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NLJAlMYS¡LS

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Jhc posthumous works
8eetbouen: Tbe |bi/osoµby o[ Music
Introduction to Socio/ogy
|ro|/ems o[ Mora/ |bi/osoµby
Metaµbysics: Conceµt and |ro|/ems
Kant´s Critique o[ |ure Reason
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COnccþt Jnd ÌrOblcms
ÅhCodor Ý. Pdorno
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Idited |y kolj Tiedemann
T·anslated |y Idmund ]ephcott
Stan!ord Lnivcrsity !rcss
btan!ord, CaÍi!ornia
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ILCJIKL CIL. VÍJI ls ÀcIJþÍjslcs´
Nctaphysícs as thc vcxcd qucstíon oIphílosophy ¯
Jhc unccrtaín sub|cctmattcr oImctaphysícs ¯ 'Back-vorld`
and occultísm ¯ Þgaìnst thc Iactual cxístcncc oIcsscnccs
¯ Jhc conccptualcharactcr oImctaphysícs; thc dísputc
ovcr unívcrsals ¦Ì) ¯ Jhcology and mctaphysícs ínthc
posítívíst phílosophy oIhístory ¯ Jhc rclatíonshíp oI
thcoIogy to mctaphysícs ¯ Jhc attcmpt to dchnc thc
absolutc bypurc thought; crítíquc oI dogmatìsm and thc
ncv dogmatísm, thc pact oIthcoÍogy and mctaphysícs ¯
Jhc dísputc ovcr unívcrsaIs ¦ÌÌ) ; Iormalízatíon oI thc
conccpt oImctaphysícs, Icucíppus and Ocmocrítus as
`mctaphysícal matcríalísts`
ILCJIKL J¤C. ÍOcIrlnc Oj IÍc ÍlrsI |Jusc
Iccturc notcs. Tbe [undamenta/ science as tbe doctrine o[
tbe jrst cause; a|iding or |ecoming; tbe [orgetting o[
metaµbysica/ questions ([orce, /i[e, µsycbo-µbysica/
µara//e/ism)
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ILCJIKL J!KLL. ÌlsIOrj Oj IÍc |OnccþI
Iccturc notcs. History o[ tbe conceµt; traditiona/ su|diuision
o[ metaµbysics; 'Inductiue metaµbysics'; against [undamenta/
onto/ogy
PH1S¯L¯ÏÏ´o MITA|HYS|CS
ILCJIKL ÍCIK. ÍÌJIO, ¬rlsIOIÌc Jnd Ìcldc__cr
Ïlato`s doctrínc oI Idcas, thc scnsíblc as non-bcíng ¯ Jhc
doctrínc oI pcJc(:;,acknovlcdgcmcnt oI cmpírícísm ín thc
latc Ïlato ¯ Jcnsíon bctvccn -c ô:and -o ê:-occntral ¯
Idcas asthc gods turncd ínto conccpts, mctaphysícs. a
rcIlcctíon oI a brcach, uníty oIcrítícísm and rcscuc ¯
Þrístotlc's crítíquc oIÏlato, thc 'cxcrtíon oIthought to savc
vhat ít dcstroys`,Kant`s attítudc to Ïlato and ÞrístotÌc ¯
!cídcggcr`s rcdíscovcry oIthc 'prístínc` Þrístotlc, thc opcníng
scntcncc oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics ¦I) ¯ Jhc opcníng scntcncc
oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics ¦ÌI) ¯ Þrístotlc`s cmpírícísm
ILCJIKL ÍIVL. LnltcrsJÌ Jnd ÍJrIlcuÌJr
Naín thcmcs oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics, accordíng to Zcllcr,
thc 'scícncc oIhrst príncíplcs and causcs`, partícuÌar and
unívcrsal ¦I) ¯ Ïartícular and unívcrsal ¦II), Þrístotlc ín
rclatíon to nomínalísm ¯ Jhc unívcrsal uitbin thc partícular,
agaínst ¿opmpó;,Þrístotlc and !usscrl ¯ Crítíquc oIthc
doctrínc oI Ìdcas, parallcl bctvccn Ïlato and Kant`s moral
lav ¯ Jhc substantíalíty oIthc partícular, thc ímmcdíatc ¯
bubstancc and ímmcdíacy. Þrístotlc, !umc, Kant ¯
Immcdíacy and mcdíatíon ín Þrístotlc and !cgcl, doctrínc

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ILCJIKL bI7. |cncsls Jnd VJÌldlIj
Conccpt and cxístíng thíng, thc Cnc and thc Nany, 'uníty ín
dívcrsíty` ¯ Cntology. thc príoríty oIIorm, Iorm and mattcr,
c:cpyc:oand òúcop:; ¯ Jhc attítudc to hístory. closcncss
and dístancc ¯ Kcalíty and possíbílíty ínvcrtcd, nomínalísm
and rcalísm ín Þrístotlc ¯ Íor us and ín ítsclI, thc
dcpartmcntalízatíon oI truth, thc scholastíc tradítíon ín
bchclcr and !usscrl ¯ Jhc prímacy oIthc hrst and oldcst,
thc unmovcd movcr, thc ídca olmcdíatíon
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\LCJIKL bLVLI. ÀcdlJIlOn Jnd lÍc ÌJþþj Àcdlum +Z
Jhc qucstíon oIprímacy ¯ Ìdcalíst prc-j udgcmcnt ormiscre
de /a µbi/osoµbie ¯ Jhc problcm oI ídcology and íts truth
contcnt ¯ Jhc tcmporal corc oItruth ¯ Jhc problcm oI
mcdíatíon unrcsolvcd ¯ Íorm and mattcr ¦ Ì) ; mcdíatíon
and thc `happy mcdíum` ¯ Þntíquíty víthout subj cctívíty ¯
bubj cctívíty and thc díaIcctíc; ídcalísm ma/grc /ui-mcme,
Iorm and mattcr ¦ II) ¯ !cgcl and Þrístotlc
ILCJIKL LIG!J. 1Íc ÍOcIrlnc Oj ÌmmuIJblÌlIj
Crítíquc and rcscuc ¯ Jhc scnsíblc ín Ïlato and Þrístotlc ¯
Þ príorí basís oIknovlcdgc ín thc scnsíblc ¯ Íorm mcdíatcd
bycontcnt ¯ Ïroccss o!abstractíon ovcrlookcd ¯ Changc,
bccomíng, motíon; changc rclatívc to thc unchangíng; on
thc vay to thc díalcctíc ¯ Þbscn.c oIínhníty ¯ Ooctrínc oI
thc ímmutablc ¯ Ïrcvícv oIsubstancc and accídcncc
ILCJIKL IÌIL. ÍOrm Jnd ÀJIIcr
bubstratc and propcrty, mattcr and Cesta/t, Iorm and
mattcr. rcalíty and possíbílíty ¯ Þrístotlc`s ídcalísm; changc
as thc rcalízatíon oIIorm ¯ Jhcconccpt oI-c òe;, mattcr
and Iorm ín bchcllíng ¯ Crítíquc oIthc conccpt oImattcr
as substancc ¯ Crítícísm and truth; thc rc-cmcrgcncc oI
problcms ¯ Jhc rcal basís oIsynthcsís ¯ Nattcr as nµot¡
óò¸ ¯ Nattcr, thc conccpt oIthc non-conccptual;
mctaphysícs as thinkíng ìnto opcnncss
ILCJIKL JLI. 1Íc ÍrObÌcm Oj ÀcdlJIlOn
Ncdíatíon thc ccntral problcm ¯ Ïcrmancncc oI Iorm and
constancy oIthc conccpt ¯ Jhc ontologícal príoríty oI
abstractíon; Naxímílían Bcck`s 'ímmortalíty oIthc soul` ¯
Kclígíon`s claíms conccrníng ímmortalíty and thc hypostasís
oIthc conccpt ¯ Jhc Iour causcs ¯ Ïossíbílíty mcdíatcd by
conccpts ¯ CausaIíty. thc sccularízatíon oIdcoy׸, natural
causalíty and chancc ¯ `Causalíty bascd on Irccdom`;
mctaphysícs as a structural contcxt ¯
ILCJIKL LILVLI. ÀOtcmcnI, |ÍJn_c
Jhc ncgatívíty olmattcr
·
an Þrístotclían toµos ¯ Jhc latcnt
díalcctic oIrígidíty anddcvclopmcnt ¯ Nattcr as thc
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µrinciµium indiuiduationis, thc unívcrsal as thc good; thc
conccpt oIthc non·conccptual· Conccalcd ob| cctívc ídcalísm
¯ '!ovchangc míght bc possíblc` ¯ Novcmcnt asthc
rcalízatíon oIthc possíblc ¯ Jhc movíng and thc movcd
príncíplcs; thc body-soul dualísm· Novcmcnt. thccontact
oIIorm and mattcr
ILCJIKL J¤LLVL. 1Íc LnmOtcd ÀOtcr
Þltcrnatíon bctvccn hylozoísm and conccptualíty ¯ Ooctrínc
oIthc ctcrníty oImovcmcnt; ontologízatíon oIchangc;
' hístorícíty` ¯ Notíon and thc unmovcd movcr ¯ Conccptual
rcprísc oIthcology ¯ ÞIhrmatívc tcndcncy oImctaphysícs;
prccursor oIthc ontologícal prooIoIGod; thc Cnc and uníty
¯ Nonothcístíc tcndcncy; ídcalísm and ceu;,ceu;and
subj cctívíty ¯ Oívínc actívíty. thínkíng; Þrìstot|c`sthcorctíca|
conccpt ¯ Jhcory and practícc; thc dívísíon oImcntal and
physícal labour
ILCJIKL J!IKJLLI. ¬IÍcns Jnd ¬uscÍulI?
bubj cctívc ídcalísm and statíc ontology ¯ Oívínc
sclI-contcmplatíon and tautologícal knovlcdgc ¯ Jhcmodcl
oIsclI-rcIlcctíon; 'sacríhcc` oIthc vorld; tclcology ¯ `Þll ís
onc` ¯ Jovards thc !cllcnístíc cnlíghtcnmcnt
N1¯A11YS1LS A1¯1V A\SL1¤1¯Z
Nctaphysícs as ítappcars hcrc and nov ¯ Nctaphysícs.
thc hypostasís oIlogíc; thínkíng and bcíng ¯ Nctaphysícal
cxpcrícncc today; ímmutabílíty and transícncc; thc rclcvancc
oIíntra-mundanc clcmcnts ín mystícísm ¯ Þuschvítz has
changcd thc conccpt oImctaphysícs

