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Early AC: Most ancient civilizations rely on the movement of celestial bodies to determine time broadly

defined by planting seasons and harvest times.

3500 AC – First sundials build in ancient Egypt after they were imported from Babylon, with many
ancient structures were built to mark the passage of time and determine arrival of planting seasons and
harvest times.

2000 AC – Creation of Stonehenge (prediccion de solsticios/estaciones). Circa 2000 BCE: Stonehenge;
Ancient Egyptian Sundials

1500 AC: The Chinese and Egyptians develop simple sundials; easy to build, so a huge variety evolves all
over the world during this time period.

1400 AC – Some cultures mark the passage of time by measuring time it takes to burn oil, incense and
candles. Creación de la clepsydra (reloj de agua) de los egipcios

742 AC – First archeological proof of sun dial existence.

325 AC: Water clocks are invented by the Greeks.

300 AC – First simple transmission gears created by Archimedes.

300- 330 NE – Introduction of sand glass clocks.

885 – Candles with time markings introduced to the medieval Europe. Alfred the great used candles as

1092 – First mechanical water clock created by Chinese innovator Su Sung.

1275: The mechanical clock is invented in England.

1334: An astronomical clock is introduced by Jacopo di Dondi in Padua (Italia)
1335: another clock, with a mechanism that strikes a bell to mark the hours, is completed in 1335 in
1364: and a third, which tracks hours, the sunrise, and the days of the month, is built by Giovanni de
Dondi in Pavia.

1368- 70: First mechanical clock makers appeared in England. The first mechanical striking clocks appear
in France and England.

1400: Blacksmiths begin making clocks with loud bells in them to ring the hours, for use in the hallways
of large mansions.

1490 – Locksmith Peter Hele invented first mainspring in Nurnburg. Mainspring invented by Peter Hele,
or Henlein, a locksmith of Nurnburg. About this time the small domestic, or table clock made its

16th Century: Iron, a key element in clock design, is pushed aside in favor of brass, bronze, and silver;
development of spring-powered clocks.

Early 1500s – Appearance of first small domestic (table) clocks.

1510 – First mechanical watch created in German cities of Nuremberg by Peter Henlein. These models
were either fastened to belts or carried around the neck and they measured only passage of hours.

1530 – The oldest surviving mechanical clock.

1540 – Screws became used for clocks, enabling much smaller designs that kept time much better than
first models.

1541 – First public tower clock fixed on one of the towers in Hampton Court Palace, England. An
astronomical clock was fixed in one of the towers of Hampton Court Palace. The Swiss watch industry is
born. Reformer John Calvin of Geneva bans people from wearing jewelry, altering the future of
Switzerland. Geneva's jewelers are forced to learn another craft and are taught the art of watchmaking
by refugees from France and Italy.

1574: The first known pocket watch is created, but the inventor remains unknown. The watch, crafted in
bronze, depicts Saint George slaying a dragon on the front and the Crucifixion on the back.

1577 - Jost Burgi invented the minute hand, even though 16th century clocks were very inaccurate.

1581 – Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo discovered the properties of pendulum. Galileo, Italian
Astronomer and Physicist, discovered the properties of the pendulum.

1587 – Geneva became home to the thriving watchmaking industry.

1610 – Introduction of protection glass on watches. This finally enabled reliable protection of time dials
on the portable small watches.

1635 – French inventor and clockmaker Paul Viet of Blois introduced first enamel dials.

1657 – Famous Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens created first pendulum controlled clock.

1666 The recoil anchor excapement, possibly invented by Dr. Robert Hooke between 1666 and 1667.

1671 – Pendulum clocks received important upgrade with the introduction of pendulum suspension
spring introduced by William Clement. Pendulum suspension spring introduced by William Clement. The
first known clock with anchor excapement made by William Clement.

1675 Royal Observatory at Greenwich founded. Edward Booth ( Later Rev. Edward Barlow ) invented the
Rack Striking Mechanism for clocks.

1676 – Famous London watchmaker Daniel Quare introduced to the public concentric minute hand for
watches. He also worked on creating repeating watches. The concentric minute hand, with motion work
similar to that in use today, was used by Daniel Quare, a famous London maker and others. Daniel Quare
also made repeating watches about this time. The Second Hand is introduced.

1680: The first minute hands are added to clocks.

1690: The second hand makes its first appearance on clocks, though the novel idea does not become
common practice.

1700: Clock ownership becomes widespread; manufacturers design clocks in all sizes and styles: ranging
from grandfather type clocks, called 'longcases', to decorative table clocks adorned with enamel

1704 - Nicholas Facio managed to pierce rubies and sapphires, using them as a jeweled bearing for
balance staff pivots. Nicholas Facio, FRS, a native of Geneva, who settled in London, succeeded in
piercing rubies and sapphires for use as jewelled bearing for balance staff pivots.

1715 -20: Englishman George Graham invents the deadbeat escapement, a new type of mechanical
escapement that offers greater precision. He also invented the mercurial compensation pendulum.

1725 John Harrison invented the grid-iron compensation pendulum. George Graham invented the
cylinder escapement.

1760s – Enlightenment era in Europe brought many advances to clock mechanisms. Need for accurate
maritime chronometers soon enabled ordinary and cheap watches to become very accurate. This
accuracy can be attributed to the inventions of Pierre Le Roy and Thomas Earnshaw who introduced to
the public temperature compensated balance wheel.

1765 Centre Seconds hand introduced. "Tell-tale" clocks invented by John Whitehurst, FRS, a celebrated
clockmaker of Berby and London. (1713-1788)

1770: Abraham-Louis Perrelet invents a self-winding mechanism. –and– Jean-Antoine Lepine creates a
thinner movement, called the Lepine calibre, enabling watchmakers to make flatter watches that can be
carried in "fob" pockets to conceal them from potential thieves. The Lepine calibre is still in use today.

