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# 6 - 1

Biquadratic transfer functions with 3 or more ampliﬁers

Capable of realizing multiple outputs with low sensitivities but not signiﬁcantly better
than well designed SABs

Simplest is the state variable ﬁlter or KHN

KHN (Kerwin, Huelsman and Newcomb)

Easy to design, good performance and low sensitivity

Notable other types include:

(2)

Let H(s) =
V
2
(s)
V
1
(s)
=
Ks
s
2
+a
1
s +a
o

be the transfer function we wish to realize
• We introduce an arbitrary variable X(s) and multiply (1) by
X(s)
s
2

V
2
(s)
V
1
(s)
=
K
X(s)
s
X(s) +a
1
X(s)
s
+a
o
X(s)
s
2
(1)
6 - 2

From (2) looking at the numerator and denominator terms
V
2
(s) = K
X(s)
s
V
1
(s) = X(s) +a
1
X(s)
s
+a
o
X(s)
s
2
Rearranging (4) yields,
X(s) =V
1
(s) a
1
X(s)
s
a
o
X(s)
s
2

1
s

1
s

a
1
K
a
o
V
1
V
2
+
+
-
X
Block Diagram
(3)
(4)
(5)
6 - 3
Circuit Realization
-
R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
R
5
R
6
R
3
R
4
V
BP
V
LP
V
HP
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
V
BP
(s)
V
1
(s)
=
1+ R
6
R
5
1+ R
3
R
4

s
R
1
C
1
D(s)
V
LP
(s)
V
1
(s)
=
1+ R
6
R
5
1+ R
3
R
4

1
R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2
D(s)
V
HP
(s)
V
1
(s)
=
1+ R
6
R
5
1+ R
3
R
4
s
2
D(s)

• where D(s) = s
2
+
s
R
1
C
1

1+ R
6
R
5
1+ R
3
R
4
+
R
6
R
5
R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2

o
=
R
6
R
5
R
1
R
2
C
1
C
2

1
Q
=
1+ R
6
R
5
1+ R
3
R
4

R
5
R
2
C
2
R
6
R
1
C
1
6 - 4
Design Possibilities
Design 1

• R
1
= R
2
= R, C
1
= C
2
= C, R
5
= R
6
= R
3

o
=
1
RC
,
1
Q
=
2
1+ R
4
R
3
• R
4
= 2Q1 ( )R
3
• K(LP & HP) =
2Q1
2Q
• K(BP) =12Q
Design 2

1
=
2
=

o
10
, = time constant
• C
1
= C
2
= C, R
1
= R
2
= R =
1
10
o
C
• R
3
= R
6
= R and R
5
=10R
• R
4
= R 1.1 10Q1
( )
• K(LP) =
11Q 10
Q
• K(BP) =11.1 10Q
• K(HP) =
1.1Q1 10
Q
6 - 5

1
s

1
s
K
V
1
V
2
-
-
-
1
Q
+1
-1

An alternative realization

Only BP and LP outputs available
-
R
C
C
R
V
BP
V
LP
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
r
r
QR
R K
V
LP
V
BP
V
1
(s) =
sK
o
s
2
+ s

o
Q
+
o
2
,
V
LP
V
1
(s) =±
K
o
2
s
2
+ s

o
Q
+
o
2

o
=
1
RC
6 - 6
-
R
C
C
R
V
BP
V
LP
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
r
r
QR
R K
V
LP
C
c
C
c

4
R
t
6 - 7
-
R
C
C
R
V
BP
V
LP
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
r
r
QR
R K
V
LP
-
+ V
o
SW2 SW1
R R
R
8
R
4
6 - 8
Filter Type T(s) R
4
R
8
Switch Position
HP K
s
2
D(s)
RQ
K
R
Q
SW1 Closed
LPN
(w
o
< w
z
)
K
s
2
+
z
2
D(s)
RQ
K
R
Q

z

o

2
1
SW2 Closed
HPN
(w
o
> w
z
)
K
s
2
+
z
2
D(s)
RQ
K
R
Q
1

z

o

2 SW1 Closed
Notch K
s
2
+
o
2
D(s)
RQ
K
_____
AP
K
s
2

o
Q
s +
o
2
D(s)
RQ
2K
_____
GE
K
s
2

o
Q
s +
o
2
D(s)
Q
z
>Q
R
Q
1
Q

1
Q
z
_____
D(s) = s
2
+

o
Q
s +
o
2
and RC =
1

o
6 - 9
-
R
C
C
R
V
BP
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
r
r
QR
R K
V
LP
High Q Integrator

For improved Q enhancement we can replace the lossless integrator in the Tow-
Thomas Biquad by a high-Q integrator

Performance is far superior to Tow-Thomas with passive compensation

Circuit can be generalized
6 - 10
-
R
C
C
R
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
r
r
QR
R K
C
R
R
V
o1
V
o2
V
o1
V
1
=
s
2
+ s
o
k ( ) +
o
2
s
2
+

o
Q
s +
o
2
• HP: k = = = 0
• BP: = = = 0
• LP: = k = = 0
• BR: k = = 0, =
• HPN: k = = 0, >
• LPN: k = = 0, <
• AP: = = k, =1+
1
Q
6 - 11

Modiﬁcation of the Tow-Thomas biquad with feedforward inputs

Position of the Lossless integrator changed

Passive compensation possible
V
o1
V
1
=
R
R
3
s
2
+ s

o
Q
R
R
3

RQ
R
1

+
R
R
2

o
2
s
2
+

o
Q
s +
o
2

o
=
1
RC
- R
C
C
R
V
1
-
-
+
+
+
R
QR
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
V
o
1
6 - 12

SABS- Single amplifer circuits that together with a 2nd
order RC network used to realize an arbitrary 2nd order
transfer function

Multiampliﬁer circuits

Simultaneous availability of different transfer functions
at different outputs

Ease of tuning and noninteractive adjusting of ﬁlter
parameters, becuase the design equations are seen to
be decoupled by the insertion of additional opamps