this is true or not# it
has led to the common practise of playing the trio in a most drawn*out fashion most
unli,e Beethoen's slight reduction in tempo in the score to 'assai meno presto'. The
fact that the trio is played twice in full and hinted at again in the coda does not faour
a lengthy conception of the trio.
The finale 3Allegro con +rio4 is in sonata form. The semi.uaer swirl of the first
su+-ect has its origins in Beethoen's arrangement of the Irish round*dance '5ae me
from the grae and wise' :o7 ";( Bo.A# though the light gaiety of the dance is
transformed into an irresisti+le whirlwind in its symphonic incarnation. The second
group e0plores une0pected minor ,ey territory with e.ual force . In the deelopment
the ictorious moe to ) ma-or occurs yet again. >urther harmonic twists occur in the
recapitulation +efore the coda fires up the whirlwind once more. /ere an interesting
passage occurs where the first theme is passed +ac, and forth +etween the first and
second iolins. The true effect of this can only +e appreciated if the first and second
iolins are separated and placed to the left and right of the conductor. This is
eidence that Beethoen's wrote his music +aring this layout in mind# and indeed all
of his orchestral compositions +enefit from the separation of the iolins. In the
closing phase we e0perience two monstrous clima0es using the full force of the
orchestra +efore the +oo, is closed in an appropriately tidy fashion.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
The /anoer Band's 3Bim+us4 ersion is ery e0hilarating with good tempo. The +est
ersion on period instruments.
Sy*5-ony No.$ in 0 *a8or, o5.>%.
6eriod of composition! "A"" * "A"% Date of 6u+lication! "A"?# +y 5teiner.
!a1:ground details+
:or, on the Ath 5ymphony +egan alongside that of the ?th in "A"". /oweer the
lions share of the wor, was done in "A"% at Linz# with the final touches completed in
the summer. At this time it seems that the Ath was to +e the second of a prospectie
trio of symphonies# the third to +e in D minor# +ut the Ath was completed on the
threshold of a +arren period for Beethoen and it was not until "A%( that the third
symphony 37p."%;4 was completed.
The Ath 5ymphony was premiered on %(th >e+ruary "A"(# at a concert in the
8edoutensaal# 1ienna. Also on the programme were the ?th 5ymphony 7p.E%# the
terzetto 'Tremate# empi# tremate' 7p.""< and it closed with the 'Battle 5ymphony'
7p. E". A report in the Allgemeine &usi,alische Ieitung states that while the ?th and
Battle 5ymphonies +rought the house down# the applause for the Ath# from which
great things were e0pected# "was not accompanied +y that enthusiasm which
distinguishes a wor, which gies uniersal delight$ in short * as the Italians say * it
did not create a furore." The reiewer from the A&I went on to suggest that this lu,e
warm reception was due to the fact that it had followed the ?th# which had en-oyed
immediate success from its first performance# and that if the Ath was performed
alone# then its success too would +e guaranteed.
Musi1al outline+
The reason for this relatie 'failure' to satisfy the audiences anticipation after the
glorious ?thH "Because it 3the Ath4 is so much +etter" is Beethoen's own e0planation
according to )arl )zerny. =et much has +een made of its apparent shortcomings *
the wor, is the shortest of the symphonies in length# and is in many ways a
retrospectie piece li,e that other > ma-or wor,# the .uartet 7p."';$ a less serious
effort than its grand +rother 7p.E% * +ut how much of this criticism +ears scrutinyH
It was typical of the highly original Beethoen to compose a new wor, in a
contrasting style to its predecessor in the genre# especially when the compositions
were pu+lished in groups of three as had +een Beethoen's original concept. Thus it
would +e natural for him to contrast a ast wor, with of high graity li,e the ?th with a
shorter piece of somewhat lighter graity# though not lighter .uality# for in reality the
Ath 5ymphony is an a+solute masterpiece# no less 'new'# no less serious# no less
masterly than what has gone +efore.
The first moement is the e0treme of pace and itality * 'Allegro iace e con +rio'.