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LLCJIKL ÍCIKJLLI. 1Íc ]lquldJIlOn Oj IÍc òcÌj 103
Jhc aIhrmatívc charactcr oImctaphysícs a mockcry oI
thc víctíms ¯ Jhc asscrtíon oImcaníng as ídcology;
bchopcnhaucr and thc dcníal oIthc ¤íll to Lívc ¯ Jovards
thc rcal hcll ¯ Þgc and dcath not ínvaríants ¯ Ocath ín
8eing and Time, absolutc adaptatíon ¯ Iíquídatíon olthc
sclland thc guílt olsclI-prcscrvatíon ¯ Jhc rcplaccabílíty
LLÏÅLÏÅb
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thc índívídual, ínsígníhcancc as 'mcaníng` ¯ Ïoctry aItcr
Þuschvítz
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LLCJIKL ÍÌÍJLLI. ÀcIJþÍjslcs Jnd ÀJIcrlJÌlsm 1 1Z
Þcrítíquc oIbtoícísm, thc sub| cct ín a contcxt oIguílt ¯
ÏhíIosophy and `Commcnt c`cst`; burIacc and dcpth ¯
Ïosítívíst rcgístratíon and spcculatívc clcvatíon ¯ Icv
catcgorícal ímpcratívc; thc addcndum ¯ Carríon, stcnch
and putrcIactíon ¯ Jhc Iaílurc oIculturc ¯ Þgaínst thc
rcsurrcctcd culturc
LLCJIKL bI7JLLI. |OnsclOusncss Oj Ìc_JIltlIj 1Z0
Conscíousncss oIthc absolutc and thc absolutc ítsclI¯
OíalcctícaI thcology ¯ ' LoIty vords` asa scrccn Ior cvíÌ;
thc Iatc oIlanguagc as thc Iatc oIíts sub|cctmattcr ¯ 'II
Bcckctt had bccn ín a conccntratíon camp`, thínkíng thc
cxtrcmc ¯ Þctíon and rcIlcctíon ¯ Þgaínst thc dcstructíon
oIculturc
LLCJIKL bLVLIJLLI. Íjln_ 1OdJj
Culturc and naturc ¯ Ocath as an cntry-gatc to mctaphysícs;
!cídcggcr`s mctaphysícs oIdcath ¯ Conscíousncss oI
mortalíty, potcntíaI unrcalízcd ¯ Jímc; thc 'vhoIcncss oI
IíIc` ¯ Jhc contíngcncy oIdcath and hopc ¯ Bcrgottc`s
dcath, Bcckctt`s voíd; thc ídca oIímmortalíty ¯ !amÌct
and dyíng today
LLCJIKL LÌG!JLLI. ÀcIJþÍjslcJÌ ÌXþcrlcncc
Nystícal cxpcrícncc not a prímal cxpcrícncc ¯ Jradítíon and
actualíty ín knovlcdgc ¯ ]oy ín namcs ¯ Jhc IallíbiIíty oI
mctaphysícaI cxpcrícncc ¯ Kcíhcatíon ¯ ÏrímacyoIthc objcct ¯
Íruítlcss vaítíng ¯ Þttítudc to !cgcl. ncgatíon oIthc ncgatíon
not posítívc
£ditor's Notes
£ditor's A[teruord
C/ossary o[ Creek Terms
Index
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I I Àd] I º65
¤hcnIannounccdthcsclccturcs,Ìgavcthctítlcas'Nctaphysícs`and
thc subtítlc as ' Conccpt and Ïroblcms`. Jhc subtítlc vas notchoscn
víthout a good dcal oI thought, as thc conccpt oI mctaphysícs
alrcady raíscs consídcrablc díIhcultícs. Þnd Ì víll tcll you straíght
avaythatítísmyíntcntíonhrsttodíscussthcconccptoImctaphysícs,
and thcn to talk paradígmatícaÌly about spccíhc mctaphysícal prob-
lcms - índccd, ít cannot bc othcrvísc. Þnd Ì shall prcscnt thcsc
problcms ín thc contcxt ín vhích I havc cncountcrcd thcm ín my
ovn díalcctícal vork.' Ìt can undoubtcdly bc saíd that thc conccpt
oI mctaphysícs ís thc vcxcd qucstíon oI phílosophy. Cn onc hand,
phílosophy ovcs íts cxístcncc to mctaphysícs. Jhat ís to say that
mctaphysícs- íIImíghthrstborrovthc standardphílosophícallang-
uagc, although I may latcr rcplacc ít by somcthíng clsc - dcals víth
thc so-callcd 'last thíngs` on account oI vhích human bcíngs hrst
bcganto phílosophízc. Cnthc othcr hand, hovcvcr, thc sítuatíon oI
mctaphysícs ís such thatít ís cxtrcmcly díIhcult to índícatc vhat íts
sub|cctmattcrís.JhísísnotonlybccauscthccxístcnccoIthíssub| cct
mattcrísqucstíonablcandíscvcnthccardínalproblcmoImctaphysícs,
butalso, cvcníIthc cxístcncc ornon-cxístcncc oIíts sub|cctmattcrís
dísrcgardcd, bccausc ít ís vcry díIhcult to say vhat mctaphysícsact-
uallyís.Jodaymctaphysícsís uscdínalmostthccntírcnon-Gcrman-
spcakíng vorld as a tcrm oIabusc, a synonym Ior ídlc spcculatíon,
mcrc nonscnsc and hcavcnknovs vhat othcr íntcllcctualvíccs.
ÌtísnotonlydíIhcult, thcrcIorc, to gívc you a prclímínaryídca oI
vhat mctaphysícs ís, as thosc oI you vho arc studyíng índívídual
Z 11LÅ1V1 LÏ1
díscíplíncs víll no doubt alrcady havc bccn told; but, as I saíd, ít ís
vcry díIhcult cvcn to dchnc íts sub|cct víth any prccísíon. I rccall
my ovn carly cxpcrícncc as a schoolboy vhcn I hrst camc across
Iíctzschc, vho, as any oI you vho arc Iamílíar víth hís vork víll
knov, ís not sparíng ín hís complaínts about mctaphysícs; and I
rcmcmbcr hov díIhcult I Iound ítto gct my bcaríngs víth rcgard to
mctaphysícs. ¤hcnIsoughtthc advíccoIsomconcconsídcrablyoldcr
than mysclI, I vas told that ít vas too carly Ior mc to undcrstand
mctaphysícs but that I vould bc ablc to do so onc day. Jhus, thc
ansvcr to thc qucstíon aboutthc sub|cctmattcr oImctaphysícs vas
postponcd. JhatísanaccídcntoIbíography, butíIvclookatmcta-
physícal systcms or phílosophícs thcmsclvcs, vc cannot cscapc thc
suspícíon thatvhat happcns ín thcm ís notso vcry díIIcrcnttovhat
vascxprcsscdínthatpícccoIadvícc.Imcanthatthcvholc,ímmcasur-
ablc cIIort oIphílosophy, vhích oncc savítsclI as prclímínaryvork
to mctaphysícs, a propacdcutíc, has bccomc autonomous and has
rcplaccd ít. Cr, vhcn phílosophy hnally conccrns ítsclI víth mcta-
physícsítsclI, vcarcconsolcd, asínKant,¯ Ior cxamplc,víthcndlcss
possíblcansvcrs tothcmctaphysícalqucstíons. Þnd thcn, ínstcadoI
bcínggívcnanansvcrtothcscqucstíons- íIIcancxprcssítIrom thc
standpoíntoImctaphysícs- vc arc gívcnconsídcratíons on vhcthcr
vchavcthc ríghttoposcthoscmctaphysícal qucstíons atall. bo that
thcnaívcpostponcmcntandprocrastínatíonthatI cxpcrícnccdísnot
rcally so accídcntal; ít sccms to havc somcthíng to do víth thc
sub|cctmattcrítsclI, andcspccíallyvíththc gcncralproccdurcvhích
phílosophy adopts ín rclatíon to mctaphysícs - vhích stíll takcs thc
KantíanIorm oIa µrogressus ad injnitum, anínhnítc, oríndchnítcly
contínuíng progrcssíon oI knovlcdgc, Irom vhích ít ís to bc hopcd
that, ata tímcvhích víllncvcrarrívc, thc so-callcd basíc mctaphys-
ícal qucstíons víllhnallyhavc bccn rcsolvcd.
I mcntíoncd Iíctzschc. In hís vork thc conccpt oI mctaphysícs
oItcncropsupínthc Iorm oIa | okc,vhích, hovcvcr,contaíns a hrst
approxímatíon oIvhatactuaÌly ísto bc undcrstood bymctaphysícs.
!c talks oI thc Hinterue/t thc 'back-vorld` - and caIls thosc
vho conccrn thcmsclvcs víth mctaphysícs, or cvcn practísc or tcach
ít, Hinterue/t/er` - `backvorldsmcn` - an allusíon to thc vord
'backvoodsmcn` , Hinterua/d/er) commonlyuscdatthattímc,vhích,
oI coursc, vas shortly aItcr thc Þmcrícan Cívíl ¤ar. It rcIcrrcd to
thosclívíngínthc backvoods, thatdarkcstprovíncc oIthcNídvcst,
IromvhíchLíncoln,ahíghlytopícalhgurcatthattímc,hadcmcrgcd.
Jhís vord ímplícs that mctaphysícs ís a doctrínc vhích assumcs thc
cxístcncc oI a vorld bchínd tbe vorld vc knov and can knov. Bc-
hínd thc vorld oI phcnomcna thcrc vas supposcd to bc conccalcd
11LÅ1V1 LÏ1 3
  hcrc Iíctzschc`s dchnítíon bccomcs an íroníc commcnt on thc
Ïla
toníctradítíon- a truly rcal, pcrmancnt, unchangíngvorldcxíst-
íngínítsclI, a vorldoIcsscnccs,to unravclandrcvcalvhíchvasthc
task
oIphílosophy. Lxprcsscdmorcobj cctívcly,mctaphysícsvasprc-
scn
tcd as thc quíntcsscncc oI thc phílosophícal thcory oI all that
pcrtaincd to thc Bcyond or - to usc thc spccíhc phílosophícal tcrm
Ior thc rcalm bcyond cxpcrícncc - a scícncc oIthc transccndcntal í n
contradístínctíon to thc sphcrc oIímmancncc. But atthc samc tímc,
Iíctzschc`stcrm 'back-vorld` alsopourcd scorn- ín thc spírítoIthc
nomínalíst Lnlíghtcnmcnt - on thc supcrstítíon and províncíalíty
vhích, ín hísvícv, automatícally adhcrcd tothc assumptíon oIsuch
a
vorld bchínd thc vorld. Ì thínk ít vould bc uscIul, thcrcIorc, to
rcIlcct Ior a momcnt on thís doctrínc oIIíctzschc`s, vhích cquatcd
mctaphysícs íronícally - Ior hc vcll kncv, oI coursc, that ít ís not
lítcrallythc casc- víth occultísm. !ístorícally, mctaphysícs not only
has nothíng to do víth occultísm, but ít vould hardly bc an cxag-
gcratíon to say that ít has bccn conccívcd cxprcsslyín opposítíon to
occultthínkíng, asís quítcmaníIcstínoncoIthc grcatcstthínkcrs OI
thc modcrn agc vho ís mctaphysícal ín thc spccíhc scnsc, Lcíbníz.
Þdmíttcdly, ín gcnctíc tcrms - víth vhích vc shall bc conccrncd
rcpcatcdly ín thc coursc oI our rcIlcctíons - ít ís undcníablc that
mctaphysícs ítsclIís a phcnomcnon oIthc sccularízatíon oImythícal
and magícal thínkíng, so that ít ís not so absolutcly dctachcd Irom
supcrstítíousídcasasítundcrstandsítsclItobc,andasíthasprcscntcd
itsclIínthc hístory oI phílosophy. Norcovcr, ít ís íntcrcstíng ín thís
conncctíon that occultíst organízatíons - throughout thc vorld, as
Iar asÌ amavarc- alvayshavc a ccrtaíntcndcncytocallthcmsclvcs
'mctaphysícal assocíatíons` or somcthíng oI that kínd. Jhís ís íntcr-
cstíng ín scvcral rcspccts. hrstly, bccausc occultísm, that apocryphal
and, ín híghcr íntcllcctual socícty, oIIcnsívc bclícI ínspíríts, gaíns
rcspcctabílíty through assocíatíon víth somcthíng bathcd ín thc
nímbusoIÞrístotlc, btJhomasÞquínasandhcavcnknovsvhoclsc;
but sccondly ¦ and thís sccms almost morc íntcrcstíng), bccausc thc
occultísts, ín callíng thcmsclvcs mctaphysícíans, havc an ínklíng oI
a Iact proIoundly rootcd ín occultísm. that ít stands ín a ccrtaín
opposítionto thcology.Jhcyhavc a scnscthatthcthíngsvíthvhích
thcy arc conccrncd, prccíscly through thcír opposítíon to thcology,
touch on mctaphysícs rathcr than thcology - vhích, hovcvcr, thcy
arc cqually Iond oI cnlístíng as support vhcn ít suits thcm. Þll thc
samc, onc míght hcrc quotcthc statcmcntbyonc oIthc tcstsubjccts
vc qucstíoncd ín our ínvcstígatíons Ior Tbe Autboritarian |ersona/-
ity. !c dcclarcd that hc bclícvcd in astrology bccausc hc díd not
bclícvcín God.' I shallj ustmcntíonthísIact inpassíng.I bcÌicvcthís
+
1LL²1VL LÏ1
línc oIthought víll takc us a vcry long vay, but I can only oIIcr a
prcludc to íthcrc.
¤hatcan bc saíd atoncc, hovcvcr, ísthatnophílosophícalmcta-
physícs has cvcr bccn conccrncd víth spíríts ín thc scnsc oIcxístíng
bcíngs,sínccmctaphysícsIromthchrst- thatís,IromÏlatoorÞrístotlc
- has protcstcd agaínst and dístínguíshcd ítsclI Irom prccíscly thc
ídca oIsomcthíngcxístíngínthc scnsc oIcrudc Iactícíty, ínthc scnsc
oIthc scattcrcd índívídualthíngsvhích Ïlatocalls -oô:-a.Incídcnt-
ally,I shallhavcsomcthíngtosayvcrysoononthc qucstíonvhcthcr
mctaphysícs bcganvíth Ïlato orvíthÞrístotlc.' Itmaybcthatthcrc
arc ccrtaín mctaphysícal dírcctíons vhích arc callcd spírítualístíc -
thatoIBcrkclcy,Iorcxamplc,or ¦ víthma|orqualíhcatíons) oILcíbníz,
although thc Icíbnízían monad ís not so absolutcly scparatc Irom
actual, physícal cxístcncc as has bccn taught by thc nco-Kantían
íntcrprctatíon oI Lcíbníz. But íI spírítualístíc tcndcncícs cxíst ín
phílosophy, ín mctaphysícs, and íI ít has bccn argucd that thc Irísh
BíshopBcrkclcy,vhomíghtbc saíd tohavc bccn atthc samctímc an
cxtrcmc cmpírícíst and ancxtrcmc mctaphysícían, rcallytaught only
thc rcalítyoIspíríts, thcsc arc notto bc undcrstood as 'spíríts` ínthc
ordínaryscnsc, butas purclyíntcllcctualcntítícsdctcrmíncd bymínd
alonc, on vhích cvcrythíng actual ís Ioundcd. It ís not possíblc to
ascríbc to thcm thc kínd oI Iactual cxístcncc víth vhích thcy arc
cndovcd, príortocrítícísmor cvcn rcIlcctíon, byoccultísm and spír-
ítualísm ín thcír varíous guíscs. I bclícvc, thcrcIorc, that you vould
do vcll to cxcludc straíght avay Irom mctaphysícs any such ídca oI
actually cxístíng cntítícs vhích could bc cxpcrícnccd bcyond our
cmpírícal, spatíal-tcmporalvorld- or atlcastto cxcludcthcmasIar
as thc phílosophícal tradítíon oImctaphysícs ísconccrncd.
Nctaphysícs- and thís mayvcllbríngmc closcrto a dchnítíonoI
vhatyou mayundcrstandbythattcrm- alvaysdcalsvíthconccpts.
Nctaphysícs ís thc Iorm oI phílosophy vhích takcs conccpts as íts
ob| ccts. Þnd I mcan conccpts ín a strong scnsc, ín vhích thcy arc
almost alvays gívcn prcccdcncc ovcr, and arc assígncd to a híghcr
ordcr oI bcíng ¦ Wesenba[tigkeit) than, cxístíng thíngs ¦ das Seiende)
or thc Iacts subsumcd undcr thcm, and Irom vhích thc conccpts arc
dcrívcd.Jhccontrovcrsyonthíspoínt- thc dcbatcvhcthcrconccpts
arc mcrc sígns and abbrcvíatíons, or vhcthcr thcy arc autonomous,
havíng an csscntíal, substantíal bcíng ín thcmsclvcs - has bccn
rcgardcd as onc oI thc grcat thcmcs oI vcstcrn mctaphysícs" síncc
Ïlato and Þrístotlc. In thc Iorm oI thc Iamous nomínalíst dísputc,
thís qucstíon prcoccupícd thc Níddlc Þgcs and, as I shall shov
youshortly,ísalmostdírcctlyprchgurcdínconIlíctíngmotíIsvíthín
Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. Þnd bccausc thc conccpt ís, oI coursc, an
1LLÅ1V1 LÏ1 ó
ínstrumcnt oI knovlcdgc, thc qucstíon oIthc naturc oIthc conccpt
has Irom thc hrst bccn both a mctaphysícal and an cpístcmologícal
onc.Jhísmayhclpyoutoundcrstandvhy,Ior aslongasmctaphysícs
has cxístcd - that ís, Ior as long as conccpts havc bccn sub| cctcd to
rcIlcctíon - mctaphysícs has bccn cntvíncd víth problcms oI logíc
and cpístcmology ín an cxtrcmcly curíous vay, vhích culmínatcd ín
!cgcl`s tcachíng that logíc and mctaphysícs arc rcally onc and thc
samc.´ Iov, by índícatíng to you hov mctaphysícs stands, on onc
hand, ín rclatíon to thc occult and, on thc othcr, to rclígíon, I havc
arrívcdatanhístorícaldímcnsíonvhíchmayhavcanotunímportant
bcaríngonthcconccptoImctaphysícsítsclI. I should rcmarkínpass-
íng that, ín my vícv, onc cannot makc progrcss ín phílosophy víth
purcly vcrbal dchnítíons, by símply dchníng conccpts. Nany oI you
víllhavchcardthís Irommcad nauseam, andIaskyoutocxcuscmc
íI I rcpcat ít oncc morc Ior thosc to vhom Ì havc not yct prcachcd
on thís subjcct. Ì bclícvc that vhílc phílosophy may vcll tcrmínatc
ín dchnítíons, ít cannot start out Irom thcm; and that, ín ordcr to
undcrstand, to havc knovlcdgc oI, thc contcnt oI phílosophícal
conccpts thcmsclvcs - and not símply Irom thc poínt oI vícv oI an
cxtcrnal hístory oI ídcas or oI phílosophy - ít ís ncccssary to knov
hovconccpts havccomc íntobcíng,andvhatthcy mcaníntcrmsoI
thcír orígíns, thcír hístorícal dímcnsíon. '
Jurníng nov to thís dímcnsíon, vhích íntcrcsts mc cspccíally ín
thís contcxt, ít ís thc casc that, hístorícally, thc posítívíst school ís
cxprcssly contrastcd to thcology. I rcIcr hcrc to posítívísm ín thc
Iorm ín vhích ít hrst appcarcd, as a conccptíon oIsocíology as thc
suprcmc and truc scícncc, and, índccd, as thc truc phílosophy. Jhís
opposítíontorclígíonís cxplícítínÞugustcComtc andímplícítín hís
tcachcr baínt-bímon, cvcn íI thc tcrms arc not yct uscd ín thís vay.
Boththcscthínkcrsdcvclopthcorícsínvolvíngstagcs,aphílosophyoI
hístory vhích movcs ín thrcc grcat phascs. Jhc hrst oI thcsc ís thc
thcologícal phasc, thc sccond thc mctaphysícal and thc thírd thc
scícntíhcor,asthoscthínkcrs líkcdtocallítonchundrcdandhItyor
tvo hundrcd ycars ago, thc `posítívc` phasc.'¨ Jhcy thcrcby poíntcd
to somcthíng vhích ís csscntíal to mctaphysícs accordíng to íts ovn
conccpt, and vhích thus hclps to cxplaín vhat I saíd to you a Icv
mínutcs ago, vhcn I statcd that mctaphysícs ís csscntíallyconccrncd
víthconccpts, and víthconccpts ín a strongscnsc. Íor accordíngto
thcsc posítívíst thcorícs oI stagcs, both thc natural dívínítícs and thc
GodoIthcmonothcístsvcrchrstsccularízcd, butvcrcthcnhcld Iast
ín thcír turn as somcthíng ob| cctívc, cxístíng ín ítsclI, líkc thc old
gods carlícr.'' Iov, ít ís íntcrcstíng to notc that thc posítívísts vcrc
cspccíallyíll-dísposcdtovardsmctaphysícs,bccauscíthadtodovíth
M
B
6 11LÅ1V1 LÏ1
conccpts and not víth Iacts, vhcrcas thc posítívc thcologícs had
dcscríbcd thcír dcítícs as Iactual, cxístcnt bcíngs. Þnd accordíngly,
ín thc vrítíngs oIthc posítívísts you víllhnd morc ínvcctívc agaínst
mctaphysícsthanagaínstthcology.JhísapplícscspccíallytoÞugustc
Comtcvho,ínhíslatcphasc, hadthcdclusívcídcaoIturníngscícncc
ítsclI ínto a kínd oIcult, somcthíng líkc a posítívc rclígíon.
Itmustbc addcd,ncvcrthclcss,thatmctaphysícsísoItcnassocíatcd
víththcologyínpopularconscíousncss,andthcrcarc doubtlcssmorc
than a Icv among you vho tcnd to drav no vcry sharp dístínctíon
bctvccnthcconccptsoIthcologyandmctaphysícs,andtolumpthcm
togcthcr undcr thc gcncral hcadíng oI transccndcncc. But nov that
vchavctoconccrnoursclvcsspccíhcallyvíththcscconccpts,Ìshould
líkcto ínvítc you, íIyou stíllapproachthcsc qucstíons víth a ccrtaín
naívcty, to díIIcrcntíatc - and oI coursc, progrcss ín phílosophícal
thínkíngís,íngcncral,csscntíallyprogrcssíndíIIcrcntíatíon. Ì bclícvc
ít can bc statcd morcorlcss as a dogma thatphílosophícal ínsíghtís
morc IruítIul thc morc ít ís ablc to díIIcrcntíatc víthín íts subjcct
mattcr; and that thc undíIIcrcntíatíng approach vhích mcasurcs
cvcrythíng by thc samc yardstíck actually cmbodícs prccíscly thc
coarsc and,íIImíghtputít|íkcthís,thc uncducatcdmcntaIítyvhích
phílosophy, ín íts subj cctívc, pcdagogícal rolc, ís supposcd to ovcr-
comc or, as I`d prcIcr to say, to clímínatc. Iov ít ís ccrtaínly truc
thatmctaphysícshassomcthíngíncommonvíththcologyínítsman-
ncroIscckíngtoclcvatc ítsclIabovcímmancncc, abovcthc cmpírícal
vorld.Jo putítsomcvhatmorccrudcly,thcvídcsprcadcquatíngoI
mctaphysícs and thcology, vhích comcs about íI onc Iaíls to rcI|cct
cxprcssly on thcsc conccpts, can bc traccd backsímplyto somcthíng
vhích prc-cxísts and prcdomínatcs ín thc mcntal Iormatíon oI all
oI us, cvcn íIvc arc not dírcct|y avarc oI ít. It ís thc Iact that thc
tcachíngs oI thc Catholíc church arc índíssolubly línkcd to mcta-
physícal spcculatíon, and ín partícular, as you all must knov, to
Þrístotclían spcculatíon ín thc Iorm ín vhích ít vas passcd dovn
throughthc grcatÞrabían phílosophcrs to thosc oIthc !ígh Níddlc
Þgcs, and abovc allto btJhomas Þquínas. '¯ But cvcn thatís not so
símplc.ÞndyoumaygaínanídcaoIthctcnsíonbctvccnmctaphysícs
andthcologythatÌhavcrcIcrrcdtoíIyouconsídcrthatatthctímcoI
thcríscoIChrístíanítyínlatc antíquíty,vhcnChrístíanítyvasíntro-
duccd as thc statc rclígíon cvcn ín Þthcns, thc schools oIphílosophy
stíll cxístíng thcrc, vhích vc should call mctaphysícal schools, vcrc
closcd and supprcsscdvíthgrcatbrutalíty. ' 'Þnd, Ì vould rcmarkín
passíng, prccíscly thc samc thíng vas rcpcatcd ín thc grcat thcolo-
gícal rcactíon oIIslam agaínst thc Þrístotclían Islamíc phílosophcrs,
although thís happcncd at a tímc vhcn thc mctaphysícal hcrítagc,
11LÅ1V1 LÏ1 7
mcdíatcdthroughthcIslamícphílosophcrs,hadalrcadyvonítsplacc
ín Chrístían íuropc. In latc antíquíty, thcrcIorc, mctaphysícs vas
rcga
rdcd as somcthíng spccíhcally subvcrsívc víth rcgard to Chrístí-
aníty. Þnd thc Ianatícal Islamíc monks vho drovc thc phílosophcrs
íntocxílcrcgardcdítínavcrysímílarvay.Jhcrcasonvhythcytook
thís attítudc may vcll shov up vcry clcarly thc díIIcrcnccs Ì should
líkcto cstablíshbctvccnmctaphysícsandthcology.Itísquítcccrtaín
that mctaphysícs and thcology cannot símply bc dístínguíshcd Irom
cachothcrashístorícalstagcs,asthcposítívíststrícdtodo,sínccthcy
havc constantly ovcrlappcd hístorícally. onc appcarcd at thc samc
tímc as thc othcr, onc vas Iorgottcn, only to rc-cmcrgc ín thc Iorc-
ground. Jhcy Iorm an cxtraordínarílycomplcx structurc vhích can-
notbcrcduccdto a símplcconccptualIormula.Icvcrthclcss,thcrcís
an clcmcnt oItruth ín thc thcory oIstagcs that I rcIcrrcd to, ín that
mctaphysícs ín thc tradítíonal scnsc - and vc havc to start Irom thc
tradítíonal conccpt íI I am to makc clcar to you vhat mctaphysícs
rcally mcans - ís an attcmpt to dctcrmínc thc absolutc, or thc con-
stítutívc structurcs oI bcíng, on thc basís oIthought alonc. Jhat ís,
ít docs not dcrívc thc absolutc dogmatícally Irom rcvclatíon, or as
somcthíngposítívcvhíchíssímplygívcntomc,assomcthíngdírcctly
cxístíng,throughrcvclatíonorrccordcdrcvclatíon, but, torcpcatthc
poínt, ít dctcrmíncs thc absolutc through conccpts.
Þndto saythís ís rcallytoposcthc IundamcntalproblcmoImcta-
physícs,vhích has accompanícdítthroughoutíts hístory, andvhích
also conIrontcd ít ín, Ior cxamplc, thc crítíquc oI mctaphysícs by
Kant, as ít prcscntcd ítsclI to hím at that tímc, ín thc guísc oI thc
Lcíbníz-¤olIhan school. It ìs thc problcmthat thought, vhích ín íts
condítíonalítyís supposcdto bc suIhcícntto havc knovlcdgc only oI
thc condítíonal, prcsumcs to bc thc mouthpíccc, or cvcn thc orígín,
oI thc uncondítíonal. Jhís problcm, vhich maníIcstcd ítsclI in thc
víolcnt rcactíon oI thcologícs agaínst mctaphysícs carlícr, poínts at
thcsamctímctooncoIthccorcproblcms,íInottotbe corcproblcm,
oImctaphysícs. Jhought, ítmíght bcsaíd, hasvíthínítthc tcndcncy
to dísíntcgratc tradítíonal, dogmatíc ídcas. Ìt has that tcndcncy cvcn
ínbocratcs, vho taughtvhatKantvould havc callcd a mctaphysícs
oI morals, and vho ís rcgardcd as havíng dísíntcgratcd thc tradí-
tíonal statc rclígíon. Jhís cxplaíns thc occasíonal allíanccs bctvccn
posítívísm and posítívc rclígíon agaínst mctaphysícs - agaínst thc
dísíntcgratíng Iorcc vhích thcy both dctcctcd ín it. Þutonomous
thought ís a mouthpíccc oI thc transccndcnt, and ís thus alvays ín
dangcr- vhcnítapproachcsthc transccndcntthroughmctaphysícs -
oImakíng common cousc víth ít. Þnd Ì bclícvc ít ís a charactcrístic
vhích can bc ascríbcd, in a pcrhaps hasty but not unIoundcd
W
M
8
11LÅ1V1 LÏL
gcncralízatíon, at lcast to all thc tradítíonal mctaphysícal systcms
knovntomc,thatvhílcthcscsystcmshavcalvaysbccncrítícallydís-
poscd tovards anythíng thcy rcgardcd as dogmatíc or hxcd ídcas,
thcy havc attcmptcd, on thc othcr hand, to rcscuc, on thc basís oI
thought alonc, that to vhích thc dogmatíc or transccndcnt ídcas rc-
Icrrcd.JhístcnsíonrunsthroughthcvhoIcoImctaphysicalthínkíng,
and I shallhavc occasíon to dchnc ítvcryprccíscly Ior you usíngthc
cxamplc oIÞrístotlc. IImctaphysícs and thcologydídhnallycomcto
an agrccmcnt, ít vas an allíancc roughly comparablc - íI you víll
allovmc thc socíologícal languagc - to that bctvccn Icudalísm and
bourgcoís Iorccs vhích can bc obscrvcd at ccrtaín tímcs ín morc
rcccnt hístory. Both hnd thcmsclvcs conIrontcd by a common Ioc,
vhcthcr ít bc thc radícal, ínlíghtcnmcnt thínkíng oI posítívísm, or,
on occasíon,matcríalísm, as prccípítatcdtoa grcatcror lcsscrdcgrcc
ínNarxíanthcorícs,Iorcxamplc,vhcthcrthoscthcorícsvcrcríghtly
or vrongly undcrstood. Itís probablycharactcrístíc only oIprcscnt-
day mctaphysícs that ít has rclínquíshcd íts opposítíon to thcology,
vhílc thcology only Iclt oblígcd to assímílatc mctaphysícs at a stagc
vhcn thc bourgcoísíc vas rclatívcly advanccd, at thc hígh poínt oI
thc urban culturc oI thc Níddlc Þgcs. It díd so ín ordcr to j ustíIy
ítsclI apologctícally bcIorc thc maturc conscíousncss oI thc urban
bourgcoís, vho vantcd to knov hovthc rcvcalcd vísdom stood ín
rclatíontothcírovndcvclopcdandcmancípatcdrcason.JhcJhomíst
systcmís a grandíosc attcmptto dcrívc thís j ustíhcatíonoIrcvclatíon
Irom mctaphysícs, vhílc that oIOuns bcotus ís an almost dcspcratc
onc.
Þt any ratc, thchrst poínt I vould askyouto notc'¯ ísthatmcta-
physícalsystcmsínthcprccísc scnscarcdoctríncsaccordíngtovhích
conccpts Iorm a kínd oI ob¡ cctívc, constítutívc support on vhích
vhat ís naívcly callcd 'thc obj cctívc vorld`, that ís, scattcrcd, índí-
vídual, cxístíng thíngs, ís Ioundcd and hnally dcpcnds. You may
rccall that Ì poíntcd out carlícr ín today`s lccturc that thc qucstíon
vhcthcr conccpts arc rcal or arc mcrcly sígns, that ís, thc dísputc
bctvccn nomínalísm and rcalísm, ís ítsclI carrícd on víthín mcta-
physícalcnquíry- j ust as, orígínally, thc rcalísts and thc nomínalísts
vcrcnotopposcdschoolsoImctaphysícíansand antí-mctaphysícíans
rcspcctívcly. Kathcr, thcsc tvo schools - both ín Islam and ín mcdí-
cval phílosophy - vcrc schools vhích arosc and Iought cach othcr
uitbin mctaphysícal thínkíng. Jhís rcvcals somcthíng vhích ís ím-
portant íIyou arc to avoíd conIusíon ín thínkíng aboutthc conccpt
oI mctaphysícs. Jhís conccpt has undcrgonc a ccrtaín Iormalízatíon
vhíchcanalsobcsccnasa partoIítsdísíntcgratíon,ínthatthcmcrc
trcatmcntoImctaphysícal qucstíons- rcgardlcss oIthc outcomc- ís
11LÅ1V1 LÏ1 ¬
now trcatcd as mctaphysícs, and not j ust positívc tcachíngs about
conccpts ascntítícs cxístíngínthcmsclvcs. Boththings, thcrcIorc, thc
doctrínc oI thc ' back-vorld' and thc doctrinc vhích rcpudíatcs this
back-vorld, vould Iall cqually, and dubíously, vithín thc hcld oI
mctaphysical problcms, accordíng to thís Iormalízcd or gcncralízcd
conc
cpt. I say dubíouslybccauscthcrcísa tcmptatíonhcrcto drava
IalscconclusíonvhíchísconstantlycncountcrcdínthchcldoIvulgar
apologctícs. ¤hcthcr onc is [or mctaphysics or against mctaphysícs,
both posítíons arc mctaphysícal, both dcpcnd on ultímatc positions
aboutvhichitisnotpossíblctoarguc,vhcrcasthcnaturcandopcra-
tíon oIconccpts líc prccíscly ín thc Iact that ítís cntírcly possíblcto
arguc aboutthcm, and that, ingcncral, iIthc antí-mctaphysícalposí-
tionis subsumcd undcrthc conccpt oImctaphysícs, ítís dcprivcd oI
itscrítícalcdgc,ítspolcmícalordialcctícalpotcncy.Jhus,oncspcaks
Iormally,Ior cxamplc,oImctaphysícalmatcrialism ¦ íncontradístínc-
tion to historícal matcrialísm), ín vhích mattcr is dcsígnatcd as thc
ultímatc ground oI bcing, as thc truly cxistcnt, as vas oncc thc casc
ín thc thought oI Lcucíppus and Ocmocrítus. You can obscrvc sim-
ílar thíngs ín prcscnt-day thcology, vhcrc, íI anything ís said about
thc namc oI God and !ís cxístcncc or non-cxístcncc, thcrc ís much
rcjoicíng ovcr thc Iact that God ís mcntíoncd at all, rcgardlcss oI
vhcthcr thc spcakcr ís ' Ior' or 'agaínst' God. Jhís, I vould think, is
cnough to índicatc that thc prcscnt tímc, to put ít cautiously, ís un-
likclytobcthc mostpropítiousIorthc buíldíngoIcathcdrals. Cnthc
othcr hand, ít ís thc casc - onc should add Ior thc sakc oIj usticc -
that ín thc thought oI such carly so-callcd antí-mctaphysícíans and
matcríalists as Lcucippus and Ocmocrítus, thc structure oIthc mcta-
physical,oIthcabsolutcandhnalgroundoIcxplanation,ísncvcrthc-
lcss prcscrvcd víthín thcír matcrialístic thought. II onc calls thcsc
matcríalístsmetaµbysica/ matcrialísts, bccausc mattcr Iorthcmísthc
ultimatc ground oI bcing, onc docs not cntírcly míss thc mark. But
this dcsígnation alrcady contaíns a crítícal momcnt víth rcgard to
thcsccarlyphilosophcrs,a momcntvhichlcd ínthccourscoIIurthcr
rcIlcctíon to a crítíquc oIvhat thcy taught.
Ý 
Nores jor
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÃÑL
I J Àd] I º65'
Link: tbis [orma/ization´ is exµressed in tbe [orma/ cbaracter o[ tbe
usua/ dejnitions.
Tbe usua/ dejnition as, [or examµ/e, tbe u/timate ground or cause
o[ existing tbings; according to tbis, uitb tbe 'scientijcation' o[
µbi/osoµby, metaµbysics is suµµosed to |e tbe Iundamcnta| science.
Metaµbysics seen according/y as tbe doctrine o[ ¿rimary |eing
(or µrimary su|stance), o[ npJ-¸ oúc/a.` Tbe am|iguity o[ tbis: µrim-
ary [or us, or in itse/[.
Yet tbere are a/so doctrines, /ike some Cnostic teacbings (e.g.
Marcion),' or tbat o[ tbe /ate Scbe/er on tbe diuinity as a |ecoming,`
and some sµecu/ations o[ Scbe//ing, " ubicb, again, do not con[orm to
tbis conceµt.´ £.g. metaµbysics as tbe doctrine o[ tbe a|iqing does
not necessari/y coincide uitb tbe conceµt o[ metaµbysics. Wbi/e I can
mention tbemes o[ metaµbysics, sucb as |eing, ground o[ |eing, notb-
ingness, Cod, [reedom, immorta/ity, |ecoming, trutb, sµirit . . .
|nsertion Z a
r
j|nsertion Z a:] Wbi/e most metaµbysics seeks inuariants, its su|jects
uary. £.g. tbe conceµt o[ [orce is bard/y discussed in it today (natura/
science!), /ikeuise tbat o[ /i[e (/arge/y reµ/aced |y existence) . Òne
sµeaks o[ [asbions; |ut tbe so-ca//ed [asbions o[ µbi/osoµby are
indices o[ sometbing deeµer. Demonstrate |y tbe examµ/e o[ /i[e.
Tbe metaµbysica/ question ubicb µreoccuµied tbe entire seuenteentb
century, µsycbe and µbysis and tbe µro|/em o[ µsycbo-µbysica/
1LLÅ1VL ÅÑL 1 1
jara//e/ism, and tbe question oj tbeir µossi|/e reciµroca/ inj|uence,
bas receded remarka|/y, µro|a|/y under tbe inj|uence oj tbe doctrine
oj tbe su|jectiue constitution oj tbe µbysica/ uor/d ÷ in |otb Kant
and tbe emµiricists - ubereas, ij tbis doctrine is inua/idated, tbe jro|-
/em oj tbe so-ca//ed jara//e/ism can emerge again, and actua//y did
recur in Kob/er´s extended tbeory oj Gcstalt.'"Tbere is an emergence
and a jorgetting ÷ bard/y a reso/ution ÷ oj metaµbysica/ questions;
a/so tbeir re-emergence in tbe sense oj corresµondences uitbin tbe
µbi/osoµby oj bistory. ' ' jInJ o/ insertion¡
1J. ó. 6ó
M
Nores jor
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÃMH¡¡
I8 Ìd] I º65
Wbi/e I can mention su|jects oj metajbysics, sucb as |eing, ground
oj |eing, notbingness, Cod, jreedom, immorta/ity, |ecoming, trutb,
sjirit, tbeir ju// conceµt - /ike any strong concejt - cannot |e giuen
in a uer|a/ dejnition |ut on/y µresented tbrougb a concrete treat-
ment oj tbe conste//ation oj µro|/ems ubicb jorms tbe conceµt oj
metaµbysics. In tbe second jart oj tbe /ecture I sba// giue you mode/s
oj tbese. '
Decisiue jor an understanding oj jbi/osoµbica/ conceµts - tbe bis-
tory oj termino/ogy.
Tbe conceµt oj metaµbysics goes |ack to Aristot/e, and sµecijca//y
to tbe arrangement oj tbe corpus Þrístotclícum |y Andronicus oj
Rbodes, ´0-60 Dl¡ in tbe jrst century |ejore Cbrist, in ubicb tbe
main uork oj Aristot/e deuoted to tbat area, µc-a -açuc:-a, uas
µ/aced ajter tbe Ïhysícs. Insertion Z a
jInsertion Z a:¡ as ear/y as tbe Neo-|/atonists tbis name, uitb its tecb-
nica/ imµ/ications jor editing, uas interµreted in terms oj content:
µc-a -açuc:-a¬ tbat ubicb goes |eyond nature, or, µrecise/y, ubat
is '|ebind nature` as its cause. j£nd oj insertionj
Tbe term tberejore arose jrom a µrinciµ/e oj /iterary arrangement; a
name jor tbe su|ject uas /acking |ecause tbis su|ject uas not a tbing
among tbings.
Ins. 3. The traditional subdiaision oj metaµhysics.
1LLÅ1VL Å1V1L 1 J
jIns. J} traditiona/ su|diaision oj metaµbysics:
(í) Ònto/ogy ¬ tbeory oj 8eing and oj existing tbings (2) Tbe
natu
re oj tbe uor/d (cosmo/ogy) (3) oj buman |eings (µbi/osoµbica/
antbroµo/ogy) (1) £xistence and nature oj tbe diuinity (tbeo/ogy).
£cboes oj tbis in Kant, ubose tbemes uere µrescri|ed |y µrecise/y
ubat be criticized. Tbis is good in tbat be does not tbink indiscrim-
inate/y, and |ad tbrougb its inbomogeneity uitb regard to bis oun
nomina/ist assumµtions.
Distinction |etueen sµecu/atiue and inductiue metaµbysics. A// tbese
are sµecijca//y do_matic categories, re/ating to a µrescri|ed and
µositiae/y teacba|/e area oj su|ject matter, i.e. tbey aim at a mer_ing
oj tbeo/ogy and metaµbysics. 8ut as tbe su|ject matter is itse/j µro|-
/ematic and no sucb doctrine can |e aduocated, I mention tbese
categories, tbe µedantry oj ubicb makes a mockery oj tbe su|ject, so
tbat you are auare oj tbem, uitbout going into tbem jurtber.
A simi/ar/y traditiona/ distinction is draun |etueen deductiue and
inductiue metaµbysics (/ikeuise not uitbout bints jrom Aristot/e)
Inductiue metaµbysics an artijcia//y deuised auxi/iary conceµt
intended to µroµ uµ a co//aµsed structure |y adaµting it to tbe
aery tbing ubicb bas disintegrated it. Like re/atiae/y increasing misery´
lnductiue ¬ emµirica/ ¬ scientijc.
£xµerience is tberejore to |e used to justijy ubat transcends it.
Heidegger's aµµroacb oj ana/ysing Oascín to gain access to onto/ogy
bas simi/arities.
Sometbing as aµµarent/y oµen to exµerience as Oascín, i.e. essen-
tia//y tbe exµerience oj tbe indiaidua/ su|ject oj bimse/j, is suµµosed
to giae insigbt into tbe nature oj |eing, desµite tbe /imits and ran-
domness oj tbis exµerience. Òj course, tbis µresuµµoses tbe meta-
µbysica/ µriui/ege oj tbe buman |eing, ubo dejnes bimse/j in ca//ing
Oascin tbe ontic ubicb at tbe same time is onto/ogica/, and is tbere-
jore transµarent, qua consciousness, uitb regard to its constituents.`
Houeuer easy it is to µoint out tbe contradictions in an inductiue
metaµbysics ÷ tbat a/one is no o|jection, un/ess one simµ/y e/iminates
tbe contradiction in tbe uay customary in science.
Tbere is, in jact, a conceµt oj metaµbysica/ exµerience ÷ tbougb
not one ubicb can |e grasµed |y tbe usua/ means oj induction or
uitb rejerence to a se/j-reuea/ing onto/ogy. |erbaµs, to |egin uitb,
simµ/y a re/uctance to acceµt tbe acceµted. £.g. 'Luder|acb', dead
anima/s.' Wby is tbe |ank ca//ed a |ank:`
In µresenting some oj my oun rejections on metaµbysics° in tbe
second ba/j oj tbe /ecture series, I boµe I sba// |e a|/e to giae you an
idea oj ubat I ca// metaµbysica/ exµerience. 8ut I can say a/ready tbat,
uitbin tbe tbeory as a ubo/e, it is a moment, not itse/j tbe ubo/e, not
B
1+ 1LLÅ1VL Å1VLL
sometbing immediate to ubicb one cou/d resort, in questions oj meta-
µbysics, as ij to sometbing u/timate, a|so/ute.
Tbe entuinement oj metaµbysics uitb tbougbt, inaugurated so
emµbatica//y |y Aristot/e in oµµosing by/ozoism,´ is irreuoca|/e.
[InJ o/ insertion]
Òne can indeed say nou tbat metaµbysics |egan uitb Aristot/e.
8i|/iograµby bere.° í8 May óJ
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÏL\H
25 Àd] I º65
IcloscdmylastlccturcbyputtíngIorvardthcthcsísthat,ínaprccísc
scnsc, mctaphysícs bcgan víth Þrístotlc. Jhís ís a rathcr shockíng
thcsís, althoughthcshockvíllbcsomcvhatlcssscvcrcíIoncrcIlccts
thatGrcckspcculatíonhasalongprchístoryínvhíchítlargclycman-
cípatcd ítsclI Irom hylozoísm, víth íts rathcr crudc rcIlcctíons on
naturc,hcrcÌshallmcntíononlythcnamcsoI!craclítus,Ïarmcnídcs
and abovc all, oIcoursc, Ïlato. II I nov attcmpt to substantíatc thís
thcsís somcvhat Iurthcr, ít ís not ín ordcr to índulgc ín vítty para-
doxcs, but bccausc I bclícvc ít víll cnablc mc to say somcthíng not
unímportant aboutthc conccpt oImctaphysícs ítsclI. Youvíllrccall
thc dchnítìons oI mctaphysícs I gavc carlícr, thcy vcrc not rcally
dchnítíons ínthc stríct scnsc, buta scrícs oIthcmatícíndícatíons and
proposìtìons ìntcndcd to shov you roughly vhat thc conccrns oI
mctaphysícsarc. ÞmongIhcscíndícatíons thc qucstíon oItruc bcíng,
oIthc Cnc,thc csscntìal, playcd a majorpart. Jhc Ïlatonìc doctrínc
oI Idcas docs índccd havc to do víth thcsc conccpts, and I assumc
you arc all morc or lcss Iamílíar víth ít. Jhc Ìdcas - that ís,
hypostatízcd unívcrsal conccpts, as thcy arc commonly callcd - arc
rcgardcd by Ïlato, ín contrast to scattcrcd multíplícíty, as thc truc,
thc Cnc,thc csscntíal and, abovc all,asthc causc oIallappcaranccs.
Jhísdchnítíon- rcallya dchnítíon oImctaphysícs ítsclI, vhích dcals
víth thc causcs oI all thíngs - vas takcn ovcr ín Þrístotlc`s Meta-
µbysics and clcvatcd to tbe dchnítíon oI mctaphysícal qucstíons. '
Þccordíng to Ïlato, only thc Iorms oIthíngs havc truc and orígínal
bcíng, and thcsc Iorms- thís ís thc sub| cct oIthc Iamous dísputc hc
M
1 6 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V
had víth Þntísthcncs¯ - arc not mcrcly thc abstract attríbutcs oI
dívcrsc índívídual thíngs. Jhcy arc thcmsclvcs, both logícally and
gcnctícally, vhatísprímaryíníndívídualthíngs. Iorthís rcasonthcy
arc callcd c/òe,or /òco, as thatvhích has bcíng ín ítsclIand ís opcn
to 'sccíng`, as ís ímplícd ín thc parablc oI thc cavc.' Both vords -
c/òe,,csscncc, and /òco,ourvord Ior ídca- contaínthc stcm :ò,´/ò,
vhích rclatcs to thc vísual, thc optícal, to sccíng. Jo thís cxtcnt,
thcrcIorc,íntcrmsoIhísthcmcs, Ïlatocouldbc rcgardcdasthcarch-
mctaphysícían, thcmctaphysícíanµer se, andpcrhapshcmayíndccd
bccountcdassuch. ButínÏlato- andthís ísthc crucíalpoínt,vhích
bríngs us a good dcalcloscr to thc mcaníng oIthc tcrmmctaphysícs
- thc vorld oI thc scnscs ís dcscríbcd as that vhích ís absolutcly
víthoutbcíng,althoughhcvasnomorcablcthanthc ílcatícsbcIorc
hímtosustaínthísposítíonrígorously. Iorhím, thcvorldoIappcar-
anccsrcallydocs notcxístín anystrongscnsc.Þnd ítcan bcsaíd- íI
you víll allov mc to put ít rathcr drastícally, |ust to poínt out thc
maín landmarks ín thís díscussíon- that Ïlato`sphílosophy ís a syn-
thcsís oI ílcatísm - cspccíally Ïarmcnídcs - and !craclítus. Irom
Ïarmcnídcs hc took thc doctrínc oIbcíng as thc Cnc, thc absolutcly
índívísíblc andímpcríshablc, and Irom !craclítus thc doctrínc oIthc
absolutc transítoríncss oI appcarancc, vhích cxísts ín a statc oIcon-
stant Ilux and, morcovcr, ís dcccptívc and unrclíablc, as ís shovn
abovc all ín Ïlato`s rclatívcly latc díaloguc Tbeaetetus. !ís Iunda-
mcntal attítudc, vhích has had a proIound and lastíng ínIlucncc on
latcrvcstcrnphílosophyandconstantlyrc-cmcrgcsíndíIIcrcntIorms,
lícs ín thc cmphasís on dcccptíon, on thc íllusoríncss oI scnsc data.
ívcn ín a phílosophcr asnomínalístas]ohn Lockc, thís thcsís rccurs
ínthcdístínctíonbctvccnthcprìmaryqualítícsvhícharcattríbutcsoI
thíngs ín thcmsclvcs, and thc mcrclysub¡cctívc, sccondaryqualítícs.¯
Iovord ís nccdcd - although ín thc hístory oIphílosophy many
havc bccn uscd - to makc onc avarc that thís drastíc scparatíon oI
thc ídca Irom thc vorld oIthc scnscs ís vcry díIhcult to maíntaín. In
Ïlatoítímplícsthc doctríncoIthc non-bcíngoIthc scnsíblc,oIµ¸ ov.
It can bc convíncíngly dcmonstratcd that thc qualítícs appropríatcd
bythc Idcas, ín bccomíngthatvhíchhas bcíngínítsclI,arcínrcalíty
takcn ovcr morc orlcss dírcctly Irom thc vorld oIappcaranccs, and
that thc absolutc status oI thc Idca ís attaíncd, as ít vcrc, at thc
cxpcnsc oI thc vorld oI thc scnscs Irom vhích ít ís dcrívcd. Ïlato
hímsclIvas by no mcans consístcnt in thís rcspcct. Ior cxamplc, ín
dcscríbíngthc Idca asthccauscoIallbcíngandoIallcxístíngthíngs,
andlocatíngthc IdcaínarcalmoIabsolutcorígíns,asopposcdtothc
rcalmoIthingsvhíchhavcorígínatcdínít,hcímplícsthatthcrc must
bcsomcthíngclsc,prccísclythatvhíchhasorígínatcd. Crtakcanothcr
1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V 1/
vcry Iamous thcorcm oIÏlato`s: thc doctrínc oIpcJcç:;, oIthc par-
tícípatíon oI thc scattcrcd thíngs ín thc Idca to vhích thcy arc
subordínatc.` Jhís also prcsupposcs somcthíng díIIcrcnt Irom thc
Idca, íIthcrc vcrc nothíngvhíchvas díIIcrcntIromthc Idca, sucha
'partícípatíon' ín thc Idca, such a pcJcç:;, vould not bc possíblc.
Þnd ín Iact, thc latc Ïlato díd cxtcnsívcly rcvísc thc stríct vcrsíon oI
thc doctrínc oI Idcas, as ít appcars ín vhat arc callcd thc classícal,
míddlc díalogucs. Ì vould mcntíon hcrc thc vcry curíous díaloguc
Irom Ïlato`s latc pcríod, vhích has gívcn rísc to ínnumcrablc díIh-
cultícs and bcars thc namc |armenides. Iaturally, you should not
conIuscthísvíththc ílcatícÏarmcnídcs,althoughhcísthcprotagon-
ístandvíctorínthísdíaloguc.ÌnítÏlatoputs Iorvard vhatmíghtbc
sccn as thc ímplícítly vcry díalcctícal thcsís that, hovcvcr líttlc thc
Nanyamount to víthoutthc Cnc- thc NanyrcIcrs tothc scattcrcd
thíngs, as opposcdto thc onc Ìdca undcrvhíchcach thíng ín a gcnus
ís subsumcd - hovcvcr líttlc thís Nany may bc víthout thc Cnc,
víthoutíts Idca,j ust aslíttlcísthc Cnc,thc Idca,víthoutthcNany."
Jhcrc ísno doubtthatínÏlato`s latcpcríod thc cxístcnt asscrts ítsclI
íncrcasíngly agaínst thc Ìdca, although, ín thc chronology oIÏlato`s
vorks vhích ís nov gcncrally acccptcd, onc oI thc díalogucs ín
vhích thc doctrínc oIIdcas ís prcscntcd most bluntly and dcvclopcd
mostíngcníously,thc|baedrus, ísdatcdcxtrcmclylatc. ¦ I pcrsonally,
dcspítc all thc authoríty oI classícal phílology, am dísínclíncd to
trust thc currcnt chronology, not Ior phílologícal rcasons but Ior
phílosophícal oncs, bascd on thc subjcct mattcr. ) Jhís datíng docs,
oI coursc, makc thc dcvclopmcnt oI Ïlato that I havc rcIcrrcd to,
tovards vhat míght bc callcd a grcatcr acknovlcdgcmcnt oI thc
cmpírícal, somcvhat prccaríous. !ovcvcr, dcspítc thc protcsts oI
dycd-ín-thc-vool Ïlatonísts, I should líkc to assumc such a dcvclop-
mcnt, and I vould also mcntíon that ín thc Þnglo-baxon countrícs,
vhcrc thcrc ís a vcry strong culturc ín thc íntcrprctatíon oIclassícal
Grcck tcxts, onc not ínIrcqucntly comcs across thc hypothcsís that
Ïlato as an old man vas ínIlucnccd rctrospcctívcly by hís pupíl
Þrístotlc, or that, as a rcsult oI hís polítícal dísappoíntmcnts ín hís
attcmpts to sct up thc vorld purcly on thc basís oIthc Idca, hc vas
Iorccd togívc grcatcr rccognítíon to thatvhíchís, thc scattcrcd, thc
mcrclycxístcnt. IIonc rcvícvs thc dcvclopmcnt oIthc grcatclassícal
vorkonpolítícs,thc |o/iteia, throughthcStatesman tothc lastvork,
thc Laus, thcrcís muchcvídcncc to suggcst thatthatís thc casc. But
I am onlymcntíoníngthís to shov you hov complcx thcsc rclatíon-
shíps arc. Incídcntally, you vould all do vcll, bcIorc cmbarkíng on
thcsc vcry complcx problcms that I can onlyskctch Ior you hcrc, to
lookatGocthc`sIamousdcscríptíonsoIthctvo phílosophcrs,vhom
M
P
1 8 11LÅ1VL Ï L1V
hc savas antíthctícal, Ïlato andÞrístotlc; hc contrastcd vhat today
vould bc vulgarly callcd thc ídcalíst Ïlato to thc rcalíst Þrístotlc,
vho, as Gocthc put ít, had hís Icct plantcd hrmly on thc carth.
ÞItcr vhat I havc j ust saíd, my asscrtíon that mctaphysícs rcally
bcgan víth Þrístotlc víll bc doubly shockíng ¦ I sccm to bc bcnt on
shockíng you) bccausc thc ímportancc Ïlato sccms to attach to thc
híghcr vorld, to transccndcncc, as agaínst thc vorld ítsclI, appcars
to makc hím Iar morc mctaphysícal than hís pupíl Þrístotlc. But I
bclícvc vc havc arrívcd hcrc at thc ccntral, problcmatíc poínt Irom
vhích you víll bc bcst ablc to undcrstand vhat mctaphysícs rcally
mcans. Iorcvcn íIvcconccdc that Ïlato´ gavcmuchgrcatcrvcíght,
no/ens uo/ens ¦ or hovcvcr ít may bc),to thcvorld oI¡¸ ê:,or non-
bcíng, to thc vorld oIscnsíblc cxpcrícncc, than hc should havc donc
accordíng to thc stríct doctrínc oI Ìdcas; and cvcn íI vc conccdc
Iurthcr that thís tcndcncy ín Ïlato grcv strongcr ín thc coursc oIhís
long líIc, onc thíng ís quìtc dchnítcIy lackìng ín hís vork. rcIlcctíon
on hovthcsc tvo sphcrcs - oIdírcct cxpcrícncc and oIthc Idca, thc
conccpt,thc Cnc, orvhatcvcr youlíkctocallít- arc rclatcd to cach
othcr. Ìt míght bc bcst to say that vhílc thc tradítíonal problcms oI
mctaphysícs prcscnt thcmsclvcs ín thc structurc oI thc Ïlatoníc
doctrínc oI Ìdcas, thcy do so, as ít vcrc, o|jectiue/y, víthout bcíng
rcIÌcctcd thcmatícally ín hís phílosophy. ¤hílc ít ís truc thatthc tcn-
síon bctvccn thc sphcrc oI transccndcncc and thc sphcrc oI that
vhích ís mcrcly thc casc, bctvccn to ê: and to ê:-o, ís prcscnt ín
Ïlato`sphílosophy, bccauscítísunavoídablc, brcakíngthroughagaín
and agaín, hís phílosophy ís not constítutcd ín such a vay that thís
tcnsíonísccntraltohís spcculatíon.Iov,vhatÌshouldrcallylíkcto
makc undcrstandablc to you ís that thc sphcrc oImctaphysícs ín thc
prccísc scnsc only comcs ínto bcíng vhcrc thís tcnsìon ís ítsclI thc
subjcctoIphílosophy,vhcrcítcomcsvíthínthc purvícvoIthought.
Ìtmíght bc saíd,thcrcIorc, thatmctaphysícsaríscs atthcpoíntvhcrc
thc cmpírícal vorld ís takcn scríously, and vhcrc íts rclatíon to thc
supra-scnsíblc vorld, vhích vas híthcrto takcn Ior grantcd, ís sub-
jcctcd to rcIlcctíon.
It ís possíblc to ímagínc thc Ïlatoníc doctrínc oI !dcas, víthout
doíng ít too much víolcncc, as a sccularízatíon oI thcology. Jhc
Ïlatoníc Ìdcas havc bccn callcd thc gods turncd ínto conccpts, and
onc vould scarccly dísagrcc, j ust as thc suprcmc Idca, thc !dca oI
thc Good or oI )ustícc, to óyo0óc or q ò:-omcocj, ís Ircqucntly
rcIcrrcd to ín Ïlato as 0có,, probably ín dírcct contínuatíon oI a
bocratíc tradítíon. But thc problcm poscd by thís sccularízatíon ís
that oncc thc gods arc turncd ínto conccpts, that ís, cntítícs oI ap-
pcarancc, thcír re/ationsbiµ to appcaranccs bccomcs somcthíngquítc
1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V 1 ¬
othcr than íI thc gods vcrc símply locatcd ín thc Bcyond, on thcír
Clympus. Jhís problcm cmcrgcs agaín and agaín ín thc cpístcmolo-
gícal and logícal díIhcultícs víthvhích Ïlato has to contcnd. But, íI
Imíghtputítthus,hcvas naívclythcologícalínIaílíngtodravIrom
thc sccularízatíon oI thc gods ínto conccpts, vhích hc had brought
about, thc conclusíon that thc rclatíon oIthc conccpt or thc Idca to
thc vorld oI appcaranccs vas thcrcby radícally changcd, and madc
problcmatíc.CncmíghtdchncmctaphysícsasthcproductoIa brcach
bctvccn csscnccs - thc gods sccularízcd as ídcas - and thc phcnom-
cnalvorld, a brcachvhíchís íncvítablc as soon as thc gods bccomc
conccpts and bcíngbccomcs a rclatíon tocxístíngthíngs; atthc samc
tímc,hovcvcr,thcsctvo momcntscannotbcnaívclyrclatcdtogcthcr
or Iormulatcd concurrcntly. I bclícvc thís vay oIstatíng thc mattcr
maybcttcrdchncthclocusoImctaphysícsínthc hístoryoIphílosophy,
and thus dchnc thc csscncc oI mctaphysícs as vcll ¦ Ior I bclícvc thc
csscntíalís alvayshístorícal ) , thanvould bcpossíblcínthc rclatívcly
supcrhcíal lccturcs onc míght gívc on thc thcmcs oI mctaphysícs.
Iollovíng Irom thís dchnítíon onc míght say that mctaphysícs,
bccausc ít attcmpts to rcgard thc Idcas as somcthíng línkcd to thc
cmpírícal vorld but cndangcrcd by advancíng sccularízatíon, vas
ítsclI thrcatcncd Irom thc hrst ín íts ovn dcvclopmcnt. In thís con·
ncctíon ít ís ccrtaínly no accídcnt that nomínalísm - thc radícally
ratíonalístíc vícv vhích dcnícd any autonomous cxístcncc to ídcas
- bascd ítsclI prccíscly on Þrístotlc, and díd so tvícc ovcr, both
ín Þrabían phílosophy and ín scholastícísm; although, as cannot bc
cmphasízcd too much, Þrístotlc hímsclI, as you víll hnd out, vas
anythíng but a nomínalíst. ¤hcn !cídcggcrrcIcrs to mctaphysícs as
a kínd oI ratíonalístíc dcclínc Irom thc orígínal undcrstandíng oI
bcíngínarchaícphílosophy,'Icannotcntírclydísagrcc,Iroma stríctly
phcnomcnologícalvícvpoínt,víthhíscharactcrízatíon. Cnonchand
mctaphysícs ís alvays, íI you víll, ratíonalístíc as a critique oI a
conccptíon oI truc, csscntíal bcíng-ín-ítsclI vhích docs not j ustíIy
ítsclIbcIorc rcason; but, on thc othcr, ít ísalvays alsoanattcmptto
rescue somcthíng vhích thc phílosophcr`s gcníus Iccls to bc Iadíng
andvaníshíng.Jhcrc ís ín Iactnomctaphysícs, or vcrylíttlc,vhíchís
not an attcmpt to savc - and to savc by mcans oI conccpts - vhat
appcarcdatthc tímc to bc thrcatcncdprccíscly byconccpts, andvas
ín thc proccss oI bcíng dísíntcgratcd, or corrodcd, to usc thc morc
aIIcctívc languagc oI thc ancícnt antí·bophísts. Nctaphysícs ís thus,
onc míght say, somcthíng Iundamcntally modern - íI you do not
rcstríct thc conccpt oI modcrníty to our vorld but cxtcnd it to ín·
cludcGrcckhístory.^nditisnoaccidcntthatmctaphysícsrccmcrgcs
ín thc !ígh Niddlc ^gcs, a pcríod oI urban bourgcois culturc in
B
Æ 
Z0 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V
vhích thc naívc ímmcdíacy oI Chrístían Iaíth vas alrcady brcakíng
dovn, and thcn a sccond tímc ín thc broad movcmcnt oI thought
vhích ís gcncrally cmbraccd by tcrms such as thc Kcnaíssancc, thc
KcIormatíon and humanísm.
Þrístotlc, ín thc hrst truly mctaphysícal vork oI lítcraturc - thc
onc vhích gavc that branch oI phílosophy íts namc - crítícízcs thc
Ïlatoníc attcmpt to opposc csscncc to thc vorld oI thc scnscs, as
somcthíng scparatc and absolutcly díIIcrcnt Irom ít. Þbovc all, hc
crítícízcs thc Ïlatoníc hypostasís oI unívcrsal conccpts as a duplíca-
tíon oIthc vorld. Ìnthíshc makcs a vcry strong and lcgítímatccasc,
bascd onthc argumcnt that all thc attríbutcs oIthc Ìdcas arc dcrívcd
Irom thc cmpírícal vorld, on vhích thcy lívc, rathcr as thc rulcrs
lívcd on thc vork oIthcír scrvants orslavcs. Þtthc samc tímc, hov-
cvcr, hc thcn sccks ín hís turn to cxtract an csscntíal bcíng Irom thc
scnsíblc, cmpírícal vorld, and thcrcby to savc ít; and ít ís prccíscly
thís tvoIold aím oIcrítícísm and rcscuc vhích constítutcs thc naturc
oImctaphysícs. Jhc polaríty bctvccn crítícal ratíonalíty, on thc onc
hand, andthc pathos oIrcscuc, on thc othcr, poínts to thc csscnccoI
tradítíonal mctaphysics, or at lcast has donc so throughout íts hìs-
tory. Nctaphysícs can thus bc dchncd as thc cxcrtíon oI thought to
savc vhat at thc samc tímc ít dcstroys. Jhat thís Iormulatíon ís tcn-
ablc, and not arbítrary, ís índícatcd, Ì bclícvc, by thc Iact that thc
vcry samc structurc vhích Ì havc dcmonstratcd to you ín príncíplc
bythc cxamplc oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics - or as a prccondítíon oI
that vork - ís also charactcrístíc oIKant´s posítíon víth rcgard to
thc problcm oI mctaphysícs. Þlthough Kant, ín upholdíng a blunt,
unrcconcílcd dualísm, undoubtcdly has morc ín common víth thc
phílosophícal clímatc oI Ïlato than oI Þrístotlc - and thc Critique
o]|ure Reason contaíns, ín thc íntroductíon to thc scctíon on thc
Ìdcas,thchncstpagcs cvcrvríttcn aboutÏlato,'"pagcs Ìvould most
strongly urgc all oI you to rcad - ít can bc saíd that ín thís doublc
íntcntíon oIcrítíquc and rcscuc Kant vas closcr to Þrístotlc, vhom
hc díd not partícularly líkc, than to Ïlato. ''ÌI you víll takc thís
hístorícal-phílosophícal íntcrprctatíon on trust Ior thc tímc bcíng,
youvíllpcrhapsundcrstandvhyÌconsídcrítncccssary,Ior acorrcct
undcrstandíng oIthc conccpt oImctaphysícs, to bcgín víth an ovcr-
vícv oI thc maín thcorctícal motíIs oI Þrístotlc`s vork. Jhís docs
rcquírcyou,hovcvcr, to takc somc accountoIhíshístorícalposítíon,
Ior onlythisvíllallovyoutopícturcmorcconcrctclyvhatÌhavcín
mínd.
Jhis task ís madc morc díIhcult today - ín phílosophy, not ín
classícal phílology - by thc ínIlucncc oI !cídcggcr and his school.
Þlthough hc rccognízcd vcry clcarly thc ratíonalíst, !nlightcnmcnt
¾  ææ  ± 
1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V Z1
momcntínÞrístotlc,!cídcggcrattcmptcdto rcdíscovcramuchmorc
'prístínc` Þrístotlc, to an cxtcnt vhích ís hard to conccívc. Þnd bc-
IorcgoíngontoÞrístotlcÌthínkÌnccdtooIIcra brícIcrítíqucoIthís
approach.Ì`dlíkctodothís bycxamíníngclosclyavcryspccíhcpíccc
oI íntcrprctatíon, síncc Ì bclícvc that such thíngs arc morc clcarly
rcvcalcd byconcrctc dctaíls, rathcrthan byrcmaíníngonthclcvcl oI
gcncral asscrtíon. I am conccrncd hcrc víth thc hrst scntcncc oI
Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics, and I shall consídcr only thís onc scntcncc.
I shall vrítc thís scntcncc ín Grcck on thc blackboard, I am avarc
that many oIyou do not knov Grcck, but thcrc ís no othcr vay to
procccd, and Ì shall cxplaín cvcrythíng you nccd to knov ín ordcr
to undcrstand ít. Jhc scntcncc ís as Iollovs. Ho:-c; ó:Jpove: -eu
còc:o: epcye:-o:çúoc:.'´Þccordíngtothcgcncrally acccptcd trans-
latíons, thís mcans. pcoplc by naturc strívc aItcr knovlcdgc. Þ vcll-
knovntranslatíonrcndcrsítas. `ÞllmcnbythcírvcrynaturcIcclthc
urgc to knov. ` ' ' Jhís scntcncc ís rcproduccd ín !cídcggcr`s 8eing
and Time ¦plcasc kccp ín mínd thc usual translatíon. all pcoplc by
naturcstrívczcalouslyaItcrknovlcdgc) . !cídcggcr`svcrsíon- vhích,
íncídcntally, ísprcscntcdcautíously, notasadírccttranslatíon- ís as
Iollovs. `JhctrcatíscvhíchstandshrstínthccollcctíonoIÞrístotlc`s
trcatíscs onontology bcgínsvíththcscntcncc. Ho:-c;ó:Jpove:-eu
coc:o: epcye:-o: çúoc:. Jhc carc Ior sccíng ís csscntíal to man`s
Bcíng.` It ís not my purposc hcrc to pokc Iun at thc stíltcdncss oI
thís passagc, Ior a manncrcd, cstrangíng approach to a strangc tcxt
can havc a vcry salutary Iunctíon. Þnd I`d líkc to say at oncc that
!cídcggcr oIIcrs rcsístancc to thc IÌattcníng out oIGrcck tcxts vhcn
rcndcrcd ínto our languagc, as has tradítíonally bccn donc. !ov-
cvcr, hís íntcrprctatíon hcrc docs not producc símply thc salutary
alícnatíon cIIcct Ì rcIcrrcd to, but víolatcs thc mcaníng on thc most
lítcral lcvcl. ¤hcn hc says, Ior cxamplc. 'man's Bcíng jim Sein dcs
Menscben]','' thc human bcíng ís alrcady put ín thc síngular, prc-
supposíng a príoríty oI thc csscncc oI thc human bcíng, and thus a
kínd oI anthropologícal ontology, vhích ín Þrístotlc ís stíll to bc
cstablíshcd. '` Þrístotlc docs not say 'tbe human bcíng`, or 'cxístcncc
as such`, but símply and plaínly 'a// pcoplc`, 'tbe pcoplc`, and not
'indiuidua/ pcoplc`. Ior coc:o: mcans quítc símply to knov, and
ó:Jpo-e:-eucocco:ópcyec-o:mcans.pcoplccarncstlyscckor strívc
aItcr knovlcdgc. Iov ítís undoubtcdlycorrcct, as Ì had occasíonto
índícatc to you carlícr,'º that thís cocco: contaíns thc stcm ¸´| :ò,
vhíchísalsoín/ocoandvhíchcharactcrízcsthcscnsoryrclatíonshíp
oI sccíng. But ín hís íntcrprctatíon !cídcggcr símply supprcsscs thc
vholc history oI languagc vhích, startíng Irom thc rích, scnsíblc
conccptíonsorígínallyassocíatcdvíthvords,progrcssívclysublímatcd
M
#
ZZ 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1V
thc vords ínto conccpts. Jhís happcncd ín Grcck j ust as ít has
happcncd ín our languagc. Jhcrc can bc no doubt that at thc stagc
vhcn Þrístotlc vrotc, c/occo:alrcady mcant to knov ín thc scnsc oI
a conscíousncss cmancípatcd Irom thc scnsíblc prcscnt. But bccausc
ontology, vhích ín Þrístotlc ís only a thcmc Ior díscussíon, ís, as Ì
havc saíd, prcsupposcd by !cídcggcr ín an act oI 'rc-prístínatíon`,
conscíousncss ís supposcd to havc a dírcct scnsíblc pcrccptíon oI
csscncc, or bcíng, or vhatcvcr ít may bc, as íI ít vcrc somcthíng
cxístíngín ítsclI. Þnd so!cídcggcr translatcs thís c/occo: back to íts
much carlícr líncagc as scnsíblc prcscncc, although by thís stagc ít
had cntírcly lostthat qualíty.
!c thcn says that 'thc carc oI sccíng ís csscntíal to man`s Bcíng`
¸Im Sein des Menscben /iegt uesenbajt die Sorge des Sebens] . !crcít
bccomcsblatantlyclcarvhat!cídcggcrísupto.Þnyonccvcnslíghtly
acquaíntcd víth thc hístory oI ancícnt phílosophy and havíng thc
rudímcnts oIGrcckvíll knov thatthcvord çúoc:ís a phílosophícal
tcrm vhích - about a hundrcd ycars bcIorc Þrístotlc; Ì cannot gívc
you thc cxact datc - playcd a part ín bocratícísm and bophísm, ín
opposítíontoúcoc:,as thatvhíchís so `bynaturc',as agaínstvhatís
mcrclyposítcd,vhatísúcoc:.JhctcrmIor 'csscntíal`vouldbcquítc
díIIcrcnt, pcrhaps oc-o, or oc-o, oc,asítappcarsínÏlato; butquítc
ccrtaínly notçúoc:,sínccthcrcís ínçúoc:anccho oIçúm, and thus
a mcmory oIphysícal naturc Irom thc old hylozoístíc pcríod. bo thc
scntcncc mcans quítc símply - vcry much ín kccpíng víth thc mcn·
talíty oIÞrístotlc, vho vas a pcculíar míxturc oIan ontologíst and
a proIcssor oI physícs - that human bcíngs, as thcy arc, strívc by
naturcIor knovlcdgc. But as Ior thc ídca that thís vas mcantínthc
scnsc' oI somc dchnítc ontologícal prc-structuríng oI cxístcncc ín
vhích bcíngvastobcrcvcalcd- noshadovoIthatístobcIoundín
Þrístotlc. Iínally, thc vord epcycúo:mcans no morc than to cxcrt
oncsclI,tolongIor,tostrívcaItcr somcthíng- and hasnotthcslíght-
cst conncctíon víth carc jSorge], vhích, as vc knov, ís onc oI thc
corc catcgorícs ín !cídcggcr. Cn thc contrary, thc straíghtIorvard
`lovcoIvísdom
·
' ´ hashadIoístcd onít ancxístcntíalíntcrprctatíon-
that ít harbours thc carc oIDasein Ior íts bcíng - although, as you
víll scc ín any díctíonary, no phílology or línguístíc knovlcdgc can
producc a línk bctvccn thís epcycúo:and thc conccpt oIcarc.
In cxamíníng thís scntcncc ín somc dcpth I bclícvc I havc shovn
you vhat Ì vantcd to dcvclop as thc maín ídca oIthís lccturc. that
Þrístotlc starts out Irom an cvcryday, ratíonal, scnsíblc conscíous-
ncss and attcmpts, by rcIÌcctíng on vhat ís gívcn dírcctly by thc
scnscs,to attaínínsíghtíntotrucbcíng- ínstcadoIprcsupposíngthís
csscntíal rcalm, as vas thc casc ín archaíc thought. ÌI that vcrc not
11LÅ1VL Ï L1V Z3
thccasc- íIthís scntcnccvcrcas!cídcggcríntcrprcts ít- thcn Þrís-
totlc vould not rcaÍÍy bc a mctaphysícían, but prccíscly thc onto-
Íogíst vhích, ín a díIIcrcnt placc, !cídcggcr says hc ís not. '` But thc
momcntoItcnsíonínmctaphysícsísÍocatcdcxactlyínthís sccmíngÍy
straíghtIorvard, cmpírícal scntcncc, ín vhích, hovcvcr, thc strívíng
Ior knovlcdgc and thus, obj cctívcly, Ior absolutc truth, ís posítcd as
a nccd - so that hcrc, too, cvcrythíng ís hnaÍly constítutcd Irom thc
poínt oIvícv oI truth. Þnd thís rcaÍly dchncs quítc clcarÍy thc íntcl-
Ícctualclímatcvíthín vhíchÞrístotlc's Metaµbysics has íts placc. Ìn
thc ncxt lccturc ít víll bc tímc to tclÌ you somcthíng about thc con-
tcnt oIthc Metaµbysics.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÏÍN¡
I ]unc I º65
Ìshallstarttodaybyprcscntíngtoyou,asbcstIcan,somcoIthcmaín
ídcas ínÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics, thís víll lcad onto somc rcIÌcctíons
on thcproblcm oImctaphysícs ín gcncral. Ì shall bascmycxposítíon
maínly on thc account gívcn by íduard Zcllcr,' although Ì am vcll
avarc that, víth rcgard to phílologícal dctaíls, scholarshíp on Þrís-
totlchasmadccxtraordínaryprogrcsssínccthctímcoIZcllcr`svork.
Ì should líkc to takc thís opportuníty to say, hovcvcr, that much
oIthís dctaílcd progrcss sccms to mc to havc bccn atthc cxpcnsc oI
phílosophícal vísíon, vhích vas avaílablc to Zcllcr as a mcmbcr oI
thc !cgclíanschooltoa dcgrccvhíchhas subscqucntly bccncntírcly
lost. Ì thcrcIorc prcIcr thc ovcrvícv and ínsíght hc gívcs us ín hís
booktoapossíblygrcatcraccuracyoIdctaíl, asÌ ammorcconccrncd
to throv líght on thc problcms and hístory oI mctaphysícs through
Þrístotlc than to gívc you an írrcproachably punctílíous account oI
that phílosophcr`s vork.
Jhc dchnítíon oI mctaphysícs ís to bc Iound ín thc hrst book,
BookA.ÌtagrccsvíthvhatI havcalrcadytoldyouaboutthcthcmcs
oImctaphysícs,cvcnthoughítssubjcctmattcríssomcvhatnarrovcr
thanthcdívcrsítyoIthcmcsvcarcaccustomcd toassocíatcvíththat
tcrm. Jhc book statcs that mctaphysícs ís thc `scícncc oI hrst prín-
cíplcsand causcs`,` onc ís struck hrst, oIcoursc, bythc línkvíththc
Ïlatoníc doctrínc oIIdcas, vhích líkcvísc promíscs to dcal víth thc
hrst príncíplcs, thc híghcst conccpts, thc causcs oI phcnomcna. Jhc
hrst complcx vhích can bc cxtractcd Irom Þrístotlc`s vork Meta-
µbysics' and vhích ís Iundamcntal to all thc rcst - !'m c×prcssly
1LLÅ1VL ÏÏ N1 Zó
Iollovíng Zcllcr ín thís - ís thc complcx oI thc µarticu/ar and thc
uniuersa/, vhích can bc saíd to bc rcally thc basíc thcmc oI Þrís-
totclían Metaµbysics. Þnd I should poínt out to you straíght avay
thatínthccascoIÞrístotlc- unlíkc that oIÏlato- onccan talkoIa
systcm, to thc cxtcnt that thc mcthodologícal and, abovc all, thc
cpístcmologícal consídcratíons vc arc accustomcd to summarízc
undcr thc títlc oI thc Òrganon arc so closcly bound up víth thc
argumcntatíon oI thc Metaµbysics that somc oI thc maín argumcnts
oI thc lattcr vork go back to thcsc mcthodologícal vrítíngs, thc
Òrganon. Inpartícular,thcygo backvíthín thísmcthodologícalcor-
pus to thc vork on thc Categories (Ko-¸yep/o: , . I shall only touch
onthcIactthat`catcgorícs`ínÞrístotlcmcanssomcthíngquítcdíIIcr-
cntthanítdocsínKant,namclythcbasícIormsvhícharcbroughtto
líght by an analysís oI thc proccdurcs oI spccch, and not thc basíc
subj cctívc Iorms oIthought; I assumcthatmostoIyou arc avarc oI
thís.'ÌnstartíngIrom thcproblcmoIthcpartícularandthcunívcrsal
ínÞrístotlc, Ì amIollovíngupsomcthíngI sctoutínthclastlccturc,
thcídcathatmctaphysícsíngcncralhasthcdualcharactcroIthccrít-
ícal or, as ís oItcn saíd, thc dcstructívc, and oI thc apologctíc and
rcscuíng; and you víll scc that thís charactcrízatíon applícs ín an
cxccptíonal dcgrcc to Þrístotlc.
Ìtcan bcsaídthathístrcatísc- Imcanhísdclíbcratíons, sínccthcy
vcrc not contaíncd ín a scparatc trcatísc - hís dclíbcratíons on thc
problcm oI thc partícular and thc unívcrsal, Iall ínítíally víthín thc
sphcrc oIhís crítícalvork. !ovcvcr, thc acccnt hcrc ís on 'ínítíally`,
and thís gívcs rísc to a problcmvíthvhích thcvholc oIÞrístotlc`s
Metaµbysics conIronts us. Jhchrstthcsís,ítmíghtbcsaíd,ísthatthc
unívcrsal ís not substantíal; that ít ís not, líkc thc Ïlatoníc Ìdcas,
vhích arc unívcrsal conccpts, somcthíng cxístíng ín and Ior ítsclI,
índcpcndcntly oI íts rcalízatíon. Kathcr, onc can only spcak oI a
unívcrsal tothccxtcntthatítmaníIcsts ítsclIin a partícular. Inothcr
vords, rcIÌcctíon on thc proccss oI abstractíon hasmuchmorc Iorcc
ín Þrístotlc`s dclíbcratíons on thc unívcrsal than ít had ínÏlato, but
docs notgo so Iar as toconccívcunívcrsalconccpts as purc abstrac-
tíons. Kathcr, thc díIhcuÍty and, íI I míght put ít thus, thc poínt oI
Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics ís that vhílc, on thc onc hand, onc cannot
thínk oI thc unívcrsal índcpcndcntly oI that ín vhích ít ís concrct-
ízcd, on thc othcr hand, ít ís not a mere abstractíon ín rclatíon to
thc partícuÍars subsumcd undcr ít. ÌI you can pícturc thc problcm
ín thís acccntuatcd Iorm, Ì bcÍícvc you víÍl bc ablc to copc víth
thc díIhcultícs olthís thcory straíght avay. Ìn gcncral, onc can only
dcal víth dílhcultícs by lookíng thcm ín thc cyc. Þnd Þrístotlc
docs makc thíngs rathcr díIhcult Ior us by prcscntíng hímsclI as a
M
Z6 ÏLLÅ1VL Ï1 N1
'commonscnsìcal` typc oI thínkcr ìn vhosc v
ork, as ìn that oI a
numbcr oI Brítísh thínkcrs latcr, thc most un
Iathomablc problcm
s
appcar ínítíally as íI thcy could yícld sclI-cvíd
cnt ansvcrs to símplc
humanundcrstandíng,vhcrcasìnrcalítythcy
conccalabysscs.Itouch
hcrc on thc spccìhc díIhculty prcscntcd by an
íntcrprctatìon oIÞrís-
totlc as a vholc.lctmcrcturn novto vhatI ìndícatcdatthc outsct,
that I should líkc to rclatc my cxposítíon oIÞrìstotlc to thc hístory
and ovcrall thcmcs oI vcstcrn mctaphysícs. Ìt can bc saíd that hís
doctrínc that thc unívcrsal ìs not a substantíal momcnt contaíns thc
sccds oIvhat ís callcd nomínalísm, vhích holds that unívcrsal con-
ccptscxìstµost rem andnotante rem. But- andÌ saythístocxcludc
all mísundcrstandìngs Irom thc outsct - ít vould bc a gravc mís-
undcrstandíng to dcscríbc Þrìstotlc hímsclI as a nomínalíst. Ì could
say that hís Metaµbysics círclcs around thís thcmc, that íts problcm
lìcsprccìscly ínthc contradìctory sítuatíonvhcrcbyononchand thc
unívcrsal ìs dcnìcd substantíalíty vhílc, on thc othcr, unívcrsal con-
ccpts arc not mcrc abbrcvíatíons oIthc partículars subsumcd undcr
thcm- rathcr, thcy havc anattríbutcvhích raíscs thcm abovc jatus
uocis, abovcthc mcrc brcath oIthc voícc. Þnd íIyouvantto undcr-
stand thc conccpt oI mctaphysícs, you must pay attcntíon Irom thc
hrst to thís constcllatíon oI momcnts ín Þrístotlc's Metaµbysics. !c
says that, ín contrastto thc unívcrsal, only thc partìcular ís substan-
tìal;thatonlythcsínglc, apparcnt,concrctcphcnomcnonísrcal.Jhís
conccpt oI rcalìty or, bcttcr, thís conccpt oI thc substantíal ìn hís
vork, ìs dcnotcd by thc noun eúo/o, Irom vhích thc latín tcrm Ior
substancc ís dcrìvcd, and vhích ítsclI ìs dcrívcd Irom c/:o:, to bc.
Jhìs eúo/o, or »pe¿ eúo/o, 'prímary bcìng`, constítutcs, Irom thís
pcrspcctívc, thc quíntcsscntìal thcmc oI Þrístotlc`s vork. Cnly thc
partìcular shall, to bcgínvíth, bcsuchaneúo/o,onlyítshall bcrcal.
Jhís takcs us to thc sccond basíc thcsìs oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics
conccrníng thc rclatíonshíp oI unívcrsal to partícuIar. thc thcsís
that csscncc or, as Ïlato vould say, thc Ìdca, docs not lìc outsídc
thc thíngs vhosc csscncc ít ìs, but ís only ín so Iar as ít ís ín thíngs
thcmsclvcs. In othcr vords, Ïlato`s basíc doctrìnc, conccrníng thc
_opmpó,oIthc Ìdcas asagaínstthc cxístcnt, thc ' abyss oImcaníng'
vhíchscparatcsthc Idcasorthcunívcrsalconccpts Iromthcconcrctc
índívídual thíngs subsumcd by thcm, ís chaÍlcngcd byÞrístotlc. Þnd
hís approachhasvhatlookslíkca thoroughly progrcssívc and mod-
crn momcnt ín statíng that, ìI Ì scparatc thc Idcas complctcly Irom
cvcrythíng cxístcnt and makc thcm absolutcly autonomous, I turn
thcmíntoancxístcntoIa sccondpovcr,oIa sccond,híghcrordcr.In
modcrn tcrms vc vould say that Ì ob| cctíIy or rcíIy thc Ìdcas. Þnd
Irom thís hc dcrívcd thc cntircly plausíblc obj cctíon that thc vholc
1LLÅ1VL Ï1 NL Z/
vorldvouldthcnbcduplícatcd,ononchandthcrcvouldbcavorld
vhích ís mcrc appcarancc and on thc othcr a vorld vhích ís bcíng-
ín-ítsclI, butvhíchborrovsallítsqualítícsIromthccmpírícalvorld,
so that ít rcappcars ín thc lattcr - Irom vhích íssuc all kínds oI
logícal conundrums. Ì shall poínt out ín passíng ¦to shov you hov
contcmporary all thcsc Þrístotclían qucstíons arc) that cxactly thc
samc problcm makcs ítsclI Iclt ín modcrn cpístcmology and mcta-
physícs, as vhcn !usscrl posíts a rcgíon oIpurc csscnccs - oI, shall
vcsay,ímmancntconscíousncss- and a rcgíon comprísíngthchígh-
cst uníty oI psychologícal dctcrmínatíon; thís vould gívc rísc to a
doublcvorld.ononcsídca híghlyIormalízcdpsychologyandonthc
othcr a doctrínc oIpurc csscnccs, oIthc Iorms oIconscíousncss.
Iínally, íIthc Ìdcas arc prcscntcd as absolutcly _op/,, absolutcly
scparatc,asvasthccascínÏlato,thísgívcsríscto a sccondínconsíst-
cncy oIvhích Þrístotlc accuscs Ïlato, and vhích Iorms thc pívot oI
hís ovn Metaµbysics. Ìt thcn bccomcs ínconccívablc hov - as Ïlato
taught and asÞrístotlc hímsclItcachcs víthcvcngrcatcr cmphasís -
thc unívcrsal,thcÌdcas,couldhavcanymotívc Iorcc, orhovIarthcy
could bcthc causcs oIthcír ovn appcaranccs; Ior thcy arc saíd to bc
absolutcly scparatc Irom prccíscly thc phcnomcnal vorld thcy arc
supposcdto movc. ÞndvhcnvcarcIaccdbysucha dívísíon, bythc
posítíng oI tvo absolutcly díIIcrcnt sphcrcs, onc oIvhích, Ior thc
sakcoIbrcvíty, vc shallcall thc ontologícal and thc othcr thc ontíc,
thc sphcrc oIcxístíng thíngs, ít ís símply ímpossíblcto conccívc hov
onc míght íntcract víth thc othcr, as Ïlato - and Þrístotlc agaín
dcmonstratcsthísvíthgrcatcrítícal acuíty- stcadIastlytcachcs. Jhís
problcm, too - hov ít ís possíblc Ior a purc ídca to bc an cIhcícnt
Iorcc actíng on phcnomcna - has croppcd up throughout thc cntírc
hístoryoIphílosophy. Ì should líkcto íllustratc ít ¦ agaínvíthrcgard
to thc pcrsístcnt ínIÌucncc oI thís ídca on thc hístory oImctaphysícs
ín partícular) by thc cxamplc oIKant`s Critique o[ |ractica/ Reason.
Jhc problcm víth vhích thís vork oI moral phílosophy grapplcs
abovc all ¦ although hc ncvcr statcs squarcly that thís ís íts rcal con-
ccrn) ís hov thc moral lav, vhích ís somcthíng purcly spírítual,
arísíng Irom thc íntcllígíblc vorld and índcpcndcnt oIany cmpírícal
dctcrmínatíon, managcstoactupon thc cmpírícalvorld- as a com-
pulsíon or duty to act ín accordancc víth thc ídcas.´ ÌI you look at
thc Critique o[ |ractica/ Reason IromthíspoíntoIvícv,youvíllscc
thatKanttookcnormouspaínsíntryíngtorcsolvcthísqucstíon, and
thathcvasonlyhnallyablctodo so bythccomplctcíntcllcctualíza-
tíon oI thc víll, so that cvcn thosc acts vhích aIIcct thc cmpírícal
vorldthroughthcpurcídcasarcconccívcdaspurclyíntcllcctualacts.
Kant Iaíls hcrc to rcalízc thatílthcscacts arcpurclyíntcllcctual onc
V
Z8 ÏLL²¹VL Ï 1 N1
¯
cannotrcallyundcrstandhovth
cycouldbccomcob| cctívc
,hovthcy
could ob| cctíIy thcmsclvcs at alÌ ín thc vorld oI phcnom
cna. Jhís
problcm, thcrcIorc, vhích can be lcvcllcd as crítícísm agaínst Kant`s
Metaµbysics o[ Mora/s, ís alrc
ady Iully contaíncd ín
Þrístotlc`s
Metaµbysics, ínthcIormoIhísrealízatíonthatíIthcIdcasorunívcr-
sal conccpts arc absolutcly _op(,, that ís, a rcalm oI autonomous
csscncc, ít ís ímpossíblc to conccívc hov and hov Iar thcy can bc
causcs oIphcnomcna.
Iov, thc argumcnt Ior thc thcsís oIthc substantíalíty oIthc par-
tícular,vhíchÌmcntíoncdtoyou,ísthatnothíngvhíchísprcdícatcd
on somcothcr, undcrlyíngthíngcanbcsubstantíal. Jhatís,onlythat
ís substantíal vhích docs not nccd somcthíng clsc ín ordcr to cxíst.
Þnd víth rcgard to thc eúo/o, ín thc scnsc oI partícular thíngs, hc
novargucs,somcvhatcuríously,rharthíscharactcrístíc- thatvcdo
notnccd anythíng clsc ínordcr to rccognízc ít- ísposscsscd only by
partícular thíngs. Jhís vcrsíon oI thc conccpt oI substancc ís a Iun-
damcntal thcsís oIvcstcrn mctaphysícs. Ìt holds thatthc substantíal
ís that vhích nccds nothíng clsc ín ordcr to cxíst; thís tcnct has
bccn handcd dovn by scholastìcísm and, rcmarkably, rcappcars ín
thc phílosophyoIOcscartcs. Þs Koyrchasshovn,Ocscartcs`sphílo-
sophyíslínkcdtoscholastícísmto ancxtraordínary dcgrcc, Iarmorc
cxtcnsívcly than oncvould cxpcct, gívcn Ocscartcs`s polcmícal attí-
tudc tovards hís cducators. `ct thís conccpt oI substancc rccurs ín
thc |rinciµia, ínthc Iamous Iormulatíonthat substanccísthat `quod
nullarc índígct ad cxístcndum`;'"thatís,vhíchnccds noothcr thíng
ín ordcr to cxíst. Þnd íI you víll pcrmít mc a brícI hístorícal asídc,
thís íntcrprctatíon oI substancc, as that vhích nccds nothíng clsc
ín ordcr to cxíst, has survívcd throughout thc cntírc hístory oI
phílosophy. Iot only ís thís dchnítíon oI thc conccpt oI substancc
to bc Iound among bpínoza`s Iamous dchnítíons ín thc £tbics, ' ' Ior
cxamplc, but ítcvcn rc-cmcrgcs ín modcrn phílosophy, ín !usscrl`s
Ideas: Cenera/ Introduction to |ure |benomeno/ogy. '´ Ïrccíscly thís
thcorcm oI Ocscartcs, íncídcntally, has íts orígín ín thc 'doctrínc oI
catcgorícs` ín thc Òrganon. '` In Þrístotlc, thcrcIorc, mctaphysícs ís
astíghtly bound upvíthlogícandcpístcmologyasítvastobcagaín
ar thc hcíght oIvcstcrn phílosophy, ín Kant and !cgcl.
Ì shouldlíkctopoíntoutthatthísthcsísíncludcssomcthíngvhích
ís notsaíd ínasmanyvordsbutvhíchhasítsorígínhcrcand Iorms
partoIthc bcdrock, íIyouvíll, oIthcvholcoIvcstcrnthought. ¤c
arc all brought up so muchvíthín ít that ¦ untíl phílosophícal rcIÌcc-
tíon líbcratcs us) vc takc ítIor grantcd; ít ís truly líkc sccond naturc
to thc mínd. Þccordíngto thís doctrínc, thatthíng ís substantial- ín
thc scnsc that it nccds nothing clsc - vhích rcquírcs no mcans by
11LÅ1VL Ï 1 NL Z¬
vhíchvc can pcrccívc ít; ítís, ín othcr vords, thc immediate. Jhus,
at thc bcgínníng oI vcstcrn mctaphysícs, stands thc statcmcht that
thatonvhíchcvcrythíngís supportcd, onvhíchcvcrythíng dcpcnds
and by vhích knovlcdgc shouÍd bc orícntatcd, ís thc ímmcdíatc -
ín thc Iorm oI thc partícular vhích Þrístotlc hrºt cquatcs víth that
vhíchrcallyandtrulycxísts.!ovcvcr,atthíspoíntyou mustalsobc
avarc oI a díIIcrcncc. Ior víth a thínkcr as dccply conncctcd to
vcstcrn phílosophy as Þrístotlc ít ís cspccíally ímportantto díIIcrcn-
tíatchístorícally, to avoíd producínga gcncralphílosophícalmushín
vhíchcvcrythíngcommunícatcsvíthcvcrythíngclsc.Jhcímmcdíacy
implícdin thc basíc doctrincs oIÞristotlcthat! havc sct out Ior you
ís not conccívcd by hím - at Ícast, not prímaríly- as thc ímmcdíacy
oIscnsorycxpcrícncc.Ìtísnot,thcrcIorc,anímmcdíacyínrclatíonto
ourcapacíryIor knovlcdgc. Þnd ítcan bcassumcd thatÞrístotlc, as
a pupíl oI ÏÍato, vas acquaíntcd víth thc crítíquc oI thc ímmcdíacy
oI subj cctívc scnsory ccrtaínty ín thc Tbeaetetus, '' and that hc had
assímílatcd ít ínto hís thought. !ís ímmcdíacy, thcrcIorc, ís not an
ímmcdíacy oI conscíousncss, ít ís not 'Ícs donnccs ímmcdíatcs dc la
conscícncc','`but,íIonccanputítsoparadoxícaÍly, ítísthcímmcdí-
atc ín ítsclI. !crc, oIcoursc, crítícal rcIÌcctíon ís at oncc conIrontcd
víththcqucstíonoIhovonccanspcakoI'ímmcdíacyínítsclI`atall,
síncc any suchímmcdíacy, aboutvhích somcthíngísprcdícatcd, can
onÍy bc ímmcdíacy[or a conscíousncss vhích prcdícatcs ít.
But, apart Irom that, Ì'd líkc to makc anothcr crítícísm hcrc -
not j ust Ior thc sakc oI crítícízíng a hístorícal thínkcr, síncc such
an attcmptvould dísplay a naívcty vhích, I assumc, you vould not
cxpcct Irom mc any morc than Irom yoursclvcs. Ì makc ít ín ordcr
to shov you that a thcory Ííkc thc onc Ì am cxpoundíng lcads to
cxtraordínary díIhcultícs víthín ítsclI. Ior to íntroducc you to Þrís-
totÍc`s Metaµbysics cannot bc símply to sct out hís maín thcscs; ít
mustgívcyou an avarcncss oIthcproblcms oIhís mctaphysics. Þnd
to do that ís ncccssaríly to poínt to thc díIhcultícs vhích arc con-
ccalcd bcncath thc plausíbílíty oI thc argumcntatíon. Iov, !cgcl
taught that thcrc ís no ímmcdíacy vhích ís not at thc samc tímc
mcdíatcd. ' ºÌIyou acccpt that !cgcl succcssIully provcs thís poínt-
andÌvouldthínkthatthcrcarcIcvmomcntsín!cgcl`slogic vhích
arc as obvíously convíncíng as thís prooI' - ít ís no longcr clcar
vhatthctradítíonalmctaphysícaÍ notíon oIsubstancc, asthatvhích
absolutclyrcquírcs no mcdíatíon, ís supposcd to mcan. Þnd ít sccms
tomcto bconcoIthosccuríous anachronísms, nottosayarchaísms,
vhíchthchístoryoIphílosophy, andcspccíallyoImctaphysícs, drags
along víth ít, that vhílc ít cngagcd ín thc crítícal rcIlcctíons on thc
conccpt oIímmcdíacy that Ì havc | ust dcscríbcd, ít díd not pcrccívc
B
3Û 1LLÅ1VL Ï1 NL
thatthcdoctríncoIsubstancc,thatís, thcconccptíon oIsubstancc as
thatvhíchcxísts prímaríly and ímmcdíatclyínitsclI,vas ncccssaríly
and proIoundly aIIcctcd by thosc rcIÌcctíons. IIÌ vcrc to say to you
that phílosophy has takcn too líttlc notícc oI thís throughout íts
hístory, that vould bc unjust and incorrcct. Ìt has, oIcoursc, takcn
noticc,ínthcIorm oIradicalnomínalísm, butíthas not takcnnotícc
ín íts ratíonalísr-spcculatívc·ídcalíst maínstrcam, í II may put ítlíkc
that. Ìt ís ccrtainly thc casc that !umc, vho, íIyou líkc, rcprcscnts
thc Iurthcst logícal conclusíon to bc dravn Irom Þrístotlc`s doctrínc
oI thc rcalíty oIthc partícular, dísíntcgratcd thc notíon oIsubstancc
Ior thís vcry rcason. Jhat is to say that thc conccpt oIsubstancc, at
hrst ínscparably bound up víth thc conccpt oI thc partícular thing,
gívcsvayínhísthoughttoa crítíqucvhíchstatcs thatthcthingítsclI
docs not rcally cxíst, butonly thc habítual assocíatíons oIsubjcctívc
modcsoIappcarancc,vhíchvcthcnconvcntíonallyrcgardasthíngs.
In accordanccviththís, Kant turncd thcconccpt oIsubstancc íntoa
subj cctívcIunctíon, anactívíty- somcthíngvhíchthcmíndproduccs
víthín objccts, and no longcr thc thing cxístíng in ítsclI vhích
Þrístotlc tcrms substancc qua thíng. Cn thc othcr hand, hovcvcr, in
hísdoctríncoIidcas and, íngcncral, ínhísconccptíonoIthcmundus
inte//igi|i/is, thc íntcllígíblcvorld, thc notíon oIsubstancc ín thc oId
Þrístotclían scnsc stíll prcvaíls in Kant`s thought. ' ´ `ou can scc at
thís poínt hov thc logícal conclusíon latcr dravn Irom thc doctrínc
vhich bcgíns vith Þrístotlc - that Iull rcalíty can only bc attríbutcd
to partícular thíngs - rcsultcd Irom an attítudc vhích, as I saíd
carlícr, vas Iorcígn to Þrístotlc and to antíquíty ¦víththc cxccption
oI bophísm) : thc orícntatíon tovards thc subjcct. Cnly vhcn thc
doctrínc oIthc rcalíty and ímmcdíacy oIthc partícular ís combíncd
víththcconccptíonthatthísímmcdíacyísonlyanimmcdiacy[or tbe
su|ject, ísathoroughgoíngnomínalísm,oIthckíndÌhavcj ustbrícIÌy
íllustratcd by thccxamplc oI!umc, possíblc. Þnd,toputthcmattcr
ncgatívcly, thatís also thc rcasonvhyonc cannot spcak oInomínal-
ísm ín Þrístotlc, dcspítc thcíncípícnttcndcncy tovardsítthatÌ havc
índícatcd. !ovthcmattcr míght bcstatcdµositiue/y - youvíllsccín
a momcnt. Jo putítquítc símply, thcrcís somcthíngnaívcIyrcalistíc
ín thcnotíon oIsubstancc as uscd by Þrístotlc, and you víll only bc
ablccorrcctly to undcrstandhísMetaµbysics as a vholc- somcthíng
vhích ís not casy Ior us today - iIyou do not scc ít ín tcrms oIour
ubíquítous subj cctívc rcIÌcctíon, but, to usc an cxprcssíon Irom
scholasticism, in intentione recta. Jhat mcans
·
to scc ít ín tcrms
oI
thc ímmcdíatc objcctívity oIthc cxtcrnal vorld,
and not ín tcrms oI
mcdíation through thc pcrccivíng consciousncss.
11LÅ1V1 Ï 1 NL J1
Jhíscuríous íntcrscctíon bctvccnthc doctrínc oIthc rcalítyoIthc
partícularand, atthc samctímc, a naívclyoutvard-turncdrcaÍísm, ís
anothcrncccssaryIcaturcoIthcstructurcsoIÞrístotlc`sthought.Iov,
thc trulyÞrístotclíanclcmcnt,vhíchconstítutcsthc cntírc díIhcuÍtyÌ
havc bccn spcakíng about, ís thc Iact that, dcspítc thís Iundamcntal
postuÍatc oIthc rcalíty oIthc partícuÍar, and thc asscrtíon that onÍy
that ís substantíaÍ vhích docs not nccd anythíng clsc but cxísts ím-
mcdíatcly, hc vas vcry cmphatícally a phílosophcr oImcdíatíon. Jo
undcrstand hov thís ídca or ¦ onc míght almost say) thís cuÍt oI thc
ímmcdíatc, oIthc cxístcntínítsclI, íscntvíncd ínÞrístotlc`sthought
víth thc ídca oI unívcrsal mcdíatíon, ís thc Iundamcntal problcm ín
undcrstandíng thc Metaµbysics, and Ì vould askyou to conccntratc
on thís problcm. `ouvíll thcn scc - to j ump ahcad - thatthc con-
ccpt oImcdíatíon Iound ínÞrístotlc íscxtraordínaríÍydíIIcrcnt Irom
that vhích thosc víth a !cgclían traíníng - and thcrc víll bc morc
than a Icv oI thcm among you - undcrstand by mcdíatíon. !crc,
too,Ìvouldrcpcatlíkca scholastíc. distinguo, I dístínguísh.`oucan
only grasp thc spccíhc naturc oI Þrístotlc`s approach íI you díst-
ínguíshvcry stríctly vhat ís mcant by mediation, by midd/e , Mitteì ,
and by tbe intermediate , das Mitt/ereì ín Þrístotlc Irom vhat thcy
mcan ín thc díalcctíc. Ior, to statc thís ín advancc, Þrístotlc vas
anythíng but a díalcctícal thínkcr, although hc vas atthc samc tímc
a thínkcroIímmcdíacyand athínkcroImcdíatíon. Cnc míghtsay, íI
I míght gívc thís a !cgclían tvíst, that thc thcsís oI ímmcdíacy and
thc thcsísoImcdíatcncssvcrcthcmsclvcsnotmcdíatcd ín hísvork -
íI you víll allov mc to makc a díalcctícal poínt at thís | uncturc.
CI coursc, thís vas not such a crucíal íssuc Ior Þrístotlc, síncc thc
díalcctíc díd not cxíst at that tímc, so that hc could not dístancc or
díIIcrcntíatc hís mcthod Irom ítínthc vay I havc j ustdonc. Kathcr,
ítísínkccpíngvíththcvholctcmpcroIÞrístotlc`sphílosophy,vhích
ís onc oI límítatíon, oIrcspcct, oI modcratíon, oI µcót¸,, that hc
soItcns and límíts thc doctrínc oI substantíalíty as ímmcdíacy by
íntroducíng thc ídca oIímpropcr or sccondary substanccs, vhích hc
caÍls òcú-cpo: eúc/o:, 'sccond substanccs`. Cnc míght aÍso rcIcr to
thcm,pcrhaps,assccondcsscnccs; ' 'althoughthcvord'sccond`cÍcarly
índícatcsthatthcy arc notpurcímmcdíacícs butproducts oIabstrac-
tíon.Jhcyarc'sccond`bccauscthcyonÍycomcíntobcíngonthc basís
oIvhat ís gívcn prímaríÍy, partícuÍar thíngs. Jhcsc òcú-cpo: eúc/o:,
thcsc sccondary or ímpropcr substanccs, cannot bc hypostatízcd, as
onc vould say ín modcrn phílosophícaÍ tcrmínology, but arc con-
taíncd in partícuÍar thíngs; thcy arc thus ímmancnt and not tran-
sccndcnt.Þndthisthcsís- thataÍthoughonthconc handsubstantíal
V
JZ 1LLÅ1VL Ï 1 NL
conccpts cxíst, thcy arc not _op/;, thcy do not havc thcír bcíng
bcyond índívídual cxístíng thíngs, but arc only cmbodícd ín thcm
and arc ímmancntto thcm- ísrcallythc basíc rhcsís oIthcvholc oI
Þrístotlc`sMetaµbysics. Itísthc sourcc oIthcIundamcntaldíIIcrcncc
bctvccn thís phílosophy and Ïlato's - íts dynamíc charactcr. Ior íI
thcsc òco-cpo: eúc/o: arc ímmancnt ín partícular thíngs, ínstcad oI
standíng opposcd to thcm as somcthíng cxtcrnal and alícn, ít ís no
longcr absurd orínconccívablc, Þrístotlc argucs, that thcsc csscnccs
shouldhavcancIIcctonpartícularthíngs, orthata mcdíatíonshould
bc cstablíshcd bctvccnthc Idca andscattcrcd cxístcncc. I shouldlíkc
to closc víth that rcmark, and víll contínuc Irom thís poínt ín thc
ncxt lccturc.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ bÍ7
J ]unc I º65
In thc last lccturc I spokc about thc òcú-cpo: eúc/o:, vhích can bc
translatcd ascsscnccs oIsccond dcgrcc orsccond povcr. Jhcsc can-
not bc posítcd ascxístíngoutsídc substanccs, orthíngs- asthc lang-
uagc oI modcrn phílosophy vould makc ít appcar. Þccordíng to
Þrístotlcthcycannotbchypostatízcd,butarcímmancntínsubstanccs,
and not, líkcthcÏlatonícIdcas, transccndcnt. Ì alsopoíntcd outthat
a problcm vhích rcally ís hardly comprchcnsíblc ín tcrms oI thc
Ïlatoníc doctrinc oIIdcasísatlcastµrejgured ín thís aspcct oIÞrís-
totlc. Ìt ís thc qucstíon oI hov onc ís to conccívc thc mcdíatíon
bctvccn thc vorld oI ídcas and thc vorld oI scnsíblc obj ccts, or, ín
Kantíantcrms,thcmcdíatíonbctvccnthcnoumcnaandthcphcnom-
cna. Ì should líkc to cxprcssthísvcrycautíously, asthc 'ídcas`, nov,
arc no longcr _op/,, that ís, thcy arc no longcr scparatcd Irom thc
scnsory, Irom obj ccts, Irom thc stuIIoIknovlcdgc, but arc rcalízcd
onlyínsoIar asthcyarcínthcsccxístcntthíngs. Þndthc problcmoI
causatíon, oI thc prímary causc, vhích I mcntíoncd as onc oI thc
problcmsIromvhíchmctaphysícs ítsclIstarts out, íssolvcd ínprín-
ciplcínÞrístotlc'sMetaµbysics bythc IactthatthísvorldoIscnsíblc
appcarancc ís tclcologícally oricntatcd tovards thcsc ídcas or purc
possíbílítícs, vhích arc supposcd to bc contaíncd víthín thcm. In
Þrístotlc thcrc ís an cxprcssíon Ior thís rclatíonshíp oI thc ídcas or
possíbílitícsto thc cxistcnt. èv -o-ooeòòoc.´that ísto say, thc Cnc
ín thc Nany. `ou can scc hcrc thc pcrspcctivc Irom vhích I vicv
cvcrythíng ! havc to tcll you nov about Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. In
thispcrspcctívc, thc thcmcs ! havc | ustmcntíoncdpcrsístthroughout
B
J+ 1LLÅ1VL b 1 7
thcvholcoIvcstcrnmctaphysícs.ÞsínthcgamcoIMub/e, thcpícccs
arcalrcadyonthcboardínÞrístotlc`smctaphysícs;ínthclatcrphascs
oImctaphysícalthínkíngthcyarcpushcdaboutagooddcalandthcn,
hnally, asín thc cnd-gamc ínMub/e, thcy start to hop - ín thc Iorm
oI írratíonalísm. Iorthísrcason, thc cxprcssíon `Cncínthc Nany` ís
oIcspccíal íntcrcst, andI bríngthístcrmtoyour attcntíonbccausc ít
rccursínalmostcxactlythc samcIorm ínKantíanphílosophy, atthc
poínt vhcrc thc synthcsís Iormcd by thc mínd j \erstand] , vhích
accordíng to Kant ís thc act oI cognítíon, or ís cognítíon ítsclI, ís
rcIcrrcd to as `uníty ín dívcrsíty' j£inbeit in der Mannig[a/tigkeit]
Þrístotlc`s conccptíon oI thc rclatíonshíp oI conccpt to índívídual
cxístcnt or, to put ít ín Þrístotlc`s tcrms, oI Iorm to mattcr, rcally
contaíns nothíngothcr thansucha unítyíndívcrsíty. Ì shouldlíkcto
poínt out, íncídcntally, that cxactly thc samc ídca that I havc | ust
skctchcd also appcars ín thc latc Ïlato, and that ít, not lcast, has
gìvcn rísc to thc spcculatíon I spokc oI,' that Þrístotlc may possíbly
havc had a rctroactívc ínIÌucncc on hís tcachcr ín hís latc pcríod, ín
thc Ïlatoníc díaloguc |armenides, vhích, ín many rcspccts, ís thc
mostcnígmatíc and pcculíar structurc ín thc vholc corpusoIÏlato`s
vork. In ít thc thcsís ís put Iorvard that thc Cnc cxísts only as thc
uníty oI many, and that thc Nany cxíst only asa maníIold oIuníts.
Jhís ídca oIthc rccíprocíty, thc íntcrrclatcdncss oIthc unívcrsal and
thc partícular, clcarly had a povcrIul hold on thc human mínd at
thatpoíntíníts hístory. Þnd ínÞrístotlc ítgavc rísc to thc Iormula-
tíonÌhavc| ustmcntíoncd,vhíchíscspccíallyímportantbccauscthís
vcry ídca oI rccíprocíty - that on thc onc hand uníty cannot cxíst
índcpcndcntly oI multíplícíty, but, on thc othcr, that multíplícíty ís
only constítutcd by vírtuc oI thc Cnc - thís basíc ídca ís alrcady
prcscnt ín thc Iormula oIÞrístotlc thatI havc díscusscd.
`oucanscc,thcrcIorc,thatthc ídcaoIunítyíndívcrsíty,vhíchín
thchístoryoImodcrnphílosophyhasbccntransposcdíntothcnotíon
oIthc ordcríng subjcctthrough vhích thís uníty ísproduccd, has íts
orígín ín onto/ogy. Jhat ís, ít stcms Irom thc Iact that thís uníty ís
supposcd to bc thc uníty oI bcíng ítsclI, vhích ís príor to all thc
partícular and índívídual thíngsIromvhích bcíng ís composcd. Jhís
íssomuchthc cascthatcvcnthc IormulaoIunítyíndívcrsítyísítsclI
to bcIoundínasmanyvordsínthc Grcckphílosophcrs- somuchís
thc vholc oIvcstcrnthínkíngínthralltothístradítíon. Þnd ítmíght
not bc cntírcly ídlc to vondcr vhcthcr thís vholc vay oI thínkíng
has bccn sub} cctcd, through thc ínIÌucncc oI thís ídca, to a kínd oI
channcllíng, vhích has Iorccd cvcrythíng ín a quítc spccíhc, vcry
compcllíng but also rcstríctívc dírcctíon; and vhcthcr vhat vc ín
latcrtímcshavccomctosccasthcrígouroIancícntphílosophy,oroI
1LLÅ1VL b 1 7 Jó
phílosophyíngcncral, could bc traccd backto thís narrovíngoIthc
Grcck tradítíon to thc rclatíonshíp oIthc unìvcrsal to thc partícular.
Iov, ín Þrístotlc - and thís ís thc Iulcrum oI hís Metaµbysics, thc
poíntyou nccd to undcrstand íIyou arc to grasp thís híghlypcculíar
and sclI-contradìctory structurc - thc unívcrsal or thc Iorm ¦ thcy
arcthc samc thíng ínÞrístotlc) ís,j ustasítvasIor hístcachcrÏlato,
thc híghcr rcalíty. In thís doctrínc, thcrcIorc, vhat I saíd ín thc
lastlccturc víth rcgard to thc rcalítyoIthc ímmcdíatc ísIound to bc
stood on íts hcad. ¤hcrcas, as ítsccms to mc, thc partícular thíng,
or, as ít ís callcd ín Þrístotlc, thc -óoc -:, vas hrst rcgardcd as thc
only rcalíty or truc bcíng, nov, on thc contrary, thc Iorm ís thc
híghcrrcalíty. Ì shallvrítc thìsconccptoI-óoc-:onthc blackboard.
Jhísconccpt, too, ís Iundamcntal to thc vholc oIvcstcrn thought-
síncc all rcIcrcnccs to Iactícíty, to 'that thcrc`, to that vhích cannot
bc díssolvcd ín conccpts and yct Ior vhích a conccptual namc ís
sought, orígínatc ín thís vord -óoc -:. 7óoc -: - and thís ís vcry
íntcrcstíng víth rcgard tothc vholc tcmpcr oIÞrístotlc's thínkíng-
ísnotrcally a conccpt atall, but a gcsturc; -óoc-:amountsto `thís',
and poínts to somcthíng. Þnd Þrístotlc rcalízcd that a conccpt Ior
thís, byítsnaturc,non-conccptualthíngcouldnotactuallybc Iormcd,
that ít could only bc cxprcsscd by a gcsturc - vhcrcas latcr thís
gcsturc bccamc a tcrm, vhích vas hnally prccípítatcd ín conccpts
such asa 'gívcn`, a 'datum', ínscholastícísm baecceitas, orvhatcvcr
suchtcrms míght bc.
I vould nov drav your attcntíon to a major shíIt vhích took
placcínphílosophícaltcrmínologyatthíspoínt, andIromvhíchyou
cansccthc spccíhcqualítyoIÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics Irom a díIIcrcnt
sídc. Ior vhat ín Ïlato vas callcd thc Idca and as such vas somc-
thíng absolutc, cxístíng ín ítsclI, ís nov suddcnly callcd [orm. Ìn
placcoIthcopposítíonbctvccnthctruc bcíngoIthcvorldoIthcIdca
andthc non-bcìngoIthcvorldoIscnsíblcdívcrsíty,vcnovhavcthc
díIIcrcncc bctvccn[orm andmatter. Ì shallvrítcthcsc tvo tcrmson
thc blackboard as vcll, as vc shall havc to usc thcm constantly.
`Iorm` mcans much thc samc as thc modcrn tcrm Cesta/t ín thc
narrovcrscnsc; ínLatínítvastranslatcdas[orma, thc Grcckvordís
µo,ç
¸
, Iamílíar to all oIyou Irom vords such as morphology. Jhc
vord Ior mattcr- thattovhích thís Iorm rclatcs- ísuò¸, translatcd
ínto Latín asmateria. I saíd thatthístransIormatíon oItcrmínology,
vhích - ín placc oI thc tradítíonal Ïlatoníc tcrms /òco and c/oe;,
on thc onc hand, and t êc-a, on thc othcr - nov talks oI µo,ç
¸
and uò¸, has Iundamcntal ímplícatíons Ior thc subjcct mattcr ítsclI.
`ou can scc thís quítc clcarly Irom thc Iact that vhcn vc spcak oI
'Iorm` thís tcrm alvays contaíns a rcIcrcncc to somcthíng oI vhìch
Ø
#
J6 1LLÅ1VL b 1 7
thc cntíty ínqucstíon ís thc 'Iorm' . Jhc conccpt oI'Iorm', thcrcIorc,
ísncvcrasclI-suIhcícnt,autoscmantìcconccptsuchasthatoIcsscncc.
Norcovcr,atthìspoíntÞrístotlc'stcrmínologyísstíllatavatcrshcd.
thc tcrms µepç¸ and c/oe;- Ïlato's tcrm - stíll altcrnatc; thc tcrm
c/oe;,uscd ínÏlato'sscnsc, stíll cxísts Ior Þrístotlc. Þnd, convcrscly,
ó), mattcr - as thc quíntcsscncc oI cvcrythíng vhích ís -óoc -:,
'hcrc' , and ís thcrcIorc mattcr, cannot bc conccívcd as somcthíng
vhích docs not aÌso havc Iorm. Jhc vcry choícc oI thcsc rccíprocal,
íntcrrclatcd tcrms, vhích rcIlcct thc rcal thcmcs oIÞrístotlc`s Meta-
µbysics, thcrcIorc shovsthísphílosophytobcasI havccharactcrízcd
ít. ancsscntíally mcdíatíng thcory.
Jhís notíon oI Iorm as thc Iorcc ímmancnt ín ó), mattcr, thís
conccpt oI thc ímmancnt ídca vhích at thc samc tímc ís thc povcr
ccntrcvhíchmovcsmattcr,ísthcdccísívcconccptínÞrístotlc'sMeta-
µbysics. Ìt ís a conccpt vhích ín our vorld has survívcd as anothcr
vord Ior Iorcc. thc conccpt oI cccpyco, cncrgy. Iov, standíng
opposcd to thís cncrgy, as rcalízcd Iorm, ís thc conccpt oI oú:oµ:;,
vhích rcIcrs topurc possíbílíty. !ovcvcr, ínÞrístotlc thís purc pos-
síbílítyísthatvhíchísnotyctIormcd, or ís onlynov bcíngIormcd.
possíbílíty Ior hím ísrcallyvhatvc callmattcr; and thc tcrm vhích
Þrístotlc`sMetaµbysics uscsIorítísoú:oµ:;.Þroundthcrclatíonshíp
bctvccnthcsc tvo momcnts, asvc vould callthcmtoday ¦ although
that vould bc anachronístíc and Iar too modcrn, so that ít vould
pcrhapsbcmorccxacttocallthcmcatcgorícs) - aroundthísrclatíon-
shíp thc vholc oIÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics rcvolvcs.'
Jhís, Ì bclícvc, ís thc poínt vhcrc Ì may bc ablc to claríIy most
vívídlythc díIIcrcncc bctvccn thc vholc oIancícntmctaphysícs, and
vhatíthasbccomc.Ior,athrstsíght,vhcnsccnIromthc standpoínt
oIthcmorcrcccntvcstcrntradítíon,thcrc íssomcthínguncommonly
paradoxícal ín thc ídcas Ì havc j ust cxpoundcd, and Ì am not surc
vhcthcr you havc all graspcd thís paradox Iully. Norcovcr, vhcn
cxpoundíng bodícs oIthoughtrcmotc Irom us íntímc, I rcgard ít as
a dutytomakc thc díIIcrcnccs atlcast asclcar as thc ídcntítícs. Þnd
thcsc bodícs oIthought - dcspítc thc tradítíon or, onc míght almost
say, bccausc oI ít - íncludc thc vork oI Þrístotlc. I bclícvc that to
pcrccívc thc csscncc oIhístorícal phcnomcna and, abovc all, oIphc-
nomcna oIíntcllcctual hístory, ít ís ncccssary not only to cmpathízc
víththcm or, to usc thatdrcadIulcxprcssíon, to bríngthcmcloscto
us; índccd, that gcncrally has thc opposìtc cIIcct. Jhc actualíty oI
suchconccpts, andthcírtruc dcpth, canonlybc apprchcndcd by hrst
placíng thcm at a dístancc - ín ordcr to makc us avarc both oI thc
constítutívc naturc oIhístoryand oIthcvhoÌlydíIIcrcntconccptíons
vhích thís proccdurc oblígcs us to Iorm, cspccíally víth rcgard to
1LLÅ1VL b 1 7 J/
mattcrsvhíchvchavc alvaysthoughtvcalrcadykncv,vhíchvcrc
asIamílíarto us asíIthcycamc Irom ourovnchíldhood, yctvhích,
lookcd at morc closcly, turn out to bc quítc díIIcrcnt. Þnyonc vho,
as a íuropcan, has had suddcn, surprísíng contact víth Ìndían phc-
nomcna víll bc ablc to undcrstand thís doublc cIIcct oI closcncss
and cxtrcmc, alícn dístancc. Jo claríIy vhat Ì mcan víth rcgard to
Þrístotlc. Ior usítís gcncrallythc casc,vhcnvc spcakoIµossi|i/ity,
that vc thínk oI Iorm, pícturcd as a Iorm vhích has not yct Iound
a contcnt, vhcrcas, vhcn vc spcak oI rea/ity, vc mcan essentia//y
that vhích í: hllcd by scnsíblc matcríal . Look, Ior cxamplc, at thc
dchnítíons oI possíbílíty, rcalíty and ncccssíty ín thc `Ïostulatcs oI
cmpírícal thought íngcncral` ín thc Critique o[ |ure Reason.
ª
Ior a
Iundamcntally ontologícal modc oI thínkíng líkc that oI Þrístotlc,
vhích stíll gívcs prcccdcncc to thc Iorm orthc Idca, thís conccptíon
oIpossíbílíty,thoughsclI-cvídcnttous,lookslíkcthc cxactopposítc.
I thínk you nccd to bc avarc oI thís díIIcrcncc íI you arc to undcr-
standvhatstandsatthcbcgínníngoImctaphysícsandhasdomínatcd
ítcvcrsíncc.Iorítísprccísclythc notíonthatthcídcaorthcnoumcnal,
thc íntcllígíblc sphcrc, ís morc rcal than thc cmpírícal, vhích rcally
Iorms thc corc oI thc mctaphysícal tradítíon. Þnd only íI you arc
avarc, Irom thc outsct, oI thís paradoxícal qualíty ínhcrcnt ín all
mctaphysícs, víll mctaphysícs ccasc to bc an ínnocuous subjcct and
rcvcal thc díIhcult, dcmandíng sídc vhích you nccd to cxpcrícncc íI
you vantto havc a scnsc oIvhat mctaphysícs rcally mcans.
ÌnÞrístotlc, thcrcIorc - ínkccpíngvíth thc ídca thatthc òcú-cpo:
eúc/o:,thc sccond csscnccs, havc a híghcrrcalítythanthc hrst- ítís
thc casc that cccpyc:o, vhích ís Iorm ín so Iar as ít ís rcalízcd ín
mattcr, rcprcscntsthchíghcr, morc substantíalrcalíty, j ust bccausc ít
is Iorm.ÌnthísrcspcctÞrístotlcís,agaín,aÏlatonícthínkcr.Nattcr, by
contrast, vhích Ior us ís prccíscly thc momcnt vhích dccídcs thc
dcgrcc oI rcalíty, as that vhích ís gívcn by íntuítíon, ís dcmotcd ín
thísphílosophytomcrcpossíbílíty.Jostatcthcposítíonparadoxícally,
rcalítyínÞrístotlc`sphílosophycorrcspondstovhatvccallpossíbíl-
íty, and possíbílíty to vhatvccall rcalíty. `oucan onlygaín acccss
to hís phílosophyíIyouhrstpcrIorm thís ínvcrsíon. `ouvíll, morc-
ovcr, havc líttlc díIhculty ínrccognízíng oncc agaín, ín thís posítíon
oIÞrístotlc`s, thc Ïlatoníc motíI thatthc vorld oIthc Idcas ís morc
rcal than thc vorld oIthc mcrcly cxístcnt. Jhc díIIcrcncc ís that ín
Þrístotlc thcsc tvo sphcrcs no longcr símply dívcrgc, butanattcmpt
ís madc - and I strcss, an attemµt to bríng thcm togcthcr. Jo thc
cxtcnt, thcrcIorc, that cccpycmconIcrs a híghcrordcr oI rcalíty than
òú:oµ:,, to thc cxtcnt that Ior Þrístotlc mattcr bccomcs mcrc pos-
síbílíty, hc ís thc opposítc oIvhat hc appcars at thc hrst lcvcl oIhís
B
J8 1LLÅ1VL b 1 7
thought,vhíchIprcscntcdtoyouínthclastlccturc.Iorínthísrcspcct
hc ís a rcalíst ín thc mcdícval scnsc, vho tcachcs thcprcccdcncc oI
unívcrsalsovcr índívídualthíngs, and nota nomínalíst. Jhís must bc
cmphasízcdstrongly,IoríIoncsímplyíncludcshímamongthcnomín-
alísts onthc grounds that, hístorícally, tvonomínalíst dcvclopmcnts
branchcdoIIIrom hísthought¦ asÌ bclícvcIhavcalrcadyíndícatcd´},
onc cntírcly mísundcrstands thc naturc oI hís mctaphysícs. I rccall
thatthclatcÞlIrcd¤cbcr,atthcsocíologísts`conIcrcnccín!cídclbcrg
- ít must havc bccnín I ¬ó+ - rcad a papcr´ ín vhích hc rcIcrrcd to
Þrístotlc víthout Iurthcr ado as a nomínalíst, on thc grounds I sct
outIoryouínthc lastlccturc. Þndvhcn, scckíngtosavcthc honour
oIthchístoryoIphílosophy and rcluctanttolctpassanythíngvhích
IÌcv so dírcctly ín thc Iacc oI Iacts, I skctchcd Ior hím somc oI thc
ídcasÌhavccxpoundcdtoyoutoday,thcnonagcnarían'scholargrcv
quítc angry and ncvcr spokc to mc agaín. But Ì cannot hclp ít. to
undcrstandÞrístotlcmcanstorccognízcthatboththcscmomcntsarc
contaíncdínhísvork; and thatthcconIÌíctbctvccnthcm ísrcsolvcd
bygívíngprcccdcncc to thc unívcrsal conccpts orIorms. Ìtmíght bc
saíd- as!crr !aag Iormulatcdítrcccntly'¨- thatthccontradíctíons
and díIhcultícs ínvhích Þrístotlc gcts caught up hcrc rcally contaín
ín latcnt Iorm thc vholc problcmatíc hístory oI ontology, as thc
hístoryoIthc rclatíonoIthc unívcrsalto thc partícular, or oIpossíb-
ílíty to rcalíty. Ì vould also say that ín Þrístotlc thc rclatíon oI thc
unívcrsal to thc partícular íscquatcd to that oI possíbílíty to rcalíty
- thís, too, ís a crucíal aspcct oIhís mctaphysícs. Þnd thís cquatíon
ís carrícd out by attríbutíng a híghcr ordcr oI rcalíty to cmbodícd
csscnccthantomattcr, vhíchnovísmcrc possíbílíty, bccauscíthas
notyct Iound ítsIorm.
Iov,Ladícsand Gcntlcmcn,thíslcadsonto a basícínconsístcncy
to vhích I must drav your attcntíon. Ì do thís, as Ì havc saíd, not
bccausc Ì rcgard ít as cíthcr possíblc or tímcly to crítícízc Þrístotlc
as onc vould a modcrn thínkcr, that sccms to mc a Ioolísh and
anachronístíc proccdurc. Ì do so bccausc I vísh to makc you avarc
oI thc ímmancnt problcms and thc ínhcrcnt dynamíc oI thís hrst
skctchoIamctaphysícs,vhíchthcnlcdontomctaphysícsíngcncral.
Jhc hrst thíng to bc saíd ís that Þrístotlc, vho undoubtcdly pos-
scsscdthc mostcxtraordínarypovcrsoIthought, dcspítc bcíngvíth-
outthccxpcrícnccsoIthcmorc thantvo thousandíntcrvcníngycars,
musthímsclIhavcbccnavarc oIthcscproblcms.Jhcqucstíonraíscd
by hís vork ís, quítc símply. hov ís ít possíblc that a phílosophcr
vhoattachcd suchcnormousvcíghtto thc conccptoIthc hrstcausc
¦vcshallcomcbacktothís),could,onthconchand,maíntaínthatthc
only rcalíty vas thc ímmcdíatc, thc -óoc -:, but thcn, on thc othcr,
1LLÅ1V1 b 1 7 J¬
couÌd rcgard thc mcdíatcd, thc conccpt rcalízcd and Iormcd ín mat-
tcr, as thc bigber rcalíty: Jhc ansvcr gívcn by Þrístotlc has also
bccomc acanonícalthcmc oIthc vholc oIsubscqucntvcstcrnmcta-
physícs. ít ís bascd, quítc símply, on thc dístínctíon bctvccngenesis
and ua/idity. ' Þccordíng to Þrístotlc ít ís símply thc casc that [or
us vhat ís prímaríly gívcn, and to that cxtcnt ís absolutcly ccrtaín,
ís -óoc ¯Í¿ thc ímmcdíatc, but that in itse/[ thc híghcr ís µepç¸ or
c/oe;, thc ídca. Þ dístínctíon ís thcrcIorc dravn bctvccn thc path
Iollovcd by knovlcdgc ín íts dcvclopmcnt tovards íts conccpt, and
thc truth contcnt oI that knovlcdgc, as ít ís ín and Ior ítsclI. Þnd
thcsc tvo momcnts arc placcd by Þrístotlc ín a símplc, unrcsolvcd
opposítíon, víthout any attcmpt to rcconcílc thcm, ínstcad, hc ís
contcnt- somcvhatmcchanícally,Ivouldsay- tocrcatcdcpartmcnts.
Cnonc sídc, thc proccdural dcpartmcnt. hovdovc arrívc at knov-
lcdgc: vhat cxísts hrst Ior us: - and on thc othcr thc ontologícal
orspcculatívc dcpartmcnt. hovísthc ordcroIcsscnccsconstítutcdín
ítsclI: Ì vould poínt out that thís Þrístotclían proccdurc, too, has
had híghly pcculíar conscqucnccs, contínuíng ríght up to contcm-
porary phílosophy. Nax bchclcr, vho taught at thís unívcrsíty Ior
thc last part oI hís líIc,'¯took ovcr thís samc Þrístotclían doctrínc,
vhích vas mcdíatcd to hím through mcdícval scholastícísm, hís latc
mctaphysícs,cspccíally,ísbascdcsscntíallyonthc scparatíonhcmadc
- asíIbyan'abyssoImcaníng'- bctvccnthc momcntoIgcncsís,thc
vay ín vhích vc bccomc conscíous oI structurcs or csscnccs or
vhatcvcrthcymaybc, and thc valídíty oIídcas ínthcmsclvcs. ' 'Þnd
undcrlyíng !usscrl`sthínkíngínthc |ro/egomena to |ure Logic, thc
hrstvolumc oILogica/ Inuestigations, vhíchvasrcallythc sourcc oI
thc cntírc rcavakcníng oIontology, ís thc basíc ídca to bc Iound ín
Þrístotlc vhích Ì havc j ust sctoutIor you. thatgcncsís, hovÌ arrívc
µsycbo/ogica//y atlogícal proposítíons, has absolutclynothíng to do
víththc valídíty, thatís,thc truthoruntruth, oIthc purclylogícalor
mathcmatícal proposítíons ín thcmsclvcs. ''Norcovcr, thc tradítíon
lcadíng to thís, bcíngthc scholastíc tradítíon, gocs backto Þrístotlc.
Ìtsmaíncarrícrsínthc nínctccnthccnturyvcrcBcrnard Bolzanoand
Iranz Brcntano, thc lattcr vas !usscrl`s tcachcr. Jhcrc ís at thís
poínt, thcrcIorc, a dírcctlínkto Þrístotclíanísm.
Gcnctícally,thcrcIorc, íntcrmsoIthc advanccoIknovlcdgc,vhat
ís ímmcdíatc and scnsíbly ccrtaín ís prímary, accordíng to Þrístotlc,
ín tcrms oIvalídíty - that ís, obj cctívcly - thc unívcrsal comcs hrst.
Jhís statc oIaIIaírs bccomcs cvcn morc pcculíar and paradoxícal ín
that Þrístotlc Iollovs Ïlato ín gívíng prímacy to vhat comcs hrst
tcmporally, as that vhích vc prízc and rankhíghcst- much as, ín a
Icudalsocíalordcr, thc oldcr a Iamílyísthc hncr it consídcrs ítsclIto
¯
B
+0
1LLÅ1VL b 1 7
bc. Þrístotlctookovcrthísídca oIthchíghcrrankoIvþatcamc hrst
ínthc most cmphatíc vay, so that ítíshard to scc hov thc òcú-cpo
eúc/o, thc sccond csscncc, thc rcsult oI a proccss oI abstractíon and
thcrcIorc somcthíng vhích camc latcr, should suddcnly bc rankcd
híghcr´ I should líkc to rcad outthc passagc Irom BookAínvhích
hc argucs that vc alvays valuc thc hrst and oldcst thíng híghcr,
bccausc Ì bclícvc ít ís pívotal to vhat Ì undcrstand gcncrally by thc
tcrm µrima µbi/osoµbia, or npe-¸ ç:òeceç|o, vhích Þrístotlc cx-
prcssly hcld mctaphysícs to bc. Jhís notíon oI a hrst phílosophy
clcarlyímplícs thc samcprímacyoIvhatcomcstcmporallyhrst, and
you may dctcct thc pcculíarly paradoxícal naturc oI Þrístotclían
thought, tovhích Ì vantto dravyourattcntíon today, quítc símply
ín thc congcalcd Iorm oIthc tcrmínology. Ì mcntíoncd that Ior hím,
or Ior thc scholíastsvho gavc thc book íts títlc, mctaphysícs mcant
µ-o -o çuc:-o, that vhích Iollovs aItcr thc doctrínc oI physícal
naturc;ítísòcú-cpoeúc/o,thatís,thcmcdíatcd,thcsccondary,vhích,
thcrcIorc, ís alrcady prcsupposcd by bcíng. Iov, hovcvcr, mcta-
physícs ís supposcd to bc npe-¸ç:òeceç/o, thc hrstphílosophy, thc
doctrínc on vhích all clsc dcpcnds. I should thcrcIorc líkc to rcad
you thís passagc Irom Book A, rclatíng to Jhalcs. Book A, by thc
vay, dcscríbcs csscntíally thc prchì story oImctaphysícal spcculatíon
up to Þrístotlc`s ovn vork, and as such ís stíll onc oI thc most
ímportant sourccs on thc hístory oI Grcck phílosophy. Jhc passagc
comcsIrom bcctíon¬8Jb, andrcadsasIollovs. 'Ìthas,índccd, bccn
suggcstcd thatthc vcrycarlícstthínkcrs, longbcIorcJhalcs, hcld thc
samc vícvoIprímary substancc. `!c ísprobably thínkíng oI!csíod
hcrc. 'Ior thcy madc Cccanus and Jcthys thc parcnts oIgcncratíon
and spokc oIthc gods as svcaríng byvatcr, vhích thcycallcd btyx.
Ior vhat ís oldcst ís honourcd most, but thc vítncss undcr oath
ís honourcd most oI all. ` ' "Jhc vítncss ís honourcd bccausc ít ís hc
vho authcntícatcs thc oldcst thíng, so that ín thís scnsc cvcrythíng
dcpcnds on hím. !crc, thcrcIorc, ís Þrístotlc`s cxplícít Iormulatíon,
vhích, ín thc Metaµbysics, ís to bc Iound ín all thc passagcs - ¦ or,
morc propcrly, all thc strands oI thought), ínvhích cvcrythíng that
has not cvolvcd or bccomc vhat ít ís, and ís thcrcIorc thc oldcst
thíng, vhích has alvays cxístcd, ís rcgardcd as thc condítíon oI thc
possíbílítyoIanybccomíng- anídcatakcnovcrdírcctlyIromÞrístotlc
by!cgcl, and ínvhíchthc hnalcausc,thatís, thc dívíníty, íssccn as
thc 'unmovcd movcr` oIallthíngs. Þrístotlc`sIamous IormulatíonoI
thís doctrínc oIthc unmovcd movcrís d«ív¸rov «:voúv. ' ´Ìnthíscon-
ccptíon,thcrcIorc, asínthc rclatíonoIgcncsístovalídíty, Þrístotlc ís
ínconsístcntvíth rcgard toprímacy, attríbutíng ítsomctímcs to -óoc
-: and somctimcs to c/oe,. !ncvítably, purcly on thc basís oI thís
11LÅ1VL b 1 7 +I
ímmancnt contradíctíon, thís doctrìnc provcd unsatísIactory'´ -
and thus provídcd thc motívatíon Ior thc vholc subscqucnt hístory
oImctaphysícs. ÌIthc prímary - and not by accídcnt ís thc prímary
somcthíng matcríal, ínthís casc vatcr, as ít alsovas Ior Jhalcs, on
vhom Þrístotlc bascs hís argumcnt hcrc - ís to bc rankcd híghcr
ín thc ontologícaÍ scnsc, or rcgardcd as thc morc orígínaÍ cntíty, as
modcrn ontoÍogy míght cxprcss ít, onc cannot conccívc hov thc
'sccondary',thc dcrívatívc,thcrcsultoIabstractíon ¦ andthcocú-cpo:
eúc/o:, thc unívcrsal conccpts cmbodícd ín cxístíng thíngs, arc scc-
ondaryínthatscnsc) , cannovbcrankcd highcr. '´Convcrscly, hov-
cvcr, ít ís cqually hard to conccívc vhy thc scnsíbly ccrtaín, ín íts
Iortuítousncss and índívídual rcstríctcdncss, as cxprcsscd ín -óoc-:,
ínthcínIantílclanguagcoI`thatthcrc`,canbcrcgardcdatthchíghcst
thíng, thc Ioundatíon oIall knovlcdgc. Þnd ítcan bc saíd that thís
aporía,bctvccnthchíghcrrankavardcdonthconchandtothcmost
abstractcatcgoríal dctcrmínants, or, íncxtrcmc tcrms, topurc logíc,
and, onthcothcr, tothcpurc ímmcdíacy oIthatvhích ísgívcnhcrc
and nov - thís aporía has bccn a constant thcmc oI mctaphysícs.
!ovcvcr, íI onc takcs scríously thc ídca oI mediation, vhích ís
skctchcd´" but not Iully vorkcd out ín Þrístotlc, thc ídca that Iorm
andmattcr arc rcally moments vhích can only bcconccívcd ínrcÍa-
tíontocachothcr,thcqucstíonastovhíchoIthcmcomcsabsolutcly
hrst or ís rankcd absolutcly híghcr bccomcs transparcnt as a Ialsc
abstractíon. ÞndoncvíllthcntraccthcIorms oIthcconcrctcmcdía-
tíonoIthcscmomcnts, ínstcadoItrcatíngthcproductoIabstractíon
vhích kccps thcm apart as thc only ríghtIuÍ sourcc oI truth. Jhat,
rcally, ís thc conncctíng thrcad vhích, ín my opíníon, lcads Irom
Þrístotlc'smctaphysícs as avholctothc qucstíonscurrcntlyoccupy-
íng thc mínds oIphílosophcrs ín thís hcld.
V
#
Í¡LÃ\H¡ b¡N¡P
I 5 ]unc I º65
ladícs and Gcntlcmcn, I shall contìnuc vhcrc ! lcIt oII bcIorc thc
¤hítsunholídays, ínthcmíddlcoImydíscussionoIÞristotÍc`sMeta-
µbysics. `ou may pcrhaps rccalÍ that ! saíd last that thc modcrn
problcmoIthcrclation oIgcncsís tovalídityvas alsoposcdbyÞrís-
totlc. Cn thc onc hand hc argucd that ¬oc¯Í¿ vhat ís immcdíatcly
gívcn, vas absoÍutcly prímary, vhilc on thc othcr hc cstablíshcd a
spírítuaÍ or mcntaÍ hícrarchy ínvhích !dcas, or Iorms, as hc callcd
thcm, vcrcgivcnthatstatus. ' ! shouÍdÍikctodravyourattcntíonto
a paradox vhích sccms to mc cxtrcmcly charactcrístíc oIthc vholc
hístoryoImctaphysícs, andvhíchís skctchcd as a kíndoIprototypc
ínÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics. JhcrcarctvoprcdomínantconccptíonsoI
ó,¿
¸
, or-poec, runníng through thc vholc history oIphílosophy.
Cn onc sídc ís thc ídca that vhat ís dírcctly gívcn, thc ímmcdíatc
Iacts oI conscíousncss, should bc posítcd as prímary; Irom thc con-
ncctíons bctvccn thcm thc subj cctívclyorícntatcd Iorm oIcpistcmo-
Íogy sought to construct thc quintcsscncc oI that vhích ís. Cn thc
othcrsídc,hovcvcr,prímarystatus ísgívcntothcpurcconccpt,vhích
alvays stands at thc orígín oIratíonaÍístíc vcrsíons oIcpístcmology.
LpístcmoÍogy has vorn ítsclI out tryíng to rcconcílc thcsc tvo
notions oIthc prímary, vhíchcxcÍudccach othcr, sothatyoumíght
havcrcasontodoubtthcvaÍídítyoIthcvholcapproachvhíchposíts
somcabsoÍutclyprímarythíng.ÞccordíngtoÞdamKícsc,ancxpon-
cnt oI simplc tradítional logíc, ít ís clcar that both oI thcm cannot
bc prímary. Icvcrthclcss, thcsc tvo approachcs, vhích historícally
gavc ríscto thc antithcsís bctvccn cmpírícísm and ratíonaÍísm, havc
1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ +J
alvays hada gooddcalto say Ior thcmsclvcs. Jhcvaríous cmpírícíst
tcndcncícs havc maíntaíncd that thcy go back to somcthíng gívcn
vhích ís not mcdíatcd by anythíng clsc and oI vhích onc can
bc ccrtaín bcyond doubt. Jhc othcr tcndcncícs, vhích startcd out
Irom thc purc conccpt as thc absolutcly prímary, can claím that,
comparcd to thc puríty oI thc mcntal cntíty, íts scnsíblc contcnt ís
cíthcr somcthíng transícnt and changíng, or cvcn, as thc Ïlatoníc
tradítíonholds,ísactuallydcccptívc.JhccxclusívítyoIbothmomcnts
ís untcnablc, síncc both can bc rcIutcd by símply askíng. vhích oI
thcm ísabsolutcly prímary: Jhc only possíblcansvcr ísthatcachoI
thcscpríncíplcs- íII cancallthcmthat- alvaysímplícsthcothcr,or
that, ín !cgcl`s languagc, thc tvo príncíplcs arc mcdíatcd by cach
othcr.
I should add hcrc that to call thcm príncíplcs ís an ímpropcr usc
oIlanguagc, sínccínthc stríct scnsconccanonlyspcakoIpríncíplcs
ratíonalístícally, vhcn dcalíng víth purcly mcntal cntítícs, vhcrcas
vhat ís ímmcdíatcly gívcn, vhích ultímatcly mcans scnsatíons, ís
somcthíng non-conccptual and thcrcIorc cannot bc a príncíplc. But
you may bc ablc to rccognízc hcrc somcthíng oI thc 'míscrc dc la
phílosophíc`,` ín thc Iact that cvcn thís non·conccptual clcmcnt, thís
non-príncíplc,vhíchncvcrthclcssísconstítutívcoI,andínhcrcntín,all
phílosophy,cannotappcarvíthínthatrcalm- vhích,hcavcnknovs,
can only opcratc víth conccpts - cxccpt ín thc Iorm oI a conccpt.
It ís thcrcIorc not mcrcly a píccc oI tcrmínologícal pcdantry to say
that phílosophy, through íts vcry Iorm, contaíns a prc-j udgcmcnt ín
Iavour oIpríncíplcs. Jhat mcans, íngcncral, that íIvc vant to gívc
prímacy to thc scnsíblc momcnts oI knovlcdgc vc cannot símply,
sotospcak, put Iorvard 'grccn` as a gívcn cntíty- orvc can do so,
but ít von`t takc us Iar phílosophícally. ¤c shall ímmcdíatcly havc
to abstract Irom vhat ís gívcn by thc scnscs and thus, cvcn vhcn
opcratìng at thís opposítc polc, arc alrcady movíngvíthín thc samc
conccptual languagc vhích ís locatcd at vhat I míght pcrhaps call
thc ratíonalístíc polc.'Jhís consídcratíon- that boththcsc mutually
cxclusívcapproachcsvhíchpostulatcsomcthíngccrtaínandprímary
arc untcnablc - lcads on, as a conscqucncc, to vhat I havc callcd
mediation. Þnd, to rcpcatthcpoínt, ítvas Þrístotlc`s ímmcasurablc
ínnovatíon ín phílosophy to havc bccn thc hrst to bc avarc oI thís
problcmoImcdíatíon. BoththcdíIhcultyoIundcrstandínghísvork,
and thc crítícísm to vhích ít ís opcn, stcm prccíscly Irom thc Iact
that onc must both grasp thc mcaníng oIthc tcrm mcdíatíon as hc
crcatcdít, and undcrstandvhythcconccpt oImcdíatíonIaílcdínhís
vork. Jo say that ít laílcd may sound schoolmastcrly, but unIortu-
natcly, íIonc takcs an ídca scríously, onc has líttlc altcrnatívc.
W
++
1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ
I also vantcd to poínt out that a vcry up-to-datc problcm ís con-
ccalcdbchíndthís tvo-prongcdapproachoIÞrístotlc`s,vhíchposíts
thc scnsíblyccrtaín as prímary[or us, and thcpurc Iorms asprímary
in tbemse/ues that ís, metaµbysica//y prímary asthc purc 'movcrs`
oI cvcrythíng that ís. Ìt ís thc qucstíon vhcthcr thc gcncsís oI con-
ccpts can índccd bc scparatcd Irom thcír truth contcnt, ashappcns
vhcncvcrgcncsís andvalídíty,orthcprímaryIor us andthc prímary
ínítsclI, arckcptapart, asísthccascínÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics. Jhís
gívcs ccntral acccss to vhat ís callcd thc problcm oIídcology, síncc
thc qucstíonraíscd bythc lattcrís índccdvhcthcrthc obj cctívctruth
oIproposítíons and conccpts ís Iundamcntally índcpcndcnt oIthcír
origin. Ì cannot sct out hcrc thc cntírc problcmatíc oIthc thcory oI
ídcology;' Ì can only skctch thc conncctíon bctvccn thc problcm oI
ídcology and that oIcpístcmology, vhích conccrns us at prcscnt. Ìn
thccasc oIídcology, too, ítíscxtrcmclydíIhcultto comcto a símplc
Ycs or Io dccísíon; j ust as, ín gcncral, ít sccms to mc thatthcvork
oIphílosophy, vhíchís csscntíally oncoIdíIIcrcntíatíon, curcs us oI
thc habít oI dcmandíng símplc altcrnatívcs oIYcs or Io vhcrc thc
subjcctvcarcrcIlcctíng onmaypcrhapsallovncíthcraltcrnatívc. Ìn
thccourscoIphílosophícalvorkoncbccomcsavarcthattoínsíston
knovíng 'ís ít such or ís ít such: ` has somcthíng ínIantílc about ít;
and íIthcrc ís anysuch thíng asancducatívc valucoIphílosophy, ít
maylíc ín thc Iact that ít vcans us Irom that kíndoInaívcty. bo, to
rcturn to our subj cct, to rcducc knovlcdgc to íts gcncsís ís a bít líkc
arguíngthatthcvalídítyoImathcmatícalproposítíonsshoulddcpcnd
onthccondítíonsundcrvhíchmathcmatícscamcíntobcíngsocíally,
or cvcn on thc psychologícal condítíons undcr vhích mathcmatícal
or logícal j udgcmcnts arc madc. Jhat, clcarly, ís nonscnsc. Jo that
cxtcnt thc scparatíon oI gcncsís and valídíty undoubtcdly has somc
j ustíhcatíon,andítísthcvcrygrcatmcrítoILdmund!usscrltohavc
bccnthchrsttodravattcntíoncmphatícallytothíspoíntas carly as
thc I 8¬0s." Cn thc othcr hand, íI onc símply scparatcs knovlcdgc
Irom íts gcncsís - íI, ín othcr vords, onc ígnorcs thc scdímcntcd
hístory contaíncd ín any píccc oIknovlcdgc- a part oIthc truth ís
alsolost.JruthísthcnpínncddovntoaclaímoItímclcssncss,vhích
ítsclI dcpcnds on somcthíngtakíng placc víthín tímc, thc proccss oI
abstractíonvhíchdísrcgardstcmporalmomcnts. Jhcrcísínthíscon-
tcxt, thcrcIorc, a vcry ccntral problcm oIhov thcsc possíbílítícs arc
rclatcdtocachothcr. Ìshallnotdvcllonthcqucstíonvhcthcrthísís
a mctaphysícal or an cpístcmologícal problcm; such dístínctíons, ín
any casc, arc díIhcult to maíntaín ín concrctc cascs. Ì vould only
rcpcatthatvhílc thc truthcontcnt oIknovlcdgc or oIa proposítíon
ccrtaínly cannot bcrcduccd símply to thc vay ínvhích ít has comc
1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ +ó
about,norcanítsgcncsís bcdísrcgardcdínthctrulydíctatoríalman-
ncradvocatcdbyNaxbchcÍcr,IorcxampIc- víth,ínsomccascs,thc
absurd conscqucncc that a numbcr oIconccpts vhích undoubtcdly
havc thcír orígín ín socíal conIlícts ¦ a Iact that cvcn hc docs not
dísputc) arcncvcrthclcss supposcdtohavcaníntrínsícvaIídítyvhích
has absolutcly nothíng to do víth thcsc conIlícts.´Jhís vholc tangIc
oI problcms, too - Iíkc, onc míght say, thc vhoIc problcmatíc oI
phíIosophy- has íts orígín ínthcvork oIÞrístotlc.
ÌvouIdadd- ínordcrtoavoíd stoppíngshortatthís poíntvítha
qucstíon - that thc gcnctíc momcnts arc not, as ít sccms to vulgar
prcjudícc, símplycxtcrnaltoknovlcdgc,butarcínhcrcntínthcchar-
actcr oIvalídíty ítsclI. Jhís takcs us back to thc ídca oI mcdíatíon.
Cncmíght IormuIatc thc mattcr by sayíngthattruth has a tcmporal
corc,` or, as !usscrl, vho turncdhís attcntíon tothís probIcm ínhís
latc phasc, cxprcsscd ít. that cvcn ín íts obj cctívíty truth also has an
'ímplícd gcnctíc mcaníng` ,genetiscbes Sinnesimµ/ikatì. ¨ Norcovcr,
thís problcm also occurs ín Kant, vhcrc, on thc onc hand, synthctíc
j udgcmcnts arc supposcd to bc tímclcssly valíd a príorí, yct, on thc
othcr,arcconstítutcdbythcspontancousactívítyoIconscíousncss,and
thus, hnally, bythc vork oIthcmínd; so thatsomcthíng supposcdly
tímclcss has a tcmporal momcnt as thc condítíon oI ítspossíbílíty.
Jhat sccms to mc to bc thc onIy possíblc ansvcr to thís qucstíon. Ì
shaIl j ust takc thís opportuníty to poínt out that you can rcally scc
hcrc, Irom a ccntral posítíon ín phílosophy, hov dccply socíology
and phílosophy arc íntcrrclatcd, and hov Iíttlc thc transítíon Irom
onc to thc othcr ís a mcrc jc-ojom; c; óììo yc:e,. Jhís ís símply
bccausc,íIítísrcaIízcdthatthcmomcntoIthcorígínorthctcmporal
gcncsís oIknovIcdgc,víthaIlthctcmporaIítyítínvoIvcs, ís ínhcrcnt
ín thc charactcr oItruth, ís not cxtcrnal to ít ínthc manncr oItruths
vhíchchangcvíthtímc, but IoundsthccharactcroItruthítsclI, thcn
ít ís no Iongcr possíblc to pcrIorm thc absolutc scparatíon bctvccn
thc qucstíon oI thc socíaI orígín or thc socíaI hístory oIanídca and
ítstruthcontcntínthcmanncrrcquírcdbythcusualscícntíhcdívísíon
oIlabour. Ior docs thís amount to a socíologízatíon oIphílosophy;
rathcr, socíoIogícal problcms arc ímmancnt ín phílosophícal oncs,
and ímmancntly phílosophícal rcIlcctíon lcads ncccssaríly to thcsc
problcms.Jhísapproach,íncídcntaIly,ísradícallydíIIcrcntIromthat
oI thc socíoIogy oI knovlcdgc, vhích conIuscs thc orígín oI knov-
lcdgcvíth ítstruthcontcntína mcrclycxtcrnal scnsc- butthís, too,
Ì cantouch on only brícIly hcrc.
Iov vhy- this is thc rcal qucstton vithvhich Þristotlc`s Meta-
µbysics conIrontsus- docsÞrístotlc,amcdíatíngthínkcr,stopshortat
thís pccuIíarduaIísmbctvccnthcprimacyol-óoc-:,thcimmcdíatcly
Ø
#
+6 ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏ
gívcn, and oIthc ìdca: Þnd vhy docs hc acccpt so rclatívcIy IíghtIy
thc rcsultíng contradíctíons and díIhcultícs, somc oI vhích Ì havc
skctchcdIoryou: JhcccntraIcontradíctíon- torcturntothcspccíhc
problcmatíc oIÞrístotlc' svork- ísthat, onthconchand, thc ídca ís
supposcdto bconlyímmancnt,onlymcdíatcd,onlysomcthíngínhcr-
íngínancxístcnt andnottransccndcntvíth rcgard toít; yct, onthc
othcr, ít ís madc ínto somcthíngvhích has bcíng ín ítscII. Lxprcsscd
ín thcsc bald tcrms, thís ís a contradíctíon vhích ís vcry díIhcult to
rcsolvc. ¤c arrívc hcrc at thc poínt vhcrc thc íntcIlcctualachícvc-
mcnt oIÞrístotlc has to bc dchncd, asvcll as thc hístorícal posítíon
occupícd bya thínkcrvhocanbcdcscríbcdasthc anccstor oIbour-
gcoís thínkíng andatthc samctímcasa pupíloIÏlato. !craíscdthc
qucstíonoIthcmcdíatíonbctvccnthcunívcrsalandthcpartícularas
nophílosophcrhaddoncbcIorchím- andhcvas IullyavarcoIthís
achícvcmcnt. Þnd íI you rcad Þrístotlc, most oIvhat hc has to say
aboutcarlícr thínkcrs sounds- vcll- a líttlc bcncvolcntandpatron-
ízíng, as onc vrítcs abouthaII-savagcs. !c has vhat Ì míght almost
calla splcndídacadcmíc arrogancc, vhích colours thcvholc tonc oI
vhat hc vrítcs about thosc carlícr thínkcrs vho lackcd thc prccísc
knovlcdgcavaílablctohím.JhísíshíghlycharactcrístícoIthctcmpcr
oIhís thought. Jhus, hc raíscdthcqucstíon, butdídnotsolvcít. Jhc
truc corc oI thc problcmatíc oI Þrístotlc's vork ís that hc, unlíkc
ÏIato, poscd thc problcm oI mcdíatíon víth cxtrcmc cIaríty, but,
ncvcrthclcss,dídnotachícvcmcdíatíon.Þndtoundcrstandhovthcsc
tvothíngsarcconncctcdísthc tructaskprcscntcdbyhísvork- and
thusístbe taskIacíngthctradítíonalapproachoIvcstcrnphílosophy.
Ior hc conccívcs thc rclatíon bctvccn thc catcgorícs oIIorm and
mattcr, vhích ís ccntral to hís mctaphysícs, as an cxtcrnal rclatíon,
althoughthcy arc íntcrdcpcndcnt ín hís vork. Jhat ís to say that hc
undcrstands thc cxístcntascom¡oscdaddítívclyoIIorm andmattcr.
Þnd Ior thís rcason thc tvo catcgorícs, although ncíthcr can cxíst
víthout thc othcr, appcar as absolutcIy scparatc - ínstcad oIbcíng
pcrccívcd as abstractíons vhích only dcsígnatc momcnts, ncíthcr oI
vhíchcanbcthoughtíndcpcndcntlyoIítsopposítc,andbothoIvhích
nccd thc othcr through thcír vcry conccpts. Jo put thís paradoxíc-
ally, oncmíght saythatínÞrístotlc mcdíatíon ís notítsclImcdíatcd;
thatvhílchcrccognízcdthatncíthcrmomcntcouldcxístvíthoutthc
othcr, hc sav thís íntcrrclatcdncss almost as a quantítatívc agglom-
cratíon; hc savítaddítívcly, asa conj unctíon oIthcsctvo momcnts,
vhíchcouldnotbckcptapartínchcmícalpuríty,asítvcrc,yctvcrc
not dcpcndcntoncachothcríntcrms oIthcírmcaníngandconstítu-
tíon. Jhat ís thc poínt hc rcachcd, and hís crítíquc oIÏlato, vhích Ì
havccxpoundcd Ior you,'" hasprovcd asmuch. Ìtmíghtbcsaidthat
ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏ +/
ínthcMetaµbysics andnotonlythcrc butínthcvholcoIhísphílo-
sophy,cspccíallythccthícsandthcthcoryoIthc statc- Þrístotlcvas
a mcdíatíngthínkcr. !cvas a mcdíatíngthínkcrínthcscnscthathís
conccrn vas alvays to hnd an íntcrmcdíatc posítíon bctvccn tvo
cxtrcmcs, sothatcxístcnccísto bcundcrstoodhcrcasa míddlc tcrm
bctvccnIormandmattcr.Butthísmcdíatíonísrcallyonlysomcthíng
cxístíng |etueen thc cxtrcmcs, and not that vhích ís ímplícít ín thc
mcaníng oI thc cxtrcmcs and ís accomplíshcd tbrougb thc cxtrcmcs
thcmsclvcs. ÌIyou víll pcrmít mc thís anachronístíc horror, Ì vould
say that hc ís thc mcdíatíng thínkcr µar exce//ence, yct onc lackíng
thc ídcaoIthc díalcctíc. Ìn hísvorkthccxtrcmcs arc notthcmsclvcs
mcdíatcd, but only somcthíng íntcrmcdíatc bctvccn thcm, as ís ín
kccpíng víth thc ovcrall príncíplc oI thís phílosophy, thc ídcal oI
vhích ís thc happy mcdíum, or thc jccó-¸;. Jhís príncíplc oI thc
happy mcdíum, oI modcratíon bctvccn thc cxtrcmcs, ís thus thc
ccntral problcm. Þs ít ís taught ín thc |tbics, ' ' and thc |o/itics, thís
modcratíon ís transposcd, asít vcrc, ínto thc absolutc, ín that bcíng
ís prcscntcd as somcthing líkcthc happy mcdíum bctvccn Iorm and
mattcr - though víth a hcavy cmphasís on Iorm. Ì vould only add
that ín thís non-díalcctícal conccptíon oI mcdíatíon Þrístotlc vas a
trucÏlatoníst, sínccprccísclythís manncr oIdchníngconccpts asthc
happymcdíum bctvccnthcír cxtrcmcs ís a schcma vhíchconstantly
undcrlícs thcargumcntatíonínthc Ïlatoníc díalogucs. ¤hcn, Ior cx-
amplc,Platodchncscouragc,ínanclaboratcproccdurc,asthchappy
mcdíum bctvccn rccklcss daríng on onc sídc and covardícc on thc
othcr,'´that ís prccíscly ín kccpíng víth thís clímatc oIthought.
YoumaythínkthatÌ am dcmandínganavIullot oIsubtlctyIrom
youatthíspoínt.!avíngídcntíhcdsomcthíngmcdíatcd,vhíchcannot
bc díssolvcd víth chcmícal puríty ínto cíthcr sídc, so to spcak, but
línks thcm both, Ì thcndístínguíshIurthcrvhcthcrthís 'both`ís only
a chcmícal míxturc, to usc thctcrms oInatural scícncc, ora gcnuínc
compound. But Ì havc to tcll you that - as you víll hnd conhrmcd
agaín and agaín íIyou studyphílosophyínany dcpth- thc so-callcd
largcphílosophícalqucstíonsarcrcgularlydccídcdbysuchsubtlctícs,
such qucstíons oIdctaíl. Íor cxamplc, thc ovcrall qucstíon vhcthcr
somcsuchthíngasa 'hrstphílosophy`,orthcdíssolutíonoIphílosophy
into íts príncíplcs, ís possíblc, or vhcthcr ít cannot bc donc, síncc
cach hrst príncíplc postulatcs thc othcr víthín ítsclI, by vírtuc oIíts
ovn mcaníng- thís qucstíonrcally dcpcnds onhov onc stands víth
rcgard to such subtlcty. ÌI I saíd carlícr that Ì vas bchavíng ín a
somcvhatschoolmastcrlymanncríncrítícízíngÞrístotlconthíspoínt,
Ì should líkc to corrcct that nov - Ior ít ís hcrc that thc hístorical
coclhcìcnt rcally cntcrs thc argumcntatíon. I havc j ust mcntíoncd
B
W
+8 1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ
thc momcnt oI díalcctícal mcdíatíon, by vhìch a stronglyphílo-
sophícalconccptísdcpcndcnt,throughíts ovnmcaníng, onthcnon-
conccptual, Irom vhích ít has bccn abstractcd. '' Jhís momcnt only
bccamcthínkablc- and thìs ísnotj usta Iacílc a príorí íntcrprctatíon
madc µost [estum, but onc that víthstands propcr scrutíny - oncc
thought had passcdthrough substantíal sub¡cctívc rcIlcctíon, thatís,
oncc íthad bccn rcalízcd that catcgorícs, such as thosc oIIorm and
mattcr uscdhcrc, arcthcmsclvcs abstractíons produccd bythc mínd.
Jhcy cannot, thcrcIorc, bc posítcd ín thcír ímmcdíacy as absolutc,
butcanonlybcopcratcd,as!cgclvouldputít, assomcthíngalrcady
posítcd. Jhís díscovcry oIsubj cctívíty as thc constítutívc clcmcnt oI
knovlcdgc vas cntírcly Iorcígn to antíquíty. Lvcn vhcrc subj cctívc
modcs oI spccch appcar ín antíquíty - vhích ís not scldom - vc
should not conIusc thcm víth modcrn oncs, síncc thcy arc applícd
thcrc to an índívídual, pcrsonal rclatívísm; that ís, thc valídíty oI
knovlcdgc ís rclatcd to thc partícular constítutíons oI índívídual
pcoplc. Butthc qucsríon that has gívcn such Iorcc to thc conccpt oI
sub|cctívítyínthchístoryoImodcrnphílosophy- thcqucstíonvhcthcr
subj cctívíty actually condítíons orconstítutcs truth andobj cctívíty-
ís alícn to thc vholc oI ancícnt phílosophy. Þnd íI ít ís truc that
corrcspondcnccs víth past íntcllcctual Iormatíons can only bc
rccognízcdíIoncplaccsthcmata dístancc,rathcrthanrc|oícíngthat
thcy arc | ust thc samc as ours ¦ íI onc dísccrns thc commonaltícs
vhílcbcíngattcntívctoíncompatíbílítícs),thatísprccísclythcrcason
vhyÞrístotlc`sthought, vhích /n intentione recta, Iundamcntally, ís
orícntatcd tovards thc conccpt oIsubstancc, and as ycthas nocon-
ccptíon oI sclI-rcIlcctíon, vas unablc, Ior that vcry rcason, to grasp
thc conccpt oIthc díalcctíc.
Ìvouldonlyaddthat,ínthcabovcrcmarks,thclastvordhas not
bccn saíd on thc problcm oIthc díalcctíc. Ìt vould bc a mísundcr-
standíngtoconcludc Irom vhatÌ havc saíd thatthcconccptíon oIa
díalcctícal phílosophy ís csscntíally and alvays subj cctívc. Jhcrc arc
Iurthcr rcIlcctíons onrcIlcctíon, byvhích thís subjcctívcrcductíon ís
ítsclIsurpasscdandncgatcd. Ìsaythísonlysothatyoudonotbclícvc
that Ì vantcd hcrc to advocatc símply a subj cctívc-ídcalíst kínd oI
thínkíng ínstcad oIthc ancícnt ontologícal onc; that ís Iar Irom my
íntcntíon. Ì onlyvantcd to shov that a díalcctícal undcrstandíng oI
thc basícconccpts oImctaphysícs,víthvhíchÞrístotlcísconccrncd,
ís símply not possíblc unlcss rcflcctíon on subj cctívíty has advanccd
much Iurthcr than ít had ín hís thought. Ì vould also notc that,
throughÞrístotlc`spcculíarlyaddítívcdoctrínc,thcconccptoImattcr
íscxIrcmcly dcmatcríalízcd, ís turncd ínto somcthíng vcry índchnítc
and gcncral. Þnd síncc, as I havc j ust saíd, subj cctívc rcfIcctíon had
1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ +¬
notycttakcn placcínÞrístot|c, ít ís all thc morc surprísíng hov Iar
hís thought agrccs ín vcry Iundamcntal momcnts víth |atcr ídcalíst
thínkíng, vhích docs pcrIorm thís subj cctívc rcIlcctíon. ÌI ít ís thc
cascthatalldctcrmínants,allthatvhíchmakcssomcthíngvhatítís,
rca||ystcm Irom íts Iorm; and íI, by contrast, mattcr ís rca||y somc-
thíng quítc índchnítc, quítc abstract, thcn vc havc alrcady, ín thc
mídst oIthís prc-subjcctívc, ontologícal thínkíng, a prccísc skctch oI
thc latcr ídcalístdoctrínc accordíng to vhíchthcmattcr oIcognítíon
ís absolutclyíndctcrmínatc,rcccívíngallítsdctcrmínants andthus all
íts contcnt through Iorm, that ís, through subj cctívíty. ' '
!ovcvcr,Ì shouldnovdchncprccísclyhovÞrístotlcdíIIcrs Irom
thcvho|coImodcrnthought. ÌnÞrístotlc`svork- and hc ísagaína
Ï|atonístínthís- thcconccptoIIormísnotyctcquatcdvíththought,
víth thc Iunctíon oIthc subjcct. Kathcr, Iorm ís, as ít vcrc, píckcd
out by a mcchanísm oIabstractíon Irom thc dívcrsíty oIthat vhích
ís,andabovcallIromthcdívcrsítyoIvhatísIormulatcdínlanguagc,
and ís thcn madc ínto somcthíng cxístíng ín ítsclI, ínstcad oI bcíng
ídcntíhcd as an opcratíon oIthc subj cct. Cnc míght say, thcrcIorc -
íI Ì may spcak anachronìstíca||y oncc morc - that Þrístot|c`s mcta-
physícsísanídcalísmma/grc /ui-mcme. Ìthasthcsamcconscqucnccs
- thc dc-qualíhcatíon oIíts ovn mattcr and thus thc dcnígratíon oI
mattcr ítsclI- vhích ídcalísm vas to havc so cmphatícallylatcr, but
víthout havíng cncompasscd thc mcdíum oIídcalísm ¦that ís, con-
stítutívc subj cctívíty) as such. Cnc ís ob|ígcd to ask, thcrcIorc, vhat
rcmaínsoImattcrínÞrístotlc,íIallítsdctcrmínantshavcbccnstríppcd
avay and attríbutcd to Iorm. ¤hat ìs |cIt bchínd ìs an cmptíncss
vhích has to bc hllcd; and thís ídca that purc mattcr ís somcthíng
abstract and cmpty that has to bc hllcd lcads to thc ccntral doctrínc
oI Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. that mattcr ís not a solíd cntíty onc can
holdonto butísj ustpurc possíbílíty; and that, bycontrast, thc rcal
ísactua|lyIorm. Ìnaccrtaínscnscthísídca,too,rccursínídcalísm,ín
that rcalíty ís conccívcd as vhat ís constítutcd by thc subjcct, and
mattcr as thc ìndctcrminatc. But thc rcmarkab|c thíng, víth vhích
vcrcallydohndíthardtocmpathízc, ísthatthísdístínctíonísmadc
Irom a naívcly rcalístíc standpoínt. ¤hat vc bc|ícvc vc can hold ín
our hands as thc most ímportant thíng oI all ís prcscntcd hcrc as
somcthíng quítc índctcrmínatc and cmpty, as thc mcrc possíbílíty oI
vhatmíghtcmcrgcIrom ít, vhílcthctruc rca|íty ís Iorm; vc, onthc
contrary, arc accustomcd to undcrstand Iorm as thatthroughvhích
somcthíngcxtstcnt, a -ôo· -., orvhatcvcr you|íkc toca|lít, must ín
somc vay bc Iormcd. Jhís conccpt oIpossíbí|íty onlycxísts ínÞrís-
tot|c, oIcoursc, bccausc, although hc sccsthcsctvo mainpríncíplcs,
Iormandolmattcr,asbclongíngtogcthcrínsomcvay,hcncvcrthclcss
Ø
ó0 1LLÅ1VL b LNLÏ
bclícvcs that thcy can bc graspcd as csscnccs índcpcndcnt oI cach
othcr, vhích, though íntcrrclatcd, arc not so íntcrrclatcd that onc ís
constítutcd bythc othcr through íts ovn naturc.
Jhísproblcm, stíllunrcsolvcd ínÞrístotlc, thatmattcr ís rcally an
cmptíncss vhích only comcs to cxíst through íts ovn rcIlcctíon,
throughíts Iorm, ís notdcvclopcdIurthcruntíl !cgcl'sLogic, vhích
líkcvísc has an obj cctívc orícntatíon. Þnd Ì should líkc to closc by
poíntíng out, Ior thosc oIyou vho arc íntcrcstcd ín !cgcl, that thc
usualdcrívatíonoI!cgclIrom GcrmanídcalísmrcIlcctsonlyoncsídc
oIhísvork.Cnthcothcrsídc,bccauscoIthcobj cctívcorícntatíonoI
!cgcl'sLogic, constantrcIcrcnccmustbcmadctoÞrístotclíanlogíc,
Irom vhích hc took thís ídca, as has bccn dcmonstratcd ín dctaíl
ínthc vork oIthc CxIord phílosophcr GcoIIrcy Nurc,'' to vhích Ì
vouÌd drav your attcntíon hcrc. ¤c shall contínuc Irom thís poínt
ncxtvcck.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ¡ÍLMÃ
22 ]unc I º65
Ïcrhaps I míght bcgín today by rccallíng thc dístínctíon I trícd to
makcatthcbcgínníngoIthcsclccturcs, ín ordcrtoshovyouvhatís
spccíhc to mctaphysícs. Ior, íII could makc a mcthodologícaI poínt
straíght avay, ítísnotcnough,vhcn dchntngthcmcaníngoIa con-
ccpt oI such hístorícal dcpth as that oI mctaphysícs, to outIínc thc
maínarcasoIsubjcctmattcrvíthínít, orítscsscntíalcontcntand thc
vay ín vhích ít ís trcatcd. Lvcn thc undcrstandíng oI conccpts ín-
cludcs a momcnt oI ncgatíon, ín that, to undcrstand a phílosophy,
Ior cxamplc, onc nccds to knovvhat íts spccíhc rhctoríc vas rcally
dírcctcdagaínst. IIoncsccksto undcrstandaphílosophypurclyIrom
víthínítsclI,j ustIromvhatísvríttcndovn,oncusuallydocsnotgct
vcry Iar. Cnc nccds to dcvclop a Iaculty Ior dísccrnìngthccmphascs
and acccnts pcculíar to that phíIosophy ín ordcr to uncovcr thcír
rcIatíonshíps víthín thc phílosophícal contcxt, and thus to undcr-
standthc phílosophy ítsclI- that ís atlcastasímportant asknovíng
uncquívocalIy. such and such ís mctaphysícs. Bcaríng thís ín mínd, I
vould rcmínd youthatrathcr than talkíng aboutíts vcrbalmcaníng
Ì trícd to dcscríbc mctaphysícs ín a prccísc scnsc as thc uníty oI a
crítícaI and a rcscuíng íntcntíon. ' Jhat ís to say that mctaphysícs ís
aIvaysprcscntvhcrccnlíghtcncdratíonalísmbothcrítícízcstradítíonal
notíons and ídcas, ídcascxístíngín thcmsclvcs, asmythologícal, and
atthcsamc timc- andnotj ustoutoIanapologctíc nccd
·
butoutoI
a conccrnIor truth- vants to savc or rcstorc thcsc conccpts, vhích
rcason has dcmolishcd, prccíscly through thc applicatíon oIrcason,
orcvcntoproduccthcmancvIromvíthínítsovnrationaIrcsourccs.
#
óZ L1LÅ1V1 11 L1Å
Jhíscanbcsaíd,Iorcxamplc,oIthcmostIamousthcoryoIÞrístotlc,
vhích conccrns us nov, thc onc conccrníng mattcr, uò¸, and lorm,
c/òe; or µ·¡
ç¸. ÞItcr crítícízíng thc Ïlatoníc doctrínc ol Idcas, ít
sought, vhílc rcmaíníng avarc oIthíscrítíquc and as a conscqucncc
oIít, to salvagc ancsscntíalmomcntoIthatdoctrínc, thcprcccdcncc
oIthcídca,thcpríorítyoIIorm.ÞndIrcpcatthatthísdoublc-sídcd ncss
ísprototypícaloIallmctaphysícs,cvcnthcKantían,vhcrcthcIamous
statcmcnt ín thc Metboden/ebre, that hc had sct límíts to rcason ín
ordcr to makcroom Ior Iaíth,´ poínts to prccíscly thís ambívalcncc.
JhcíntcntíonI amspcakíngoIvasgívcnclcarcxprcssíonbyÞrís-
totlc ínthc proposítíon thattruc knovlcdgc alvays has as íts objcct
thc ncccssaryand ímmutablc, as ín Ïlato.` You should bcarínmínd
hcrc,hovcvcr,asínthccascoIallthcconccptsoIancícntphílosophy,
thatthcconccptolcausa/ity, oroIcausc,asítappcars- ínacomplcx
Iorm - ínÞrístotlc, should not bcundcrstood asa catcgory Ioundcd
onsubj cctívíty, butassomcthíngínhcrcntínthc obj cctívc vorld and
índícatcd bythcIormollínguístíccxprcssíon. Incontrasttothcncccs-
sary and ímmutablc, thc scnsíblc ís trcatcd ín Þrístotlc as Iortuítous
or ínIcríor- and thccascís vcrysímílarín Ïlato. Þdmíttcdly, youdo
not hnd ín Þrístotlc thc Ïlatoníc notíon oI thc non-cxístcncc ot
scnsíblc mattcr; thís ís clcarly conncctcd to hís doctrínc conccrníng
thcrclatíon oIIormto mattcr. Ior do youhnd thc doctríncthat µ
¿
1», thc scnsíblc, thc spatíal-tcmporal, ís thc absolutcly non-cxístcnt.
But íII could rcmínd you hcrc oI thc mcthodologícal príncíplc that,
ínphílosophy, thc problcms arc to bcIound ínthc smallcstnuanccs,
ítshould bcnotcdthat, dcspítcthísdíIlcrcntvaluatíonoIthcscnsíblc
- a valuatíon gcncrally attríbutcd to Þrístotlc's tcndcncy tovards
cmpírícísmíncontrasttoclassícalratíonalísm- thíschangcdposítíon
víth rcgard to thc scnsíblc ís not so Iar rcmovcd Irom thc Ïlatoníc
doctrínc oI thc non-cxístcnt as míght hrst bc thought, and as somc
passagcs ínÞrístotlc suggcst.Jhís ísbccauscmattcr, uò¸, asthcpurc
possíbílíty olthatvhích ís, ísdívcstcd olallspccíhc dctcrmínants, ís
sccn as thc absolutcly índctcrmínatc andrcallyas a mcrccravíng Ior
dctcrmínatíon, andítísonlythísstrívíngvhích qualíhcsítas possíb-
ílíty,víthvhíchmattcr íscquatcd ínÞrístotlc. bothatíIoncvcrcto
takc thc !cgclían stcp oI sayíng that thc absolutcly índctcrmínatc ís
thc samc as nothíngncss, onc could hnd thc lamous Ïlatoníc pro·
posítíon ín Þrístotlc as vcll; cxccpt that - and thís, ín my vícv,
dcmonstratcs thc splcndour and orígínalíty oI Þrístotlc`s thought -
hc rcIuscd to takc thís stcp. Þnd ítís onc oI thc most proIound and
truly díalcctícal contradíctíons ín Þrístotlc`s phílosophy that vhílc
oo»oµ.,, thcmattcrolcognítíon, íssaíd to bcíndctcrmínatc, ítís not
on/y índctcrmínatc - that hc docs not adhcrc to thc thcsís ol thc
L1LÅ1V1 LÏ L1¯ :3
a|so/ute indctcrminatcncssoIthatvhich hasnotyctattaincdIorm.I
shall takc this opportunity to point out somcthing vhich may hclp
you to gain a somcvhat dccpcr undcrstanding oI philosophy than
vhat you rcad in thc tcxtbooks. it is that, in gcncral, onc docs not
undcrstand philosophy bycliminatingcontradictions, or bychalking
up contradictionsagainstauthors- thcrcis no signihcantphilosoph-
ical authorvho could not bcconvictcd oIthis orthatcontradiction.
Cnc undcrstands a philosophy by sccking its truthcontcnt prcciscly
at thc point vhcrc it bccomcs cntanglcd in so-callcd contradictions.
1his is truc in thc most cmphatic vay oI Þristotlc. Þs Iar as thc
scnsiblc in his vork isconccrncd, itis trcatcd as inIcrior but not as
non-cxistcnt.InthishchasplaccdhimsclIinvhatiscal|cdthcÏlatonic
tradition; and both philosophcrs contributc to thc lov valuation
ol cvcrything scnsiblc vhich latcr rcmaincd charactcristic ol idcal-
ism in thc vidcst scnsc. In his Iormulation, scnsiblc mattcr could
ÌÌ ÌÌb b
7 ¹ ¯ ¹ ¹ ¯
h
4
cqua yvc casnot c;ccc¿ pccc-o:c:co:-o:
µ
¸c:o:, csays.
¤hat hc rcally has against thc mcrcly cxistcnt, thcrclorc, is not so
muchits indctcrminatcncss as vhat in latcr philosophy vasrclcrrcd
to as its Iortuitousncss,its contingcncy. Þnd youvi||hcar latcr' that
thcnotionoIthclortuitousncssolmattcr- incontrasttothcrcgular-
ity oIlorm - indccd p|aycd a maj orrolcinÞristot|c undcr thc namc
ol-coú-epo-e:¦ Iromvhichour'automatic`isdcrivcd) , andthrough
thcuscolthc old mythologicaltcrm -ú¿¸,mcaningthatbistory, too,
vas assigncd this major rolc.
Nattcr - this proposition statcs - might bc or cqually vcll might
not bc. I should likc to point out in passing that this thcsis, vhich
actually is onc oI thc invariants occurring throughout mctaphysical
thinking,isbynomcansassclI·cvidcntasitpurportstobc.IIoncvcrc
to ask, atthc crudc, schoolroom lcvcl, vhcrc onc olthc maindillcr-
cnccs bctvccn thc mctaphysica| and thc anti-mctaphysica| traditions
lics, thc ansvcr vould probably bc that mctaphysics placcs cvcry-
thing in thc idca or inrcason or, subj cctivcly spcaking, inthc mind,
and thcrcIorc valucs scnsiblc mattcr, vhich is gcncticaÌly conncctcd
to ¡uo;, thc matcrial, lcss highly. I vould ask you to rcI|cct Ior a
momcnt vhcthcr this conccption is rcally as compclling as vc arc
gcncrallytold,andIvouldhcrcuscthcmcthodoIimmancntcriticism,
vhich mcans taking thc a priori idcal litcrally, and asking vhcthcr
thcrcarcnotalsoso-callcda prioricharactcristicsolcognitionvhich
arcbynomcansnon-scnsib|cinnaturc.Jhcphcnomcno|ogicalschoo|
vasthc hrst to point this out, in !usscrl, in thc doctrinc olvhat hc
ca||cdthccontingcntapriori,°andIarmorcstronglyinNaxbchclcr.
Þccordingtothisdoctrincthcrcarcalsodctcrminantsvhicharcvalid
a priori, that is
·
absolutcly and ncccssarily, but only on condition
B
ó+ 1LLÅ1VL 11 LÏÅ
that somc scnsíblc mattcr ís gívcn. Jhcrclorc, although thcy claím
absoIutc, a príorí vaIídíty, thcy dcpcnd on somcthíng líkc thc cxíst·
cncc oIthcscnsíbIc. LxamplcsoIthís arctakcnIromccrtaínarcasoI
physícs and optícs.` II ít ís saíd, lor cxamplc, that ín thc optícal
símílaríty scrícs víoIct lícs bctvccn rcd and bluc, thcn as long as
colourscnsatíonsoIthctypcsblucandrcd cxístítvíllbcímpossíblc,
nomattcrhovhardonc trícs, notto ímagínc that thc colour vc calI
víolct ís anythíng othcr than íntcrmcdíatc bctvccn thc tvo othcr
colours. ¤c arc ccrtaínly dcalíng hcrc, thcrcIorc, víth an a príorí
proposítíon, but ít ís onc vhích could hardly bc callcd ncccssary ín
thc stríct scnsc ínsístcd upon by ÞrístotIc- bccausc thc Iact that on
thc basis ol knovn ncrvc proccsscs vc scc somcthíng likc rcd and
bluc cannot ítscIl bc ínIcrrcd Irom purc thought, but ís a kínd oI
gívcn. I ollcr thís as thc símplcst possíbIc crítíquc ol thc asscrtíon
madc bythcmctaphysícal tradítíonthatthc a príorí ís aIvays purcly
mcntal,ínordcrto shovyouthatcvcnílthcsphcrcoIthc a príoríís
gívcn thc vcíght ít has ín thc ídcaIíst and ontoIogícaI tcndcncícs, ít
ccrtaínlydocsnotIolIovthat scnsíblcmatcríal and scnsíblcrclatíon-
shíps should bc cxcludcd ínthc vay that that tradítíon has asscrtcd
as sclI-cvídcnt síncc ÏIato.`
But I shouId Iíkc to go bcyond thís rclatívcIy símpIc ínsíght by
poíntíng out that thc absolutc scparatíon oI thc rcaIm ol thc
íntcllígíblc or ratíonal Irom that oI thc scnsíblc ítsclI contaíns a ccr-
taín short-síghtcdncss ín íts analysís ol vhat ís caIlcd thc mcntal
sphcrc. By thís I rclcr to thc sphcrc vhích ís gcncrally dcscríbcd as
thcmostabstractoIalI,thatoIso-callcdpurclogíc. ÞllpurclyÍogícal
proposítíons contaín thc conccpt ol a somcthíng, a substratc, hov-
cvcrconstítutcd, IorvhíchthcyarcvaIíd.¤íthoutthcsupposítíonoI
such a somcthíng, about vhích, Ior cxamplc nothíng contradíctory
may bc saíd - to cítc thc truc and uníquc ccntral proposítíon oI
tradítíonaIlogíc- víthoutthís substratc,hovcvcrabstractítmaybc,
no such thíng as Iormal logíc ís possíbIc.'¨But ít docs not rcquírc
grcat acuíty to díscovcr - and I vould cncouragc you to do thís Ior
yoursclvcs,asÌdonotvanttotakcthctímctodosohcrc- thatvíthín
thíssomcthíng,nomattcrhovpalc,subIímatcd,abstract,spírítualízcd
ít may bc, thcrc ís uItímatcly a rcIcrcncc to somc scnsíblc mattcr. It
ís doubtIcss ímpossíblc to Iulhl thís somcthíng ín any vay víthout
rccourscto thcscnsíblc,ílitístobcgívcnanymcaníngataIl- othcr-
vísc ít vould rcmaín pcrmancntly víthín thc tautoIogícal sphcrc ol
mínd. Þnd thc conccpt olsomcthíng no Iongcr has any conccívabIc
mcaníng ín thc thcory oI IogícaI lorms íl ít ís constantIy cxprcsscd
onIythroughlorms;ítcannolongcrbcgraspcdataII- aIthoughIogíc
rcmaíns dcpcndcnt on thís somcthíng. Ìl thc considcration I havc