1785 - Josiah Emery improved the design of lever escapement that was first introduced by Thomas
Mudge in 1759.

1795: Abraham-Louis Breguet invents the tourbillon escapement.

1812: Breguet creates a watch to fit on a wrist (the first wristwatch), for Caroline Murat, Queen of

1820: The keyless clock emerges, doing away with the need to use a key for winding or setting.

1822: Nicolas Rieussec files a patent for a "timekeeper or device to measure the distance traveled,
called a seconds chronograph". This is the birth of the era of the chronograph, or stopwatch.

1830: Breguet introduces watches equipped with a button for setting the time.

1840 – First electric clock was created by Edinburgh clockmaker Alexander Bain.

1858 – Association of English clock and watch makers created the British Horological Institute. The
British Horological Institute, an association of Clock and Watch Makers for the purpose of advancing the
horological art, was founded. "The Horological Journal," the oldest periodical dealing with the craft, was

1865 Georges Frederick Roskopf developed the pin pallet escapement.

1880 G.M.T. became the standard time for the whole of the United Kingdom. Charles R. Sligh forms
theSligh Furniture Company. Standardization of time zones.

1884 The meridian of Greenwich was adopted by international agreement as the zero or prime meridian
from which the longitude of all places in the world is measured.

1895 – First modern electric clock created by Frank Hope-Jones. This clock became base of all modern
clocks that are created today.

1900s – Clocks and personal watches enter into mass production.

1900 Electric contacts are fitted to a Marine Chronometer for the purpose of impulsing secondary dials.

1904: Santos-Dumont orders wristwatch from Louis Cartier. The original watch is on display at the Paris
Air Museum next to the 1908 Demoiselle, the last plane Santos-Dumont built.

1905 – Radio time signals became transmitted from Washington DC to help ships find longitude on open

1914: By the end of World War I, wearing a wristwatch is the preferable form of timekeeping.

1916 – Introduction of Summer Time.

1918 The alternating current synchronous motor was first applied to clocks by H.C. Warren in the U.S.A.,
although the principle had been discussed as far back as 1895. Thus came the first "plug into mains"

1921 Study and development of the Quartz Crystal clock commenced by Dr. Warren A. Marrison, F.B.H.I.
a Canadian who became an American citizen.

1927 Howard C. Miller starts the "Howard Miller Clock Co." Charles Lindbergh completes the first
transatlantic solo flight, from New York to Paris, in 33 hours and 30 minutes while wearing a wristwatch
by Longines, the official timekeeper of this historic journey. Shortly after, Longines and Lindbergh
develop the Lindbergh Hour Angle watch.

1929: Antoine LeCoultre unveils for the world the smallest mechanical watch movement, the Caliber 101.
It is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records.

1930: Breitling Watch Company patents the first stopwatch.

1937 Quartz Crystal clocks introduced at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

1945 – Physicist Isador was first to suggest that oscillations of atoms (atomic-beam magnetic resonance)
can be used to create extremely precise clocks.

1949 – First atomic clock created by United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NITS).

1955 Atomic Clock invented by Dr. L. Essen, O.B.E., F.B.H.I. National Physical Laboratory, Teddington.
The first Caesium atomic clock, which keeps accurate time to within a few seconds every 100,000 years,
is invented by Dr. Essen of the National Physical Laboratory.

1957: America's Hamilton Watch Company produces the first successful electric watch.

1960: Bulova Watch Company builds the Accutron tuning fork watch, which uses an inch-long tuning
fork instead of an escapement to power the oscillating circuit.

1962: Rado becomes known as originator of the scratch-proof watch with the release of the DiaStar I,
made of hard metal.

1963: Seiko develops quartz-crystal, battery-powered chronometers.

1967 – Second is formally defined not trough movements of celestial bodies but as 9,192,631,770
vibrations of the cesium atom.

1969: Astronaut Neil Armstrong wears an Omega Speedmaster on his spaceflight to the moon. –and–
Seiko introduces its first quartz-crystal analog wristwatch.

1970: Hamilton Watch Company introduces the world's first solid-state digital quartz-crystal wristwatch
prototype. Named Pulsar, it uses LED (light-emitting diode) technology and has a bright red digital

1976 CASIO creó un reloj digital de pulsera con diez funciones adicionales.Cuatro años más tarde consiguió integrar
una calculadora electrónica en un reloj.

1979: The Delirium is introduced as the thinnest watch in the world, measuring 1.98 mm.

1983: Swatch introduces its first plastic Swiss quartz watch, marketing the line as affordable fashion

1989: Patek Philippe creates the Calibre 89 to celebrate its 150th anniversary. The watch is deemed the
most complicated in the world, with 33 complications, or special features.
1996: The Breitling Emergency watch—equipped with a transmitter that broadcasts a distress signal to
rescuers—helps save the lives of the crew of the Mata-Rangi expedition when their reed raft breaks up
in a storm off the Chilean coast.

1997: Guinness World Records announces the Tourneau TimeMachine, on 57th Street at Madison
Avenue in New York City, as the world's largest watch store.

1999: Watch brands turn to space-age materials such as titanium and carbon fiber. TAG Heuer launches
the Kirium T15, the first sports watch crafted in grade 5 titanium.

Late 1990s – Over half a billion watches are sold every year.

2000: Watch companies such as Ulysse Nardin and Patek Philippe begin using high-tech materials like
silicon and ceramic in their movements.

2005: Guinness World Records recognizes the Tourneau Time Dome Las Vegas, as the world's largest
watch store.

2011: Tourneau Concept Store and launches.