>rom the outset we realise that here the relatie shortness of the wor, is the result of
a fundamental concept that unites the whole composition * that of e0treme
compression. There is no room here for the 'indulgence' of a slow introduction# we
are thrown straight into the action with a self contained theme. The initial motif plays
no further part in the following e0position +ut is used to great effect in the
deelopment. The compression and consiseness is maintained in the noel second
group which has I wide range of contrasting te0tures and cross*rhythms. At the
deelopment an immense force of energy is released on an almost frightening scale
+efore the reassurance of the recapitulation. The coda closes on a humorous note#
as the opening motif is casual thrown aside. In performance it is fundamental that the
'iace e con +rio' is fully o+sered for the true energy of the moement to +e
realised.
The two 'internal' moements of the 5ymphony are uni.ue in Beethoen's symphonic
oure# +ut similarities e0ist elsewhere# as in the 6iano 5onata 7p.'"M'. The first of
these is the 'Allegretto scherzando' whose staccato repeated wind chords are
humorously accompanied +y fleeting melodies on the strings. 7ne could say that the
moement is a throw+ac, in style to a more /aydnes.ue form of wit# +ut the nature
of the moement is uni.ue in the symphonic world and wholly appropriate within the
conte0t of the composition.
The third moement also +ears a consciously retrospectie air with its e0plicit title
'Tempo di &enuetto'. It is pastoral in nature. A two note 'hunting call' playing an
important role in the 'minuet'# while the trio is more rela0ed# with a +eautifully flowing
melody in the upper strings contrasted with the 'hunting' >rench horn and a more
igorous +ass figure. Another retrospectie feature is Beethoen a+andonment the
now typical fie part structure where the trio is played twice# +ut one could say an
e0pansie fie*part format is redundant within the conte0t of this wor, of high
compression.
The delicate opening of the finale3Allegro iace4 +elies what is in fact a rather
weighty piece of e0treme pace which matches that of the opening moement. It
posesses an unusual structure of an e0tended sonata*rondo with two deelopments
and two recapitulations. An important feature is the out*of*,ey fortissimo ) sharp
which +izzarely intrudes on the igorous main theme. The second su+-ect proides a
contrast of -oyful rela0ation. Beethoen proides interesting colour effects +y haing
the timpani tuned to octae >s# an effect he was to repeat in the scherzo of the Eth
5ymphony. In the closing +ars the intrusie ) sharp is eentually put out of the
picture +y a continuous repetition of the > ma-or chord which closes the wor,. As
with the first moement# the iace tempo should +e o+sered to its fullest e0tent in
performance for the point of the moement to +e realised.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
The 7rchestre 8eolutionnaire et 8omanti.ueM @ardiner 3Archi4 offers an account
of especially +listering pace. The London )lassical 6layersMBorrington 32&I4 and
The /anoer BandM@oodman 3Bim+us4 are also first rate.
Sy*5-ony No.> in ; *inor, o5.12( & '7-oral'
6eriod of composition! "A"?# "A%%*%(. Date of 6u+lication! "A%<# +y 5chott#
dedicated to Jing >riedrich :ilhelm III of 6russia.
!a1:ground details+
>ew compositions hae had such a long and chaotic gestation period as that of
Beethoen's Eth 5ymphony9 As early as "A"" Beethoen made notes in his
s,etch+oo, regarding a 5ymphony in D minor# which would along with the ?th and
Ath# hae completed his planned trio of symphonies. Also at this time he penned
ideas regarding sections of 5chiller's 2nlightenment poem 'An die >reude' 37de to
Foy4 for use in an orchestral setting# although Beethoen had in fact considered
putting the '7de' to music throughout his career as a composer. >urther s,etches for
the scherzo 3fugato4 appeared in "A"; and "A"?. Then in "A"A Beethoen
deeloped a plan for another symphony with chorus +ased on religious te0ts which#
typically# came to nothing. During "A%% considera+le progress was made on the first
moement# with the earlier scherzo ideas +eing carried through irtually unchanged.
At this time there was nothing of the slow moement# +ut we do find s,etches of the
'7de' theme noted as +eing 'for the finale.' /oweer a choral finale at this time was
+e no means a foregone conclusion# for Beethoen later made a memorandum
regarding a possi+le fugal fourth moement.