11LÅ1V1 1 1 L1¯ óó
j ust índícatcd ¦ but not vorkcd out) íscorrcct, ít has cxtraordínaríly
vídc ímplícatíons Ior thc problcm víth vhích vc arc conccrncd at
prcscnt. Íor ít mcans that cvcn ín thc most abstract sphcrc, ín
vhích, íl anyvhcrc at all, thc purc conccpt oIthc a príorí opcratcs,
ít ís not possíblc to clímínatc thc scnsíblc ín thc manncr rcquírcd
by thc díchotomy vhích ís takcn lor grantcd by all mctaphysícs.
Ìt mcans that ín ordcr to attaín to thc most cxtrcmc a príorí pro-
posítíons conccívablc, thc most lormal proposítíons oI logíc, vc
alvays comc up agaínst scnsíblcmattcr ínthc prolongatíon olvhat
ísmcantbythcsomcthíng.¤íthoutanyscnsíblcmattcr,thcrcIorc,ítís
ímpossíblc to conccívc thc Iorms thcmsclvcs - vhích vould bc no
morcthanthcvorkíngoutolthcìdcathat,contrarytoÞrístotlcand
that tradítíon, vc can only conccívc thc so-callcd príncíplc ol Iorm,
or any kínd olcatcgoríal Iorm, as mcdíatcd through somc contcnt,
and not as somcthíng absolutcIy díIlcrcnt Irom ít. Íorm ís a|vays
thc lorm olsometbing, j ust as, íl you vcrc askcd quítc símply and
naívcly vhat a Iorm ís - and ít ís alvays uscIul to go back to thc
símplcstcascs oIlínguístíc usagc to claríIy suchmattcrs- you vould
probably say that lorm ís somcthíng by vhích matcríal ís Iormcd;
thísolívc-grccnarca ¦thcblackboard),lctus say, ís artículatcd bythc
lact that ít appcars to you as rcctangular. Itvould not occur to you
to spcak oI Iorm índcpcndcntly oI íts bcíng ncccssaríly thc Iorm oI
sometbing. But ín Iacc oI thís ídca cmbcddcd ín languagc and ín
ímmcdíatc conscíousncss mctaphysícs has rcmaíncd coy; ít has, as ít
vcrc, kcpt mum about thís momcnt oIthc ' Iorm olvhat: ` vhích ís
ímplícít not onlyín Iorm butín thc mcaníng oIthc conccpt oIlorm
ítscll. In Kantthc dístínctíonbctvccnthc non-scnsíblc, vhích íscon-
ccívcdpurclyíntcrmsoIconccpts,andthcscnsíblc,vhíchcanj ustas
vcllbcasnotbc, ístakcnovcrdírcctlyínhísdístínctíonbctvccnthc
rcal and thc possíblc.
1 1
Cnly that vhích ís conccívcd purcly ín tcrms oI conccpts, thc
thcsís runs, ís as ímmutablc as thc ídca. ¤hat Þrístotlc ovcrlooks
hcrc, and about vhíchvcshall havcmorcto say latcr, ís, hrst oIall,
quítc símply thc abstractívc qualíty oIconccpts. Jhat ís to say that,
ín ordcr to comc ínto bcíng at all, conccpts mustrcIcr to somcthíng
scnsíblc lromvhíchthcyarcabstractcd. Inbcíngabstractcdthccon-
ccpt rctaíns a multíplícíty oI Icaturcs common to scnsc data vhílc
cxcludíng thosc lcaturcs vhích arc not common to thc índívídual
obj ccts subsumcd undcr thc conccpt - ín thís casc mcntal objccts.
Jhísmomcntolabstractíon,thatthcconccptísítsclImcdíatcdbythc
scnsíblc, ísnot undcrstood byÞrístotlc- and hcrc, too, hc stands on
Ïlatonícground. IcfIcctíononthc actolthcsub|cctbyvhíchsucha
thíngasanídca orconccptcomcs ínto bcíngdocs nottakcplacc.Jo
B
Æ 
ó6 11LÅ1VL LÏ L1Å
bcsurc, boththínkcrsanalyschovthoughtclcvatcsítsclItoconccpts,
but hcrc thc conccpt ís prcsupposcd as thc ín-ítsclI, and dcspítc all
thc cpístcmologícal rcIlcctíons to bc Iound ín both thínkcrs, thcy
ovcrlook thc Iact that thc path thcy dcscríbc ís not cxtcrnal to thc
conccpt but ís a ncccssary momcnt oI that conccpt; ít ís ínhcrcnt ín
thatconccpt`smcaningandcannot, thcrcIorc, bcdísrcgardcdíncon-
sídcríngthcconccpt. Inothcrvords, íIÞrístotlctcachcsthcímmancncc
oI thc conccpt ín thc objcct, by vhích hc appcars to díssolvc thc
abstractncss oI thc conccpt ín rclatíon to vhat ít subsumcs, Ior hím
thísímmancnccoIthcconccptínthcobj cctísonto/ogica/, thatís,thc
conccpt ís in itse/[ ín thc objcct, víthoutrcIcrcncc to thc abstractíng
subjcct. Jruc, ít ís conncctcd to thc non-conccptual clcmcnt víthín
thc objcct ín a manncr vhích Þrístotlc hímsclI ncvcr clcarly clabor-
atcd; and I vould cvcn say that ít ís ínscparablc Irom that clcmcnt.
Butthcrcalnaturc oIthcrclatíonshíp bctvccnthcconccptandvhat
ít rcIcrs to ín thc concrctc objcctísncvcr vorkcd out. Jhc rcason ís
thatthcconccptísconccívcdassomcthíngcxístíngínítsclI,vhích,ín
ascnsc,mígratcsíntothcrcalobjcct,vhcrcítísamalgamatcdvíththc
scnsíblc matcríal . Jo charactcrízc oncc morc thc díIIcrcncc bctvccn
thcÞrístotclíanímmancnccoIthcconccptand a díalcctícalvícv, onc
míght pcrhaps usc a scícntíhc ímagc and say that ín Þrístotlc thc
rclatíonshíp oIconccptto concrctc thíngs ís that oI an amalgam and
notoIachcmícalcompound,ínvhíchthctvoapparcntlyantíthctícal
momcnts or clcmcnts arc so Iuscd that onc cannot cxíst víthout thc
othcr.
Jhc íntcrcst vhíchmotívatcd Þrístotlc ínarrívíng at thís íntcrprc-
tatíonvasrcallyan íntcrcst ín cbange. Þnd oncmíghtdísccrna vcry
Iundamcntal stcp ín thc dcvclopmcnt Irom Ïlato to Þrístotlc ín thc
Iact thatvhílcÞrístotlc, too, locatcdtruth ín thc ímmutablc, hcvas
ncvcrthclcss íntcrcstcd ínchangc, attcmptíngto grasp ínít a rclatíon
tothcunchangíng- vhcrcasínÏlatoanyíntcrcstínchangclayIarín
thc background. InÞrístotlc, thcrcIorc, asís almost alvays thc casc
víth advancíng cnlíghtcnmcnt and díIIcrcntíatíon, thought bccamc
íncomparably morcdynamícthanínÏlato.Þndítcannovbcsaíd-
íI I míght Ior a momcnt dcscríbc thc tra¡cctory oIÞrístotlc`s Meta-
µbysics Iromthísaspcct- thatÞrístotlc`svorkísanattcmpttobríng
togcthcr thc motíI oI Iorm víth that oIchangc, vhích hc no longcr
dcnícs but analyscs. Jo bc surc, Iorm ís stíll rcgardcd as thatvhích
cxísts ín ítsclI and ranks híghcr; ín thís Þrístotlc takcs thc cntírcly
tradítíonal vícv that Iorm, cccpyc:o, ís supcríor bccausc ítíslastíng,
unchangíngandpurcr. ItcouldalsobcsaídthatÞrístotlcattcmptsto
díscovcr hov thc ídca oIthc ctcrnallyímmutablc, asthc híghcr, ísto
bc synthcsízcd víththat oIthc mutablc, as that vhíchprcscnts ítsclI
1LLÅ1V1 L1 L1Å ó/
to us cmpírícally. Þnd hcrc Þrístotlc arrívcs at an cxtraordínaríly
ímportant and prolound ínsíght, that all changc prcsupposcs somc-
thíngunchangcablc,andallbccomíngsomcthíngthathasnotbccomc.
Ìt míght bcdoubtcd - and thís doubtís, íIyoulíkc, thcquíntcsscncc
ol Kant`s critique ol mctaphysícs - vhcthcr thc conclusíon dravn
Irom bccomíngto somcthíngvhíchhasnotbccomc,andIromchangc
to thc unchangíng, ís lcgítímatc. But hrst, bcIorc dcalíng víth that
qucstíon, ítshould bc notcd that thísconclusíoncontaínsthc ímplíc-
ítlydíalcctícalvícvthatthcnotíonolsomcthíngdynamíc, olchangc,
olbccomíng,ísímpossíblcvíthoutrclcrcncctosomcthínghxcd.Jhís
ís, Ì vould say ín passíng, onc oI Þrístotlc`s most magníhccnt dís-
covcrícs, to vhích vc arc hardly ablcto gívc íts duc vcíght bccausc
ít has bccomcso sclI-cvídcntto us that vc no longcr knovvhat an
cnormous cxcrtíonoIgcníus íts attaínmcntmusthavccost. Jhc ídca
thatthcrc canbcnomcdíatíonvíthoutthcímmcdíatc- though also,
oI coursc, no ímmcdíacy víthout mcdíatíon - and that thcrc ís no
movcmcnt vhích ís not thc movcmcnt oI somcthíng vhích, rclatívc
Io ít, has a momcnt oIhxíty, |atcr bccamc thcccntra| proposítíon oI
díalcctícalphílosophy, oroncoIítskcytcncts.Þndthísídca,thatvc
cannot ímagínc changc cxccpt ín rclatíon to somcthíng hxcd, vas
conccívcd, as Iar as Ì am avarc, byÞrístotlc- unlcss onc íntcrprcts
ccrtaín tcndcncícs ín Ïlato` s latc díalogucs ín thís scnsc, on vhích
poínt, gívcnthchíghlycontrovcrsíalcharactcroIthc|armenides día-
logucínpartícular,Ìvouldnotprcsumcto passj udgcmcntín lacc oI
thc conclusíons olconvcntíonal phílologísts.
Ì dídsay,hovcvcr, thatínÞrístotlcthcrcísa kínd olshort-círcuít
or Ialsc conclusíon at thís poínt. Ìt ís thc supposítíon that, bccausc
cvcrychangcnccdssomcthínghxcd,orallbccomíngsomcthíngvhích
has bccomc, thís hxcd thíng must bc absolutcly unchangcablc. Jhís
lalscassumptíon,vhíchísoncolthcmaínconccrnsínKant'scrítíquc
ín thc doctrínc olantínomícs,'¯ ísalvays takcn atIacc valuc, asonc
oI thc antíthcscs ol thc transccndcntal díalcctíc. Ì bclícvc you can
only undcrstand hov Þrístotlc arrívcd at thís curíous conclusíon íl
you bcarínmíndthatthcconccptoIthc injnite vas Iorcígnto antí-
quíty, and thatrcallymcansto ancícntmathcmatícs. Ì am avarcthat
thís statcmcnt, líkc all such statcmcnts, can bc mct víth countcr-
cxamplcs. Ì also knov that ín ancícnt mathcmatícs thcrc vcrc carly
Iormsolínhnítcsímalca|culus.ÞndínoncoIthcncxt|ccturcsvcshall
havc occasíonto notc'' that Þrístotlc somctímcs uscs thc conccpt ol
thc non-límítcd, vhích gocs back to thc óc:pecolÞnaxímandcr. '¯
Ocspítcthís,I bclícvcítíslcgítímatctomaíntaínthatthcpcrmcatíonol
thcvholc olconscíousncss by thcnotíon olínhníty, andthcdístínc-
tíonbctvccnthchnítc andthcinhnítc,asprcsupposcd bythcconccpt
Ø
W
ó8 11LÅ1V1 1 1 L1Å
oI transccndcncc in monothcistic rcligions and as buttrcsscd by thc
hcgcmony oI inhnitcsimal mathcmatics in thc modcrn natural sci-
cnccs- thatallthisvasalicntoantiquity. ÌIyouvillconccdcthisIor
a momcnt- and Ì think oncmayconccdc itvithoutdoingtoo much
violcnccto thctcxts- youvillrcadilyundcrstandthatprccisclysuch
dctcrminantsasthatoIanabsolutccausc,andallthccatcgoricsvhich
Ior us havc thccharactcr oIthctransccndcnt, thatis,vhichcanonly
bc positcd in inhnity, in accordancc vith our vholc cducation and
our habits oI thought - bccomc in his thought dctcrminants oI thc
hnitc, simplybccauscthcvorld ¦iIÌ mayputitlikcthis)ishnitc; and
bccauscinhnity, orthc idcathatthcvorld isabsolutclyunlimitcd, is
cntircly Iorcign to his thinking.
Þnd Ì vould say that thc Iact that ontology, by its naturc, posits
mcntalcatcgoricsasabsolutclyvalidisconncctcdviththisconstitutivc
charactcr oI hnitudc, sincc thcsc catcgorics arcthcmsclvcs conccivcd
vithinahnitcrcalm,vithinacloscdvorld- vhcrcasthcrcisnospacc
Iorthcminthcopcnvorld, blovnapartbythcconccptoIinhnity, in
vhichvchavclivcd,toanincrcasingdcgrcc,IoralmostIourhundrcd
ycars.Jothatcxtcntitmightbcsaidthatontology,asthcattcmptto
cncompasssomcthinginhnitcvithhnitcdctcrminants,itsclIhassomc-
thingarchaic aboutit; thatitissomcthingvhich, insomc scnsc, has
bccn lcIt bchind by thc dcvclopmcnt oI mind tovards thc prcscnt
conccpt oIthc inhnitc. !ovcvcr, iI onc vcrc to rcvicv and analysc
thchistoryoIphilosophyIromthispcrspcctivconcvouldcomcacross
countlcssarchaismsoIthiskind- a Iactvhich,paradoxicallycnough,
has bccnrcpcatcdly cmphasizcd by thc oppositc position, thc school
oI !cidcggcr, although thcrc it is sccn as somcthing positivc. ¤hat
mustbcnotcd,thcrcIorc,is,hrstly,thatonccanonlyspcakoIchangc
vith rcIcrcncc to somcthing hxcd; and, sccondly, that thc positivc
tcndcncyoImctaphysicsstcmsIrom thcIactthatinhnityvasalicnto
antiquity. Ior this rcason, rclationships or catcgorics vhich vc can
no longcr imaginc cxccpt in tcrms oI thc inhnitc, and thcrcIorc as
transccndcnt,vcrcturncdinantiquityintorclationshipsoIhnitudc. Ì
vould only add that thc svitch to thc conccpt oI inhnity in latcr
philosophyis,oIcoursc,conncctcdtothcincrcascdpromincnccgivcn
to thc knoving subj cctivity, thc spirit , Ceistì, sincc thc spirit vas
dchncd Irom thc hrst as somcthing inhnitc in itsclI- in contrast to
thc hnitudc oIthc divcrsity to vhich it isrclatcd. Iov this doctrinc
oIimmutability, viththcconncctcd notionthat allmutabilityhnally
gocs back to somcthing immutablc, has survivcd throughout thc
history oI mctaphysics, to thc point that it bccamc thc subj cct oI
Kant`sthird antinomy. 'Þndithasalsohadincalculablcconscqucnccs
Ior thcology, sincc Þristotclian thcology rcally has its ccntrc in this
11LÅ1V1 11 L1Å ó¬
doctrínc, ín thc Iorm olthc doctrínc olthc 'unmovcd movcr` olall
thíngs. ' °Jhc unmovcd movcr ís, lundamcntally, nothíng othcr than
purc Iorm cxístíng ín ítsclI, vhích, as ít vcrc, dravs cvcrythíng up
tovardsít.Þlthoughítscllímmobílc,ítíslíkca magnctoIpurc actu-
alíty, orpurccncrgy, pullíngup cvcrythíngvhíchísmcrclypotcntíal
tovards ít and, ín thís vay, rcalízíng ítsclIto an cvcr-íncrcasíng dc-
grcc. Jhat, rcally, ísthccorc oIÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics, íIthccorcís
dchncdasthcpoíntatvhíchhísmctaphysícspasscsovcríntothcology.
Jhc ccntral poínt oI any mctaphysícs ís probablyto bc Iound vhcrc
thctransítíonbctvccnmctaphysícsandthcologytakcsplacc.Þndít
takcs placc prccíscly ínthís rclatíonshíp oIthc ímmobílc to motíon,
to vhích ít ís mcdíatcd by thc Iact that ít dravs cvcrythíng vhích
mcrclycxíststo ítscll. Þnd, ína scnsc, motíon ís alrcadylatcntínthc
mcrcly cxístcnt, síncc thc lattcr, as potcntíalíty, has víthín ítscll thc
abílítyto movc tovards thc mostpcrIcct and híghcst ordcr ol bcíng.
Jhc ídca oIthcana/ogia en tis, thc analogy bctvccnthc crcaturc and
thc crcator,'` ís thus alrcady skctchcd out, ílyou líkc, ín thís thcory
olÞrístotlc.
Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics thcrclorc raíscs a Iurthcr qucstíon - thc
qucstíonolvhatthcunchangíng, orthatvhíchhasnotbccomc ¦das
Ungeuordeneì, actuallyís.Þndthísgívcsrísctotvocatcgorícsvhích
havc had a dccísívc ínIlucncc on thc subscqucnt hístory oI vcstcrn
mctaphysícs,thcconccptsolsu|stance andaccidence. Jhcsctvocon-
ccpts víll bc cxamíncd ínthc ncxt lccturc.
J
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Í¡LÃ\H¡ PÍP¡
21 ]unc I º65
¤c nov havc to consídcr thc qucstíon oIvhat thc unchangíng, or
thatvhíchhasnotbccomc, das Ungeuordeneì , vhíchmíghtbccallcd
thc ontologícaIrcsíducínÞrístotIc` sontology, actually ís. In scckíng
anansvcrvccomcacrosstvodctcrmínantsvhíchcannotbcrcsolvcd
ínto cach othcr, andvhích arcthus thc sourcc olthc dualísm vhích
has cxcrtcd a crucíal ínIlucncc on thc vhoIc hístory oI vcstcrn
phíIosophy. Cnthconchandvc havc thcsubstratc, vhíchíssubj cct
to changc, and on thc othcr thc propcrtícs, changc consísts ín thc
communícatíonoIpropcrtícstothcsubstratc. Butthcpropcrtícs- to
makcyouavarcoIthísstraíghtavay- arcnotrcgardcdassomcthíng
transícnt and sccondary, but as constant, unchangíng, somcthíng
vhích has not bccomc. Þnd índccd, ít ís on thcsc propcrtícs that
Þrístotclían phíIosophy pIaccd thc grcatcst cmphasís throughout íts
dcvclopmcnt, and to vhích ítattachcdthc gravcstímportancc. Jhat,
thcn,ísthcorígínoIthcdualísmvhíchhasbccnprcdomínantthrough-
outthcvcstcrntradítíon,vhíchvashrstcxprcsscdthroughthccon-
ccpts ol thc substantíal and thc accídcntal, thcn bccamc ccntral to
mcdícvalphíIosophy,íncludíngítstcrmínoIogy,andlromthcrcpasscd
ovcríntothcratíonalístphíIosophyoIOcscartcs,bpínozaandLcíbníz.
¤c novknovthatthcscphíIosophcrsrcprcscnttvo thíngs. boththc
nomínaIístprotcstagaínstscholastícísm, and a dírcctcontínuatíon oI
thcÞrístotcIían-scholastícproblcmatíc. buchísthccomplcxítyolthc
hístoryolphílosophy,vhíchcscapcsanysímplclormula. ¤hatIj ust
nov caIIcd thc substratc, and vhích I ask you to distinguísh lrom
substancc - plcasc lorgívc thc pcdantry, but not lor nothing arc vc
11LÅ1V1 Ï1 Ï1 6I
ncaríngthc rcalmoIschoIastícísm, vhcrc ítís ímpossíblc to managc
víthouta ccrtaín mcasurcoIsubtIctyínthcdchnítíon oItcrms- thc
substratc,thcn,ísvhatÞrístotIccalIs'mattcr`or'stuII`.ínGrcckoò¸,
translatcdínto Latínasmateria. Jhc tcrmvastakcnup agaínbythc
phcnomcnologícalschooltodcsígnatcthcmatcríalclcmcnt,írrcducíbIc
tomcaníngoríntcntíon,ínthcIactsoIconscíousncss,andísprobably
Iamílíarto you Irom thcrc. ButínÞrístotIcíthasnotthís subjcctívc,
cpístcmologícalmcaníngbutathoroughlyobj cctívc, ontologícalonc.
!crc you must dístínguísh tcrmínologícally - to rcítcratc thc poínt
ínordcr to clímínatc anyconIusíon- bctvccn oò¸ and eúc/o. Oúc/o
mcans truc bcíng and rcIcrs, on thc onc hand, to thc dctcrmínatc,
índívídual thíng and, onthc othcr, to µo,ç¸, Iorm, or c/òe;,csscncc
ínthcÏlatonícscnsc- vhcrcasoò¸, assomcthíngunívcrsalandíndc-
tcrmínatc, rcprcscnts ncíthcr thís spccíhc thíng hcrc, -óòc-:,nor, on
thcothcrhand,thcgcncral,ídca-líkcquaIítyoIthcIormorthcµo,ç¸.
Iov thc propcrtícs vhích thís oò¸ takcs on arc callcd cíthcr c/òe;,
líkcthcÏlatonícÌdcas,or¦ÌbclícvcÌtoIdyouthísínoncoIthclccturcs
bcIorcthc¤hítsunvacatíon)µo,ç¸, mcaníngmuchthcsamcas'Iorm`
¦ Cesta/tì . Ì don`t attach ímportancc to thís tcrmínology Ior íts ovn
sakc, but bccausc, víthout ít, Ì cannot cxplaín a crucíal tvíst ín
Þrístotlc`sthought- vhích,Ìvouldsay,ísthcmostspccíhcallyÞrís-
totcIían Icaturc oI hís cntírc phílosophy. Ior hím, thc substantíal ís
prccísclynotvhatÌhavcj ustcallcd thc substratc,ítísnotmattcr;on
thccontrary, mattcr and substancc arc dístínguíshcd ínhísvork- íI
Ìmíghtcxprcssítínmodcrntcrms.IorÞrístotlcthcsubstantíalíspurc
Iorm, cxactlyas thcÌdcaís substantíalínÏIato,vhílcthcvholchylíc
lcvcl,mattcrínthcscnscoIthatvhíchísgívcnonlyínscnsíblctcrms,ís
thc non-cxístcnt, µ¸ ôc. Þnd thís pcculíar tvíst, by vhích substancc
ís cquatcd víth Iorm rathcr than mattcr ín Þrístotlc, comcs about
bccauscthcsubstratc,oò¸,ormattcr,ísstríppcdoIalldctcrmínatcncss,
so that ít bccomcs somcthíng cntírcly cmpty, and comcs cxtraordín-
arílycIoscto thcnon-cxístcntínÏlato.JhísrcsultsIroma proccssoI
rcductíon through abstractíon, although thís abstractíon ís not sub-
j cctcdto anyspccíhccrítícalrcIlcctíonínÞrístotlc`sobj cctívclyorícn-
tatcdphíIosophy.Jhísínturngívcsrísctoaparadox,anídcarunníng
countcr to all popular notíons, vhích has domínatcd thc vholc oI
mctaphysícal conscíousncss tothc poíntvhcrc íthas bccomc a kínd
oIsccond naturc to thought. ÌtísthcídcathatIorm, vhíchmíghtbc
thought to bc cphcmcraI and unrcaI, somcthíng mcrcIy conccptual
and palc, ín contrast to thc rcal and tangíblc soIídíty oI mattcr, ís
madc ínto thc truc rcalíty, ín contrast to vhích - at lcast to bcgín
víth- thc othcr, hylíc stratum, mattcr asthc substratc oIcognítíon,
ís rcduccd to somcthing ínthc stríct scnsc unrcal, mcrc potcntíalíty.
B
6Z 1ÏLÅ1VÏ Ï1 ÏÏ
You can alrcady hnd hcrc - to drav your attcntíon to vhat Ì
rcgard as a crucíal conncctíon ín thc hístory oI phílosophy - thc
príncíplc oI idea/ism, byvhích thc mcntaI appcars as thc truly rcal,
vhílcthatvhích ísgívcn bythc scnscs, thc scnsíblc obj cct oIcxpcrí-
cncc, ís sccn as lcss rcal, a mcrc Iunctíon. Jhc ramíhcatíons oIthís
príncípIc arc stíII sccn ín thcposítívístconccptíonsoI!umcorLrnst
Nach. Jo thís cxtcnt, thcrcIorc, Þrístotclían phílosophy ís ídcaIístíc,
ínthcprccísc scnsc Ì havc j ust dchncd. that a híghcr ordcr oIrcalíty
ísattríbutcdtoIormsthanto thcírcontcnt. Butthísísa vcrypcculíar
kínd oIídcalísm, ínthatítís rcally anobj cctívc ídcaIísm, anídcalísm
conccívcd onlyvíth rcgard to thc objccts oIknovlcdgc, butnot, or
not csscntíally, víth rcIcrcncc to thc thínkíng subj cct. !ovcvcr, bc-
causcthcIorms,orc/ ¡,tovhíchahíghcrordcroIrcaIítyísascríbcd,
arc thc Iorms or propcrtícs oI somcthíng, thcy arc not, as ín Ïlato,
símply bcíng-ín-ítsclI, butarc alvays mcdíatcd bythato[ ubicb thcy
arc thc Iorms. Þ círcumstancc vhích I poíntcd outto you ín onc oI
thc last Iccturcs has thcrcIorc madc ítscII Iclt ín Þrístotlc`s thought.
thatvccannotspcakoIaIormvíthoutsayíng.thcIormo[ somcthíng.
¤cdo notspcak oIIorm assuch, butoIthc Iorm oIa paíntíng, oIa
pícccoImusíc, or, to uscthísIríghtIulcxamplconccmorc,' thc Iorm
oIthís blackboard. Þtthíspoínt, thcrcIorc, Þrístotlc`srcIlcctíons arc
cxtraordínaríIy compIícatcd. Cnthc onc hand, thc Ïlatoníc doctrínc
that Idcas or Iorms havc bcíng ín thcmscIvcs ís maíntaíncd, ín thc
scnscthatrcaIíty- oratanyratc,híghcrrcalíty- ísattríbutcdonlyto
thcm;but,onthcothcrhand,thísrcaIítyísnotsusccptíblctothought,
or onIyvíthínthatínvhíchítísrcaIízcd.JhísmakcsthcqucstíonoI
thc rcalízatíon oI Iorm thc ccntral problcm. Ior vhílc Iorm ís rc-
gardcd as thc híghcr rcaIíty and that vhích has truc bcíng-ín-ítsclI,
ncvcrthclcss, ít has thís bcíng only uitbin mattcr. Jhus, thc truly
IundamcntaIproblcmoIÞrístotlc`sphílosophybccomcsthc qucstíon
oI thc rcalízatíon oI Iorm. Þnd thís qucstíon ís, at thc samc tímc,
noncothcrthanthcqucstíonaboutchangc, vhíchrclatcsbothto thc
cIIcct oIIormonmattcr and to mattcr ítsclI, and hnally, to thc rcla-
tíonbctvccnthctvo.Þrístotlc`sposítíononthíspoíntísancxtrcmcly
advanccd onc, ín that hc not only rccognízcs thcsc tvo poIcs oIbc-
íng, as vc míght call thcm, but also subj ccts thcír rclatíonshíp to
analysís, and ín that hís phílosophy, as a thcory oIínvaríants, nov
has íts poínt oIattack ín prccíscly thís rclatíonshíp bctvccn íts tvo
opposítc polcs.
Jhroughthístvíst,Þrístotlc`scrítíqucoIÏlato`sphíIosophy,vhích
Ì díscusscd hrst, ís takcn ovcr ínto hís attcmpt to rcscuc ít, vhích I
díscusscd ncxt. Ìn accordanccvíthvhatÌ havcj ust saíd- that vhìlc
Iormísthchíghcrcatcgory,mattcrcannotbcconccívcdvithoutIorm
11LÅ1V1 Ï1 Ï1 6J
or Iormvíthout mattcr - thc goal, or -ce,,oIbccomíng orchangc
ís that mattcr should takc on Iorm. Jhís conccpt oI -còe,, or hnal
purposc, has bccomc pcrhaps thc most Icrtílc oIall Þrístotlc`s con-
ccpts Ior phílosophy, síncc ít ísthc orígín oIthc dístínctíon bctvccn
causcand purposc. Ïurposc ísdchncd Ior thc hrsttímc asthc híghcr
catcgory, vhích dravsthclovcrtovardsít- íncontrastto causc,or
causcs, vhích arc saíd to bc cIIcctívc only ín thc lovcr rcalm, thc
rcalm oI mattcr. Jhc vholc problcmatíc oI thc rclatíon oI causc to
purposc, vhích ís, oIcoursc, thc thcmc oIKant`s thírd crítíquc, thc
Critique o[ ]udgement, and thc cntírc subjcct mattcr oItclcology -
vhcthcrvcshouldthínkoIancntíty ína causal-mcchanícalvay, or
Iromthc standpoíntoIthattouards ubicb íttcnds, ítshíghcrdcstíny
- thcrcIorchasítsorígínínthísbasícÞrístotclíandoctrínc,vhíchcan
rcallybccallcdthccorcoIthcMetaµbysics. IromítÞrístotlcdcrívcs,
as thc crux oIhís Metaµbysics at thc ccntrc oIvhích vchnd our-
sclvcs nov- a thcory vhích runs cxactlycountcr to naívc íntuítíon.
ÌIvclcavc asídc spcculatíons líkc thosc oI!craclítus or thc ílcatícs,
thísísthc hrsttímcthatphílosophyhasplaccdítsclIíndírcctopposí-
tíon to so-callcd natural common scnsc. Jhís ís cspccíally out oI
kccpíng víth a scícntíhcally conccívcd phílosophy líkc Þrístotlc`s,
vhích othcrvísc gívcs so much scopc to common scnsc. Jhís thcory
statcsthatIormísthctrucrcalíty; tocxprcssítÞrístotlc uscsspccíhc
tcrms vhích havc bccomc Iamous, such as cccpycæ or cc-ca_c:o,
and also -c cccpyc:ç ô:, mcaníng that vhích must comc ínto bcíng
through cncrgy, through Iorm. Ior hím, thcrcIorc, rcalíty ís actually
cncrgy; ítísrcalítyonlyínsoIar asítísIormcd rcalíty- andítísnot
thc matcríal oI that rcalíty. Nattcr, by contrast, ís dchncd as mcrc
possíbílíty or potcntíalíty, bccausc ít must alvays havc víthín ít thc
possíbílíty oIattaíníng such rcalíty, oI attaíníng íts Iorm, íts jep,¸.
Nattcr ís thcrcIorc callcd òú:oj:,,vhích ís vcry pcculíar, síncc, Iol-
lovíngthcGrcckmcaníngoIthcvord,vcassocíatcòú:oj:,víththc
conccptoIIorcc. Buthcrc òocoj:,mcansthcsamcaspossíbílíty,ítís,
thcrcIorc,prccísclynotthcstatícandunchangíngcntítythatvcmíght
assocíatcvíth thc conccptoImattcr, butís, asthcvord índícatcs, a
dynamíc príncíplc. II I míght gívc you a cross-rcIcrcncc to thc latcr
hístoryoIphílosophy,thísdoctríncoIÞrístotlc`sísaspcculatíonvhích
rcappcarcd at thc hcíght oI Gcrman ídcalísm, ín bchcllíng, vhcrc
mattcr ís líkcvísc conccívcd, ín an obj cctívc díalcctíc, as a príncíplc
vhích has thc ínhcrcnt tcndcncy to movc tovards a híghcr Iorm -
cxccpt that ín bchcllíng thís comcs aboutín thc líght oIa subj cctívc
rcIlcctíon vhich has alrcady takcn placc.´ Jhat ís to say that ín
bchcllíngthc spirit oImattcr ísalrcadysccn as thc absolutc subjcct-
a rcIlcctíon vhich
·
olcoursc
·
cannot bc prcscnt ínÞrístotlc.
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Æ 
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6+ LLLÅ1VL Ï1 ÏL
I rcpcat, thcrcIorc. Iorm ís rcalíty, cccpyco, vhílc mattcr ís
mcrc possíbílíty, òo:o¡:,. Ìt could thcrcIorc bc saíd that Þrístotlc` s
mctaphysícs ís an ídcalísm vhích has not yct rcIlcctcd on ítsclI, an
obj cctívcídcalísm.!ovcvcr,thcmcdíatíonoIIormandmattcrvhích
Iollovs Irom thís conccpt oI rcalíty ís not rcalÌy carrícd through by
Þrístotlc. I havc alrcady statcd thís ín príncíplc but vould líkc to
rccapítulatcítatthíspoínt.Þlthoughthctvotcrms, 'Iorm` and'mat-
tcr`, arc rclatcd to cach othcr, thís ís donc only cxtcrnally, through
thccapacítyoImattcrto bccomcsomcthíngothcrthanítís;thatís to
say,ítísnotítsclIalvaysalsoIorm,ítísnotmcdíatcdvíthínítsclIby
Iorm. Þs a rcsult, dcspítc thc antí-Ïlatoníc tvíst, Iorm bccomcs oncc
agaínsomcthíng cxístíngínítsclI, vhcrcas, accordíngto a consístcnt
thcory oImcdíatíon, ít vould bc dcpcndcnt on mattcr. ¤c arc prc-
scntcd víth thc paradox that although Iorm, accordíng to íts ovn
conccpt, can only bc thc Iorm oIsomcthíng, ít nov bccomcs, as thc
logícal conclusíon oI Þrístotlc`s thought, absolutc rcalíty. Þnd, as a
rcsult oI thc samc unmcdíatcd dogmatísm, possíbílíty bccomcs an
cqually paradoxícal conccpt. Ïurc possíbílíty ís, oIcoursc, a Iormal
dctcrmínant ín vhích thought and catcgorízatíon arc ímplícít. Ìn
Þrístotlc`s phílosophy ít ís only conIcrrcd on mattcr, óòj, through
Iorm. YctthcIactthatsomcthíngcontaínsthcpossíbílítyoIbccomíng
somcthíng clscísnov attríbutcd to ít asíIítvcrc a propcrty |e[ore
alldctcrmínatíon,rcsídíngínmattcr assuch. Jhísattríbutíonhasthc
mostIar-rcachíngconscqucnccsIor thcIormulatíonoIthcconccptoI
mattcr ín Þrístotlc - ín partícular thc conscqucncc Ì havc alrcady
mcntíoncd. that as Þrístotlc`sphílosophy ísclaboratcd mattcr ccascs
to bcthcíndctcrmínatc, cmptycntítyvhích ítínítíally appcars to bc
accordíng to thc logíc oI thís phílosophy, and bccomcs, ít must bc
saíd, thc vcry thíng Irom vhích hc had so assíduously dístínguíshcd
ít, a kínd oIsubstancc.
Iov, I havc mcntíoncd thcsc crítícal mísgívíngs bccausc a phílo-
sophy cannot bc undcrstood víthout thínkíng ít through crítícally.
Jo scck to undcrstand somcthíng ínphílosophy víthout atthc samc
tímccrítícízíngítís,ínmyvícv,anímpossíblcproccdurc;andÌsuspcct
thatvhcncvcra dístínctíonísmadcbctvccnundcrstandíngandcrítí-
císm thcrc ís somc kínd oI authorítarían dcmand bchínd ít. Iírst
makc surc you havc undcrstood, and by thcn you víll bc ríd oI alÌ
your crítícalquíbblcs. Jhat ís such Iolly, Ì thínk, bccausc phílosoph-
ícal proposítíons arc alvays put Iorvard víth a claím to truth, and
canonlybcundcrstoodbyrcconstructíngthísclaímtotruth. Butthat
can only bc donc byíncludíng ín thc analysísvhat Ì havcj ustcallcd
crítícísm, by qucstíoníng thcír truth. Jhc ídca that onc could undcr-
stand any phílosophícal ídca uitbout críticísm, víthout qucstíoníng
11LÅ1VL Ï1 Ï1 6ó
íts truth, I rcgard asmcthodoIogícally quítc untcnablc. Jhat ís vhy,
ín cxpoundíng Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics Ior you, Ì alvays prcscnt íts
salícntpoínts, and thus thc csscntíal problcms arísíng Irom ít, ínthc
Iorm oI a crítíquc. Iov thc crítíquc Ì havc j ustsummarízcd Ior you
ís nogrcatIcat Ior a conscíousncssvcrscdíncpístcmologyandlogíc.
YctÌshould líkcto saythatatthcvcry poíntvhcrc Þrístotlc`svork
provokcs, íIyou líkc, our strongcst dísscnt, ít ncvcrthclcss contaíns
ancxtraordínaryamountoItruth. Þnd,havíngmadc no sccrctoIthc
crítícísm, I vould say that ít ís morc ímportant that you should bc
avarcoIthístruththanthatyoushouldvrítcdovnatthíspoíntthat
Þrístotlc has pcrpctratcd thís or that crror, vhích vc, havíng madc
suchvondcrIulprogrcss sínccthcn,canmarkdovnagaínsthímand
thcrcby dísposc oI thc mattcr. Jhc hístory oI phílosophy ís not so
símplc. Ìt ís, on thc contrary, rcmarkably compIcx, ín thc scnsc that
vhílcítmovcsthroughthcmcdíumoIcrítícísm, andvhílcIalscídcas
arcccrtaínlyrcIutcd bycrítícísm, thísrcIutatíonalmostncvcr hasthc
cIIcct oI dísposíng oIthcm cntírcIy. Kathcr, phílosophícal qucstíons
arc alvays a bít líkc thosc sclI-ríghtíng toys, sccmíng to bc knockcd
ovcrbutrcappcaríngínchangcdhístorícal-phílosophícalconstcIlatíons,
dcmandíng anansvcr. Þnd Ì bclícvc that anyonc vho vants to un-
dcrstandvhatphílosophysígníhcs as hístory, ashístoryoIthcmínd,
shouldbcavarcoIthíscuríousambíguíty.onthconchand,thccrítícal
attítudc tovards phíIosophy, and bctvccn phílosophícs, and on thc
othcr thc IundamcntaIly opcn charactcr oI phílosophícal qucstíons,
vhíchcannotbcdchnítívclydísposcdoIbysuchcrítícísm. Cncnccds
to bc avarc oIthís íIonc ís not to succumb, on thc onc hand, to a
naívcratíonalísmvíthrcgardto thchístoryoIphíIosophy,or,onthc
othcr, to ancquaIly naívc bcIícIín an 'ctcrnal convcrsatíon oIphílo-
sophícalmínds`carrícdondovnthc míllcnnía,vhíchhasnothíngto
do víthhístory. Icíthcrvícvíscorrcct, and boththcsccxtrcmcsarc
íntcrmínglcd ín thc hístory oI phílosophy ín a vay vhích ís vcry
díIhcult, and pcrhaps ímpossíblc, to dchnc ín abstract tcrms.
Comíng nov to thc truth contcnt oIthís doctrínc oIÞrístotlc`s, Ì
vould líkc to poínt out that ín Kant, vhcrc possíbílíty ís placcd
squarcly on thc sídc oI Iorm,' somcthíng saíd by ÞrístotIc ís mís-
undcrstood, asítísínthcvholcoIcpístcmoIogy, andonlyrcappcars
ín !cgcl`s díaIcctíc. It míght índccd bc no bad vay to prcscnt thc
!cgclíandíalcctícíIoncvcrctosccítasarcncvaloIthccontrovcrsy
bctvccn Kant and Þrístotlc on a híghcr IcvcI - a vícv, íncídcntally,
vhích hnds plcntíIul support ín!cgcl`sovn History o[ |bi/osoµby.
IorÞrístotlc`sdchnitíonoImattcraspotcntíaIítycontaínssomcthíng
vhích can pcrhaps bc sccn as thc rcal Ioundatíon, or, ín mcdicval
languagc, thc funJamentum in re, oI cvcry synthcsís. Ìt ís thc ídca
B
66 LLLÅ1V1 Ï1 ÏL
that cvcry Iorm dcpcnds on íts matcríaI as much as thc matcríaI
dcpcnds on thc Iorm - vhcrcas vc, ínIIucnccd by thc Copcrnícan
rcvoIutíonbroughtaboutbyKantandthccnsuíngdcvcIopmcnt,havc
aII bccn traíncd to scc mattcr as condítíoncd, so to spcak, by Iorm,
and to bcIícvc that spírít Iays dovn thc Iavs IoIIovcd by naturc, as
KantputítínhísIamousIormuIatíonoIthísínvcrsíon.'Þccordíngto
thísdoctríncoIÞrístotIc`s,thcrcísnocatcgoríaI Iormto vhíchthcrc
ís not a corrcspondíngmomcnt ín mattcrvhíchcaIIs Ior ít. ÞrístotIc
kncv - and Ì do not thínk thís can bc cmphasízcd cnough - that
so-caIIcd synthcscs, thatís,thc bríngíngtogcthcr oIIactsínconccpts,
| udgcmcntsandconcIusíons,arcnotmcrcad| uncts,orpurcopcratíons
oIthcsub| cctoIcognítíon, butarc onIypossíbIcíIthcrcíssomcthíng
corrcspondíng to thcm ín that to vhích thcy arc appIícd, that ís, ín
mattcr. II¦ to gívc ancxampIcvhíchdocsnot occur ínÞrístotIc) you
| udgc that + ¬ J ¬ /, thís contaíns not onIy thc synthctíc Iunctíon
oIthc conscíousncss vhích bríngs thcsc momcnts togcthcr, but aIso
a rcaI, IactuaI basís on vhích thís kínd oI synthcsís can bc madc.
ÞdmíttcdIy, ít docs so ín a manncr vhích ímpIícs that víthout thc
synthctíc| udgcmcntvhích bríngs J and+ togcthcr, vc shouId knov
nothíngoIthatIactuaI basís, sothatthc synthcsís ísa ncccssarypart
oIít.Cnthcothcrhand,hovcvcr,thíssynthcsísvouIdnotbcpossíbIc,
and thc statcmcnt J ¬ + ¬ / vouId bc IaIsc, íI a IactuaI momcnt,
vhích admíttcdIy ís ínscparabIc Iromthc synthcsís,vcrc notaIrcady
contaíncd ínthc matcríaI bcíng | udgcd.
Jhat ís not cxprcsscd by ÞrístotIc ín thc cpístcmoIogícaI Iorm I
havc choscn Ior ít hcrc, but ít docs appcar ín hís vork ín thc Iorm
oIa doctrínc oIsubstancc. Jhís statcs that tvo csscnccs, vhích arc
posítcdabsoIutcIyaspríncípIcs,thccsscnccoò¸andthccsscnccµep,¸,
mustaIvays comc togcthcr ín ordcr that such a thíng as rcaIíty can
cxíst. Buthcvas thc hrst to sccthat, ínthís íntcrrcIatcdncss, Iorm-
dcspítcítsscII-suIhcícncy,vhíchhccmphasízcd| ustasmuchasÏIato
- canonIy bcthc IormoIa rcaIíty íIthcrc íssomcthíng corrcspond-
íngtoítínrcaIítyítscII.ÞndthatísÞrístotIc`soutstandíngdiscovcry,
vhích Ì consídcr morc ímportant than thc hypostasís oI thc tvo
mcrcIy addítívcIy conncctcd catcgorícs, oò¸ and jep,¸, vhích hc
uscdto íIIustratcthíspoínt.Iov,to takcthísIurthcr.mattcrvíthout
any Iorm, purc mattcr - íIonc míght put ít Iíkc that - ís caIIcd by
ÞrístotIc hrst mattcr, ~pe-¸ oò¸,`and thís ts thc poínt vhcrc thc
conccpt oI ó-c:pe:, thc unboundcd, appcars ín hís vork. But thís
ó-c:pe:docsnotrcIcrto anythíngthatvcmightrcmotcIycquatcvíth
thcmodcrnconccptoIínhníty, butmcanssímpIythatanydctcrmína-
tíonoIanob|cctísa -c:pop,a boundíngoIthatob| cct, vhcrcaspurc
óò¸,or -pe-¸ óò¸,vhích ísabsoIutcIyvíthout anysuchrcstríctíon,
v 4 
11LÅ1VL Ï1 ÏL 6/
has no boundary, síncc ít ís absolutcly índctcrmínatc." !ovcvcr -
and thísíscrucíal - thíshavíng-no-boundaryísnotíntcrprctcd ínhís
thought, as ít ís ín thc vhoIc oI modcrn phílosophy, as somcthíng
transccndcnt, goíng bcyond thc possíbílíty oIcontíngcnt cxpcrícncc,
ín kccpíng víth thc modcrn íntcrprctatíon oI ínhníty. íxactIy thc
opposítc ís thc casc ín Þrístotlc, Ior vhom -pe-¸ óò¸, bccausc ít
lacksboundíng,íssomcthíngímpovcríshcdvhíchnccdsítsIorm. Ior
Grcck thought, thcrcIorc, thc ínhnítc, íIsuch anídca ísconccívcd at
aIl,ísamcrcscandal,somcthíngrcpugnantvhíchstíIllacksítsdcstíny,
íts Iorm. CsvaId bpcngIcr notcd ín thís contcxt that Ior antíquíty,
víthítsplastícmodcoIcxpcrícncc,rcalítylayínthcboundíngoIthc
ínhnítc by Iorm and not ín ínhníty as such. Ocspítc thc barragc oI
crítícísm unlcashcd on bpcngIcr Ior such rcmarks,´ vhat hc says on
thís ccntraI poíntoIÞrístotlc`sphílosophysccms to mc bynomcans
as pcrvcrsc as pcoplc arc apt to ínsíst ín 'polítc socícty`. Cnc míght
ask,oIcoursc,vhcthcrthísconccptoImattcr,oIabsolutcIyunIormcd
-pe-¸óò¸,ísnotítscII, asaconccpt,aIorm;IorbyspcakíngoImattcr
asandp_¸,apríncípIc,IhavcalrcadyabstractcdIrom thcímmcdíacy
oImattcr ítsclIand rcduccd ítto ítsmostgcncralconccpt- so thatíI
ÞrístotIc spcaks, as I havc j ust donc, oIpurc mattcr, oI-pe-¸ óò¸
vhích has absolutcly no Iorm, hc ís actualIy contradíctíng hímscII,
síncc spccch about ít ís ítsclI somcthíng Iormcd. ¤híIc I shalI not
kccp thís crítícísm to mysclI, I vould agaín poínt out that, víth
ímportant thínkcrs, thc rcal problcms arc Iocatcd vhcrc thcy makc
so-callcdcrrors,andthatnothíngísmorcIoolíshthanto dísmíssthcm
by poíntíng outthosccrrors, as Ì havcj ustdonc.Ior onc mustbcon
onc`sguardagaínstthcídcalístmísconccptíon- cspccíallythrcatcníng
atthíspoínt- that bccauscvccannotspcakaboutanythíng, or havc
anythíng,vhíchísnot mcdíatcd byIorm, Iorm mustthcrcIorc bcthc
only thíng vhích is.
!avíng touchcd on thcsc mattcrs, I should Iíkc to say somcthíng
abouta vcry basíc qucstíon oImctaphysícs vhích, I rcalízc, gocs Iar
bcyond thc scopc oIa hístorícal íntroductíon to Þrístotlc, but con-
ccrns a statc oI aIIaírs vhích onc nccds to bc avarc oIíI onc ís to
occupy oncscIIuscIully víth mctaphysícal qucstíons today. Jhc Iact
that, j ustby talkíng aboutmattcr, onccndovs thís mattcr víth Iorm
- thatís, conccptualIorm- shouIdnotbcconIuscdvíththcmcaníng
oIthísIormítsclI.JhcpcculíarítyoIthcconccptoIóò¸,ormattcr, ís
thatvcarchcrcusínga conccptor spcakíngoIa príncíplcvhích, by
ítsmcaníng,rcIcrstosomcthíngvhíchísnota conccptorapríncípIc.
¤c only corrcctly undcrstand vhat a conccpt such as óò¸ mcans
íI vc rcalízc that its conccptual mcaníng rcIcrs to somcthíng non-
conccptual. Jhc paradox Iacing us hcrc ís rcmovcd íI vc do not
B