The main +ody of composition was underta,en in "A%'# with the first half of the year
deoted to completion the first moement# followed +y the second in August and the
third in 7cto+er. )onsidera+le progress was also made on the setting of 5chiller's
'7de' although een at this stage Beethoen was still considering an purely
instrumental finale. A melody in D minor was s,etched that was eentually to see the
light of day# slightly modified and transposed into a different ,ey# in the finale of the
.uartet op."'%. Beethoen eentually made a firm decision on the choral ersion and
was completed in s,etch form +y the end of "A%'# and written out in score during
>e+ruary "A%(.
The premiere of the Eth 5ymphony was made at yet another monumental concert# at
the 8oyal Imperial )ourt Theatre on &ay ?th# "A%(. The other pieces performed
were the grand oerture ':eihe des /auses' op."%(# and the Jyrie# )redo and
Agnus Dei from the &issa 5olemnis op."%'. Although the performance was far from
perfect 3the performers haing only two rehearsals4# and as strange as the music
must hae sounded to the audience# the effect of the symphony was oerwhelming
on the audience and the applause was tumultuous. Beethoen# in his deafness
o+liious to this reception# had to hae his attention drawn +y the alto singer Jaroline
Knger who pulled his sleee and directed his gaze towards the clapping hands and
waing hats. >inancially the concert made a poor return for Beethoen due to the
ery large oerheads for the performance. The gross receipts for the concert were
%#%%G florins# yet once management costs# parts copying etc. were catered for#
Beethoen was left with only (%G florins# with some de+ts still to +e paid9 5chindler
reports that when the master receied the +o0*office report he collapsed and had to
+e lifted onto a sofa.
Musi1al outline+
Despite its relatiely late date of composition# the Eth 5ymphony still is a product of
the )lassical tradition and of the age of 2nlightenment and reolution * all of which
were im+ued in Beethoen from an early age. The freedom and dignity of the
indiidual# the pain# the suffering and the hopes of all man,ind 3and indeed
Beethoen himself4 are all ultimately manifested here. The emotions of the ;th
5ymphony and >idelio are profoundly intensified into a form which stretches the
media of oice and instrument to their ery limits.
The first moement# in sonata form * Allegro ma non troppo# on pocco maestoso *
opens with the utmost mystery. The tremulando strings and +are fifth horns appear
from the distance# as if they had +een already playing out of earshot A repeating
two*note motif gradually intensifies in olume until the final e0plosion into the first
su+-ect occurs. :ho +ut Beethoen would then dare to repeat the whole process
again# shifting the ,ey from D minor to B flat ma-or9 In typical Beethoen minor*mode
style the second group offers a pathetic hint at some form of consolation for dou+t
soon sets in once more as if to intensify the 'despair#' as Beethoen wrote in his
s,etches of the moement. Kni.uely in Beethoen's symphonies there is no
e0position repeat# instead# as he did in the first '8azumos,y' .uartet op.;EM"# we are
led into e0pecting the repeat +efore we are led into a deelopment of unparalleled
energy. /ere the 'despair' loses all control to a terrifying e0plosion in which the two*
note fragment of the opening plays an important role. The contrast of emotion
returns in the recapitulation +efore the moing firmly into the minor in the coda# with
the moement ending with an emphatic statement +ased on the first su+-ect.
Then follows a scherzo with trio * &olto iace * also in D minor. The scherzo itself is
in sonata form with all parts repeated. The startling originality of the opening +ars
sent the audience at the premiere into a frenzy# with the octae tuned drums
immediately announcing the important role they play in the tonality of the moement
as a whole. Then follows a hushed fugato# which has first +een s,etched so many
years ago. /oweer the fugue seres an introductory purpose as the full force of the
orchestra then follows a more harmonic path with the utmost igour. The second
su+-ect in ) ma-or adds an unusual harmonic flaour. The trio has a .uasi*pastoral
flaour# yet this does not mean the piece should +e played at too leisurely a pace# as
often occurs in performance. The trio is played only once# although Beethoen fools
us into +elieing we will here it once more at the end# only to hae it a+ruptly cut
short and the door slammed in our face9
The third moement * Adagio molto e canta+ile * is .uasi*ariational similar and
inoles two themes! Adagio molto and Andante moderato. The structure +ares
similarity to the slow moement of the ?th 5ymphony in that a principle theme and
ariations 3Adagio molto# B flat4 is twice interrupted +y a contrasting episode
3Andante moderato# D ma-or4. Both themes are of unsurpassed +eauty. There is no
lin, musically +etween the themes. Indeed it seems that contrast seres an
important function in the moement as also seen in the two dramatic fanfares hear
towards the end. In performance the moement suffers from to +road a conception of
'Adagio molto' at the e0pense of the 'canta+ile' to that the theme is often lost
altogether and the emphasis instead placed on the long*held notes. Also it is
important that the ariations hae an element of dynamism within them# as they
+ecome more ela+orate# this is only fully realised at a .uic,er tempo and more
assertie playing.
7nce Beethoen satisfied himself that the '7de to Foy' was to +e included as the
finale Beethoen immediately faced two pro+lems! the first +eing how to credi+ly
incorporate oices into what had +een# up until then# a purely instrumental piece and
ma,e it releant to the other moements$ the second how to introduce the '7de'
itself. After a dramatic call to attention# Beethoen soles the first pro+lem +y
creating a middle ground +etween oice and instrument * he lets the cellos and
+asses 'tal,' in a gruff recitatie that passes -udgement on the themes of the first
three moements and finds them all wanting. The recitatie then halts and slowly#
out of this dar,ness# the '-oy' theme is first heard. The theme itself is ery similar to
that used +y Beethoen in his )horal >antasy op.;G 3which itself originated from a
still earlier source * the song @egenlie+e :o7""A of "?E;4 and was the product of a
continuous process of rewriting. As the theme commences# the other instruments of
the orchestra +ecome inoled and the theme is eoled into its ideal instrumental
form. But what does Beethoen do hereH /e stops the whole show# the instrumental
form has had its say. Bow# with the aid of 5chiller# the true musical reelation is
finally to +e made.
But here we are presented with Beethoen's second pro+lem * how to introduce the
'7de'# for the poem itself has no musical connection. Beethoen struggled to find
suita+le words to fulfil this re.uirement +ut eentually he was satisfied with!
7 >reunde# nicht diese TH 5ondern la ߴ
uns angenehmere anstimmen und
freudenollere9

7 friends# no more these sounds9Let
us sing more cheerful songs#&ore full
of -oy9
These words are sung without accompaniment +y the +aritone alone. >rom here he
proceeds with 5chiller's ode sung to the 'Foy' theme preiously wrought out of the
cello and +ass recitatie. Beethoen does not ma,e use of the whole poem# rather
the passages which# it seems# he had particular sympathy. This first erse# sung in D
ma-or# Allegro Assai# is then repeated +y the male chorus!
>reude# schH @Hrfun,en# Tochter aus
2lysium# :ir +etreten feuertrun,en#
/immlische# dein /eiligtum9 Deine
Iau+er +inden wieder# :as die &ode
streng geteilt$ Alle &enschen werden
BrH:o dein sanfter >lHeilt.

Foy# +right spar, of diinity#Daughter
of 2lysium# >ire*inspired we tread
Thy sanctuary.Thy magic power re*
unites All that custom has diided# All
men +ecome +rothers# Knder the
sway of thy gentle wings.
:ith the second erse the other soloists 3tenor# mezzo*soprano# soprano4 +ecome
inoled# and the erse is again repeated# sung now +y the whole chorus!
:em der gro ߥ :urf gelungen# 2ines
>reundes >reund zu sein# :er ein
:hoeer has created An a+iding
friendship# 7r has won A true and
holdes :ei+ errungen#&ische seinen
Fu+el ein9 Fa# wer auch nur eine 5eele
5ein nennt auf dem 2rdenrund9 Knd
wer's nie ge,onnt# der stehle :einend
sich aus diesem Bund.
loing wife# All who can call at least
one soul theirs# Foin our song of
praise$ But those who cannot must
creep tearfully Away from our circle.