68 1LLÅ1VL Ï1 ÏL
allov oursclvcs to Ictíshízc thc languagc or conccptual systcm vc
usc. Ìt ís truc that vc can only spcak ín a vay vhích ís mcdíatcd
through languagc, but Ior that rcason languagc ítsclI, as onc phc-
nomcnon among othcrs, bccomcs a part oI rcalíty as a vholc, a
momcntoIrcalíty, and should not bc hypostatízcd ovcr agaínstít. It
ísínthcnaturc oIlanguagcthatvccanspcakoIanabsolutclyIorm-
lcssmattcr, cvcn thoughsµeaking oIIormlcss mattcr ís ítsclIa Iorm.
ItísasíIvcvcrcínthcprísonoIlanguagcbutvcrcablctorccognízc
ít as a príson. I havc sct out thís díalcctíc Ior you bccausc Ì bclícvc
thatphílosophízíngbcgínsatcxactlythcpoíntÌhavcj ustshovnyou,
vhcrconcrcIuscsto bcIobbcdoIIvíthcurtpronounccmcntssuchas
that mattcr asa 'prímaryconccpt` or 'hrst príncíplc` ísítsclIa Iorm,
so that thc conccpt oI Iormlcss mattcr ís mcanínglcss; onc actually
starts thínkíng at such poínts and rcIlccts Iurthcr on thcm. Þnd íII
had to charactcrízc thc díIIcrcncc bctvccn thc kínd oI thínkíng Ì
advocatc and posítívíst thínkíng, I vould say that non-posítívíst
thínkíng ís prccíscly thatvhích ísnotcontcntvíth thc rígíd logíc oI
cxclusívíty - thc logíc oI cíthcr-or. cíthcr mcdíatcd or ímmcdíatc,
cíthcrconccptorpurcnon-conccptualíty- butanalyscsphcnomcnaín
such a vay that sccmíngly sclI-cvídcnt statcmcnts líkc thc onc I j ust
mcntíoncd grov morc and morc shaky. ¤hat sccms to mc to bc
uníquc about phílosophícal conccpts ís that, ín Iacc oI thc dcspaír
vhích phílosophy can somctímcs índucc, thcy provídc, íI not thc
'consolatíon oI phílosophy`, thcn at lcast a consolatíon jor phílo-
sophy. Ïhílosophyhas thc curíous charactcrístíc that, although ítsclI
cntrappcd, lockcd ínsídc thc glasshousc oI our constítutíon and our
languagc,ítís ncvcrthclcss ablcconstantlyto thínkbcyond ítsclIand
ítslímíts,tothínk ítsclIthrough thcvalls oIíts glasshousc. Þnd thís
thínkíngbcyondítsclI,íntooµenness - that,prccíscly,ísmctaphysícs.
'
Í¡LÃ\H¡ áP
2º ]unc I º65
I havc spokcn rcpcatcdly ínthcsc lccturcs oIthc problcm oImcdía-
tíon ín Þrístotlc, cmphasízíng that thc morc onc conccrns oncsclI
vìthqucstíonsoIthcdíalcctíc thcmorcthc problcmoIvhatíscallcd
mcdíatíonIorccsítsclIíntothcccntrc. Ivantcdto uscthccxamplcoI
Þrístotlc to shovyou thc sourcc oIthcproblcmatíc oIdcvclopmcnt.
Ìn gcncral, Ì havc not prcscntcd Þrístotlc` sMetaµbysics to you as a
píccc oIímmutablc ontologícal vísdom, as ít ís doubtlcss prcscntcd
ín many othcr placcs. I havc shovn ít Irom a díIIcrcnt pcrspcctívc,
arguíngthatínthísstíllrclatívclyunproblcmatícyctvcrysophístícatcd
phílosophy you can scc, as ín a tcst tubc, thc problcms vhích vcrc
latcr to unIold ín anìnhnítclymorcdíIIcrctíatcd andcomplcxIorm
throughoutthchístoryoIvcstcrnphílosophy.IorÞrístotlcthcprob-
lcm oImcdíatíon lícs ín thc Iact that thc mcrcly possíblc, that ís, thc
absolutcly Iormlcss- Ì vould rcmínd you that Ior hím possíbílíty ís
notIormbutmattcr- ncvcr cxístsand ncvcr could cxíst Ior ítsclI. Ìn
thís hc gívcs cxprcssíon to anínsíghtvhíchídcalístphílosophy latcr
statcd ínthc subj cctívcly rcIlcctcd Iormthatmattcr, asIar asvc can
spcak oI ít, ís mcdíatcd by conscíousncss. Ìn Þrístotlc, by contrast,
Iorms - and thís ís thc momcnt oI Ïlatonísm vhích rcmaíns un-
changcd ín Þrístotclían phílosophy - arc ímpcríshablc and ctcrnal;
and thís ímpcríshabílíty and ctcrníty ís ínhcrcnt ín cach índívídual
Iorm. Jhat ís, íI you líkc, thc rcscuíng or conscrvatívc momcnt ín
Þrístotlc, íncontradictíonoIthc crítícalmomcnt. Iov,manyoIyou
víllIccl compcllcd to ask vhyítdídnotoccur to a thínkcr as astutc
asÞrístotlc- vho, aItcr all,vasthcIoundcr oIthcvholc oIvcstcrn
B
/0 11LÅ1VL ÅLÏ
logíc - that thcrc can bc no Iorm víthout somcthíng Iormcd - an
obj cctíon vhích cannot Iaìl to arísc at thìs poínt. In vícv oI thc
rccíprocíty oI Iorm and contcnt vhích Ì havc cxplaíncd, ít ìs vcry
surprísìngto usthatsomconccouldasscrtthatthcrccanbcnomattcr,
nocontcnt,víthoutIorm, butIaílto applythcsamcconsídcratíonto
Iorms, attrìbutìng an autonomous cxístcncc to thcm ínstcad.
I bclìcvcthat, asínmostphílosophícalcascs oIthískìnd, ítvíll bc
uscIul to try to rcconstruct vhat ít vas that cnablcd Þrístotlc to
ovcrlookthísrccíprocíty,vhcnítapplícdto Iorm. Itvíllalsolcadus
bcyondthcpartícularÞrìstotclìanproblcmto a morcunívcrsalprob-
lcmatíc.Ior- IcannotrcpcatthísoItcncnough- vcshouldnottakc
unIaír advantagc oI our postcríty by rcgardíng Þrístotlc as morc
stupíd than us. Jo undcrstand Þrístotlc, Ì bclícvc vc should rcIlcct
brícIly on thc naturc oIthc conccpt. Jhc conccpt, asvc knov, ís a
uníty, thc uníty oIthc propcrtìcs oIthc clcmcnts subsumcd undcr ít.
Jhus,íIIhavcthrccclcmcnts,Þvíththc índcx I, Bvíththcìndcx I
andCvìththcíndcx I, thcn I ísthcconccptIorthcscthrccclcmcnts,
sínccítbríngsoutvhatthcy havcíncommon, and docsso onlyvìth
rcgardtovhatÌvìshto callthcídcntìcalpropcrtícsoIthcscclcmcnts.
Iov,thc abstractíonIromthcpartícularcontcntvhíchíspcrIormcd
hcrc has a vcry pcculíar qualíty, vhích ís probably bascd on count-
lcssconsídcratíons,cspccíallymctaphysícalandontologícaloncs.Ior
ínrcIcrríngto thc ítcmvhích Ìhavcj ustcallcd ' I ` asthc conccpt, or
ín somc cascs thc csscncc, oI thc clcmcnts ít subsumcs, Ì gcncrally
dìsrcgard thc spccíal spatíal and tcmporal posítíons oIthc clcmcnts
subsumcd undcr this conccpt. Þnd cvcn íI, Ior cxamplc, I subsumc
undcr thc conccpt oI contcmporarícs cxtrcmcly antíthctícal pcoplc,
suchas!ítlcr, btalìnandChurchìll,thcìrcontcmporancíty- íIbythat
I dchnc allthc pcoplcvho playcd a dccísívc índívìdual rolc bctvccn
I¬J0 and I ¬ó0 - ís a gcncral conccpt vhích ís índcpcndcnt oI thc
partícular cxístcncc oI thcsc pcoplc. Jhatís, to put ítvcry crudcly, I
canspcakoIthccontcmporancítyoIthcscthrcccontcmporarícscvcn
vhcn thcy arc long dcad. Bccausc Ì havc turncd ít ínto a gcncral
conccpt, thcír contcmporancíty, vhích hcrc dchncs thc conccptual
uníty Iormcd by thc thrcc polítícal contcmporarícs, ìs nov not a
tcmporal cntíty. ¤c could, ìIvc vcrc so ínclíncd, talk about thcsc
thrcc mcn, dchncd by thcír contcmporancíty, as long as vc lìkcd.
Inhcrcnt ínthc conccpt, thcrcIorc, ís a curíous dc-tcmporalízatíon oI
vhat ít rcIcrs to. Jhc conccpt as such, oncc cstablíshcd, ís not tcm-
poral,ítrclatcs, oIcoursc, to somcthíngtcmporal, íthas íts tcmporal
contcnt, and a crítìcal analysísvíll hnally uncovcr tímc asan ímplí-
catíonoIítsmcaníng. Butínthchrstplacc,throughítsIormatíon,thc
conccpt ìs índcpcndcnt oI tímc. Jhìs ís undoubtcdly conncctcd to
1LLÅ1VL ÅLÏ /I
practícal proccsscs ínvolvcd ínthc Iormatíon oIthought,vhích havc
takcn placc ín ccrtaín phascs oI thc dcvclopmcnt oI humaníty. Ìn
ordcr to crcatc somc kínd oIordcr ín succcssívc círcumstanccs, no-
mcnclaturcs or systcms oIthoughtvcrc crcatcd vhích could survívc
víth a ccrtaín constancy ín rclatíon to thc tcmporal clcmcnts vhích
thcy cncompasscd. Iovít sccms to mc to bc thc casc at thís poínt-
and, índccd, ín thc vholc tcndcncy to scc ontology as a doctrínc oI
ínvaríants, oI thc tímclcssIy abídíng - that thís tímcIcssncss oI thc
conccptrcprcscntsa c-cp¸c:,,anímpovcríshmcnt,a dchcícncyoIthc
conccpt. Ior thís tímclcssncss ís mcdíatcd through abstractíon, and
that vhích ís símply omíttcd Irom thc conccpt, so that ít can bc
Iormcdandmaíntaíncdasa constant,ísnovattríbutcdto ítasíts ín-
ítsclI qualíty, and cvcn as íts 'posítívíty`, íts supcríoríty. Jhc rcIlcc-
tíonvhíchlcadstothcrcaIízatíonthatthctímclcssncssoIthcconccpt
ísítsclIsomcthíngvhíchhas bccomc, vhích has aríscn and ís notan
attríbutcoIthcconccptínítsclI, ísavcrylatcrcIlcctíon,andíthasno
morc placcínthc phílosophyoIÞrístotlc, vhíchís cxcmplary ínthís
rcspcct, than ít has ín that oIÏIato. Þnd vhat could bc dcscríbcd as
thc grcatcst paralogísm oI aIl ín mctaphysícs, and as thc crucíal Ial-
lacy ín tradítíonal phílosophy as a vholc, ís nothíng othcr than thís
dc-tcmporalízatíonoIthcmcaníngoIconccpts,vhíchís produccdby
thcvayínvhíchconccptsarcIormcd,butísattríbutcdasanínhcrcnt
propcrty to thatvhích thcy subsumc.
Jhat, Ì bclícvc, ís thc mcchanísm vhích lícs bchínd ÞrístotIc`s
posítíngoIIorms andconccptsas somcthíngctcrnal andímmutabIc.
¤hat ís takcn avay Irom thcm by abstractíon, thc momcnt oI dc-
tcmporalízatíon, hc has ascríbcd to thcm as a posítívc qualíty, as
thcír ontologícal príoríty, thcír purc bcíng-ín-ítsclI. Þnd ít can bc
saíd that thc vholc oI vcstcrn thought has bccn placcd undcr thc
spcll oIthís conclusíon dravn byÞrístotIc, andbyÏlato bcIorc hím.
ívcn !cgclían phílosophy has bccn unablcto dívcst ítsclIcntírcly oI
thís íIIusíon. Ì vould líkc to usc a brícI cxamplc to shov you thc
absurdítícsgcncratcdby thís transIcrcncc oIthcstructurc oIthccon·
ccpt to bcíng ítsclI. Þbout thírty ycars ago, pcrhaps slíghtly lcss, a
so-callcd phílosophcr namcd Naxímílían Bcck, vho camc Irom thc
phcnomcnologícaI school, publíshcd ín cmígratíon a book víth no
lcss a títlc than. |sycbo/ogy. 1be Nature and Rea/ity oj tbe Soul. '
Jhís book, vhích, apart Irom vhat Ì vant to tcll you, ís onc oIthc
purcstsourccsoImcrrímcntknovn tomcín phílosophícalIítcraturc,
vhcrc such sourccs arc Iar Irom rarc, ís conccrncd, among othcr
thíngs, víth thc ímmortalíty oIthc soul. Ìn díscusstng thís ít adopts
thcmodcrnpractícc oIdísconncctíngthc conccptIromthcsubj cctívc
act oI abstractíon vhích produccd ít, and statcs ¦ as !usscrI vouId
V
/Z 1LLÅ1VL ÅLÏ
probably also havc donc) that thc soul oI cach índívídual pcrson
corrcspondsto anessence oIthatsoul.Jhatísto saythatonccan 'look
upon` thís soul, can vcríIy íts cxístcncc. Ìn plaín languagc, hc argucs
that onc can obtaín a purc conccpt oI thc soul oI cachíndívídual
víthout any coíncídcncc bctvccn thís csscncc or thís conccpt oIthc
índívídual`s soul, to vhích thc phílosophcr has acccss, and actual
cxístcncc. By mcans oIphcnomcnologícal opcratíons, thcrcIorc, onc
can arrívc at a purc conccpt oIthc índívídual soul, but only by sub-
tractíng thc qucstíon as to vhcthcr thís soul actually cxísts. Ì can,
Iollovíng !usscrl, ídcntíIy all íts qualítícs, all íts concrctc Iullncss,
víthout posítíng íts spatíal-tcmporal cxístcncc. Jhís cnablcs
Naxímílían Bcckto arrívcatanunusuallysímplc andquítc astonísh-
íngsolutíon to thc qucstíon oIímmortalíty. !c says thatthís csscncc
callcd thc 'soul`, thís conccpt oI thc soul oI cach índívídual pcrson,
vhích I can ídcntíIy ín all íts concrctc matcríalízatíon, ís - ctcrnal.
Jhus,íIaphcnomcnologístposscsscssuchaconccptoIthc csscnccor
soul oIsomconc síttíng hcrc ín thc Iront rov, and íI that conccpt ís
adcquatc, ít can ncvcr pcrísh. Ìt abídcs; ít ís obj cctívcly valíd cvcn
vhcn no pcrson vho hasít ís alívc, or cvcn vhcn thcrc ísno cmpírí-
calpcrsontovhíchítcouldrcIcr. Þndto thc cxtcntthat thíscsscncc
oIcachíndívídualpcrsonísíndcpcndcntoIanyspatíal-tcmporalIatc,
ítcan bcsaíd- accordíngtoBcck- thatímmortalítycxísts,thatthcsc
csscnccsoIcachandcvcryíndívídualare ímmortal. Bycontrast,índí-
vídual pcoplc - says !crr Bcck condcsccndíngly - arc, oI coursc,
mortal, but that has absolutcly nothíngtodo víthít. Jhc índívídual
conscíousncss, thc índívídual body, thc índívídual psychology oI a
pcrson ís also mortal.Iothíngcxccpt thc µossi|i/ity oIcachpcrson,
vhích ís concrctc but puríhcd oI all cxístcncc, thc purc conccpt oI
cach pcrson, ís ímmortal. Þndthat ís supposcd to solvc thc problcm
oIímmortalíty- vhílcpcoplcthcmsclvcsamountto nothíng,andcan
bc anníhílatcd.
Ì bclícvc, LadícsandGcntlcmcn,thatyounccdtorcIlcctIoronlya
momcntonvhatsuch a thcoryísvorth ín comparísonto thc cxpcc-
tatíon oIímmortalíty, orthc hopc oIsalvatíon,cxprcsscdínthc grcat
rclígíons, to rcalízc that thc hypostasís oIthc conccpt as somcthíng
ctcrnalandímpcríshablchashcrcbccomcsímplyaIraud,adcccptíon,
ín rclatíon to thc truc mcaníngoIsuch a conccpt ín a contcxt oIthís
kínd. ¤cll, ín thís ínstancc vc arc only dcalíngvíth thc Ioolíshncss
oIadcmcntcdphcnomcnologíst;butítoItcnhappcnsthatpathogcníc
cascs arc morc rcvcalíng than so-callcd normal oncs - as ís thc casc
víththís íncIIablyIatuous solacc. ¤hat uscísít Ior onc'sconccpt to
bc,Iorsomc logícalrcason, ímmortal,íIoncís ncvcrthclcssa hcapoI
ashcs:¤hcn a doctrínc oIthís kínd ís couplcd to a conccpt such as
1LLÅ1VL ÅLÏ /J
ímmortalíty,íts absurdítyandprctcntíousncss bccomc obvíous. ButÌ
do not say thís to cngagc ín polcmícs agaínst !crr Bcck, but only
bccauscÌbclícvcítshovsínblatantIormsomcthíngoIthcIraudulcncc
oI such an approach to a qucstíon líkc that oI ímmortalíty, vhích,
aItcr all,ísoncoIthc mostccntraloIallmctaphysícalqucstíons, and
bccausc ít rclatcs to thc sublímc doctríncs oIthc grcat phílosophcrs,
Irom Ïlato and Þrístotlc to bt Jhomas Þquínas and, íIyou líkc, to
Ocscartcsasvcll.Kantvasthchrsttoavoídthíshypostasís,butcvcn
Ior hímthc conccpt has a momcnt oIautonomy, oIhypostasís, síncc
hís vork contaíns purc Iorms oI an almost prc-Þrístotclían kínd,
vhích arc not rcquírcd to bc thc Iorms oIa possíblc contcnt. Ì hopc
thcscrcmarkshavcmadcclcartoyouvhyÞrístotlcIaílstorcIlccton
thcmcdíatcncssoIIorm, andthatíIthcídcaoIthc autonomyoIIorm
ístakcn scríously- thatís, íIít ís applícdto somcthíngasIundamcn-
tal asthc conccpt oIímmortalíty- ít has conscqucnccs thc absurdíty
oIvhích ís bcyond dísputc.
Iov,ínÞrístotlchímsclIthíshypostasísoIIormhasaconscqucncc
vhích holds hís vholc systcm togcthcr, ís íts prccondítíon, or hov-
cvcr onc líkcs to cxprcss ít. Bccausc hc undcrstands purc Iorm, as
purc actualítyorpurc rcalíty,ínthc vayI havcdcscríbcd, ítbccomcs
thconlyIorccvhíchrcalízcsthc purposc- -ò oõ ccc-o- contaíncdín
scattcrcd índívídual thíngs. Ìt thus bccomcs a causa jna /is, an ultí·
matc causalíty on thc basís oI vhích thc proccss oI thc unívcrsc ís
constítutcd. Þnd ítmíght bc saídthatj ust as thcrclatíonoIrcalítyto
possíbílíty ís ín a curíous vay stood on íts hcad ín Þrístotlc, ín an
analogous vay thc rclatíon oIpurposc to causc ís also stood on íts
hcad.Ioraccordíngto ítpurposcsarcthconlyandthc truccauscs,ín
comparíson, vhat ís usually rcIcrrcd to as causa|íty has, as vc sha||
soon scc, a vcry badprcss ínÞrístotlc. !ovcvcr, thís gcncral obscr-
vatíon rcquírcs Iurthcr díIIcrcntíatíon. Jhcrc arc Iour kínds oIcausc
ínÞrístotlc, a dívísíonvhíchrcmaíncdínIorcc throughout mcdícval
phílosophy and rcappcars ín bchopcnhaucr, ín hís book Òn tbe
lourjo/d Root oj tbe |rinciµ/e oj Sugcient Reason. Þccordíng to
Þrístotlc, thcrcís,hrst, thc matcríalcausc- althoughhcdocsnot usc
thc tcrms 'matcríal` and 'Iormal` ín thc vay vc usc thcm ín normal
logíc,butínthc scnscoIthcantíthcsísbctvccnoò¸ andµoµçq,vhích
Ì havc cxplícatcd Ior you ín dctaíl. Jhc matcríal ncccssíty or causc
aríscs Irom oò¸, ín so Iar as ít ís mcrc stuII and has not yct bccn
Iormcd. Jhcn comc thc classcs oIthc Iormal causc - thc onc arísíng
Iromµoµçq- thc movíngcausc andthc hnal causc, thc causa jna/is
or -còe;, oIvhích Ì havc alrcady spokcn. Ìt ís not díIhcult to scc -
andítvasrccognízcdrclatívclycarlyínthc hístory oIGrcckphíloso-
phy - that thc last thrcc classcs oI causcs. thc Iormal causc as thc
V
Æ 
/+ 11LÅ1V1 Å1Ï
µ·¡ç¸, thc movíng causc vhích orícntatcs cvcrythíng vhích ís to-
vards ítsclI, and lastly thc hnal causc as thc híghcst - arc alI thc
samc, and that, íI radícaIly rcduccd, thcy aII actuaIIy coíncídc víth
thc Iourth. ÌtcanthcrcIorc bc saídthat, dcspítc thís 'IourIoldrootoI
thc príncíplc oI rcason`, only thc tvo maín dualístíc catcgorícs, óò¸
andµ
·¡
ç¸, appcarínÞrístotlc- orpcrhapsítvouIdbc bcttcrto say,
onIy thc catcgorícs oI òo:o
u
:;, as thc mcrc possíbílíty rcsídíng ín
mattcr, and oI cccp,co, as thc actuaIíty rcalízcd ín ít. Crígínally,
thcrcIorc, hísphílosophycontaínsonlythc duaIísmoIIormandmat-
tcr, vhích domínatcs hís cntírc Metaµbysics, ín much thc samc vay
as ít has agaín bccomc thc dctcrmíníng duaIísm oI mctaphysícal
thought ín modcrn phíIosophy síncc Ocscartcs.
Jhís ís complícatcd, hovcvcr, by thc mcdíatíng cIcmcnt ín thc
phílosophy oIÞrístotlc, to vhích Ì attach such vcíght. Ìt maníIcsts
ítsclI ín thc Iact that, vhílc cvcrythíng dctcrmínatc ís dravn to thc
sídc oI Iorm, ncvcrthclcss mattcr - as Ì havc ìndícatcd morc than
oncc aIrcady- bccomcsIarmorcthanthc mcrcpossíbílítyvhíchít ís
supposcd to bc ín hís phílosophy. Jhcrc ís a curíous tcnsíon and
díIhculty ín thc conccpt oI óò¸ ín Þrístotlc; on thc onc hand ít ís
dcnígratcd,dísqualíhcd,ccnsurcdíncvcryrcspcct, íncIudíngthcmoral,
vhílc onthc othcr thcrc ís thc rcmarkablc assumptíon vhcrcby thís
clcmcnt,thoughhctcrogcncousvíthrcgardtoIorm, ís cndovcdvíth
a kínd oI anímatíon, a tcndcncy, cvcn a ccrtaín kínd oI ycarníng.
Jhcrc ís, oI coursc, a rcason Ior thís. Ior thc vcry Iact that hc con-
ccívcsmattcr, asI havccxplaíncd, asa purc possíbíIítyvhíchísítsclI
mcdíatcdcatcgoríalIyasthatvhíchíspossíbIc- thísvcryIactímplícs
a conccpt. ¤hat ís possíblc ís an cxístíng thíng vhích ís dctcrmíncd
ínrclatíontoanothcrvhíchíthasnotyctbccomc.Iorthísrcasonthc
conccptoIpurcpossíbíIítyalrcadyíncludcsakíndoIdctcrmínatcncss
vhích, ínstríctaccordanccvtthÞrístotIc`s thcsís, ítshouIdnothavc.
!ovcvcr, íIhc undcrstands óò¸ as thc possíbílíty oIIorm, that ís, as
somcthíngvhíchísatlcastpotcntíaIlyablcto bcdctcrmíncdbysomc-
thíngclsc,hcísIorccdtogo bcyondthísídcathatpossíbíIítyísapurc
cmpty x, vhích óò¸ at hrst appcars to bc. Ìn Iact, Iar morc Iormal
dctcrmínants havc thcír orígín ín mattcr, as hc conccívcs ít, than
míght hrst bc supposcd. Ior hc cndovs thís possíbílíty oI mattcr,
vhích vc havc subscqucntIy caIIcd ncccssíty ín thc scícntíhc scnsc,
víth causaIíty or, to usc thc Grcckvord, ó:o,-¸.
A:o,-¸ ís thc mythícal notíon oIthc íntcrtvíncmcnt oIaIl lívíng
thíngsína Iatcínvhíchcvcrythínghastomakcatoncmcntaccordíng
to thc ordínancc oI tímc, as ít ís cxprcsscd ín thc Iamous sayíng oI
Þnaxímandcr.`ÞndthcnotíonoIó:o,e¸,líkcaIlmythícalídcas,vas
orígínaIly a catcgory oInaturaI phíIosophy, that ìs, a rationaIízatíon
» ½   ¼ .  
¬ æ +±& .
1LLÅ1VL ÅLÏ /ó
orsccularizatíonoIa doctríncoIthc animatíngIorccs oInaturc.Jhís
mythícal, naturalorígínoIó:ayç,or ncccssíty, survívcs ín Þristotlc
ínthatthiskíndoIncccssítyís attríbutcdtomattcr, and not, as ís thc
cascínmodcrnphílosophy,abovcallínKant,tothcrcIlcctíngsubjcct.
Þnd,oIcoursc, itncvcroccurrcdtoÞrístotlctoconsídcrthis natural
ncccssíty, thís ó:o,-¸, mcrcly as a convcntíonally subj cctívc cntíty.
Iodoubt,thcsubstantialítyoIcausalítyasapartoIIatcncvcrbccamc
problcmatíc Ior ancícnt pcoplc. Jhís ís prccíscly thc poínt on vhích
antiquítyncvcrvcntbcyondmcrcrcIlcctionon ítsovnmythological
ídcas.Italsosccmsto mchíghlyrcvcalíngthathcattríbutcssomcthíng
clsc to mattcr.vhatín modcrntcrmsvcvouldcall 'chancc`, andIor
vhích thcrc arc tvo conccpts ín hís vork, hrstly oú-ó
µ
o-e:, that
vhích movcs by ítsclI, and sccondly -ú¿¸, containíng thc mythícal
ídca oI thc vay thíngs | ust happcn to turn out. Ì víll poínt out -
although Ì do not vant to pursuc thís vcry ccntral problcm hcrc -
that thc conccpts oI causalíty as natural causalíty and as chancc,
vhíchappcartobcstríctlyantíthctícal,havcalvaysbccnassociatcdin
accrtaín vayínphílosophy.BccauscthcrcgularítyoInaturalcausal-
íty canncvcr cqual thc íntcrnal cohcrcncc oIsucccssívc momcnts, as
Þrístotlc sccks to dcscríbc ít through hís tclcology, cvcrythíngcausal
also sccms to havc a momcnt oIthc Iortuítous. Þnd, pcrhaps morc
ímportant, apart Irom thc momcnt oI causalíty thcrc arc all thosc
momcnts vhích cannot bc subsumcd undcr thc príncíplc oIídcntity
andvhích,ínaccordanccvíththcomnípotcntpríncíplcoIídcntítyín
thought, must appcar as cxtrancous and accídcntal . Jhcrc ís thus a
curíous corrclatíon bctvccn causalíty and chancc; and thc morc
rclcntlcss thc domínancc oIcausalíty, oIcausal-mcchanical thínkíng,
bccomcsínthcvorld,thcmorcthccatcgoryoIchanccíncrcascs, as a
kínd oI rcmíndcr oIhov much mcaning, hov much interna/ cohcr-
cncc, has bccn lostthroughthcprcdomínancc oIcausalíty.Iodoubt
thcrc arc also socíal rcasons Iorthís- thc Iact that, asratíonalítyhas
íncrcascd ín thc mcans oI socíal organízation, thc cnds oI socíal or-
ganízatíonhavcrcmaíncdirratíonal, Iortuítous.Þndthísrclatíonshíp
ísrcIlcctcdínthccorrclatíonoIcausalítyandchancc,vhích,oIcoursc,
arc nov undcrgoíng a rcmarkablc convcrgcncc, as thc lav oI prob-
abílíty, vhích ís proIoundly bound up víth chancc, has bcgun to
dísplacc causalíty ín mícrophysícs and quantum mcchanícs.¨
Youcanscc, thcrcIorc, thatÞrístotlc attríbutcs Iar morcthan onc
vould cxpcct to óò¸, vhích hc had himsclI dcmotcd to somcthíng
totally abstract. Ìt bccomcs, in a scnsc, thc rcpository, thc rcIugc oI
thosc mythicalcatcgoricsvhichvcrcdísplaccdbythc advancc oIthc
Grcck cnlightcnmcnt, and cspccíally by thc ratíonalíty oI Ïlato and
Þrístotlc himsclI. ^nd both thcsc momcnts- on thc onc hand, blind
B
A
/6 1LLÅ1VL ÅLÏ
natural causaIíty vhích ís not transparcnt to ítsclI, vhích ís not an
ídca, thc momcnt oI blíndncss ín causaIíty, and on thc othcr, -còe;,
tclcology,vhíchíslíkcthc ídcaoIa crcator- go back,líkcchancc, to
Þrístotlc. Ìn hís Metaµbysics thcsc momcnts havc thc Iunctíon oI
límítíngthc purposívc actívíty oIpurc Iorm, oIjepç¸,or, hnalIy, oI
thc 'unmovcdmovcr` . `YouthcrcIorchavc bcIorcyoua basícschcma
oIthcvholcoIvcstcrnmctaphysícs;ínítyoucanobscrvc, asíIundcr
a mícroscopc, thc díIIcrcncc bctvccn naturalcausalítyandtclcology,
vhích has íts Ioundatíon ínrcason orín Irccdom. Jhís doctrínc oIa
causalítybascdonIrccdom, ona conscíousncssíndcpcndcnt oIblínd
oca,-¸, gocs back to thc ÞrístotcIían dualísm and ís rcproduccd ín
thatoIKant." !ovcvcr, assoonasthcdíchotomyoIIormandmattcr
cntcrs a statc oI Ilux, ín vhích thc tvo appcar to bc rccíprocally
mcdíatcd,thísantíthcsísoIcausalíty andIrccdomalso bccomcsIluíd,
dynamízcd, as ít ís ín !cgcl.
Youcan also scchcrc- and Ì shouldlíkcto closcvíththíspoínt-
hov a mctaphysícal thcmc such as that oI Irccdom - vhích at thc
bcgínníngoIthcsc lccturcsÌ callcdonc oIthc Iundamcntal thcmcs oI
mctaphysícs - onIy takcs on thc Iorm Iamílíar to us through thc
unmcdíatcd antíthcsís oI oò¸ and jepç¸,vhích ísthc spccíaI Icaturc
oIÞrístotlc'sphílosophy.Ì havccxplaíncdthc structurcoIÞrístotlc`s
Metaµbysics at somc Icngth ín ordcr to shov you that mctaphysícs
docsnotconsístínthcísolatcdtrcatmcntoIíts so-callcdmaínthcmcs,
ashrstappcarcdvhcnÌrcadouta lístoIthoscrcsoundíngthcmcs;ít
rcsídcsínthc structuralrcIatíonshípbctvccnthcscthcmcs,andhnally
ín thc tcndcncy to uníIy thcm or Iorm thcm ínto a systcm. Þnd you
víllscc that thc conccptoIuníty, thc Cnc,docsíndccdcmcrgcatthc
apcx oIÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. ´ Youcannot, thcrcIorc, undcrstand
mctaphysícs by hndíng out hov thc scparatc mctaphysícal thcmcs -
bcíng, God, Irccdom, ímmortalíty, or vhatcvcr thcy may bc - arc
trcatcd by díIIcrcnt phílosophcrs. You can only undcrstand thcsc
catcgorícs through thc placc thcy occupy ín a phílosophyconsídcrcd
as a vholc. Þnd íIÌ may gívc you a píccc oIadvícc vhích may hclp
your ovn phílosophícaI undcrstandíng, ít ís that vhílc you should
alvays strívc to undcrstand phíIosophícal catcgorícs as stríctly and
prccíscly as possíblc ín tcrms oI thcír mcaníng and cIIcct ín thcír
partícular pIacc, you should aIso bc avarc that thcrc ís no phílo-
sophícalcatcgoryvhíchdocs nottakc on a mcaníngthat ís díIIcrcnt
Irom íts gcncral mcaníngthrough thc structurc, thc total contcxt, oI
thc thought ín vhíchít appcars. Þndínundcrstandíngphílosophy ít
ís thís spccíhc mcaníngvhích mattcrs.
Æ
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ¡Í¡N¡P
6 ]u/y I º65
IhavcdíscusscdthcdctcrmínantsoImattcrínÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics,
and thc ncgatívíty oI thcsc dctcrmínants, sccn ín íts most cxtrcmc
Iorm ín thc conccpt oI natural causalíty and chancc. Ìn Þrístotlc
thcsc arc qualítícs oIoò·¡ andnot oIjepç¸,andthus arc qualítícs oI
òo:oj:;,oIabstractpossíbílíty¦ !cgclvouldsay) , andnotoIc:cpyc:o,
oIídcasvhíchhavc bccomcconcrctc.Iov,accordíngtoÞrístotlc,all
thc ímpcrIcctíon oI naturc orígínatcs ín mattcr. Þll notíons oI íncrt,
sluggíshmattcr, oIrudis indigesta mo/es, as thc Iatín poct cxprcsscs
ít,'go back to thís thcsís oIÞrístotlc that mattcr ís to blamc Ior thc
ímpcrIcctíonoIthc vorld. bo,too, ína sublímatcdIorm, doallídcas
oI mcrc cxístcncc as somcthíng untouchcd and abandoncd by mínd
andmcaníng. Ì do not thínkítís usuallyrcalízcd ¦ andpcrhaps Ì may
drav your attcntíon to ít hcrc) hov much thc notíons oI so-callcd
cvcrydaylíIc- vhatÌcall' blcatíng`,thcídcaspasscduncrítícallyIrom
mouth to mouth, or prcscntcd as sclI-cvídcnt ín lcadíng or not-so-
lcadíng artíclcs ín ncvspapcrs - hov much almost all thcscnotíons
arcculturalassctsvhích havc sunkdovnIromthc uppcrstratum,to
uscthclanguagcoIthc socìologyoIlìtcraturc.Jhatisto say,thcyarc
símply rcsíducs oI grcat mctaphysícs, oI grcat phílosophy, vhích,
throughbcíngscvcrcdIromanorígínalcontcxtvhíchhaslapscdínto
oblívíon, takc on thc charactcr oI sccmíngly sclI-cvídcnt truths. Jhc
sclI-cvídcncc ís only apparcnt, síncc thcy ovc thcìr obvíousncss or
compcllíngncsstothc structurcsínvhíchthcyhrstappcarcd,vhcrcas
thcy arc nov trcatcd as mattcrs oI Iact vhích rcquírc no Iurthcr
j ustíhcatíon
, andprccísclythcrcbyarctransIormcdíntountruths.Jhís
Æ
/8 1LLÅ1VL L 1LNLÏ
applícs cspccíally to thc antíthcsís oI mattcr and Iorm ín Þrístotlc,
vhích can bc saìd to havc prc-Iormcd thc Iamílíar dualísms ín our
rcccívcd ídcas to an cxtcnt oI vhích vc arc cntírcly unavarc. Ìt ís
rcallythc samcasvíthNonsícur]ourdaínínNolícrc`sLe 8ourgeois
Centi/bomme, vhosc rhctoríc tcachcr cxplaíns to hím that thcrc
arc tvo kínds oIspccch, prosc and poctry, and vho thcn asks. `Ch
rcally,andvhatdoÌspcak:` ¤hcnhc ístoldthatítísprosc,]ourdaín
cxclaíms proudly. `Goodncss | Ì`vc bccn spcakíng prosc all my líIc
and Ì dídn`t cvcn knovít| ' ¯Þndvc spcak Þrístotlc allourlívcs and
'don't cvcn knovít`, cxccpt that thís ís notsuchan ínnoccnt mattcr
as thc good Nonsícur]ourdaín`s prosc.
Íor cxamplc, thc díIIcrcncc bctvccn thc hcavcnly and carthly
sphcrcs,vhíchhasbccomcsoccntralínChrístíandoctríncandlcdIor
thc hrst tímc ín Þugustínc to a kínd oIhícrarchy oIíntra-mundanc
happcníngs,` poínts back dírcctly to thís Þrístotclían díchotomy or
dualísm. ívcn thc catcgorícs oI malc and Icmalc arc dístínguíshcd
accordíng to thc samc dualísm by Þrístotlc, all thc híghcr, Iorm-
gívíngcatcgorícs bcíngcquatcdvíththc malc- as vas only too sclI-
cvídcntínapatríarchalsocícty- andthcmcrclymatcríalandcxístcnt
víththcIcmalc.Iodoubtyouvíllallhavccndurcdalcarncdschool-
tcachcr tcllíng you that thc roots oI mater and materia arc rclatcd,
and you víll rccall thc cnsuíng hovl oI tríumph - that, too, ís an
ccho Irom Þrístotlc's Metaµbysics. Bchínd ít, oIcoursc, lícs thc dís-
tínctíon bctvccn thc príncíplc vhích controls naturc and thc naturc
opprcsscd by thís príncíplc and prcscntcd, bccausc opprcsscd, as
amorphous. ¤íth somc cxaggcratíon onc míght say that thc vorld
oIoòq ínÞrístotlc ís thc vorld oIthc prchístoríc ímagínatíon, vhích
BachoIcn callcd matríarchal, vhílc thc vorld oI/ogos, thc vorld oI
thc Clympían gods, oI thc ccntralízíng príncíplc, ís cquatcd víth
µ·¡
º
¸

Þnd you víll scc that thís ídca oI thc ccntralízíng príncíplc
applícs to hís thought ín a Iar stríctcr scnsc than cmcrgcs Irom vhat
Ì havc j ust saíd. But thc most ímportant qualíty attríbutcd to mattcr
ís íts rcsístancc to Iorm, and accordíng to Þrístotlc thís rcsístancc
cxplaíns somcthíngvhíchís oIspccíal thcmatíc ímportancc Ior hím.
thc spccíhc charactcr oIchangc or dcvclopmcnt, vhích hc conccívcs
asgraduaÌ.¨¤hatyouhavchcrcís,Iundamcntally, thc latcrproblcm
oIChrístían thcology. vhythc vorldcrcatcd by Godís not a dívínc
vorld,vhyítís notalrcadypcrIcct. Jhís, too,ísansvcrcdín accord-
ancc víth thc samc dualístíc príncíplc, vhích statcs that crcatíon
opposcs, or ín somc vay rcsísts, purc ídcntíty víth thc crcator. Þnd
cvcnthccomplcmcntarypríncíplc,that,onthcothcrhand,somcurgc
tovards thc híghcst príncíplc ís prcscnt ín mattcr, ín crcation,' you
víll also hnd prchgurcd ínÞrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. Jhcrc ís alrcady
¬.æ»
1LLÅ1VL L 1LNLÏ /¬
hcrc,íIyoulíkc, a skctchoIthc díalcctíc, cvcn thoughÞrístotlc docs
notrcIlcctthcmatícallyonthísconccpt.Þndítvouldnotsurpríscmc
íIthc ÞrístotclíanmotíIhadplaycdaconsídcrablcrolcínthcconccp-
tíon oIthc vorld proccss or thc absolutc ín !cgcl, vhosc vork can
bcvcryvclldcscríbcdatanídcalístrcpríscoIÞrístotlc`s. Íoraccord-
íng to thís doctrínc, movcmcnt ís causcd or tríggcrcd j ust bccausc
mattcr opposcs íts potcntíal, ís ín contradíctíon to ít, bccausc any
cxístíng sítuatíon ís ínhcrcntlyrígíd; ín latcr phílosophy ítvas thcrc-
Iorc callcd `mcrc cxístcncc`. bímílarly, ín thc phílosophy oI hístory,
Ior cxamplc, ítcanbc saídthatrcvolutíonvas tríggcrcdín 1/8¬j ust
bccausc oI thc ossíhcatíon oI absolutíst condítíons ín Írancc, vhích
vas morc cxtrcmc than ín any othcrcountry. Jhc spccíal rígídíty oI
such socíalcondítíons,thcírrcsístancc to c:cpyc:o,ísthus madc ínto
thc actuaÌ causc oIthc opposcd, radícal dcvclopmcnt.
Íurthcr, ít ís onlymattcr,conccívcd ín thísvay as a kínd oIauto-
nomous príncíplc, vhíchínÞrístotlc makcsítpossíblc Iorthclovcst
gcncríc conccpts vhích vc havc - that ís, thc conccpt 'dog` or thc
conccpt`humanbcíng`- tobcsplítupíntoamultíplícítyoIíndívíduals,
vhích havc nothíng gcncral ín thcm. Jhís rcsults Irom Þrístotlc's
curíous conccptíon oI thc concrctc, vhích Ì havc mcntíoncd to you
rcpcatcdly, as a kínd oI sum oI thc absolutcly índctcrmínatc and
conccpt-lcss cxístíng thíng on thc onc hand and íts conccpt on thc
othcr. Ìt míght bc saíd víth somc cxaggcratíon that mattcr ís thc
µrinciµium indiuiduationis ín Þrístotlc, and not, as vc arc ínclíncd
to thínk, Iorm, vhích ís that vhích dctcrmíncs a partícular thíng as
partícular.Íorhím,hovcvcr,índívíduatíonítsclIísIoundcdprccíscly
on thís partícularízatíon- thc lack oIídcntíty, or Iull ídcntíty, oIan
cxístcnt thíngvíth íts Iorm." Ìndívíduatíon thus bccomcs somcthíng
ncgatívc ín Þrístotlc. Þnd that, too, ís a basíc thcsís oI all vcstcrn
mctaphysícs,as ítrcappcarsín Kant, vhcrccognítíoníscquatcdvíth
thc dctcrmíníng oI an objcct ín íts gcncralíty and ncccssíty, and as
you hnd ít vorkcd through to íts cxtrcmc ín !cgcl, vhcrc only thc
unívcrsal maníIcstíng ítsclI through índívíduatíon ís thc substantíal
- vhcrcas anythíng vhích lícs outsídc thc ídcntíhcatíon víth thc
unívcrsal príncíplc ís rcgardcd as absolutcly ínsígníhcant, cphcmcral
and unímportant. Ì do not thínk Ì nccd to claboratc hcrc thc thcmc
vhíchvasccntraltomylccturcsínthclastscmcstcr.thcíncalculablc
conscqucnccs oI thc clcvatíon oI logícal unívcrsalíty as thcposítívc
mctaphysícalpríncíplc, andoIthcbrandíngoIíndívíduatíonandpar-
tícularítyasthcncgatívc.ÌIthcso-callcdgrcattradítíonoIphílosophy
hasanyvhcrclcntítsnamcto ídcology,ítísatthíspoínt.Jhcunívcr-
sal maníIcstíng ítsclIas purc Iorm ís, oIcoursc, thc cxísting Iorm oI
socíal domínancc in abstracto; and accordíng to thís dchnítíon thc
*
|
W
Æ 
80 1LLÅ1VL L 1LNLÏ
bíggcr battalíons ínvorld hístory arc j ustíhcd ín advancc. Youhavc
hcrc thc cquatíon oI thc unívcrsal víth thc good. You can say - as
Zcllcr has ríghtly poíntcd outº - that antíthctícal dchnítíons such
as thosc appIícd by Þrístotlc to mattcr havc turncd mattcr ínto thc
opposítc oIvhatthc conccpt oImattcr ímplícs, that ís, mattcr ín hís
thought bccomcs a sccond príncíplc cndovcd víth íts ovn Iorcc.
Jhat, too, latcr had uncommonIy Iar-rcachíng conscqucnccs - Ì am
tryíngtodaytomakcyouavarcoIthoscmomcntsínÞristotlcvhích
havc bccn prccípítatcd ín thc gcncral stock oIídcas andhavc domín-
atcd thc vholc phíIosophical tradítíon to an íncalcuIablc dcgrcc. Ìts
conscqucnccsvcrcthatpcoplchavcIorgottcn,íIthcycvcrkncv, that
vhcn thcy thínk oImattcr ín gcncral as that vhich ís opposcd to a
príncípIcoIadíIIcrcntkind,thcpríncípIcoImínd,thcyarc, íIyoulíkc,
dcmatcríaIízíngmattcrbyturníngítíntoapríncípIc.¤hatthcconccpt
oImattcr poínts tovards, thc only rcasonablc contcnt and mcaníng
oIthís tcrm, ís thc non-conccptual . Þnd onc oIthc mostrcmarkablc
charactcrístícsoIthc conccptísthat, although ítscIIa conccpt, ítcan
yct rcIcr to somcthíngvhích ís not a conccpt, índccd- íIonc traccs
outthcrccíprocalIoundatíon oIíntcntíons- ín thccndítmust mcan
somcthíngnon-conccptual . GívcnthcdírcctíonvhíchthcvhoIcphílo-
sophícaI tradítionhas takcn as a rcsultoIthcÞrístotclían duaIism,ít
ísthccascthatthroughthc covcrtsubstitutíonoIthc gcncralconccpt
oI'mattcr` Iormatcríals,mattcrhasítsclIbccnturncdínto somcthíng
vhíchítoughtprccisclynottobc.somcthíngconccptual. Cnlydctcr-
mínants vhích arc rcally oI such a conccptual kínd arc rccognízcd
qua mattcr.'
Jhcconscqucnccvhíchthís hadIorphílosophyvasídcalísm, and
onc might say víthout cxaggcratíon that ÞrístotIc vas an obj cctívc
ídcaIíst, cxccpt that hc dídn't knov ít, íIyou víll Iorgívc such a lax
turnoIphrasc.Ìnothcrvords,thcIactthatÌcanonlyspcakoImattcr
ínconccpts,cvcníIthcscconccptsthcmscIvcsmcansomcthíngvhích
is not matcríal, prcparcs thc groundIor thc idcntíhcatíon oIall mat-
tcr víth thc conccpt, and hnally Ior thc díssolutíon oI alI mattcr ín
thc conccptual, thc rcductíon oI all obj cctívíty to thc thínkíng sub-
j cct,ínvhíchthc ídcalístíntcrprctatíonoIphílosophylatcrconsístcd.
Jhcscconsídcratíons,cxtrapolatcdIromsomcoIthcmostrcmarkabIc
dchnítíons and charactcrízatíons ín Þrístotlc`s díscussíon oI mattcr,
makc hís ídcas morc pIausíblc ín rctrospcct than vould a purcly
gcnctíc approach, Iocuscd on thc díIIcrcncc bctvccn knovlcdgc Ior
us andknovlcdgcínitsclIatthattímc. Jhcycnablcusto undcrstand
vhy Þrístotlc somctímcs attríbutcs prímary bcíng, -pe-¸ eúc/o, to
purc, that ís, Iormlcss, índivíduaI cntítícs, to -óòc -· qua oð¸, and
somctímcscquatcsitvithIormítsclI.Jhccxplanationisthat,bccausc
11LÅ1V1 111N1Ï 81
oI thc rclatíon bctvccn Iorm and contcnt posítcd ín thís dualísm,
contcnt, or mattcr, ís ítsclImultíply, íIantíthctícally, dctcrmíncd. Þs
a rcsult, Þrístotlc ís ncvcr quítc surc vhcthcr hc should trcat ít as
prímary bcíng, -po¸ eúc/o, bccausc ít ís somcthíng and has vcry
dchnítc propcrtícs, or vhcthcr, ín línc víth thc gcncral trcnd oI hís
Metaµbysics, hc should rcscrvc thc dctcrmínatìon oI-pe-¸eúc/oto
F 7
pepç¸ or c:cpycm.
It ís thc rclatíon oImattcr to Iorm vhích gìvcs rísc to movcmcnt,
orchangc oIanykínd, ínÞrístotlc. Changc ísconhncdtothatvhích
hasIorm, sothat, corrclatívcly, thatvhíchhasno mattcr and íspurc
c:cpycoìs not subjcctto changc. Cnc míght say thatpurc actualíty,
actus µurus - and thís ís thc suprcmc paradox oI thís phílosophy -
ís also thc ctcrnal. It may bc supposcd that thc rcal purposc - or,
bcttcr,thc rcalíntcrcst- oIÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics layínthc attcmpt
to bríng togcthcr thc changc ín bcíng, or ín cxístíng thíngs, vhích
vas íncluctably takíng placc víth thc advancc oIcmpírícal scícncc-
and hc vas an cmpírícal scícntíst - víth thc Ïlatoníc momcnt oI
ctcrnítyandímmutabílíty. Latcntínhísphílosophyísa contradíctíon
bctvccnthcílcatícandÏlatonícclcmcntoIthcdoctríncoIbcíngand
thc unmístakablc momcnt oI changc assocíatcd víth thc advancíng
Grcck or !cllcníc cnlíghtcnmcnt. Jhus thc vholc constructíon oI
Þrístotlc`sMetaµbysics ísrcallyIocuscd onthís oncproblcm. hovís
changc possíblc: Þnd thís changc or movcmcnt ís dcrívcd by Þrís-
totlcIromthcrclatíonoIIormtomattcr,ítís,sotospcak,thcrcsulthc
obtaínsIromhísontology,ínvhíchthcscmomcntsarcdístínguíshcd.
Jhc task ís to dcducc vhy mutabílíty cxísts Irom thc basíc structurc
oI bcíng ítsclI, that ís, Irom thc dualísm oI óò¸ and pepç¸ locatcd
víthín bcíng. Jhc mutablc ís to bc spun out, so to spcak, Irom thc
ímmutablc - a problcm vhích latcr rccurs ín!cgcl, vhosc Logic ís
both a µrima µbi/osoµbia ¦thatís, an ontology) and a díalcctíc ¦that
ís, a radícally claboratcd thcory oI dcvclopmcnt) . Jhís ambíguíty oI
phílosophy at íts latcr pcak ís also Iully prchgurcd, thcrcIorc, ín thc
philosophy oI Þrìstotlc.
Jhc ansvcr to thís qucstíon gívcn by Þrístotlc víll not surprísc
you,aItcrallvc havcsaídabouthísMetaµbysics. Itísthatmovcmcnt
- byvhíchhcmcansanupvardmovcmcntorchangc,thc advancíng
amclíoratíonoIcvcrythíngvhíchísthroughítsíncrcasíngdctcrmína·
tíon by thc absolutc - ís to bc cquatcd víth thc rcalízatíon oI thc
possíblc,ínsoIarasthcpossìblcísopposcdtonaturalcausalíty.Jhat
ís
rcally Þrístotlc`s ccntral proposítíon. Þnd thís proposítíon, that
movcmcnt ís thc rcalízatíon oI thc possíblc, alrcady ímplícs thc
!cgclían thcsís oIhístory as progrcss ín thc conscíousncss oI Ircc·
dom. ' `ÌrcmíndyouthatIor Þrístotlc dctcrmínatíon bypepç¸ísthc
M
A
8Z 11LÅ1VL L 11ÀLÏ
opposítc oI dctcrmínatíon by ó:oyç, and thus oI blínd ncccssíty.
Jhís conccptíonalso contaíns, atlcastímplícítly, an ínvcrsíon oIthc
!cgclíanproposítíon' ' oIthc rcalítyoIthc ratíonal ¦ an ínvcrsíonalso
tobcIoundín!cgclhímsclI) . JoIormulatcsucha conccptíon,Zcllcr
quotcs a passagc vhích docs not comc Irom thc Metaµbysics but
Iromthc|bysics. ¸ -euòu:opc:ô:-e;c:-còc¿c:o p-e:eu-e:. ' ´Jhatís
tosay, thatvhích ísbyvírtuc oIíts possíbílíty |ecomes byvírtuc oI
íts cntclcchy; movcmcnt ís thc bccomíng rcal oI thc possíbÍc. But
Þrístotlcísnotcontcnttolctmattcrsrcstvíth thísproposítíonabout
movcmcnt in a|stracto. Þt thís poínt hc alrcady Iccls thc nccd Ior
mcdíatíon or, asonc alsosays, Ior concrctíon; hc thcrcIorc askshov
thísmovcmcntaríscsínthc hrstplacc. !c novargucsasIollovs. thc
ímpulsc tovards movcmcnt can only comc Irom somcthíng vhích
alrcadyis vhatthcmovcdobj cctísto|ecome throughítsmovcmcnt.
Jhat ís, I vould say, a typícally ratíonalístíc ínIcrcncc bascd purcly
on conccpts, oI thc kínd you víÍl hnd ovcr and ovcr agaín ín thc
phílosophyoIthc scvcntccnthccntury. Itíscxposcd,oIcoursc,tothc
cntírcKantíancrítíqucoIconclusíonsdravnIrompurcconccpts. But
ín thc scnsc that hc drcv conclusíons Irom purc conccpts Þrístotlc
truly vas a ratíonalíst. Þnd ít vas not j ust an cxtcrnal hístorícal
conncctíonvhcnmcdícvalscholastícísm,thcphílosophyvhosccsscn-
tíal Icaturc vas thc proccdurc oI dravíng conclusíons Irom purc
conccpts, harkcd backto Þrístotlc. Cnthíscrucíalpoíntthcthínkíng
oI Þrístotlc vas, íI you líkc, alrcady scholastíc - Ior cxamplc, ín
proposítíons líkc thc onc I havc j ust mcntíoncd. that thc ímpulsc
tovards movcmcnt can only comc Irom somcthíng vhích alrcady ís
vhat thc movcd objcct ís to bccomc through íts movcmcnt. Jhís
prcsupposcs that thc tvo momcnts, thc movcr and thc movcd, arc
structurcd ín a ratíonal, purposc-dírcctcd vay, arc ínvardly dctcr-
míncd ín prccíscly thc manncr Irom vhích thc vholc oI modcrn
natural scícncc has cmancípatcd ítsclI. Þnd íI you ímagínc such a
proposítíonínrclatíontothcclassícal,causal-mcchanícalphysícsasso-
cíatcd víth thc namc oIIcvton, Ior cxamplc, you víll undcrstand
vhy thc gcncsís oI thc modcrn natural scícnccs has bccn to such a
maj or dcgrcc ancmancípatíon Irom Þrístotlc - Irom thc doctrínc oI
thcrcalítyoIIormsandthctclcologydcpcndcntonít.Þlrcadyímplícd
ínthatdoctríncísthcmotíIoIIull-blovnídcalísm,thatthcmovcmcnt
oIthcpartículartovardsthc absolutcalrcadyprcsupposcsthatabso-
lutc.Þrístotlc`sthcoryoImotíonísonlycomprchcnsíblcíIoncassumcs
that, ín any movcmcnt, thattovards vhích ítvants to movc ís also
thc agcntoIthc movcmcnt. Þnd!cgcl'sLogic attcmptcdto cxplícatc
prccísclythísprcsupposítíon,novapplícdtospírít, bymcansoIcpís-
tcmologícalrcIlcctíon, andtoshovhovsomcthíngvhichíscIIcctívc
11LÅ1VL 1Ï1N1Ï 8J
Irom thc hrst subscqucntIy maníIcsts ítscII ín and Ior ítscII. Ìt can
thcrcIorcbcsaídína prccíscscnscthat!cgcI`svorkscckstorccovcr
thcontoIogícaIprogrammcoIÞrístotIc`smctaphysícsthroughatran-
sccndcntaI, subj cctívcIydírcctcd anaIysís.
ÞccordíngtoÞrístotIc,cvcrymovcmcntprcsupposcstvo thíngs. a
movcrandamovcd. ÞndIor hímthísappIícstoscII-movíngthíngsas
vcII. ívcnvhcnvccanspcakoIsomcthíngasmovíngítscII,vchnd
íníttvo díIIcrcnt cIcmcnts or príncípIcs. thc movíng and thc movcd.
Jhís doctrínc ín ÞrístotIc ís bascd on thc human bcíng, vho ís thc
onIy scII-movíng cntíty- apart Irom anímaIs- vhích vc can knov.
Þccordíng to thís thcory, thc human bcíng ís dívídcd ínto tvo prín-
cípIcs; thc movíng príncípIc, vhích ísthc híghcr, thc ímmatcríaI and
thc spírítuaI; and thc movcd, thc matcríaI príncípIc. Jhísprovídcs
anothcríIIustratíonoIhovvc aII `spcakÞrístotIc` víthoutknovíng
ít. Íorthccntírchgurc oIthc duaIísmoIbodyandsouI,thc so-caIIcd
body-mínd probIcmvhích domínatcs thc vhoIc oIvcstcrnthínkíng
andbccomcsanovcrtphíIosophícaIthcmcínthcscvcntccnth-ccntury
ratíonaIísm oI Ocscartcs, gocs back to ÞrístotIc`s conccptíon oI thc
human bcíng thathasj ust bccnmcntíoncd. Jhc vhoIc Iatcr duaIísm
oIsubstanccs, oIbodyandsouI, andthusthc vhoIc qucstíonoIhov
thcsc duaIístícmomcnts, body and souI, arc íntcrrcIatcd, vasIormu-
Iatcd Ior thc hrst tímc, and ín aII íts trcnchancy, ín thís ontoIogícaI
anthropoIogy, vhích dívídcd thc human bcíng ítscII ínto a movíng
príncípIc and a movcd, matcríaI príncípIc. Ìn thís dívísíon thc movcr
is thc actuaI or thc Iorm, and thc movcd ísthc potcntíaI or mattcr.
CnIyIorm - cccpyco- causcsmattcr, dcspítc thc momcnts oIrcsíst-
ancc ít contaíns, to movc tovards ít. Ìt shouId not bc ovcrIookcd
hcrc that in ÞrístotIc - vho, Iíkc aII truIy sígníhcant phíIosophcrs,
vasmorcconccrncdvíthcxprcssíngphcnomcna thanvíth uníIyíng
thcm scamÌcssIy and víthout contradíctíons - thc qucstíon oI thc
rcIatíonshíp bctvccnvhatmíght bc caIIcdthc ímmancnttcndcncyoI
mattcr, andthc opposcdpríncípIcoIthc rcsístanccoImattcrtoIorm,
vas ncvcr compIctcIy artícuIatcd and cIaboratcd. Íor vhcrcas Ì cx-
pIaíncdtoyoucarIícrthatmattcrvasdchncdcsscntíaIIyasthc rcsíst-
ant, antíthctícaI and thus díaIcctícaI momcntín Iacc oIthc rcaIíty oI
Iorm,ítísaIsothccasc¦ asÌ bcIícvcÌpoíntcdouttoyouatthc outsct,
togcthcrviththcaIhnítyoIthísthcorytothcIatcronc oIbchcIIíng) ' '
that mattcr ítscIIí s aIso cndovcd víth a ycarníng, an `pc¸cJo: or
',µ
¸
, tovards Iorm as thc good or thc dívínc. Jhís poínts agaín, oI
coursc, tovards thc !cgcIían motíIÌ mcntioncd to you. that mattcr
itscII, vithour knoving ir, simpIy through its possibiIity, is aIrcady
spírít. Ior only as somcthing spírituaI can ít bc cndovcd víth thís
',µ
¸
vhích ísgradualIy rcalizcd in ít.
B
A
8+ 11LÅ1V1 11LNLÏ
ÞndthísnccdoImattcrIorIormísdchncdbyÞrístotlcasthc nccd
Iorthcgoodorthcdívínc.JhcídcntíhcatíonoIIormasthcunívcrsal,
oI thc good as thc moral norm and oI thc dívínc as thc híghcst
mctaphysícal príncíplc, ís alrcady accomplíshcd ín Þrístotlc`s Meta-
µbysics. Þnd that, too, has bccomc through Chrístíaníty a unívcrsal
ídca, vhíchvc gcncrally acccpt símply as a rcsult oIour cducatíon,
víthout rcIlcctíng on íts conncctíon to a spccíhc phílosophy, and
thcrcIorc onthc phílosophícalproblcmsímplícítínít.Iov, Þrístotlc
statcs that vhcrc mattcr and Iorm touch movcmcnt must alvays
and ncccssaríly arísc. ' ¨ Jhís proposítíon oI thc touchíng oI mattcr
and Iorm ís, onc míght say, anothcr oI thc Þrístotclían archaísms.
Jhatís,ítísoncoIthoscclcmcntsormomcntsínhísthoughtvhíchvc
hnd ít hard to cnvísagc, síncc thcsc tvo momcnts, mattcr and Iorm,
arc hcrc suddcnly scparatcd as tvo absolutcly díIIcrcnt príncíplcs,
andthcnrctrospcctívclybroughttogcthcr.Jhísínconsístcncyís,hov-
cvcr, conncctcd to thc Iact ¦ as Ì havc rcpcatcdly poíntcd out, and
vould rcítcratc hcrc) thatsubj cctívc rcIlcctíoníscsscntíallyabscntí n
Þrístotlc, so that hc í snot rcally avarc oI thc abstract charactcr oÍ
cíthcr hísconccptoIIormorhísconccptoImattcraspríncíplcs, and
thcrcIorc hypostatízcs both momcnts. Jhc rcmarkablc, cxcítíng, but
atthcsamctímcconstantlypuzzlíngthíngaboutÞrístotlc`sphílosophy
ísthathc símultancously rccognízcs thc rccíprocíty, thc íntcrdcpcnd-
cncc oIIorm and mattcr, and ncvcrthclcsstrcats thcm as so scparatc
that thcír íntcrdcpcndcncc rcmaíns a mcrcly cxtcrnal rclatíon and
thcíríntcrnalmcdíatíonísnotrccognízcd. Jruc, thcyarcmcdíatcdín
thc scnsc that onc cannot rcally cxíst víthout thc othcr - víth Ü
crucíal cxccptíon vhích vc shall comc back to ín thc ncxt lccturc
- but thís dcpcndcncc ís not such that onc príncíplc contaíns thc
othcr víthín ít as a condítíon oI íts possíbílíty. Jhís cxtcrnalíty ìs
stríkíngly dcmonstratcd ín Þrístotlc's doctrínc that thcsc tvo prín-
cíplcs actuallydo touch cach othcr Irom outsídc- almost, oncmíght
say, as íIthcy vcrc tvo díIIcrcnt substanccs, íI that docs not sound
tooparadoxícal - sothatmovcmcntonlyaríscs throughthckind/ing
vhích occurs vhcn thc tvo thíngs comc togcthcr. Ìt íscasy to pokc
Iun at thc somcvhat mythologícal aspcct oIthís ídca Irom our latcr
standpoínt. ButíIyoupícturc onccmorcthcbasícstructurc Ìtrícdso
strcnuouslytomakcclcartoyouínthchrstpartoIthíslccturcscrícs,
you víll scc that thís apparcnt naívcty ís ítsclIthc ncccssary Iruít oI
thc basíc structurc.
Þnd nov, thc dccísívc qucstíon Ior Þrístotlc - vhích takcs us to
thc ccntral problcm oIthc conncctíon bctvccn thc dynamíc momcnt
and thc ontologícalmomcnt- ís hovthcsc tvo momcnts arc rclatcd
structurally.ButIshouldprcIcrnotto cmbarkonthatqucstiontoday.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÃÑ¡ÍN¡
8 ]u/y I º65
  I
I told you ín thc last lccturc that ín ÞrístotÌc`s Metaµbysics movc-
mcnt aríscs Irom thc touchíng oI mattcr and Iorm. Þnd Ì poíntcd
out that thc addítívc momcnt oI thcsc tvo basíc catcgorícs cmcrgcs
vcryclcarly ín hísvork. Jhatísto saythatvhílc hc knovs thatonc
docs not cxíst víthout thc othcr - to that cxtcnt hc cntcrtaíncd thc
ídca oI mcdíatíon - hc díd not pcrccívc thís mcdíatíon víthín thc
catcgorícs thcmscÌvcs, but only ín thcír amalgamatíon. Ìt míght bc
uscIulatthíspoínt,vhcrcvc arcncaríngthc cndoIourdíscussíonoI
Þrístotlc, íI Ì add somcthíng vhích Ì ought, pcrhaps, to havc saíd
carlícr, as ít míght havc Iacílítatcd undcrstandíng. ¤hcn onc hcars
tcrms such as 'mattcr` or 'Iorm` - and thís rcally applícs not j ust to
Þrístotlc butto anundcrstandíngoIthc vholc oIancícntphílosophy
~ onc ís not quítc surcvhatto makc oIthcm. Ì dídatlcasttouch on
thís problcm by sayíng' thatvhcn Þrístotlc spcaks oImattcrhc sub-
stítutcsthc conceµt oImattcrIormattcrítsclI,andthatthíssubstítutíon
- or 'subrcptíon`, asKantvouldhavc callcd ít- ísthc vchíclc vhích
allovshímtomakcmattcríntoa kíndoIsccondpríncíplc.Iovthcrc
ís somcthíng rathcr pcculíar aboutall thcsc catcgorícs ín antíquíty. Ì
ímagínc that you arc at lcast vagucly avarc, Irom thc hístory oI
philosophy, that thc tcrm 'hylozoísm`,´ mcanìng thc anímatíon oI
natural catcgorícs, ís applícd to thc carlícst Grcck phílosophcrs, thc
Ìoníannaturc phílosophcrs. Þndyouvíllrccallthatín thcm physícal
andmctaphysícalcntítícs,thatís, physícalconccptsandmctaphysícal
csscnccs,vcrccuríouslyíntcrtvíncd- vhíchísconncctcdtothcIact,
oI coursc, that thc ancìcnt conccpts arc csscntíally sccularízcd gods.
M
86 11LÅ1VL ÅÑ1 1N1
bomcthíng oIthís archaícvavcríng, thís archaíc ambíguíty, survívcd
throughoutGrcckphílosophy. Þndítcannotbcpropcrlyundcrstood
íIthc dístanccscparatíngítIrom us,vhíchÌmcntíoncd carlyínthcsc
lccturcs,' ís not rcspcctcd, and thcsc conccpts arc símply translatcd
ínto ours. bothatíIÞrístotlc spcaks oImattcr, hcísrcIcrríngncíthcr
to thc phílosophícally sublímatcd conccpt oI mattcr vhích ís Iound
ínmodcrnphílosophy,norsímplytothcanímatcdmattcroIprímcvaÌ
tímcs, síncc both thcsc momcnts, thc mctaphysícal and thc physícal,
arcnotyctstríctlydístínguíshcdínallthcscconccpts.Jhísdístínctíon
onlyoccurrcdatarclatívclylatcstatcoIrcIIcctíon,thoughthcground
Ior ít vas dccísívcly prcparcd by thc radícal dualísm oI mattcr and
Iorm, thc dívínc and thc carthly, body and soul, vhích Ì spokc oI
ínthc lastlccturc. Youmay vcll, thcrcIorc, havc díIhcultícs- vhích
arc logícally undcníablc and sclI-cvídcnt - ín undcrstandíng vhat Ì
íllumínatcd Irom díIIcrcnt sídcs ín my last lccturc. that thc conccpt
oImattcr ín Þrísrotlc ísítsclIa momcnt oIa príncíplc vhích hasnot
only an csscncc oI íts ovn but a kínd oI ímmancnt tcndcncy. Jhc
Iundamcntal rcason Ior thís díIhculty oIundcrstandíngís, no doubt,
that ín such conccpts thc mcaníng oI thc hylozoíc clcmcnt, that ís,
mattcr,oscíllatcsbctvccnsomcthíngarchaícallyanímatcdandapurc
conccpt - an ccho oI both oI thcsc ís contaíncd víthín ít. Þnd vc
commít an anachronístíc crror íIvc translatc thcsc conccpts naívcly
íntoourovn kíndoIconccptualíty. Ior ítíshrstncccssaryto undcr-
stand such phílosophícs bcIorc vc sct about crítícízíng thcm - al-
though Ì donot bclícvc thc tvo actívítícscanscríously bc scparatcd.
Cur modcrn conccpts arc thc outcomc, oIcoursc, oImanyccnturícs