:ith the third erse# the '-oy' theme has a slightly more urgent flaour# again sung +y
the four soloists then repeated +y the chorus. The last line is repeated once more +y
the chorus with emphasis placed on each word until a dramatic clima0 is reached
with the word "@od9"!
>reude trin,en alle :esen An den BrH
der Batur$ Alle @uten# alle BH >olgen
ihrer 8osenspur. JHa+ sie uns und
8e+en# 2inen >reund# geprH Tod$
:ollust ward dem :urm gege+en# Knd
der )heru+ steht or @ott9

All creatures drin, of -oy At natures
+reast. Fust and un-ust Ali,e taste of
her gift$ 5he gae us ,isses and the
fruit of the ine# A tried friend to the
end. 2en the worm can feel
contentment# And the cheru+ stands
+efore @od9
After the clima0 we are greeted with silence# and out of this silence the une0pected
occurs# we hear the theme in the form of a -oyful march9 3Alla marcia in B flat ma-or#
.uic, <MA time4. The popular tendency to play the march at a moderate pace in
performance has the unfortunate effect of unduly halting the progression of the
moement# since another truly moderate passage# Andante maestoso# follows later.
As the wind +and plays the tenor sings alone and repeats the last two lines with the
male chorus!
>roh# wie seine 5onnen fliegen Durch
des /immels pr 䣨 tgen 6lan# Laufet# BrH
eure Bahn# >reudig# wie ein /eld zum
5iegen.

@ladly# li,e the heaenly +odies
:hich /e sent on their courses
Through the splendour of the
firmament$ Thus# +rothers# you
should run your race# li,e a hero
going to ictory9
The march then inspires a igorous dou+le fugue from the orchestra +efore the
chorus gie a -oyous repeat of the first erse.
Bow we come to another new more profound phase Andante maestoso# with a new
theme. The first the first two lines of the erse are sung in an imposing manner +uy
the male chorus with only the trom+one for accompaniment. The lines are repeated
in a more tender fashion +y the whole chorus. This process is repeated for the third
and fourth lines. The effect produced is a demonstration @ods awesome power# +ut
also his loe# hope and compassion!
5eid umschlungen# &illionen. Diesen
Ju ߠder ganzen :elt9 BrHܢer'm
5temenzelt &u ߠein lie+er 1ater
wohnen.

=ou millions# I em+race you. This ,iss
is for all the world9 Brothers# a+oe
the starry canopy There must dwell a
loing father.
>rom here there is a +rief +ut tender instrumental interlude +efore the last erse# in
which our faith is .uestioned# +ut we are gien the path to find /im. /ere the
profundity increases to the point of ethereal ecstasy!
Ihr stH nieder# &illionenH Ahnest du
den 5chHr# :eltH 5uch' ihn H
5ternenzelt9 K+er 5ternen mu ߠer
wohnen.

Do you fall in worship# you millionsH
:orld# do you ,now your creatorH
5ee, /im in the heaens$ A+oe the
stars must he dwell.
In the closing section Beethoen +rings the "Foy" and the new "&illionen" themes
together in counterpoint with the chorus. The soloists also hae their final# tenderly
lyrical say +efore the chorus ta,e control once again in the final Baccanale whose
-u+ilance has no comparison in all music.
6e1o**ended 6e1ordings+
7nce again the The /anoer Band is this writer's ultimate preference. The am+ient
acoustic# that is a feature of the whole series +y this ensem+le# really +rings out the
true +eauty of the period instruments and should sound good on een a low*grade
hi*fi system. There is almost a Baro.ue flaour to the sound. The Adagio is realised
with more feeling than the other period style ersions aaila+le. There is only one
reseration * the recording leel of the first moement is greater than the remainder#
+ut an ad-ustment of your olume control will cater for this. Importantly# the set as
whole is normally offered at a +argain price# with e0cellent ersions of the oertures
and the &issa 5olemnis thrown in for good measure. Those without preconceptions
will en-oy this music.