oImathcmatícalscícncc, ínvhíchthcscanímístícorhylozoíctcndcn-
cícs havc bccn thoroughly cxtcrmínatcd.
Iov thc rcaI poínt ín Þrístotlc`s phílosophy vhích bcars on thc
conccpt oI motíon ís as Iollovs. hc tcachcs not only that Iorm and
mattcr arc ínthcmsclvcs somcthíng ctcrnal, butthatthcre/ationsbiµ
ín vhích Iorm and mattcr stand to cach othcr ís also ctcrnal. Þs Ì
madcclcartoyouínthclastlccturc,thcrcalíntcrcstoIÞrístotlc,vho
vantcdtocombíncalargclycnlíghtcncd,dynamízcd!cllcnístícmodc
oIthínkíng víth Ïlatoníc conccptual rcalísm, lícs ín hís cxplanatíon
oImovcmcnt,oIdynamícs.ÞndthatísdoncbythcmcansÌíndícatcd
to you - by asscrtíng that thc rclatíonshíp oI Iorm to mattcr - and
not j ust thc tvo cntítícs ín thcmsclvcs - vas ctcrnal. Jhís thcsís
oI Þrístotlc`s has had íncalculabIc conscqucnccs Ior thc hístory oI
phílosophy.ÌIítcanbcsaídoI!cgcl ¦ asvasalsomcntíoncdcarlícr)¨
that hís phílosophy ís at thc samc tímc dynamíc[ a díalcctíc and
ontologícaI as a thcory oI bcíng - ís at thc samc tímc statíc and
dynamíc - that ís, íIyou Iíkc, a contínuatíon or subIímation oIonc
Ï1LÅ1VL ÅÑL1NL 8/
oIthc basícthcscsoIvcstcrnmctaphysícs, vhíchyouhndprchgurcd
ín Þrístotlc. But that ìs not all. ín our ovn tímc thís doctrínc oI
thc ctcrnalcharactcroIthc rclatíonshípoImattcrand Iorm, andthus
thc doctrínc oI thc ctcrníty oI movcmcnt, has croppcd up agaín ín
!cídcggcr`s thcory vhìch sccks to grasp hístorícíty or tcmporalíty
as an ínvaríant, an |xistenzia/, that ís, a basíc condítíon oI cxíst-
cncc.` Ìt ís clcarly alvays thc casc, vhcn thc dynamíc oI socícty,
vhích ísrcIlcctcd ín thought, causcs thc assumptíon oIínvaríants to
bccomcproblcmatíc, thatphílosophyshovsa tcndcncytomakcthat
varíabílíty,andthuschangc ítsclI, ínto anínvaríant. Ìnthísvaycvcn
changcísassímílatcdíntothcdoctríncoIastatícontology, andísthus
rcscucd. Þnd that ís prccíscly vhat also happcns ín Þrístotlc, vho
vas onthc onc hand a tclcologícal phílosophcr oIdcvclopmcnt, and
on thc othcr a phílosophcr oI bcíng, an ontologíst. !c cxtrícatcd
hímsclIIromthcdíIhculty by ontologízíngchangc ítsclI, asvcvould
put íttoday. Þnd thís ínturn had thc conscqucncc that, through hís
conccptual slcíght oI hand, through hís rcducíng movcmcnt to íts
conccpt and thcrcby ímmobílízíng ít, changc ís ín rcalíty conjurcd
out oI hís thought. By bcíng rcíntcrprctcd as a condítíon oI bcíng,
changcísconcrctclyncutralízcd, ínthc scnsc that, ín Iacc oIthís uní·
vcrsal mutabílíty, concrete changcs no longcr carry anyvcíght. Jhís
ídca ísalso Iully consonant víth thc othcr basíc thcsís oI Þrístotlc`s
that Ì cxpoundcd to you. thc onc vhích cndovs thc unívcrsal, as
agaínstthc partícular, víth both mctaphysícal and moralpríoríty.
Iov, thc rcason gívcn by Þrístotlc Ior thís ctcrnal qualíty oI
thc rclatíonshíp bctvccn thc tvo basíc catcgorícs, and thus Ior thc
ctcrnal naturc oI movcmcnt ítsclI - vhích, íncídcntally, vas also
conccívcd ontologícally by!craclítus- ís nonc othcr than that both
thc gcncsís and thc dísappcarancc oIthís movcmcnt, and thus oIthc
rclatíonshíp bctvccn thc tvo, can ín turn only bc causcd by a movc-
mcnt.Indcrallconccívablccírcumstanccs,thcrcIorc,movcmcntmust
bc ctcrnal. !cncc thc doctrínc that movcmcnt can ncvcr havc bcgun
andcanncvcrccasc. Ìnthísvaythc dynamíc ítsclIísmadc an ínvarí-
ant,ísmadcstatíc. Þnd Gocthc`sdíctumthatallstrívíngandstrugglc
amount to cvcrlastíng pcacc ín thc Lord" also has íts modcl ín thís
thcory oIÞrístotlc- j ust to dcmonstratc that thcsc Þrístotclían con-
ccpts havc índccd bccomc common propcrty oI thc vcstcrn mínd.
Cr, to put ítdíIIcrcntly, ítshovs hov much thatvhích ís takcn Ior
grantcdbyunrcIlcctívcconscíousncssvíthínourculturcísdcpcndcnt
onahíghlyspccíhcphílosophy,and- Iarmorcímportant- hovmuch
íts truth, íts valídíty, ítsclIdcpcnds on thc valídíty oIthc phílosophy
Iromvhíchsuchthcscsarcdcrívcd. ´Ìrcpcatyctagaínthatcvcnhcrc,
vhcrcvc arcconccrncdvíththc conccptsoIthatvhíchmovcs,víth
B
A
88 11LÅ1V1 ÅÑ1 1N1
motíon, changc, thc ctcrníty oI movcmcnt, thcy arc dcalt víth by
dcductíonIrompurcconccpts,víthoutrcgardtothcírscnsíblccontcnt.
Þnd ín thís proccdurc oI dravíng conclusíons Irom purc conccpts,
morcthan ínthccxplícitcontcntoIthc doctrínc oIthcprcccdcncc oI
thc unívcrsal ovcr thc partícular, Þrístotlc`s conccptual-rcalístíc or
antí-nomínalíst momcnt ís cxprcsscd, although up to nov vc havc
had much occasíon to talk about prccíscly thc opposítc, nomínalíst
momcnt.Iov,accordíngtothískíndoIdcductíon,thcultímatcrcason
Ior ctcrnal movcmcnt must bc somcthíng ímmobílc, othcrvísc vc
shouldarrívcataregressus ad injnitum. Ìhavcmcntíoncdantíquíty`s
dísIìkc oIthc conccpt oIínhníty,´ vhích should rcally bc sccn as an
avcrsíon rathcr than a rcsult oI mathcmatícal ígnorancc. It ís vcry
charactcrístíc oIthís outlook that, Ior Þrístotlc, thc Iact that Iaílurc
toassumcsuch an ímmobílccntíty atthc outsctvouldhavclcdto an
ínhnítc rcgrcssíon vas suIhcícnt grounds Ior assumíng thc cxístcncc
oI an `unmovcd movcr`, or, as hc calls ít, a J-/:¸-e: -::eu:, that ís,
somcthíng vhích, unmovcd ítsclI, movcs all thíngs. Þnd víth thís
conccpt vc havc madc thc transítíon Irom Þrístotclían mctaphysícs
to vhat míghtpcrhaps bc callcd Þrístotclían thcology.
Ïcrhaps Ì míght rcmínd you hcrc that Ì saíd to you carlícr` that
mctaphysícs ìn thcprccísc scnsc Ì havc sct outhcrc ísboth a crítíquc
and a rcprísc, a rcsumptíon, oI thcology. Ìt ís a pcculíaríty oImcta-
physícalthínkíng- ítís, I míght almostsay, onc oIthc ínvaríants oI
mctaphysícal thínkíng, vhích arc rcpcatcd ovcr and ovcr agaín ín
íts hístory - that thc conccptual opcratíons ít pcrIorms, vhích aím
ínítíallyatsomcthínglíkca crítíqucoImythologícalbcíngs,rcpcatcdly
cnd ín rcínstatíng thcsc mythícal bcíngs, or thc dívíníty, but ít no
longcr docs so ín a bclícI ín thc dírcct cxpcrícncc or thc scnsíblc
pcrccptíbílítyorthc substantíalcxístcncc oIthcdívínítícsordívíníty,
buton tbe |asis oj conceµtua/ tbougbt. ¤hatÌ saíd carlícr aboutthc
rcscuìng íntcntíon vhích accompanícs thc crítícal aìm oI all mcta-
physícsnov takcs onítsprccísc mcaníng, vhích ís quítc símply that
mctaphysícs attcmpts to rcscuc through conccpts vhat ít símultanc-
ouslycallsíntoqucstíonthroughítscrítíquc.Jhatísa momcntvhích
canbctraccdthroughthccntírchístoryoIvcstcrnmctaphysícs.Iov,
ín Þrístotlc thís hrst and unmovcd thíng, or thís hrst and unmovcd
bcíng, thís J-/:¸-e: -::eu:, ísímmatcríal; ítís Iorm vìthout mattcr,
ítíspurc actualíty. Jhclatcr mcdícvalconccptoIthcactus µurus ísa
dírcct translatíon oI thís notíon oI thc prímc movcr as thc purcly
ímmatcríal bcíng. Þrístotlc harks back hcrc to a doctrínc Ì havc also
dcscríbcd to you,'° and vhích only nov, so to spcak, bcars Iruít ín
thccconomyoIhísthought- and,íngcncral,thcthcorcmsoIthínkcrs
arc apt to havc thcír orígíns vcry Iar Irom thc terminu· aJ quem,
1LLÅ1VL ÅÑL 1N1 8¬
that ís to say that thcy arc conccìvcd ín such a vay that thcy only
yícld a proht atthc cnd, íIÌ may cxprcss ítso vulgarly. Ì amsayíng,
thcrcIorc, that only hcrc docsthc doctrínc thatmattcr, assomcthíng
Iortuítous, could alvays cqually vcll bc othcr than ít ís, comc to
Iruítíon, only hcrc docs ít comc ínto íts ovn. Cnly thc íncorporcal,
accordíng to Þrístotlc, ís ímmutablc and absolutcly ímmobílc. you
havc hcrc, thcrcIorc, ín thís doctrínc oIthc ultímatc bcíng as somc-
thíng at thc samc tímc ímmobílc, ímmutablc and íncorporcal, thc
basíc thcsís oIobj cctívc ídcalísm - although, and Ì rcpcat thís too¸'
thc rcIlcctíon on thc subjcctvhíchthís ídcalísm latcr carrícs through
ís not pcrIormcd ín Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. !crc, practícally cvcry-
thíng vhích ín !cgcl, vhosc thought can bc sccn as runníng closcly
parallclto Þrístotlc`s,ísdcvclopcdbytransccndcntalanalysís,thatís,
Irom absolutc andpurc subj cctívíty, ísattríbutcd, in intentione recta,
to príncíplcs or conccpts cxístíng ín thcmsclvcs. Íorm ís thc pcrIcct
bcíng and mattcr thc ímpcrIcct - and Irom that Þrístotlc concludcs
thatthcprímcmovcr,aspurcIorm,andonaccountoIítsvcrypuríty,
ís thc absolutcly pcrIcct.
You hnd hcrc tvo momcnts vhích bccamc vcry ímportant ín thc
latcr hístory oI vcstcrn thought and to vhích I should líkc to drav
your spccíal attcntíon. Íírst thcrc ís thc aIhrmatívc and optímístíc
momcntposscsscd by almostallgrcatmctaphysícal systcms. Ìtholds
that j ust bccausc Iorm ís thc pcrIcct and mattcr thc ímpcrIcct, and
bccausc Iorm ís ín cvcry scnsc gívcn príoríty ovcr rcalíty, rcalíty ís
thcrcby ítsclI madc ínto somcthíng posítívc vhích, íI not pcrIcct, at
lcast tcnds tovards pcrIcctíon. Jhís aIhrmatívc traít vhích has
accompanícd phílosophy Ior so long ís alrcady prcscnt ín Ïlato and,
as you scc hcrc, ínÞrístotlc too. Jhat ís to say, that byrcducíngthc
vorldtoítsconccptandmakíngthc conccptthc suprcmcandpcrIcct
cntíty, thís thínkíng alrcady has thc tcndcncy to j ustíIy thc vorld
ítsclIínítscurrcntstatc oIbcíngsoandnotothcrvísc.JhcsccondoI
thcscmomcntsthatÌ vanttopoínt outtoyouísthatthc conclusíon
thatthcprímcmovcrmustbcthcabsolutclypcrIcctcntítyísanancícnt
prccursor oI thc ontologícal prooI oI God. Þbsolutc pcrIcctíon and
absolutc rcalíty arc cquatcd, síncc rcalíty Ior Þrístotlc ís prccíscly
c:cpyc:o,thatvhíchhasbccomcIormandtothatcxtcntísthchíghcr.
!ovcvcr- unlíkc btÞnsclm oICantcrburylatcr- Þrístotlc docsnot
dravconclusíonsaboutcxístcnccIromthc conccptoIpcrIcctíon, but
concludcsIromthc structurcoIcxístcncc- thc structurcoIthcprcccd-
cncc oIIorm ovcr mattcr- thatthc bcíng oIGod must aríscvírtually
outoIpurcthought.Iurthcrmorc- andthís,too,ísínagrccmcntvíth
motíIsoIthc latcr!latovhíchdatc backínthchístoryoIphílosophy
to Ïythagorcanísm- thc prímc movcr mustncccssaríly bc only Òne.
B
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¬0 Ï1LÅ1VL ÅÑ1 1N1
Jhat ís to say thatít ís ítsclI thc ultímatc purposc - and apart Irom
thís ultímatc purposc, thís oõ cvc«o or -còe;, no othcr purposc ís
conccívablc.Jhísísvhcrcyouhndthc ídcalístícmotíImoststrongly,
as thc antíthcsís bctvccn uníty, as thc uníty oI subj cctívíty, and thc
dívcrsíty oI díIIusc and dívcrgcnt naturc, ís thc rcal thcmc oI any
ídcalíst phílosophy. ¤hat ís astoníshíng ís that thc vholc instru-
mentarium, íI you líkc, oI latcr ídcalísm ís to bc Iound ín Þrístotlc,
althoughthatvhìchvaslatcrtoconstítutcítsconccptualIoundatíon,
thc rcIcrcncc to thc thínkíng subjcct, ís not yct cxplícítly prcscnt.
But hc novhcrc comcs closcr to vhat ín thc latcr tcrmínology can
bc callcd thc príncíplc oI ídcntíty than hcrc, vhcrc hc dcals víth
thc oncncss oI thc prímc movcr. Jhís proposítíon ís arrívcd at by
Þrístotlc, hovcvcr, morc or lcss Irom thc cmpírícal sídc, j ust as,
índccd,ítísonc oIthc basíccndcavoursoIhísmctaphysícstoprcscnt
mctaphysícalproposítíonsasíIthcynotonlyagrccdvíththcobscrva-
tíonsoInaturalscícnccbutvcrcncccssarílygcncratcdbythcm.Jothís
cxtcnt, onc míght say anachronístícally, Þrístotlc ís rcally much líkc
a phílosophcr oI thc scvcntccnth ccntury. Irom thc oncncss oI thc
vorld and thc oncncss oI movcmcnt as hc conccívcs ít, hc dcduccs
cosmologícallythc absolutc oncncss oIthc prímc movcr.
¤hat I saíd about thc transítíon oI Þrístotlc' s mctaphysícs to
thcologycan bc sccnmostclcarlyhcrc,Ior ínthísnotíonoIthc abso-
lutcly sínglc prímc movcr, vhích Ior purcly logícal rcasons- that ís,
byvírtuc oIthc thcoryoImovcmcnt- cantolcratcnoothcrbcsídcít,
you alrcady hnd Chrístían monothcísm spcculatívcly prchgurcd ín
Grcckphílosophy. Þndítísundoubtcdlyno accídcntthatÏlato,vho
ccrtaínly díd not vant to bc guílty oI ímpícty tovards Grcck poly-
thcísm, spcaksvcry oItcn, atlcastthrough thc mouth oIbocratcs, oI
6 0c6;, thc god, and notoI oíJce/, thc gods. In thís, thc doctrínc oI
thc absolutclyunítaryprímcmovcrísíncomplctcagrccmcntvíththc
ímmancntly monothcístíc tcndcncy oI spcculatívc phílosophy, vhích
ís alrcady híntcd at ín thc príncíplc oI thc oncncss oI synthcsís as
opposcdtothcmultíplícítyoIthc matcríal oIcxpcrícncc- or, asítís
callcdhcrc,oImattcrormcrcpotcntíalíty.Jhcdccísívcbrcakthrough
oI vhat I havc callcd Þrístotlc's obj cctívc, but not yct sclI-avarc,
ídcalísm occurs ín thc proposítíon - and thís ís índccd an opcnly
ídcalístproposítíon- thatthc prímc movcr asabsolutclyíncorporcal
spírítís, to usc Þrístotlc'stcrm, voú;,'¯thc cxprcssíon ceu;ísdcrívcd
Irom thc vord vociv, vhích ín Grcck mcans much thc samc as 'to
thínk', ín thc scnsc oI thc subj cctívc actívíty oI thínkíng. Jhís gocs
back to thc Iamous proposítíon oI Ïarmcnídcs, that bcíng - vhích
Ïarmcnídcs undcrstands as nothíngothcr than absolutc and abstract
oncncss- ís thc samc asthínkíng. ' ' I am vcll avarc thatín modcrn
1LLÅ1VL ÅÑL1NL ¬1
phíÌologícal crítícìsm thc mcanìng oIthís proposítíon oIÏarmcnídcs
ís a subjcct oIcontrovcrsy. '¨ Þnd thcrc víll no doubt bc not a Icv
classícalphílologístsvhovíllrcIusc to rcduccthís :eu;andthc :ec|:
assocíatcd víth ít to thc sub¡ cctívc human mínd. In thís thcy víll
undoubtcdly bc ín accord víthÞrístotlc`scxplícítíntcntíon, víthout
qucstíon, Þrístotlc vouldhavc saíd prccíscly thc samc thíng. Icvcr-
thclcss, ít míght rcasonably bc vondcrcd vhcthcr, víthout such a
:ec|:, víthout thc modcl dcrívcd Irom thc human actívíty oI thínk-
íng,thísnotíonoIpurc, sclI-suIhcícntthoughtvould havc bccncon-
ccívablcat all. Conscqucntly, although thís rcIlcctíon onsubj cctívíty
docs not takc placc ín Þrístotlc, ít ís palpably closc- íI anythíng as
ínsubstantíal aspurc thought can bc rcIcrrcd to aspalpablc. Jhatís
to say,thata díIIcrcntmodclIorthíspurcand díscmbodícdactualíty
oIthc dívíníty asthc purcact oIthought símply cannot bc Iound. It
ís thc poínt at vhích thc projcct Ior an obj cctívc ontology clashcs
víththcconccptandvíolcntlyabsorbsít, andthísínturnímplícsthc
rccoursc to subj cctívíty onvhích all ídcalíst mctaphysícs ís Ioundcd.
Jhc ultímatc ground oI all movcmcnt, thcrcIorc - to statc thc
mattcr ínÞrístotclíantcrms- ísthc dívínítyítsclIas purcandpcrIcct
míndorspírít¦ Ceistì. Its actívíty- soÞrístotlc`sargumcntatíonruns
- canonlyconsíst ín thought. Jhís ís thcvorkìng outoIthcídca oI
:eu;asthc truly absolutccntíty; Ì vouldrcmíndyou ínpassíngthat
thc conccpt oI :eu; ín thís strong, mctaphysícal scnsc has a long
prchístorygoìngbacktoÞnaxagoras.JhcactívítyoIthcpurc,dívínc
spírítcanonlyconsístínthoughtbccausc,accordíngtothísphílosophy,
anyothcr actívíty- that ís,vhat ís undcrstood by praxís both ín thc
moral scnsc, -po--c::, and ín thc scnsc oI makíng thíngs, -e:c|:
has íts purposc outsídc ítsclI, vhcrcas that ís ínconccívablc ín thc
casc oIthc hrst, purc, sclI-suIhcícnt bcíng. Jhís can havc íts purposc
onlyínítsclI;ítíspurposctoítsclIalonc. ''Jhatísthcj ustíhcatíonIor
thcproposítíonthatgodíspurcactualítyandísnot dctcrmíncd bya
purposc lyíng outsídc hímsclI; that ís thc argumcntatíon undcrlyíng
Þrístotlc`s doctrínc oI thc actus µurus. Iov, thís argumcnt has a
Iurthcr,cxtraordínarílyIar-rcachíngconscqucnccínÞrístotlc`sMeta-
µbysics. JhíspurcactívítyoIthcmínd,vhíchhasnopurposcoutsídc
ítsclI,íscquaIcdbyÞrístotlcvíthJcop/o- purc,purposclcssthínkíng
rclatcd to no rcal praxís. Þnd thc apothcosís oI purc thought, purc
contcmplatíon rcgardcd as an cnd ín ítsclI víthout any rclatíon to
anythíng cxístíng outsídc it - that ís, thc absolutc status grantcd to
purcmcntalactívíty,vhíchísthcIoundatíonoIcvcrythíngvhíchhas
latcrínaprccíscscnscbccncallcdvcstcrnculturc,andagaínstvhích
thc hcrccst crítícism oIídcalísm has bccn dírcctcd - that apothcosís
had íts orígín ín thís thcorctícal conccpt oIÞrístotlc's. ' "
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¬Z 1LLÅ1VL ÅÑL 1NL
Jhis apothcosis also lcavcs its imprint on his cthics, in that thc
lattcrgivcs prcccdcncc tothc so-callcd dianocticvirtucs - thcvirtucs
rcsiding in purc contcmplation and sclI-rcfÎcction vithout rcgard to
action - ovcr all othcr virtucs. Jhinking, unlikc praxis, is suIhcicnt
untoitsclI.ÌtisasiIthcscparationoIphysicalandmcntalvork,vhich
is conncctcd to thc proccss oI thc division oI labour and in vhich
mcntal vork has gaincd prcpondcrancc ovcr physical labour, has
nov bccn rcfÎcctcd idcologically ¦ onc vould havc to say) by mcta-
physics. Jhatvhichhasnovprovcd thc dominantprinciplc, namcly
òóye,,andvithitthcpcoplcvhoarc dispcnscdIromphysicalvork,

isjustihcdasthchighcrcntityinandIoritsclI,vhilcnoconsidcration

is givcn to thc ncccssary dcpcndcncc oImind on that ovcr vhich it
rulcs and Irom vhich ithas scvcrcd itsclI. Jhat this marks a crucial
historical turningpointinancicntphilosophyhasoItcn bccnpointcd
out,andyoudonotnccdmctoprcscntittoyouasagrcatdiscovcry.
It mcans, hovcvcr, that thc glorihcation oI purc thcory as against
praxis inthcpo/ts- a praxisvhichhad bccnrcgardcdasthc highcst
catcgorybythcÏythagorcans andstillplaycd a dccisivc rolc in Ïlato
- originatcd at a timc ¦ and Þristotlc vas, aItcr all, thc tcachcr and
contcmporary oIÞlcxandcr thc Grcat) vhcnthc possibilityoIauto-
nomous political activity by thc individual had bccn rcduccd to a
minimum, andvhcnthc individualvasthusthrovn backvilly-nilly
onrcfÎcction. Ïoliticalpraxis,asithadbccncarricdoninaccordancc
vith traditional Grcck- that is, ÞthcnianorÞttic- dcmocracy,vas
no longcr possiblc. Þnd out oI this ncccssity, this dcprivation, thc
mctaphysicizingoIthcory,vhichvastakcntobcthc principlcoIthc
divinityitsclI, madcnotonlya virtuc, butthchighcstvirtuc.Þccord-
ingly,thcobj cctoIdivincthoughtcouldonlybcdivincthoughtitsclI,
bccausc, as purc thought, it abidcd vithin itsclI. ' You vill bc
rcmindcd hcrc oI thc latcr !cgcl's dchnition oI logic as a gamc thc
vorld spirit plays vith itscl!´ - and I vould rcmind you that Ior
!cgcl, vcrymuch as Ior Þristotlc, mctaphysics andlogic vcrc rcally
thcsamcthing. '`ButI canonlyindicatcthisidcahcrc,andmustsavc
its morc dctailcd claboration Ior thcncxt lccturc.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÃMÍHá¡P
I J ]u/y I º65
Joday I should líkc to bríng to an cnd my cxposítíon oIÞrístotlc`s
Metaµbysics, and thc rcIÌcctíons on ít that vc havc bccn pursuíng
togcthcr. I vould rcmínd you that thc objcct oI dívínc thought, ac-
cordíngto Þrístotlc, can only bc dívínc thought ítsclI. ¤hat ís quítc
rcmarkablc aboutthís thcsís ís that- dcspítc thc IactthatI havctold
you ad nauseam that subj cctívcrcIÌcctíon, rcIcrcncc to thc subjcctoI
knovlcdgc, docs not play any part ín hís phílosophy, at lcast as a
thcmc - thís thcsís ín Iact rcprcscnts thc cxtrcmc poínt rcachcd by
subj cctívc ídcalísm through subj cctívc rcIÌcctíon. Íorínídcalísm ítís
thc cascthat íIcvcrythíng ís hnallyrcducíblc to mínd, thcn thc con-
tcnt oI mind, that vhich ítsclIís not mínd, thc not-I, ncvcrthclcss is
mínd;andthatconscqucntlythcabsolutc,vhíchcorrcspondsínÞrís-
totlc tothcdívínc príncíplc, can havc nothíng othcr than ítsclIas íts
contcnt.JhcargumcntatíonuscdbyÞrístotlctorcachthísconclusíon
íssígníhcantlydíIIcrcntIromthatvhíchI havcíndícatcdtoyouhcrc.
Itís- hovshallIsay:- statícally, hícrarchícallyontologícal, andnot
díalcctícal.ItmaíntaínsthatthcvalucorvalídítyoIthínkíngdcpcnds
onítscontcnt;butsínccthchíghcstcontcntvhíchthoughtcouldhavc
ísthc dívínc mínd ítsclI, thcn thc contcnt oIthc dívínc mínd ís- thc
dívíncmínd| Þccordíngly, ínthc híghcstthoughts, subj cct andobj cct
coíncídc, j ust as thcy dolatcr ín absolutc ídcalísm; that ís to say, thc
thought and thc thínkíngarchcld to bc thc samc. I vouldpoínt out
ínpassíngthatinthísthcsís,putIorvardvíthaccrtaínínnoccncc by
Þrístotlc, thcrc ismanìIcstcd a paradoxoranabsurdítyvhíchdisap-
pcarsínthcmorcsophìsticatcdprcscntatìonoIthcscìdcasatthchcìght
B
A
¬+ 11LÅ1V1 Å11 VÅ11Ï
oI Gcrman ídcalísm. ¤c should not bc pcrsuadcd, hovcvcr, that ít
hasccascdtocxíst;andvccomcacrossít, índccdvcposítívclycollídc
víth ít,vhcnvcmcctthcscínhnítclycomplcxand díIhcultspcculat-
ívc ídcas ínthcírclcmcntaryIorm ínÞrístotlc. Íorínhís cascvcarc
oblígcdtoask thc qucstíonvhích must bcaddrcsscdto all ídcalísm.
vhatdocsmínd,orthínkíng,orknovlcdgcrcallyamountto,íIítot¡ly
thínks ítsclI: OocsthísnotmakcthoughtítsclI, andthusthcabsolutc
vhích thought ís supposcd to bc, onc sínglc, ímmcnsc tautology:
Jhís momcnt rccurs latcr, as Ì saíd, ínídcalísm, but ínÞrístotlc ít
ís opcn to vícv ín all íts crassncss. Þnd thcgod vho actuallythínks
nothíng but hímsclI ís not vholly unlíkc thc navcl·gazcr vc can scc
dovnstaírs ínthís buíldíng, ínthc Iorm oI thc statuc oIthc so-callcd
sagc,'vhogívcsusthcIcclíngthathcrcprcscntsbcíngandrcI!cctson
bcíng, and thatvhat bcíng saysto hímísonly. bcíng, bcíng, bcíng. I
should sayínIaírncss thatthís j okcísnotmy ovn, butgocs backto
anadmíttcdlysomcvhatdíIIcrcntIormulatíonoI!cgcl`s.Inapolcmíc
agaínst]acobíhcrcmarkcdthatthcthoughtvhíchímmcrscdítsclIín
thc conccpt oIbcíngrcmíndcd hím oIthc Jíbctan rítc oIthc praycr-
vhccl,ínvhíchthcvorshíppcrsconstantlysaynothíngbut`om`,`om',
`om`.¯ Ì don`tvísh to bc dísrcspcctIul tovards Þrístotlc, butíIIor a
momcntonc stcps outsídc thc íntcllcctual cdíhcc- Ì almost saíd, thc
cathcdral - vhích ís hís thought, such ídcas do cntcr onc`s mínd. In
hísvorkthísnotíoníscxprcsscdínthcabsolutclyídcalístIormulatíon
thatthcthínkíngoIgod- !cgclvouldsay.thcthínkíngoIthcvorld
spírít- ís a thínkíng oIthínkíng or, to usc thc suprcmc Iormulatíon
oI thís príncíplc ín Þrístotlc. thc có¸c:; :e¸cco;, thc thínkíng oI
thínkíng.'IovthcscícntístínÞrístotlcvasclcarlynottoocomIort-
ablc on thís summít oI hís thought, and hc j ustíhcd thc ídca oI thc
có¸c:; ce¸cco; by sayíng that thc bcatítudc oI god lay ín hís sclI-
contcmplatíon- a motíIvhích bccamccrucíal to thc vholc oImcdí-
cval thcology. Idcas such as that human bcíngs arc crcatcd as hnítc
andsínIulcrcaturcsbccauscGodvantstobclovcdínIrccdom,Iorhís
ovn sakc as thc absolutc, by hnítc and Iallíblc bcíngs, arc trans-
parcntlyrclatcdtothísmotíI. ButthísíntcrprctatíonoIdívíncthought
as có¸c:; :e¸cco; ís so cxtraordínaríly Icrtílc bccausc - and thís ís
pcrhaps stíll morc ímportant than thc conccptíon oI thc absolutc ít
contaíns- ítamounts to somcthíng líkca guídctothcbcatíhc líIc or
a guídctorcason,síncc, ínkccpíngvíth thcÞrístotclíanpríncíplcsoI
analogyand tclcology, thc humanmínd shouldapproxímatcítsclIto
thc dívínc spírít as closcly as ít possíbly can. Iov, thís ídca alrcady
contaíns thc vholc programmc oIphílosophy as sclI-rcIlcctíon. Cnc
míght almost saythat síncc Þrístotlc phílosophy ín gcncral has bccn
thc ímplcmcntationoIj ustthís có¸c:;ce¸cco;thathcascribcstothc


1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ ¬ó
dívínc príncíplc as thc prímal ímagc oI all phílosophy. Cnc míght
cmbark hcrc, íncídcntally, on somc rcIlcctíons along thc líncs oI
Ícucrbachíancnlíghtcnmcnt,tothccIIcctthatthcídcathatthc dívín-
ítydcrívcshappíncss IromsclI-contcmplatíoncontaínsa quítcímpcr-
míssíblc anthropomorphísm - morcovcr, a narcíssístíc and thus a
psychologícal anthropomorphísm. Íollovíng up Ícucrbach's motíI,
oncmíghtargucthatthcIorccoIcgoísm,thcstuntíngoIhumanbcíngs
vhích prcvcnts thcm Irom lovíng and makcs thcm capablc oIlovíng
onlythcmsclvcs- oncmíghtargucthatthísnarcíssístíctcndcncy,thís
dívcrsíon oIthc capacítyoIlovc onto thc sclI, ís hcrc proj cctcd onto
thcdívínítyínordcrtocndovitvíthabsolutcmctaphysícalj ustíhca·
tíon,vhcrcasoncmíghtaskvhatsortoIadívínítyítísvhích,ínstcad
oIlovíngítscrcaturcs,lovcsonlyítsclI. Butgrcatmíndshavcnotbccn
much troublcd bythís Ior thc past Icv thousand ycars.
Þll thc samc, thís ídca docs contaín a momcnt vhích ís vcry ím·
portantIorthcconccptoIphílosophy- thcmodcloIsclI-rcI!cctíon.II
dívíncthoughtísrcgardcd asthc thínkíngoIthínkíng, thcnprccíscly
thc intentio o|/iqua vhích docs not appcar as such ín Þrístotlc's
thought - that thc csscntíal príncíplc oI phílosophy docs not líc ín
íts thínkíng about objccts or aboutvhat ís díIIcrcnt Irom ítsclI, but
ín rcI!cctíng on itse/j - ís antícípatcd as a mctaphysícal príncíplc.¯
Jo that cxtcnt onc míght say that thís intentio o|/iqua, vhích ís
only carrícd out much latcr ín thc hístory oI phílosophy, ís alrcady
prchgurcd díalcctícally, in intentione recta, ín thís dchnítíon oI thc
absolutc as thc thínkíng oIíts ovn thought. Norcovcr, Ior thc pro-
Icssor oI physícs vhích Þrístotlc also vas, thís mctaphysícs also
yícldcdanímmcdíatcproht- íIyouvíllonccmorcpcrmítmcsucha
slovcnly manncr oI spccch. Jhc rcmarkablc thíng ís that thís ím-
mcnscsublímatíonoIthcdívíncspírít,vhíchrcallyamountstonothíng
othcr than íts sclI-rcI!cctíon, rcprcscnts a kínd oIunburdcníng oIthc
cmpírícal vorld. In my Metakritik der £rkenntnistbeorie, usíng thc
cxamplc oI !usscrl`s phílosophy, vhích takcs up many motíIs Irom
antíquíty, I trícd to charactcrízc thís phcnomcnon as thc sacríhcc oI
thccmpírícal.`Jhatistosaythatthroughthísvcrycontcntmcntvíth
hÌs ovn sclI-contcmplatíon, God abandons thc vorld. In Þrístotlc's
Metaµbysics thís abandonmcnt ís cxprcsscd ín thc doctrínc that al-
thoughallcrcatíon,allmattcr, allhnítudcmovcstovardsthcabsolutc
príncíplc, that príncíplc docs not act dírcctly on thc vorld, docs not
gooutsídcítsclI. GoddocsnotturnthcvorldtovardshímsclI;rathcr,
tclcology ís brought about bythc mcrccxístcncc oIgod, as a kíndoI
structurally logìcal hicrarchy. Jhís marks a clcar boundary bctvccn
Þrístotlc`sthoughtandthcology,ínthatthcIormcrísturncdtovards
thcvorld,tovardscxistcncc. IIImightgívcyoua Iurthcrpcrspcctívc
M
W
¬6 1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ
on thc hístory oImctaphysícs. you víll not hnd ít hard to rccognízc
thís motíI, that thc unmovcd movcr rcmaíns outsídc movcmcnt, ín
thc much latcr thcory oI dcísm, vhích amountcd to an attcmpt to
rcconcílcthcoldthcologícalhcrítagcvíththcscícntíhcínlíghtcnmcnt.
!ovcvcr, although, Ior Þrístotlc,thchighcstgoodísalsothchìghcst
purposc,tovardsvhíchcvcrythíngstrívcsandcvcrythíngmovcs,thís
ís onlythccascvíthínthccontcxtoIhís hícrarchícalthínkíng,vhích
dístínguíshcs varíousgradatíons oIpurposc - and notín thc scnsc oI
a dívínc íntcrvcntíon orínI!ucncc.
Ì vould rcmark ìnpassíng that thc vholc oIphílosophy abounds
víth Iormulatíons such as that thc híghcst good ís at thc samc tímc
thc híghcst purposc. ÌI you opcn any book on any mctaphysícal
phílosophcr you víll alvays - cspccíally vhcn you gct tovards thc
conclusíon - hcar such thíngs as. thc híghcst purposc ís also thc
híghcstgood,or.pcrIcctbcautyísalsopcrIccttruth,or.ínthcabsolutc,
cxístcncc and csscncc provc to bc thc samc, and so Iorth. Ior thc
momcnt Ì vould onlyurgc you, vhcnyou comc across such gcncral
mctaphysícal cquatíons ínyour studícs oIthc hístory oIphílosophy,
tobcslíghtlyonguard, andtodcrívcIrom thcmaccrtaínmístrustoI
mctaphysícs.IoríIphílosophyrcallyísthccapacítyIordíIIcrcntíatíon,
thcabílítytodístínguíshínthought,ínstcadoIrcducíngcvcrythíngto
anabstractIormula,thcn,tobcsurc,oncvouldcxpcctphílosophyto
rclatcítshíghcstcatcgorícstooncanothcrandnotlcavcthcmísolatcd;
butíIthcyarcalltobconc,thatvouldgívcrísctosomcthínglíkcthc
níght Ior vhích!cgcl took bchcllíngtotask- thc níght ínvhíchall
cats arc grcy." Ìt ís a kínd oI cvídcncc agaínst thc substantíalíty oI
ontology- agaínst thc claím thatontologyrcallydocs havc acccss to
thc csscnccs ít purports to ísolatc - that ít ís ncvcr ablc to sustaín
thcsc csscnccs scparatcly, butínthc cndposíts thcm allas onc,víth-
out bcíng ablc to maíntaín thcír scparatcncss víthín thís oncncss.
Cnc oIthc Icv thínkcrs oIthc ratíonalíst or mctaphysícal typc vho
notíccdthís,íncídcntally,vasLcssíng,vho,asIarasÌknov,vasthc
hrstrcprcscntatívcoIthattradítíontoopposc,andpolcmícallyattack,
thís notíon oI oncncss, thís undíIIcrcntíatcd ídcntíty oI thc híghcst
príncíplcs.´Jradítíonalphtlosophygívcsusscríousgroundstomístrust
ít, Ì bclícvc, vhcncvcr ítrcsolvcscvcrythíngíntoonc, íntoídcntíty, ín
a kínd oIgrand hnalc, síncc ít thcrcby Iorgocs thc vcry concrctcncss
vhích íts rcsults ought to havc.
Þnd, unlcss Ì ammístakcn, ítvas not thc lcastoI!cgcl`s motívcs
ín dcvclopíng hís díalcctíc that hc attcmptcd both to rctaín an onto-
logícal basíc structurc and to do j ustíc to díIIcrcnccs - although, ín
thc cnd, cvcrythíngturnsouttobcthc samcínhísphilosophytoo. Ìn
myopiníonítísvcrydíIhculttodístínguíshthcpostulationoIabsolutc
1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ ¬/
ídcntítyIrom actual uníIormíty, índccd monotony, ínvhích nothíng
díIIcrsIromanythíngclsc- anall-ncssoIthoughtvhíchactuallysays
nothíng at all. Þt any ratc, thc physícístÞrístotlc can crcdít hímsclI
víth thc IactthatthcrcísnocrcatívcactívítyoIGod,noíntcrvcntíon
ín thc vorld`s coursc ín hís Metaµbysics. Ìn thís, through thc cxtra-
ordínary tcnsíon and sublímatíon oIthc mctaphysícal conccpt ín hís
thought, hc ís cntírcly a phílosophcr oIthc !cllcníst cnlíghtcnmcnt.
Þnd onc almost hnds oncsclIcntcrtaíníng thc blasphcmous ídca that
thcípícurcanthcoryoIthcabsolutcdctachmcntoIthcgods, vholct
humancxístcncc pass bcIorc thcm as a kínd oIspcctaclcº - a thcory
vhíchappcarcd not long aItcr Þrístotlc- ís ítsclIa Ïcrípatctíc lcgacy
not vcry Iar rcmovcd Irom thís conccptíon oI Þrístotlc's. I vould
poínt out, íncídcntally, that thc systcmatíc dívísíon that vas madc,
cvcnínantíquíty, andprccísclyínthc !cllcnístícpcríod, bctvccnthc
Iourgrcatschools- thcÏlatonícÞcadcmy,thcÞrístotclíanÏcrípatctícs,
btoícs and ípícurcans - vas ítsclI a kínd oI admínístratívc com-
partmcntalízatíon. In rcalíty, thctransítíonsvíthín such ancpoch ín
vhích, Ior socíal rcasons, ccrtaín ídcas ncccssaríly ímprcsscd thcm-
sclvcs on thínkcrs oI all shadcs, vcrc íncomparably morc I!uíd than
thís schoolroomísh dívísíon míght lcad us to cxpcct. Latcr, too, ín
patrístícphílosophyand,abovcall,ínthctransítíonsbctvccnancícnt
andChrístíanphílosophy,thcscschoolsvcrcnotdístínguíshcdncarly
as sharply as schoolroom usagc suggcsts. Ì bclícvc that íI onc vcrc
to claboratc systcmatícally thc clcmcnts ín Þrístotlc that Ì havc just
dcscríbcd,pcrhapsslíghtlyanachronístícally,as!cllcnístíc,thcdíIIcr-
cnccs bctvccn thc tvo spccíhcally !cllcnístíc schools, btoícísm and
ípícurcanísm, vould dímínísh. Iov, Ladícs and Gcntlcmcn, víth
thíshístorícalrcI!cctíon- no,rcI!cctíonístooprcsumptuousa tcrm-
víththíshístorícalnotcÌvíllbríngtoancndvhatÌvantcdtosayto
you aboutÞrístotlc.
Cnc could, IullyínkccpíngvíthvhatÌ havc skctchcd Ior you,vrítc
a hístory oIthc vholc oI mctaphysícs onthc basís oIÞrístotlc. Jhc
task vould bc to analysc vhat bccamc oI hís catcgorícs - and Ior
vhatrcasons,vhcthcrímmancntphílosophícaloncsorothcrsímposcd
lromoutsídc.!crc,oIcoursc,oncnccdsto bcavarcthatítvould bc
a crudc and prímítívc approach to assumcthatthcrc arc, on thc onc
hand, socíal modíhcatíons to thought and, on thc othcr, somcthíng
líkc an íntcrnal dcvclopmcnt oI íts catcgorícs. Jhís bríngs us to a
proposítíonrclatíngtothchístoryoIphílosophy,or a thcoryoIíntcl-
lcctual hístory, that Ì should líkc to dcvclop somcvhat, although Ì
cannot pursuc ít too Iar. It ís that socíal motíIs - ín thís casc thc
povcrlcssncss ol thc índívídual, thc rctrcat ínto prívatc líIc, all thc
M
Æ 
¬8 ÏLLÅ1VL Å11 VÅJJÏ
momcntsvccall!cllcnístíc- donotínI!ucncc thoughtIrom outsídc,
but that, ín a vayvhích ís díIhcult to pín dovn and vhích has not
bccn analyscdínpríncíplcuptonov, thcyímpíngconthcímmancnt
cohcrcncc oI thought ítsclI, makíng thcmsclvcs Iclt ín thc íntcrnal
argumcntatíonoIthcíndívídualphílosophcr. IIathcorctícíanoIíntcl-
lcctual hístory vcrc to attcmpt to undcrstand thís híghlyrcmarkablc
conncctíon, vhích cstablíshcs víthín a phílosophy a logíc vhích ís
ín curíous harmony víth socíal cxpcrícnccs ímposcd Irom outsídc,
víthout that phílosophy havíng to adapt ítsclI cxtcrnally to thcm,
thatvould bcancxtrcmclyímportanttask. Ïcrhapsthcrcíssomconc
among you vho víll scríously takc up thís qucstíon. Isíng thc cx-
amplcoIa numbcroIÞrístotclíancatcgorícs,ÌhavcsctoutIoryouín
paradígmatíc or cxcmplaryIorm ¦ asonc saystoday)vhatbccamc oI
thosc catcgorícs. But as Ì havc promíscd to hold a scrícs oIlccturcs
on thc conccpt and problcms oI mctaphysícs, and havc ncíthcr thc
íntcntíon nor thc tímc to gívc you ancntírc hístory oImctaphysícs,
Ìcannotpursucthís qucstíonIurthcr. InstcadÌ thínkI should usc thc
last lccturcs to cxprcss somc rcI!cctíons on mctaphysícs vhích arc
locatcdatthcopposítchístorícalcxtrcmc.thatís,rcIlcctíonsonmcta-
physícs vhích sccm to mc tímcly and unavoídablc today. You víll
undcrstandthatíndoíngsoIshallhavctoadopta morchypothctícal
and somctímcs índícatívc approach than ín thc account Ì havc gívcn
you uptonov. !ovcvcr, ÌthínkÌ canpromíscthatyouvíllhndthc
ídcasI shallprcscnttoyou ínthcncxtlccturcs Iullydcvclopcd ínmy
book, oIvhíchI ambcgínníngtogctanovcrvícv.' ButbcIorcÌ pass
ontothosc qucstíons, Ì shouldlíkctoconsídcroncIurthcr mattcr o}
gcncral príncíplc.
´
ÏlcasccastyourmíndsbacktovhatIsaídcarlícr'`aboutthchístory
oImctaphysícs, a hístoryprchgurcdínÞrístotlc,vhíchIprcscntcd as
anattcmpttorcscuccatcgorícsvhíchvcrcorígínallythcologícal,but
to do soby mcans oI a ratíonal crítíquc, that ís, byrcason. Ìt could
thcrcIorc bcsaídthatmctaphysícsísa translatíonoIthcologícalcon-
ccptíonsíntocatcgorícsoIrcason,thatítísaconccptualízatíonoIthosc
conccptíons. Jhís could pcrhaps bc morc Iully dcmonstratcd usíng
Ïlato`sdoctríncoIÌdcas,síncchcvascloscrtothcologythanthcmuch
morc cmpírícal and scícntíhc Þrístotlc. Þnd íIít vcrc dcmonstratcd
that, through thcsc mcchanísms oI conccptualízatíon, conccptual
thoughtvasínstallcdasthcauthorítyrcsponsíblcIormctaphysícsand
thc absolutc, thatvould ímplythatconccptual thought and thc con-
ccptítsclIhadbccomc,asítvcrc,thclcgalbasísoImctaphysícs.Jhat
conclusíon,thatmctaphysícshadbccnturncdíntothínkíng,couldalso
bc dravn Irom thc thcsís oIthc thínkíng oIthínkíng, oImctaphysícs
asthcconccptvhíchhad bccomc avarcoIítsclI.Iov,thatísíndccd
1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ ¬¬
thc casc, and has bccnthc cascínalmost all ontologícs, and ís cspc-
cíallysoínvhatarccallcdratíonalístphílosophícs, ínvhíchyoucan
obscrvcovcrandovcr agaínthatthcstructurcoIbcíngísdcclarcd to
bc ídcntícal to thc structurc oI thought. Cntology as thc doctrínc oI
thc basíc constítutívc conccpts oI bcíng rcally mcans only that thc
basíc structurcs oIthought arc clcvatcd to catcgorícs oI bcíng. Jhís,
too,ísapríncíplcthatvashrstcxprcsscdby!cgcl,víthatrcnchancy
andradícalísm thatì caníndícatc bycítínghís proposítíonthatlogíc
ísatthc samctímcmctaphysícs. ' ' ButvhatÌ should líkcyoutosccís
thatthíshypostasísoIthcpurcIormsoIthínkíngasthcIormsoIbcíng
ís alrcady ímplícd ín thc transítíon Irom thcologícal thínkíng to
mctaphysícal spcculatíon. Íor byattachíng mctaphysícshrmlyto thc
catcgorícs oI thought, thought scts ítsclI up as thc ¡ustíhcatíon oI
mctaphysícs and, by claímíng j urísdíctíon ovcr ít, ímplícítly asscrts
that ít ís ítsclImctaphysícs - cvcn íIít docs not yct ovcrtly admít as
much. boíIthc qucstíon oImctaphysícs ísraíscd today, Ì vould say
- and thís may prcparc you Ior thc mattcrs vhích arc goíng to oc-
cupyus- thatthcbasícqucstíoníndíscussíngmctaphysícs ísthconc
conccrníngthclcgítímacyoIthíscquatíon. IIoncthínks aboutmcta-
physícs today- and vchavc nochoícc, vchavc lost our ínnoccncc.
mctaphysícs can no longcr bc anythíng othcr than a tbinking about
mctaphysícs - thís prcsupposcs a kínd oI crítícal sclI-rcI!cctíon oI
thought,ínthcscnscthat,throughsuchsclI-rcIlcctíonoIthoughtand
oIthcpurcIormsoIthought,oncasksoncsclIvhcthcrthoughtandíts
constítutívc Iorms arc in jact thc absolutc. Íor, ovcrtly or latcntly,
that ís rcally thc thcsís oI thc vholc mctaphysícal tradítíon. Ïcr-
haps ítvould not bc ímmodcst oI mc to rcIcr ínthís contcxt to thc
hrst chaptcr oI Metakritik Jer £rkenntnistbeorie, cntítlcd 'Krítík
dcs logíschcn Þbsolutísmus` ¦ Crítíquc oIlogícal absolutísm) . ' ¯In ítÌ
attcmpt to dovhat Ì havc j ust skctchcd Ior you, but ín thc oppos-
ìtc dírcctíon, by posíng thc qucstíon oI thc absolutc valídíty oI thc
logícal Iorms thcmsclvcs, and callíng that valídíty ínto qucstíon ín
anímmancntanalysíscarrícdoutIroma díalcctícalstandpoínt.ÞndíI
thcpurcIorms oIthought,vhích arcmaníIcstcdmostconsummatcly
ínpurclogíc, arc notthcabsolutc thcyundcrstand thcmsclvcs to bc,
thc conclusíon to bc dravn vould bc that thought ítsclI, as somc-
thíng condítíoncd and cnmcshcd ín condítíonalíty, cannot bc madc
íntothcabsolutcíthasaIvaysclaímcdtobcíntradítionalmctaphys-
ícs. Ìn my book Ì díd not drav thís conclusíon as cxplícítly asÌ am
doíngnov, andthatísvhyÌambríngíngthattcxttoyourattcntíon,
asa kínd oItransítíon to thc mattcrs vc arc abouttoconsídcr.
Jhc mcthod I shall adopt ín thc ídcas I am about to dcvclop ís,
hovcvcr, quitcdíllcrcnt. ItoldyouthatínthcsclastlccturcsIvouÌd
Æ 
Æ 
100 1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ
líkctostartIrom cxtrcmcposítíons.ÞndsoI shallnovconsídcr- as
Iar as can bc donc víth any claím to gcncral valídíty - thc possíblc
status oIvhat míght bccallcdmetaµbysica/ exµerience today. ¤hat
ís mcant by mctaphysícal cxpcrícnccyou víll, oIcoursc, onlygathcr
morcprccísclyIromvhatIamabouttocxplaínínsomcdctaíl. Ivíll
not bc gívíng avay a bíg sccrct - and víll pcrhaps j ust provokc a
laugh- íIItcllyouthat,Iormc,thcrcsccmstobcnopossíblctrcatmcnt
oIthcqucstíonoImctaphysícsothcrthanthcdíalcctícalonc.Iov, a
díalcctícaltrcatmcntcannotsupposc- andIcomchcrctothcspccíhc
naturc oIthc cxpcrícncc I vísh to talk about- that thcímmutablcís
truc and substantíal vhílc thc transícnt ís ínIcríor and dcspícablc, a
mcrc modc or dcccptíon oI thc scnscs, asvhích ít has bccn tírclcssly
dcnounccd by phílosophcrs síncc Ïlato. II vc start Irom an avarc-
ncss that, Ior us, thc cquatíon oI thc ímmutablc víth thc good, thc
truc and thc bcautíIul has bccn símply rcIutcd, thcn thc contcnt oI
mctaphysícsíschangcd.ÞndvhatIvanttocxplaíntoyouhrstísthc
hístorícalcompassíonvhíchprcvcntsoncIromprcsupposíngsuchan
ímmutabílíty, and thus changcs thc contcnts oI mctaphysícs. In thc
líghtoIvhatvchavccxpcrícnccd ínourtímc- andI am avarcthat,
ínthcIaccoIthcsccxpcrícnccs,thcIormoIa lccturc,andthcattcmpt
cvcntotouch on suchthíngsínthclanguagcoIphílosophyand Irom
thc vantagc poínt oI a lcctcrn, has somcthíng unsccmly, rídículous,
cvcn shamclcss about ít ¦yct onc cannot gct avay Irom ít) - thcsc
cxpcrícnccs, I say, changc thc contcnt oI mctaphysícs. Jhc mutual
índíIIcrcnccoIthctcmporalvorldandídcas,vhíchhasbccnasscrtcd
throughout mctaphysícs, can no longcr bc maíntaíncd. Jhcrc arc
ísoÍatcd motíIs scattcrcd ín thc hístory oI ídcas vhích hínt at thís.
Þnd,curíouslycnough,thcyarctobcIoundlcssínthchístoryoIphílo-
sophy, íIyou lcavc asídcccrtaín clcmcnts ín !cgcl, than ínhcrctícal
thcology - that ís to say, ín mystícal spcculatíon, vhích has alvays
bccncsscntíallyhcrctícaland has alvays occupícd a prccaríous posí-
tíonvíthín ínstítutíonal rclígíons. I am thínkíng hcrc oIthc mystícal
doctrínc- vhích ís common to thc Cabbala and to Chrístían mystí-
císm such asthat oIÞngclus bílcsíus- oIthcínhnítcrclcvancc oIthc
íntra-mundanc, and thus thc hístorícal, totransccndcncc, and to any
possíblc conccptíon oI transccndcncc. Jhc supposítíon oI a radícal
scparatíon, _opmpó;, bctvccn thc íntra-mundanc rcalm and thc
transccndcntal, vhích ís onc oI thc kcystoncs oI thc mctaphysícal
tradítíon, ís híghly problcmatíc, síncc ít ís constantly conIrontcd
víth cvídcncc shovíng that ít has píckcd out íts ctcrnal valucs, íts
ímmutabílítícs, Irom thc mutablc and Irom cxpcrícncc, and has thcn
abstractcd thcm. Þnd íI a mctaphysícs vcrc consístcnt, ít vould rc-
IraínIrom usíng apologctícstokccpsuchcvídcncc atbay.Í thinkíng
1LLÅ1VL Å11 VÅLLÏ 101
vhích ís dcIcnsívc, vhích attcmpts to clíng to somcthíng ín thc Iacc
oIcompcllíngobj cctíons, ís alvays doomcd. Jhc onlyvay a IruítIul
thínkíng can savc ítsclI ís by Iollovíng thc ínj unctíon. ' Cast avay,
thatyou may gaín. `
Ì mcan bythís thata mctaphysícs vhích Iulhllcd íts ovn conccpt,
a conccpt vhích ¦cvcn though thís may not bc admíttcd) alvays
consísts oIconstcllatíons oI Iorms and contcnts, conccpts and vhat
thcycomprí>c,vouldhavcradícallytoassímílatcthcre/euance oj tbe
temµora/ toítsovnconccpt. Ìtvouldhavc torcalízc thatíthasbccn
scparatcd only apparcntly and arbítraríly Irom íts ínstrumcnt, con-
ccpts,andísconstantlybroughtbacktothcm.Ìshouldlíkctosaythat
ín ourtímc thc prímacyvhích bartrc accordsto cxístcncc ovcr bcíng
andítsconccptrcvcalsancxtraordínarílyuncompromísíngavarcncss
oI thís statc oI aIIaírs. Jhc only Iault lícs ín thc Iact that, prccíscIy
Irom thís prcccdcncc oI cxístcncc ovcr csscncc, bartrc has crcatcd a
ncvkíndoIontology, a doctrínc oIcsscnccs.Jo cxprcssítcrudclyín
tcrmsoIthchístoryoIphílosophy,hchassoughttobcatthcsamctímc
ancxtrcmcnomínalístanda!cídcggcrían,tvothíngsvhíchcannotbc
madctoagrcc. ButÌcanonlyíndícatcthísbrícIÎyhcrc.Jhísassímíla-
tíonoIthcclcmcntoIcontcntmcansthatmctaphysícalcxpcrícncc,or
thc conccpt oI mctaphysícs - both ín onc - prcscnt thcmsclvcs quítc
díIIcrcntly today. Þnd asa sign oIthís - thc vord symbol vould bc
vrctchcdlyínadcquatc,sínccvcarcconccrncdvíththcmostsymbolíc
thíngoIall - ÌvílltakcÞuschvítz. JhroughÞuschvítz- andbythat
Ì mcan notonly Þuschvítz but thc vorld oItorturc vhích has con-
tínucd to cxíst aItcr Þuschvítz and oI vhích vc arc rcccívíng thc
mosthorrìIyíng rcports Irom Víctnam - through aIl thísthc conccpt
oI mctaphysícs has bccn changcd to íts ínncrmost corc. Jhosc vho
contínuc to cngagc ín old-stylc mctaphysícs, víthout conccrníng
thcmsclvcs vìth vhat has happcncd, kccpíng ìt at arm`s lcngth and
rcgardíngítasbcncathmctaphysícs,líkccvcrythíngmcrclycarthlyand
human,thcrcbyprovcthcmsclvcsínhuman.Þndthcínhumanítyvhích
is ncccssarílyprcscnt ín such an attìtudc must alsoínIcct thcconccpt
oI a mctaphysícs vhích procccds ín thís vay. Ìt ís thcrcIorc ímpos-
síblc,Ìvouldsay,toínsístaItcrÞuschvítzonthcprcscnccoIaposít-
ivc mcaníng or purposc ín bcíng. !crc, too, though Irom a totalIy
díIIcrcntcontcxt,ÌvouldlíkctosayquítccandídlythatÌ amcntírcly
oIoncmíndvíth bartrc, Iromvhosc outlook Ì amothcrvísc vorlds
apart. Jhc aIhrmatìvc charactcr vhìch mctaphysìcs has ìn Þrìstotlc,
andvhíchíthrsttookonínÏlato`stcachíng, hasbccomcímpossíblc.
Jo asscrt that cxístcncc or bcíng has a posítívc mcaníng constítutcd
víthín ítsclI and orícntatcd tovards thc dívínc príncíplc | íI onc ís to
putítlíkcthatì,vould bc, líkcallthcpríncíplcs oItruth, bcauty and
M
10Z 11LÅ1VL Å11 VÅ1LÏ
goodncssvhíchphílosophcrshavcconcoctcd, apurcmockcryínIacc
oIthc víctíms and thc ínhnítudc oIthcír tormcnt. Þndtakíngthís as
myrcIcrcncc poínt, Ì vouldlíkcto rcIÎcct víthyouonvhatI vould
dcscríbc as thc complctcly changcd status oImctaphysícs.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÏL\Há¡P
I 5 ]u/y I º65
Þt thc cnd oI thc last Ìccturc Ì attcmptcd to cxplaín vhy tcmporal
clcmcntsdccísívclyaIIcctourthínkíngaboutmctaphysícs,andhavca
bcaríngonmctaphysícalcxpcrícnccítsclI. ÞndÌ shouldlíkcto sayto
you straíghtavay thatítvouldbcmístakcn to takc thcsc commcnts
ín a purcIy subj cctívc scnsc - as mcaníng that ít ís morc díIhcult to
havcmctaphysícalcxpcrícnccsundcrprcscntcondítíons. JhatvouId
bc a complctc mísundcrstandíng oI vhat Ì vísh to communícatc to

you ín vords vhích íncvítably arc Iar too ínsípíd. Iaturally, thc
' subj cctívc díIhcultyalsocxísts, butgívcnthc íntcrtvíncmcntbctvccn
subj cctívc cxpcrícncc andthc obj cctívc ín thís sphcrc,thc tvo cannot
bc scparatcd as ncatly as ít míght appcar to a naívc, unrcIlcctíng
_ conscíousncss,vhíchsaysthatallthísj ustdcpcnds on hovonc hap·
pcnstoIccl tovardsmctaphysícstoday, butchangcsnothíngatallín
íts obj cctívccontcnts. Nythcsísísdírcctcdagaínstprccísclythís attí-
tudc, and you víIl only undcrstand mc corrcctly íI you takc vhat Ì
havc to sayín thc strongand Iar Irom ínnocuous scnsc ínvhíchítís
mcant. You víll havc notíccd Irom my analyscs and cxposítíons oI
ÞrístotIc's Metaµbysics hov Iar thís vholc mctaphysícs ís hllcd by
thc aIhrmatívc sídc- Iorgívc mc, somcthíngcan hardIybchllcd bya
'sídc` - hov Iundamcntal thc aIhrmatívc momcnt ís to thís vholc
  conccptíon oImctaphysícs. You víllthcrcIorc havc sccn hov Iar thc
thcory that, cvcn víthout a dívínc ínIÎucncc, bcíng ís tclcologícaIIy
orícntatcdtovardsthcdívíncbyítsovnnaturc- hovIar thatímplícs
thatvhatísmcaníngIul. IromthísÞrístotlcdravsthc concIusíon- I
mcntíon thís to makc Iully clcar thc mctaphysícal problcm vhích
W
A
10+ 1LLÅ1V1 Ï L1VÅLLÏ
conccrns mc hcrc- thatmattcr, oò¸, asthatvhích ísrcprcscntcd by
possíbílíty, must bc cndovcd víth somc kínd oIpurposívcncss, and
hc argucs thíscvcndcspítc thc Iactthatítísínsomccontradíctíon to
hísovndoctrínc oIpossìbílítyasvholly abstractand índctcrmínatc.
Ìn Iacc oIthc cxpcrícnccs vc havc had, not only through Þuschvítz
but through thc íntroductíon oI torturc as a pcrmancnt ínstítutíon
andthroughthcatomícbomb- allthcscthíngsIorma kínd oIcohcr-
cncc, a hcllísh uníty - ín Iacc oIthcsc cxpcrícnccs thc asscrtíon that
vhat ís has mcaníng, and thc aIhrmatívc charactcr vhích has bccn
attríbutcdtomctaphysícsalmostvíthoutcxccptíon, bccomca mock-
cry, and ín Iacc oI thc víctíms ít bccomcs dovnríght ímmoral. Íor
anyoncvhoallovshímsclIto bcIobbcdoIIvíthsuchmcaníngmod-
cratcsínsomcvaythc unspcakablcandírrcparablcthíngsvhíchhavc
happcncd byconccdíng that somchov, ín a sccrct ordcr oIbcíng, all
thísvíllhavc had somc kínd oIpurposc. Ìnothcr vords, ítmíght bc
saídthatínvícvoIvhatvchavccxpcrícnccd- andlctmc saythatít
ísalsocxpcrícnccd bythosc onvhomítvasnotdírcctlypcrpctratcd
- thcrc can bc no onc, vhosc organ oI cxpcrícncc has not cntírcly
atrophícd, Ior vhomthc vorldajter Þuschvítz, thatís, thc vorld ín
vhíchÞuschvítzvaspossíblc,ísthcsamcvorldasítvasbcIorc.Þnd
I bclícvc that íI onc obscrvcs and analyscs oncsclI closcly, onc víll
hnd that thc avarcncss oIlívíngín a vorld ínvhích that íspossíblc
- ìs possíblc again and ís possíblc jor tbe þrst time plays a quítc
crucíal rolc cvcn ín onc`s mostsccrctrcactíons.
I vould say, thcrcIorc, that thcsc cxpcrícnccs havc a compcllíng
unívcrsalíty,andthatoncvouldíndccdhavctobcblíndtothcvorld`s
coursc íIonc vcrc to vísh not to havc thcsc cxpcrícnccs. Ìn vícv oI
thcm, thc asscrtíon oI a purposc or mcaníng vhích ís Iormally cm-
bcddcdínmctaphysícsístransIormcdíntoídcology,thatístosay,ínto
ancmptysolaccvhíchatthc samctímcIulhlsa vcryprccíscIunctíon
ín thc vorld as ìt ís. that oIkccpíng pcoplc ín línc. Io doubtmcta-
physícshasalvayshadítsídcologícalaspccts,andítísnotdíIhcultto
dcmonstratc ín dctaíl ín vhat vays thc grcat mctaphysícal systcms
havc Iunctíoncd ídcologícally. But unlcss Ì am místakcn somcthíng
líkca qualítatívc lcaphastakcnplaccatthíspoínt. Jhatístosaythat
althoughthc oldmctaphysícalsystcmstranshgurcdthccxístíngordcr
byínsístíngonthísmomcntoImcaníng,thcyalvayshadthcmomcnt
oItruthatthc samctímc,thcytrícd to undcrstandthatvhíchís,and
to gaín ccrtaínty about thc cnígmatíc and chaotìc. Þnd onc could
alvays dcmonstratc ín thc oldcr mctaphysìcs, no lcss than ín thcír
ídcologícal charactcr, thís momcntoItruth, thís íncrcasíng povcr oI
rcasontoundcrstandvhatísopposcdtoít, andnottobccontcntvíth
mcrcirrationalíty.Jhíscan bcsccnmostsplcndídlyinthcmctaphysícs
1LLÅ1VL Ï L1VÅLLÏ 10ó
oI btJhomas Þquínas, vhích ís an attcmpt to bríng Chrístían doc-
trínc ínto agrccmcnt víth spccuÌatívc thought, and thcrcín has thc
potcntíaÌ to transIorm vhat ís mcrcÌy posítcd and íncuÌcatcd dog-
matícaÌÌyínto a kíndoIcrítíquc- hovcvcrposítívc thíscrítíquc may
havc bccn ínthc JhomístphíÌosophy. Jhat ís novhníshcd. buch an
íntcrprctatíon oImcaníng ís noÌongcr possíbÌc. Þnd I bcÌícvc Ì havc
aÌrcadysaíd'thatítsccmstomcanachícvcmcntoI]can-ÏauÌbartrc`s
thatshouÌd not bc ovcrÌookcd - aÌthough Ì rcgard hís phíÌosophy as
vcry íncohcrcnt and not rcaÌÌy adcquatc asa phíÌosophícaÌ structurc
- that hc vas thc hrstto IormuÌatc thís rcaÌízatíon víthout any cm-
bcÌÌíshmcnt.Ìnthís hcvcntIarbcyondbchopcnhaucrvho,oIcoursc,
vas a pcssímíst ín thc usuaÌ scnsc and vchcmcntÌy opposcd thc
aIhrmatívc charactcr oImctaphysícs ¦ as you probabÌy knov), cspc-
cíaÌÌyín íts !cgcÌían Iorm. IcvcrthcÌcss, ín hís vork hc turncd cvcn
thísncgatívítyíntoa mctaphysícaÌpríncípÌc,thcpríncípÌc oIthc bÌínd
¤íÌÌ vhích, bccausc ít ís a mctaphysícaÌ príncípÌc and thcrcIorc a
catcgoryoIrcIÎcctíon, contaíns thc possíbíÌíty oIíts ovn ncgatíon by
human bcíngs. Jhus, hc aÌsoposíts thc ídca oIthc dcníaÌ oIthc ¤íÌÌ
to Lívc,¯ a dcníaÌ vhích, ín vícv oIvhat has bccn and contínucs to
bc pcrpctratcd on thc Ìívíng and can íncrcasc to an unímagínabÌc
dcgrcc, ís an aÌmost comIortíng ídca. Ì mcan that ín a vorÌd vhích
knovs oIthíngs Iar vorsc than dcath and dcnícs pcopÌc thc shotín
thc ncck ín ordcr to torturc thcmsÌovÌytodcath, thc doctríncoIthc
dcníaÌ oI thc ¤íÌÌ to Lívc ítscÌI has somcthíng oI thc ínnoccncc Ior
vhích bchopcnhaucr crítícízcd thc thcodícícs oIphíÌosophcrs.
ÞItcr thc Lísboncarthquakc,VoÌtaírc,vho hadbccna IoÌÌovcroI
Lcíbníz, abandoncd Lcíbníz`síntcrprctatíon oIthc vorÌd asthc bcst
oI aÌÌ possíbÌc vorÌds, and vcnt ovcr to thc cmpírícísm oIthc most
progrcssívc hgurc oIthattímc, Lockc.' ÞdmíttcdÌy, Lcíbníz'sdíctum
ìs not so optímístíc as ít sccms, but rcIcrs onÌy to thc optímum, thc
mínìmum optímum. But vhat, ín thc cnd, ís such a Ìímítcd naturaÌ
catastrophc comparcd to thc naturaÌ catastrophc oI socícty,sprcad-
ìng tovards totaÌíty, thc actuaÌíty and potcntíaÌíty oIvhích vc Iacc
today - vhcn socíaÌÌy produccd cvíÌ has cngcndcrcd somcthíng Ìíkc
a rcaÌhcÌÌ: Þnd thatsítuatíon aIIccts notonÌymctaphysícaÌthought,
but,asÌshovcdyouínrcÌatíontothcmomcntoImcaníng,thccontcnt
oImctaphysícs ítscÌI. Þnd pcrhaps Ì mayadd at thís poíntthat thcrc
sccmstomctobchardÌyanythíngmorccontcmptíbÌc,hardÌyanythíng
morcunvorthyoIthcconccptoIphíÌosophy,oIvhatphíÌosophyoncc
vantcd to bc, than thc mood, cspccíaÌÌy vídcsprcad ín Gcrmany,
vhích amounts to a bcÌícIthat, j ust bccausc thc abscncc oImcaníng
ísunbcarabÌc,thoscvhopoíntoutthatabscnccarctobcbÌamcd.Jhís
mood Ìcads pcopÌc to drav Irom thc postuÌatc that ÌíIc ín a vorÌd
P
106 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1VÅLLÏ
víthout mcaníng cannot bc cndurcd, thc conclusíon that ¦ bccausc
vhat should not bc cannot bc) a mcaníng must bc constructcd.
bccausc, aItcr all, tbere is a mcaníng. ÌIÌ may rcvcal to you vhat Ì
rcallymcantbythc ']argonoIÞuthcntícíty`,¨Ìvasnotjustcrítícízíng
thís or that línguístíc clíchc - Ì should nothavc takcn thosc quítc so
tragícally. ¤hatÌ vasrcallyattackíng- andíIyoupíckupthatlíttlc
bookÌ vould ask youtobc quítcclcaronthíspoínt- ísprccísclythc
supposítíon oIa mcaníngon thc solc grounds thatthcrc mustbc onc
sínccothcrvísconccouldnotlívc.thíssupposítíonoIa mcaníngasa
/te. ÞndínGcrmanythíssupposítíonsccmstomctohavcslíppcdínto
thc languagc to a vorryíng dcgrcc, so that ít ís no longcr madc cx-
plícítlyínthought.JhatísthcrcasonvhyÌattackcdaccrtaínlínguístíc
Iorm so cncrgctícally ín that book.
BrícIly, thcrcIorc. thc tradítíonalcompatíbílíty bctvccn mctaphys-
ícal thought and íntra-mundanc cxpcrícncc has bccn shattcrcd. Þs Ì
índícatcd by thc comparíson bctvccn Voltaírc`s sítuatíon and our
ovn, thcrc has bccn a kínd oI svítch Irom quantíty to qualíty. Jhc
míllíonIold dcath has acquírcd a Iorm ncvcr Icarcd bcIorc, and has
takcn on a vcry díIIcrcnt nuancc. Iuancc - thc vord alonc ís a
disgracc ín Iacc oI vhat onc vould líkc to say and Ior vhích lang-
uagc truly lacks vords; ít actually cannot bc saíd. Þnd that ís thc
strongcst prooI oI hov much thcsc thíngs can nov bc undcrstood
only ín matcríal tcrms. Joday somcthíng vorsc than dcath ís to bc
Icarcd. ÏcrhapsÌmíghtdravyourattcntíonínthíscontcxttoancssay
on torturc by]can Þmcry, an author othcrvísc cntírcly unknovn to
mc, ín thc latcstíssuc oIMerkur.
¯
Jhc phílosophícal backbonc oIthc
cssay, cxístcntíalísm, docs not accord víth my ovn vícvs, but thc
author docsquítc admírablycxprcssthc changcsínthcrock strataoI
cxpcrícnccvhichhavcbccnbroughtaboutbythcscthíngs.Jhcchangc
Ìhavc ínmíndcanalso bc cxprcsscd,pcrhapsmostsímply, bysayíng
that dcath, ín thc Iorm ít has takcn on, no longcr accords víth thc
líIc oIanyíndívídual.Íor ítísa líctosaythatdcath ís anínvaríantat
all tímcs; dcath, too, ís a quítc abstract cntíty; dcath ítsclIcan bc a
díIIcrcnt thíng ín vcry díIIcrcnt tímcs. Cr onc míght say, íIyou víll
not takc my lítcraryrcIcrcnccs amíss, that thcrc ís nolongcr an cpíc
or a bíblícal dcath; no longcr ís a pcrson ablc to díc vcary, old and
satcdvíthlíIc. ÞnothcraspcctoIthc sítuatíonÌ amtryíngtoíndícatc
to you ís that old agc, víth catcgorícs such as vísdom and all that
gocs víth ít, no longcr cxísts, and that old pcoplc, ín so Iar as thcy
arc condcmncd to bccomc agcd and too vcak to prcscrvc thcír ovn
lívcs, arc turncd ínto obj ccts oIscícncc- thc scícncc oIgcrontology,
asítís callcd. Ìnthísvayagc ís sccn asa kínd oIsccond mínority, so
thatsomcthínglíkc a programmc oIcuthanasía carricd out by somc
ÏLLÅ1VL Ï L1VÅLLÏ 1 0/
Iuturc Iorm oI ínhumaníty, oIno mattcr vhat provcnancc, bccomcs
Iorcsccablc. Jhus, thc rcconcílíatíon oI líIc, as somcthíng roundcd
and closcd ín ítsclI, víth dcath, a rcconcílíatíon vhích vas alvays
qucstíonablc and prccaríous and, íIít cxístcd at all, vas probably a
happy cxccptíon - that rcconcílíatíon ísout oIthc qucstíon today.
Ì vould say that thc approach adoptcd ín 8eing and 1ime - and
hcrcÌ`dlíkcto makc a Icvmorccommcnts onthc ' j argon oIauthcn-
tícíty`- íspcrhapsnovhcrcmorcídcologícalthanvhcnítsauthortrícs
to undcrstand dcath on thc basís oI'Oascín`s possíbílíty oI Bcíng-a-
¤holc`," ínvhích attcmpt hc supprcsscs thc absolutc írrcconcílabíl-
íty oIlívíng cxpcrícncc víth dcath vhích has bccomc apparcntvíth
thc dchnítívc dcclínc oI posítívc rclígíons. !c sccks, ín thís vay, to
rcscuc structurcs oIthc cxpcrícncc oI dcath as structurcs oIDasein,
oIhuman cxístcncc ítsclI. Butthcsc structurcs, as hc dcscríbcs thcm,
only cxístcd víthín thc vorld oI posítívc thcology, by vírtuc oI thc
posítívchopc oIrcsurrcctíon; and!cídcggcr Iaíls to scc thatthrough
thcsccularízatíonoIthísstructurc,vhíchhcatlcast tacítlyassumcsín
hísvork, not onlyhavc thcsc thcologícal contcnts dísíntcgratcd, but
víthoutthcmthíscxpcrícnccítsclIísnolongcrpossíblc.¤hatÌrcally
hold agaínst thís Iorm oImctaphysícs ís thc surrcptítíous attcmpt to
appropríatc thcologícally posítcd possíbílítícs oIcxpcrícncc víthout
thcology. Ì hastcn to add, to avoíd mísundcrstandíngs, hovcvcr un-
líkcly,thatínvícvoIthchístorícalstatcoIconscíousncssmyrcmarks
shouldnot,oIcoursc,bcconstrucdasarccommcndatíonoIthcology,
símply on thc grounds that, undcr thc protcctíon oI rclígíon, ít vas
allcgcdlycasícr to díc. Iov, íIonc ís spcakíng oIthc Iorm oIdcath
¸ vhích cxísts undcr thc absolutc controllabílíty oI pcoplc, íncludíng

thcír mass anníhílatíon, onc víll havc to say that Irom aníntra-
mundancstandpoíntthcchangcsígníhcsthatthcproccssoIadaptatíon
Io vhích pcoplc arc subjcct ís posítcd asa|so/ute - j ust as torturc ís
ancxtrcmcIormoIadaptatíon.¤ordssuchas' braínvashíng'alrcady
ìndícatc that by thcsc horríIyíng mcans, vhích íncludc thc clcctríc
shocktrcatmcntoIthcmcntallyíll,humanbcíngs arc to bc standard-
ìzcd byIorcc. ÞnyslíghtdíIIcrcncc, anydcvíatíonthcystíllposscsscd
ìn rclatíon to thc domínant tcndcncy- thattoo must bc cradícatcd.
Ìn othcr vords, thc changc that vc arc cxpcrícncíng ín mcta-
physícs íson thc most Iundamcntal lcvcl a changc ín thc sclIand íts

so-callcd substancc. Ìt ís thc líquídatíon oIvhatthc old mctaphysícs
soughtto cncompass bya ratíonal doctrínc oIthc soulassomcthíng
.cxístíngínítsclI. Brcchthascharactcrízcdthíscxpcrícncc,thoughína
vcry unccrtaín and ambíguous vay, víth hís Iormula. ' Þ man`s a
man
·
. Ì vould } ust poínt out | but víll not bc ablc to go ínto thís ín
dctailínthc>clccturcsìthatítíshcrc,ínthcqucstíon oIthclíquídation
V
B
108 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1VÅLLÏ
oIthc scIIor thc cgo, in thc qucstion oIdcpcrsonalization, that thc
most unIathomablc problcms oI mctaphysics arc conccalcd; Ior this
cgo itsclI, asthc incarnatcd principlc oIsclI-prcscrvation, is involvcd
in thc contcxt oI social guilt right to its inncrmost corc. Þnd in its
sociaI liquidation today thc sclI is only paying thc pricc Ior vhat it
oncc did by positing itsclI, rcpaying thc dcbt oI its guiIt. Jhis is a
horizon oI mctaphysical spcculation that Ì can only touch on hcrc,
sincc onc cannot spcak at all scriously about thcsc things vithout
knovingatlcastvhcthcrthcconccptoIthcpcrsonitsclI,intovhich,
Ior so many - Ior cxamplc, Nartin Bubcr, vho dicd rcccntly - thc
mctaphysicalsubstancchasvithdravnandconccntratcditsclI,isnot
prccisclythc nodcvhichnccdstobcrcmovcdinordcrtolibcratcthat
vhichmightbcdiIIcrcntinhuman bcings. Cncshouldnot,thcrcIorc
rcgard thc liquidation oI thc cgo that vc arc vitncssing today as
absolutcly cvil and ncgativc, sincc to do so vould probably bc to
makc into thc principIc oI good and bad somcthing vhich itsclI is
cntanglcd in cvil, and vhich bcars vithin it an historical dynamic
vhichprcvcntsitIrom bcinghypostatizcd. Íorpcoplc chaincdtothc
blindprinciplc oIsclI-prcscrvation undcr thc prcvailing socialcondi-
tions oI production, hovcvcr, this liquidation oI thc cgo is vhat is
mostto bcIcarcd. Þnd inthc prcscntsituation, inordcr torccognizc
thc dialcctic bctvccn thc cgo and its disintcgration that Ì havc j ust
touchcd upon, or to gain any insight into prcscnt conditions, vhat
is callcd Ior is prcciscly that unyiclding and uncrring strcngth oIthc
cgo in Iacc oIthc prcdominant tcndcncy vhich is obstructcd by thc
historical tcndcncy and vhich is rcalizcd in Icvcr and Icvcr pcoplc
nov. ¤hat mccts its cnd in thc camps, thcrcIorc, is rcally no longcr
thc cgo or thc sclI, but - as !orkhcimcr and Ì callcd it almost a
gcncrationagoìnthcDia/ectic oj |n/igbtenment° - onlythcsµecimen,
it is, almost as ìn viviscction, only thc individual cntity rcduciblc to
thc bodyor,asBrcchtputit,thctorturablccntity,vhichcanbchappy
iIithastimcto cscapcthatIatc by suicidc. Cnc mightsay, thcrcIorc,
that gcnocidc, thc cradication oIhumanity, and thc conccntration oI
pcoplc in a totality invhich cvcrything is subsumcd undcr thc prin-
cipIc oI scII-prcscrvation, arc tbe same tbing, indccd, that gcnocidc
is absolutc intcgration. Cnc might say that thc purc idcntity oI all
pcoplc vith thcir conccptisnothing othcr than thcir dcath- anidca
vhich, mostsurprisinglyandrcmarkably, thoughvitha quitc diIIcr-
cnt, rcactionary acccnt, is anticipatcd in thc thcory in thc |benom-
eno/ogy oj Sµirit by vhich !cgcI cquatcs absolutc Irccdom vith
dcath. ' `Ìdonotnccdtocngagc poIcmicaIlyviththc dcnunciation oI
thc Írcnch KcvoIutionvhich !cgcl had in mind atthatpoint, but it
is thc casc that thc carly !cgcl, vith his unparaIIcIcd spccuIativc
1LLÅ1V1 1 L1VÅLLÏ 10¬
povcr, had anínklíng oIthc Iactthatabsolutc sclI-asscrtíon and thc
absoIutc ncgatíon oI all that lívcs, and thus, hhally, gcnocídc, arc
thcsamcthíng,atatímc- morcthanonchundrcdandhItyycarsago
- vhcn nothíng oI that kínd vas Iorcsccablc víthín thc actual hís-
torícal pcrspcctívc. Ìn rhís conncctíon, a Iormulatíon - rcportcd by
Kogonínhísbookohthc 'bbstatc`- vhíchvassaídtohavcbccnuscd
by bbhcnchmcn agaínstcarncst Bíblc scholars momcnts bcIorc thcír
cnd, madc an índclíblc ímprcssíon on mc. Jhcy arc saíd to havc toId
thcm. 'Jomorrovyoushallvínd Irom thíschímncy assmokc to thc
hcavcns.` ' ' Jhat ís no doubt thc most cxact Iormulatíon oI thc
sataníc pcrvcrsíon oIthc mctaphysícal ídca and oI thc substancc oI
mctaphysícs ítsclIthatvc arc Iorccd to vítncss today.
¤hcn Ì saíd that thcsc cxpcrícnccs aIIcct cvcryonc, and not only
thcvíctímsorthoscvhonarrovlycscapcdthcm,Ìdídnotmcanonly
that thc cxpcrícnccs Ì havc trícd to charactcrízc arc oI such tcrríblc
víoIcnccthatno oncvhomthcyhavc touchcd,cvcnIroma dístancc,
soto spcak, can cvcr cscapcthcm- asÞmcrysaysvcryconvíncíngIy
ínhíscssaythatnooncvhohasoncc bccn torturcd cancvcrIorgctít
agaín,cvchIor amomcnt. '´BysayíngthatÌalsorcIcrrcdto somcthíng
obj cctívc, and, agaín, my íntcntíon ín poíntíng thís out ís that you
should notsímpIycquatc thc thíngs Ì am spcakíng oItodayvíth thc
subj cctívítyoIthc pcrsonvho cxpcricnccsthcm.Þsítuatíonhasbccn
rcachcd today, ín thc prcscnt Iorm oI thc organízatíon oI vork ín
conj unctíonvíththc maíntcnanccoIthc cxístíngrclatíonsoIproduc-
tíon,ínvhíchcvcrypcrsonísabsolutclyIungíblcorrcplaccablc,cvcn
undcr condítions oI IormaI Irccdom. Jhís sítuatíon gìvcs rísc to a
IcclíngoIthc supcrIluítyand, íIyoulíkc, thc ínsígníhcancc oIcachoI
usínrclatíontothcvholc.Jhatísthcrcason,locatcdínthc obj cctívc
dcvclopmcntoIsocícty, Ior thc prcscncc oIthc IccIíngÌ havcrcIcrrcd
to,cvcnundcrcondítíonsoIIormalIrccdom.Ìamtryíng,ínadcquatcly
as cvcr, to cxprcss thcsc changcs Ior you today, bccausc Ì havc thc
IccIíngthattospcak oImctaphysícs víthouttakíng accountoI thcsc
thíngsvouldrcallybc nothíngbut cmptyvcrbíagc.Inmyvícv, thcsc
cxpcrícnccs havc such dccp obj cctívc rcasons that thcy arc actually
untouchcd cvcn by polítícal Iorms oI rulc, that ís, by thc díIIcrcncc
bctvccn IormaI dcmocracy on thc onc hand and totalítarìancontroI
onthcothcr.Jhat,atlcast, íshovmattcrshavc appcarcd uptonov.
But vc must also bc vcll avarc that, j ust bccausc vc lívc undcr thc
unívcrsalpríncíplcoIprohtandthusoIsclI-prcscrvatíon,thcindívídual
hasnothíngmorctoIosc thanhímsclIand hísIíIc. Þtthcsamctímc-
asbartrc hasshovnínhisdoctríncoIthcabsurdítyoIcxístcncc- thc
índívíduaI`sliIc,thoughitísaIIhchas,hasbccomc,obj cctívcIy,abso-
Iutclyunimportant.Yctvhathc mustknovtobcmcaninglcssisIorccd
: '
1
#
1 1 0 1LLÅ1VL Ï L1VÅL1Ï
onhímasthcmcaníngoIhíslíIc;índccd,alíIcvhíchísrcallynomorc
thanthcmcanstothccndoIhíssclI-prcscrvatíonís,bythatvcryIact,
bcvítchcd and Ictíshízcd as an cnd. Þnd ín thís antínomy - on thc
onc hand thc dcbascmcnt oIthc índívídual, oIthc sclI, to somcthíng
ínsígníhcant, híslíquídatíon,andonthc othcr, hís bcíngthrovnback
on thc Iact that hc no longcr has anythíng but thís atomízcd sclI
vhích lívcs our líIc - ín thís contradíctíon lícs thc horror oI thc
dcvclopmcnt vhích Ì rcgard ít as my duty to prcscntto you today.
ÌonccsaídthataItcrÞuschvítzonccouldnolongcrvrítcpoctry,''
and that gavc rísc to a díscussíon Ì díd not antícípatc vhcn Ì vrotc
thosc vords. Ì díd not antícípatc ít bccausc ít ís ín thc naturc oI
phílosophy- and cvcrythíngÌvrítcís,unavoídably,phílosophy,cvcn
íIítís notconccrncdvíthso-callcdphílosophícalthcmcs- thatnoth-
íng ís mcant quítc lítcrally. Ïhílosophy alvays rclatcs to tcndcncícs
anddocsnotconsístoIstatcmcntsoIIact.Ìtísa mísundcrstandíngoI
phílosophy, rcsultíng Irom íts grovíng closcncss to all-povcrIul scí-
cntíhc tcndcncícs, totakc sucha statcmcntatIacc valuc and say. '!c
vrotcthataItcrÞuschvítzonccannotvrítcanymorcpocms,socíthcr
oncrcallycannotvrítc thcm,andvouldbca rogucoracold-hcartcd
pcrsoníIonc díd vrítcthcm, or hcísvrong, andhassaíd somcthíng
vhích should not bc saíd. ` ¤cll, Ì vould say that phílosophícal rc·
IÎcctíon rcally consísts prccíscly ín thc gap, or, ín Kantían tcrms, ín
thc víbratíon, bctvccn thcsc tvo othcrvísc so Ilatly opposcd possíb-
ílítícs.Ìvouldrcadílyconccdcthat,j ustasÌsaídthataItcrÞuschvítz
onc cou/d not vrítc pocms - by vhích Ì mcant to poínt to thc hol-
lovncss oIthc rcsurrcctcdculturc oIthattímc- ítcouldcquallyvcll
bc saíd, on thc othcr hand, that onc must vrítc pocms, ínkccpíng
víth !cgcl`s statcmcnt ín hís Aestbetics' ' that as long asthcrc ís an
avarcncssoIsuIIcríngamonghuman bcíngsthcrcmustalsobc artas
thc obj cctívc Iorm oI that avarcncss. Þnd, hcavcn knovs, Ì do not
claím to bc ablc to rcsolvc thís antínomy, and prcsumc cvcn lcss to
do so síncc my ovn ímpulscs ín thís antínomy arc prccíscly on thc
sídc oI art, vhích Ì am místakcnly accuscd oI víshíng to supprcss.
íastcrn-zonc ncvspapcrs cvcn saíd Ì had dcclarcd my opposítíon to
artandthcrcbyadoptcdthcstandpoíntoIbarbarísm.Yctoncmustask
aIurthcrqucstíon,andthísísa mctaphysícalqucstíon,althoughíthas
íts basísín thc total suspcnsíon oImctaphysícs. Ìtís, ín Iact, curíous
hov allqucstíons vhích ncgatc and cvadc mctaphysícstakc on, prc-
císcly thcrcby, a curíously mctaphysícal charactcr. Ìt ís thc qucstíon
vhcthcr onc can /iue aItcr Þuschvítz. Jhís qucstíon has appcarcd to
mc, Ior cxamplc, ínthc rccurríng drcamsvhíchplaguc mc, ínvhích
Ì havc thc Icclíng that Ì am no longcr rcally alívc, but am } ust thc
cmanatíon oIa vísh oIsomc víctím oIÞuschvítz. ¤cll, thc blcatcrs
ÏLLÅ1VL Ï L 1VÅLLÏ 1 1 1
oI connivancc soon turncd this into thc argumcnt that it vas high
timcIoranyoncvhothoughtasIdidtodoavayvithhimsclIasvcll
- to vhichI can onlyrcspondthatI amsurc thosc gcntlcmcn vould
likc nothing bcttcr. But as long as I can cxprcss vhatI am trying to
cxprcss,andaslongasIbclicvcIamhndingvordsIorvhatothcrvisc
vouldhndnonc, Ì shall not, unlcss undcr cxtrcmc compulsion, yicld
to that hopc, that vish. Icvcrthclcss, somcthìng said in onc oI thc
mostimportantplays bybartrc, vhich Ior thatrcasonishardly cvcr
playcd in Gcrmany, dcscrvcs to bc takcn immcnscly scriously as a
mctaphysical qucstion.Itis said bya youngrcsistancc hghtcr vho is
subj cctcd to torturc, vho asks vhcthcr or vhy onc should livc in a
vorld in vhich onc is bcatcn until onc`s boncs arc smashcd.'` bincc
it conccrns thc possibility oI any aIhrmation oI liIc, this qucstion
cannot bc cvadcd. Þnd I vould think that any thought vhich isnot
mcasurcd bythisstandard, vhich docsnotassimilatcitthcorctically,
simplypushcs asidc atthc outsct that vhich thought should addrcss
- so thatit rcallycannot bc callcd a thought atall.
B
Æ 
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ÏÍÏá¡P
20 ]u/y I º65
I do notvíshtorccapítulatcorsumupvhatIsaídínthclastlccturc,
but vould rcmínd you that vc arrívcd at thc ídca that thc qucstíon
vhcthcr ít ís stíll possíblc to lívc ís thc Iorm ín vhích mctaphysícs
ímpíngcs on usurgcntlytoday. ¤íthoutbcíng a Iollovcr oIbpcnglcr
onc míght vcll comparc thís sítuatíon to that oI thc phílosophy oI
latc antíquíty, ínvhích,ínrcsponsc to thc samc qucstíon, pcoplc Icll
backoncxpcdícntssuchasataraxy,thatís,thcdcadcníngoIallaIIccts,
j ust to bc capablc oI lívíng at all. I cannot undcrtakc a crítíquc oI
btoícísm hcrc. Jhcrc ís undoubtcdly much vhích ímpcls us tovards
thc btoíc standpoínttoday, as appcarsvcryclcarlyín somc motíIs oI
!cídcggcr,cspccíallyínhíscarlyvork.ButIvouldsaythatcvcnthís
standpoínt,althoughítcmphatícallycmbraccsthcídcaoIthcIrccdom
oIthc índívídual, ncvcrthclcss has a momcnt oI narrov-míndcdncss
ín thc scnsc thatítrcndcrs absolutcthc cntrapmcnt oIhuman bcíngs
bythctotalíty, andthussccs noothcrpossíbílítythanto submít.Jhc
possíbílíty oI sccíng through thís sítuatíon as a contcxt oIguílt con-
ccalcd through blíndíng, and thus oI brcakíng through ít, díd not
occur tothatcntírc phílosophy. btoícísm díd, ít ís truc, conccívc Ior
thc hrsttímc thc ídca oIthc all-cncompassíngcontcxtoIguílt, butít
díd not dísccrn thc momcnt oI ncccssary íllusíon ín that contcxt -
andthat,I vouldsay, ísthc smalladvantagcthatvc, víth oursocíal
andphílosophícalknovlcdgc,cnjoyovcrthc btoícposítíon. Itshould
bcsaíd,atanyratc,thatthcguíltínvhíchoncíscnmcshcdalmostby
thcmcrcIactoIcontínuíngtolívccanhardlybcrcconcílcdanylongcr
víth líIc ítsclI. Inlcss onc makcs oncsclIvholly ínscnsíIívc onc can
ÏLLÅ1VL Ï 1 ÏÅLLÏ 1 1J
hardlycscapcthc Icclíng- and byIcclíngI mcan cxpcrícncc vhíchís
notconhncdto thc cmotíonal sphcrc- thatj ustbycontínuíngto lívc
onc ís takíng avay that possíbílíty Irom somconc clsc, to vhom líIc
has bccn dcnícd, that onc ís stcalíng that pcrson's líIc. bímílarly, a
socíctyvhích ín íts absurd prcscnt Iorm hasrcndcrcd notvork, but
pcoplc supcrIluous, prcdctcrmíncs, ína scnsc, a statístícalpcrccntagc
oIpcoplc oIvhom ítmustdívcst ítsclIín ordcrtocontínuc tolívc ín
íts bad, cxístíng Iorm. Þnd íIonc docs lívc on, onc has, ín a scnsc,
bccnstatístícallyluckyatthccxpcnscoIthoscvhohavcIallcnvíctím
to thc mcchanísm oI anníhílatíon and, onc must Icar, víll stíll Iall
víctím to ít. Guílt rcproduccs ítsclI ín cach oI us - and vhat Ì am
sayíngísaddrcsscdtousassubj ccts- sínccvccannotpossíblyrcmaín
Iully conscíous oI thís conncctíon at cvcry momcnt oI our vakíng
lívcs.IIvc- cachoIussíttínghcrc- kncvatcvcrymomcntvhathas
happcncd and to vhat concatcnatíons vc ovc our ovn cxístcncc,
and hov our ovn cxístcncc ís íntcrvovcn víth calamíty, cvcn íIvc
havc donc nothíng vrong, símply by havíng ncglcctcd, through Icar,
to hclp othcr pcoplc at a crucíal momcnt, Ior cxamplc - a sítuatíon
vcry Iamílíar to mc Irom thc tímc oIthc Jhírd Kcích - íI onc vcrc
Iully avarc oIall thcsc thíngs atcvcry momcnt, onc vouldrcally bc
unablcto lívc. Cncíspushcd, asítvcrc, ínto IorgctIulncss, vhích ís
alrcady a Iorm oIguílt. By Iaílíng to bc avarc at cvcry momcnt oI
vhatthrcatcnsandvhathashappcncd,oncalsocontríbutcstoít,onc
rcsístsíttoolíttlc,andítcanbcrcpcatcdandrcínstatcdatanymomcnt.
Itís notmy stylc to j ustíIy phílosophy justbccausc ít ís myj ob, íI
onc may put ít so paradoxícally. I am avarc, hcavcn knovs, hov
dubíous ít ís to occupy oncsclIvíth phílosophy ín a vorld líkc thc
onc ín vhích vc lívc. But - síncc onc alvays sccks justíhcatíon Ior
vhatoncdocs- thcrcís,pcrhaps,accrtaínj ustíhcatíonIoroccupyíng
oncsclIvíthphílosophyín that, asthc onc Iorm oIknovlcdgcvhích
hasnotyctbccndcpartmcntalízcd,splítíntobranchcs,rcíhcd,ítsccms
to mc to rcprcscnt thc only chancc, víthín thc boundarícs oI thís
dcpartmcntalízcd vorld, oImakínggood atlcasta partoIvhat, asI
havctrícdto cxplaíntoyou, ísothcrvísc dcnícd. ÌIoncísnotoncsclI
capablc at cach momcnt oI ídcntíhcatíon víth thc víctíms, and oI
alcrtavarcncssandrcmcmbrancc,phílosophy,ínthc ncccssaryIorms
oIítsovnrcíhcatíon,íspcrhapsthconlyIormoIconscíousncssvhích,
bysccíngthroughthcscmattcrsandmakíngthcmconscíousínamorc
obj cctívc Iorm, canatlcastdo sometbing, a smallpartoIthatvhích
vc arc unablc to do. Þnd ít must bc admíttcd that to do thís ín a
unívcrsal vay vould by Iar ovcrtax thc strcngth oI any índívídual
pcrson. !nthcothcrhand,ítmustbcsaíd- vhcncírclíngaroundthc
problcmsoImctaphysícs in thísconncctíon,asI am doingnov- that

1 1+ ÏLLÅ1VL Ï 1 Ï ÅLLÏ
thc vorldínvhíchvc lívc arouscs a kíndoImístrusttovards phílo-
sophy Irom a díIIcrcnt poínt oIvícv Irom thc onc Ì havc sct out up
to nov. Jhc Iactís thatthc dccpcrphílosophygrovs andthc Iurthcr
ít ís rcmovcd Irom thc surIacc oI thc mcrcly cxístcnt, thc hardcr ít
bccomcs to Ircc oncsclI oI thc Icclíng that, through íts dcpth and
rcmotcncss Irom mcrc cxístcncc, phílosophy ís also grovíng rcmotc
Iromthcvaythíngsrcallyandactuallyarc,comment c'est, asBcckctt
putsít. 'Cnchasthc IcclíngthatthcdcpthoIphílosophícalrcIlcctíon,
vhíchísncccssaryasa rcsístancctoallthcíllusíonvíthvhíchrcíhcd
conscíousncss surrounds us, at thc samc tímc lcads avay Irom thc
truth, síncc onc somctímcs suspccts thatthís samc cxístcncc vhích ít
ísthc ínalícnablcímpulsc oIphílosophytopcnctratc andgo bcyond,
ísthconlythíngvhíchcxístsand ísvorthrcIlcctíng uponat a//. Jhc
consídcratíonsconccrncd víth thc crísís oIthc conccptand oImcan-
íng, and thc ímpossíbílíty oI rcstoríng mcaníng to cxístcncc, vhích
Ì sct out ín thc last lccturcs, poínt ín cxactly thís dírcctíon. Þnd Ì
bclícvc thatyou nccd onlyto applythcsc consídcratíons to thc qucs-
tíon Ì am prcscntíngto you atthís momcnt and you víll quítc casíly
scc thc problcm that, on thc onc hand, anyconstructíon oIa mcan-
íng, hovcvcr constítutcd, ís Iorbíddcn to us, but that, on thc othcr,
thc task oIphílosophy ís prccíscly to understand, and not símply to
rcIlcct, vhat happcns to bc, or to copy ít, to usc Kant's cxprcssíon.
Jhís has placcd phílosophy ín a truc quandary. Cnc somctímcs has
thc Icclíng that thc prcvalcnt posítívíst scícncc ís ríght ín capturíng
only thc mostsupcrhcíal and trívíal and thus thc most cxtcrnal rcla-
tíonshíps víth íts classíIyíng proccdurcs, vhcrcas csscncc, oncc dís-
closcd, aíms at dcpth. Þs a mctaphysícal thínkcr, that ís, somconc
vho cannot do othcrvísc than scckto undcrstand, onc ís somctímcs
ovcrcomc by thc ccrìc suspìcíon that undcrstandíng ìtsclI ìs an ìI|u-
síon that onc ought to bc ríd oI, and that prccíscly thc supcrhcíal
mínd vhích mcrclyrcgístcrs Iacts, vhích onc rcsísts víth cvcry hbrc
oIonc'sbcíng,mayínthc cndbc ríght. Cncmust, asítvcrc, íncludc
common scnsc and human trívíalíty ín mctaphysícal mcaníng; onc
mustíncorporatcítín spcculatíon asthc príncíplcvhíchcnsurcsthat
thc vorldmcrclyísasítís andnotothcrvísc, íIthc dcpthoIspccula-
tíon ís not to bc Ialsc, that ís, a dcpth vhích conIcrs an i//usory

mcanmg.
Cn thc othcr hand, hovcvcr, thc j oy oIthought, vhíchmotívatcs
usto thínkonmctaphysícalmattcrsínthchrstplacc andtoraísc thc
qucstíons Ì havc díscusscd ín thc coursc oI thcsc lccturcs, ís símply
thc j oyoIclcvatíon,thcj oy oIrísíngbcyondvhatmcrclyís. Þndonc
oIthc mostpaínIul thoughts vhíchcan aIIlíctsomconcvhocngagcs
ín phílosophyís that, ín gívíngvayto thísj oy oIphílosophízíng- ín
11LÅ1V1 Ï 1 ÏÅ11Ï 1 1 ó
rcIusíng to bc bargaíncd out oItruth by mcrc bcíng - onc ís bcíng
lurcd ínto a dcmoníc sítuatìon by thís vcry truth. II thc pcdcstrían
rcplaccmcnt oI knovlcdgc by thc mcrc rcgístcríng, ordcríng and
summarízíngoIIactsvcrcto havcthc lastvordagaínstthc clcvatíon
oIthought,truthítsclIvouldrcallybcachímcra,andthcrcvouldbc
notruth, Iortruthvouldbcnomorcthanthcpractícablcsummarízíng
and arrangíng oIthc mcrcly cxístcnt. Jhc suspìcíon I am cxprcssíng
hcrc and vhích, I vould say, ís an índíspcnsablc moment oI phílo-
sophìcalspcculatíon,ísthattrívíal,posítívístavarcncssmaytodaybc
closcrtothc adaequatio rei atque inte//ectus thansublìmcconscíous-
ncss.IbclícvcthatthconlyvayoutoIthísdílcmmavouldbctorcIlcct
on thc ídca oItruth ítsclI, and to grasp truth, not as anadaequatio,
not as a mcrc mcasuríng agaìnst Iactual círcumstanccs, but as a
proccdurc adoptcd tovards a bcíng oI a quítc díIIcrcnt naturc and
dímcnsíon, and tícd to a quítc dìIIcrcnt proccdurc oIconscíousncss
thanmcrcrcgístratíon.ButínIaccoIthíspcdcstríanorposítívístmotíI
that mínd rcally consísts ín nothìng othcr than countíng thc Icct oI
thc míllìpcdc- andI cansaythatcvcrythíngI thínk ísjustonc sìnglc
rcsístancctothatconccptíonoImínd- thc ìmpulsc opposcdto ítcan
probably only survívc by adoptíng thc príncíplc. rcnouncc, that you
may gaìn. Jhat ìs to say, onc víll not survívc by prcscrvíng somc
so-callcdhíghcrsphcrcs,orvhatÌvouldprcIcrtocallnaturcrcscrvcs,
vhích rcIlcctìon ís not allovcd to touch, but by pushìng thc pro-
ccss oI dc-mythologízìng, or cnlìghtcnmcnt, to thc cxtrcmc. Cnly ìn
thís, íIatall,ísthcrc anyhopcthatthc phìlosophcr, throughhìs sclI-
rcIlcctíon, víll not cnd by consummatíng trívíalíty, thc consumma-
tìonoIvhíchísabsolutchorror.Íornomattcrhovoncmayvìcvthc
vorksoI!annahÞrcndt,andItakcancxtrcmclycrítícalvícvoIthcm,
shc ís undoubtcdly ríght ín thc ídcntíhcatíon oIcvìl víth trívìalíty.¯
But I vould put ít thc othcr vayround; I vould not say that cvíl ìs
trívíal,butthattrívíalítyíscvíl - trívíalíty,thatís,asthc IormoIcon-
scìousncss and mínd vhích adapts ítsclI to thc vorld as ítís, vhích
obcys thc príncìplc oI ìncrtìa. Þnd thís prìncíplc oI íncrtìa truly ìs
vhat ís radícally cvíl. I vould say, thcrcIorc, that íI mctaphysícal
thínkìng today ís to havc any chancc, and ís not to dcgcncratc ínto
claptrapabouta ' ncvprotcctcdncss' jneue Ce|orgenbeit| and such-
líkc nonscnsc, ít víll havc to ccasc bcíng apologctíc and poìntíng to
somcthíngonccanholdontoandncvcrlosc, andthínkagaínstítsclI.
Þnd that mcans that ìt must mcasurc ìtsclI agaìnstthc ultìmatc, thc
absolutcly unthínkablc, to havc anyríght to bc a thínkìng atall.
Iadícsand fcntlcmcn, ínthc lastlccturcI spokcaboutÞuschvìtz
andsaidthatbccausc oIthc thíngsvhíchhappcncdthcrc- Iorvhìch
Iuscdonlythcnamc^uschvítz,although,oIcourscthatnamcstands
B
P
1 1 6 ÏLLÅ\V1 ÏÏ ÏÅ11Ï
Ior somcthíng unthínkablc bcyondthc unthínkablc, namcly, a vholc
hístorícal phasc - mctaphysícs has bccn changcd ín íts ínncrmost
motíIs. ì could, íIyou líkc, gívc thís a moral-phílosophícal tvístand
saythat!ítlcrhasplaccd a ncvímpcratívconus. that, quítcsímply,
Þuschvítz should not bc rcpcatcd and that nothíng líkc ít should
cvcrcxístagaín.ItísímpossíblctoIoundthísímpcratívconlogíc- ít
has that ín common víth thc Kantían ímpcratívc. ¤hcn Kantstatcs
thathísovnímpcratívc íssímplygívcn, thatasscrtíon doubtlcss con-
taíns allkínds oIgrímly authorítarían and írratíonalístclcmcnts, but
also - as ì trícd to cxplaín to you ín my lccturcs last scmcstcr¯ - an
avarcncssthatthcsphcrcoIríghtactíon docsnotcoíncídcvíthmcrc
ratíonalíty, that ít has an `addcndum`.' I bclícvc that an attcmpt to
statc as a gcncral lav vhyÞuschvítz or thc atom bomb or allthosc
thíngs vhích bclong togcthcr hcrc should not bc rcpcatcd vould
havc somcthíng uttcrly Iccblc aboutítbccausc ítvouldtransIcr ínto
thc sphcrcoIratíonalíty,vhích ísultímatclythc sccondarysphcrc oI
mínd, thc ríghtto aj urísdíctíonvhíchítcanonlyusurp. Itísalsothc
casc - and thís docs bclong víthín that sphcrc - that as soon as onc
attcmpts to apply logíc hcrc onc ísdravn ínto anínsolublc díalcctíc.
ConsídcroncoIthc drcadIulscmí-coloníalvarsvhícharc socharac-
tcrístíc oIour tímc, ín vhích onc party - and onc can alvays toss a
coíntodccídcvhíchoncítís- torturcsandcommítsdrcadIul atrocít-
ícs, so thatthc othcr ís also Iorccd to torturc, as ítclaíms,to prcvcnt
íts opponcnt Irom doíng so. I do notvíshto cxplorc thc valídíty or
othcrvísc oIsuch consídcratíons, butj ustto saythat as soonasonc
attcmpts to provídc a logícal Ioundatíon Ior a proposítíon such as
thatoncshouldnottorturc, oncbccomcscmbroílcdína badínhníty;
and probably vould cvcn gct thc vorst oI thc logícal argumcnt,
vhcrcasthctruthínthísproposítíonísprccísclyvhatIallsoutsídcsuch
a díalcctíc. ÞndI do notthínk you víll mísundcrstandthís statcmcnt
as advocatínga Iorm oIírratíonalísmor a bclícIín somc natural lav
dírcctly acccssíblc to íntuítíon. Þll that ís Iar Irom my íntcntíon.
¤hat 1 vísh to poínt out is thís practícal momcnt, vhích docs not
coíncídcvíthknovlcdgcbutísconstítutívcoImoralphílosophy.Jhc
cxtra-logícal clcmcnt to vhích I am appcalíng - to makc thís quítc
clcarandtorulcoutanyírratíonalísm- ísrcallythatvhíchísconjurcd
avay byphílosophy and ratíonalísm. But vhatthcyconj urc avay ís
notírratíonalmomcntsorvalucs,asísclaímcd, butthcconvcrsc. ítís
quítc símplythcmomcntoIavcrsíontothcínIÎíctíng oIphysícalpaín
onvhatBrccht oncc callcd thc torturablc body oIany pcrson.
II Ì say to you that thc truc basís oI moralíty ís to bc Iound ín
bodíly Icclíng, ín ídcntíhcatíon víth unbcarablc paín, ! am shovíng
you Irom a díIIcrcnt sídc somcthíng vhích I carlícr trícd to índícatc
1LLÅ1VL Ï 1 ÏÅLLÏ I I /
ínaIarmorcabstractIorm.Ìtísthatmoralíty,thatvhíchcanbccallcd
moral, í. c. thc dcmand Ior ríght lívíng, lívcs on ín opcnly matcríalíst
motíIs. Jhc mctaphysícalpríncíplc oIthcínjunctíonthat'Jhou shalt
notínIlíctpaín'- andthísínj unctíonísamctaphysícalpríncíplcpoínt-
íngbcyondmcrcIactícíty- canhndítsj ustíhcatíononlyínthcrccoursc
tomatcríalrcalíty,tocorporcal,physícalrcalíty,andnottoítsopposítc
polc, thc purc ídca. Nctaphysícs, Ì say, has slíppcd ínto matcríal
cxístcncc. Ïrccíscly thís transítíon oI mctaphysícal qucstíons and, íI
Ì míghtstatc ítsograndly, oImctaphysícs ítsclItothc stratum oIthc
matcríal, ís vhat ís rcprcsscd by thc connívíng conscíousncss, thc
oIhcíal ycs-sayíng oI vhatcvcr ílk. Þs a chíld, Ì bclícvc, onc stíll
knovs somcthíng aboutthísstratum- víththc dím knovlcdgc chíl-
drcn havcoIsuchthíngs. Itísthc zonc vhíchlatcr matcríalízcdlítcr-
allyínthcconccntratíoncamps,asa chíldonc had an ínklíngoIítín
sublímínal cxpcrícnccs - asvhcn thc dog-catchcr`s van drovc by, or
suchlíkc thíngs. onc kncv that thatvas thc most ímportantthíng oI
all, that vas vhat rcally mattcrcd, thc zonc oIthc carcass and thc
knackcr. Þnd thís unconscíous knovlcdgc - that that vas thc most
ímportant thíngto knov - ís, no doubt, hardly lcss sígníhcant than
ínIantílc scxuality, vhích, as Írcud has dcmonstratcd, ís cxtrcmcly
closclyrclatcd to thís sphcrc andhas a vcry grcat dcalto do víth ít.
ÌvouldsaythatthisIcclíngthatthcmostvrctchcdphysícalcxístcncc,
as ít conIronts us ín thcsc phcnomcna, ís conncctcd to thc híghcst
íntcrcsts oIhumaníty, has hardly bccn thought through propcrly up
to nov, buthasbccnonlyskírtcdbythought. Ì bclícvcthc cducatíon
vc undcrgo as studcnts ís pcrhaps thc only placc vhcrc vc hnd out
anythíngaboutthcsc mattcrs- ín anatomyín thc study oImcdícínc.
Þnd thc tcrríblc cxcítcmcnt vhích that zonc arouscs ín studcnts ín
thcír hrst scmcstcr - all thís sccms to poínt to thc Iact that that ís
vhcrcthc truthíshíddcn, andthatthc mostímportantthíngoIallís
to dívcst oursclvcs oI thc cívílízíng mcchanísms vhích, agaín and
agaín, blíndustothatsphcrc.ÌtísalmostasíIphílosophy- andmost
oI all thc grcat, dccp, constructívc phílosophy- obcycd a sínglc ím-
pulsc.togctavayIromthcplaccoIcarríon, stcnchandputrcIactíon.
^nd j ust bccausc oI thís dístancc, vhích gaíns íts dcpth Irom that
most vrctchcd placc, phílosophy ís no doubt ín pcrcnníal dangcr oI
ítsclIbccomíngsomcthíngj ustasthín, untruc andvrctchcd. Ì vould
rcmarkínpassíngthatthcrcIlcctíonsÌamprcscntíngtoyou,hovcvcr
Iragmcntary thcy may bc, may pcrhaps hclp you to undcrstand vhy
thc dramas oI Bcckctt, vhích, as you knov, sccm to mc to bc thc
onlytrulyrclcvantmctaphysícalproductíonssínccthcvar,constantly
cnd up ín thís sphcrc. Þnd thc chcap j íbc that Bcckctt can ncvcr gct
avay Irom urns,rcluscbíns andsand-hcapsínvhíchpcoplcvcgctatc
M
1 1 8 ÏLLÅ1V1 Ï 1 ÏÅLLÏ
bctvccn lìIc and dcath- asthcy actuallyvcgctatcd ìn thc conccntra-
tìoncamps- thìsj ìbcsccmstomcj usta dcspcratcattcmpttoIcndoII
thc knovlcdgc thatthcsc arc cxactly thc thìngs vhìch mattcr.
ÌI onc rcalìzcs that cvcrythìng vc call culturc consìsts ìn thc sup-
prcssìon oInaturc and any uncontrollcd traccs oInaturc, thcn vhat
thìsculturchndsmostunbcarablcarcthoscplaccsvhcrcìtìsnotquìtc
ablctocontrolnaturalmanìIcstatìons,vhcrcthcyìntrudcpcrsìstcntly
ìnto ìts ovn domaìn, asìn thc casc oIthc dark stratum Ì j ustspokc
about. Ìt mìght bc saìd that culturc banìshcs stcnch bccausc ìtìtsclI
stìnks - vhìch Brccht oncc Iormulatcd ìn thc truly magnìhccnt and
ìnspìrcd statcmcnt that humanìty up to nov had buìlt ìtsclI an ìm-
mcnsc palacc oI dogshìt.´ Ì bclìcvc that culturc`s squalìd and guìlty
supprcssìon oI naturc - a supprcssìon vhìch ìs ìtsclI a vrongly and
blìndlynatural tcndcncyoIhuman bcìngs- ìsthc rcason vhypcoplc
rcIusc to admìt that dark sphcrc. Þnd ìI onc rcally vants to curc
phìlosophyoIìtsìdcologìcal,dìsscmblìngcharactcr,vhìchhasrcachcd
an almost uncndurablc lcvcl today, thcn thìs ìs probably thc ¬e,
cej-ó,,thcpoìntoIrccognìtìon,vhcrcthattransIormatìonshouldbc
achìcvcd. ÌIvhat Ì havc trìcd to cxplaìn - ìn cxtrcmc tcrms - about
thc conccpt oI culturc ìs truc, and ìIìt ìs thc casc that phìlosophy`s
onlyraison d`ctre todayìsto gaìnacccsstothc unsayablc,thcnìtcan
bc saìdthatÞuschvìtz andthc vorld oI^uschvìtz havc madcclcar
somcthìngvhìchvasnota surprìscto thoscvhovcrcnotposìtìvìsts
buthada dccp,spcculatìvc turn oImìnd.thatculturchasIaìlcdto ìts
vcry corc. Jhìsvas also statcd byNarx ìn thc magnìhccntIormula-
tìonsìnhìs draIts Ior Caµita/ vhìch hc latcr supprcsscd, ìnvhìch hc
spokc oI thc narrov-mìndcdncss oIallculturc up to that tìmc.' Jhc
samc ìdca vas, oIcoursc, cxprcsscd by Iìctzschc vho, bccausc hìs
attcntìon vas hxatcd on thc cultural supcrstructurc, pccrcd morc
dccplyìnto ìtthan anyothcr. Jhc rcason can bc sccnmostclcarlyìn
thc Iact that phìlosophy, art and ratìonal scìcncc havc not rcally
ìmpìngcd on human bcìngs, to vhom thcy arc ncccssarìly addrcsscd
as thcìr ìdcal subjcct. Ì rccall a vìsìt to Bambcrg, vhcn thc qucstìon
vas raìscd vhcthcr thc spcctaclc oI thc ìndcscrìbably bcautìIul and
ìntact tovn, partly mcdìcval and partly Baroquc, had had cvcn a
slìghtlybcnchcìalìnIlucncconthcpcoplclìvìngthcrc. ÌIÌonlymcntìon
thc vord ' Bambcrg`, Ì thìnkthc qucstìon ansvcrs ìtsclI.'¨
But vhcn Ì spcak oI culturc, morc ìs at stakc than ìts Iaìlurc ìn
rclatìontohumanbcìngs,Iorthcautonomyvhìchculturchasacquìrcd
cannotbc canccllcdsìmplybydcmandìngthatìtshouldnovaddrcss
ìtsclIto human bcìngs, thatìtshould bc somcthìng Ior thcm or gìvc
somcthìng to thcm. Culturc, cspccìally ìn its grcat manìlcstatìons, ìs
notsomckìndoIsocìal,pcdagogìcal ìnstitutìon, buthas ìtstruth- iI
JLLÅ1VL Ï 1 ÏÅLLÏ
1 1 ¬
íthasany- onlyvíthínítsclI.Þndítcan onlyIuIhlvhatmíghtbcíts
mcaníng Ior human bcíngs by not thínkíng oI thcm but by bcíng
purcly and consístcntly Iormcd víthín ítsclI. !ovcvcr, such ís thc
bIíndncssoIthcvorld`scourscthatanysuchtcndcncyísgcncraIlyhcld
agaínstculturc asa lackoIlovc, a Iaílurcto adaptínthcspccíhcvay
pcoplc rcquírc. But, lcavíng that asídc, Ì bclícvc that untruth ís also
lodgcdínthc autonomous zoncs oImínd. ÞndíIÌ gívc suchpromín-
cncc to vhatcan bc crítícízcdín thc products oIthc obj cctívc mínd,
ínavayvhíchmaymakcsomcoIyouuncomIortablc,Ìdosobccausc
Ì bcIícvc ít csscntíal, ín líbcratíng human bcíngs Irom thc vcíl oI
ídcoIogy, to makc thcm avarc oI thc momcnt oI untruth prccíscly
vhcrcítmístakcs ítscIIIor truth, and míndlcssncss Ior mínd. ¤c scc
thís pcrhapsmostclcarIyínthc arca vhích, many ycars ago, dírcctly
aItcr my rcturn Irom Þmcríca, Ì callcd thc rcsurrcctcd culturc, ' ' a
cuIturc vhích vas rchashíng íts tradítíonal vaIucs oI truth, bcauty
and goodncss as íI nothíng had happcncd. Íor thís vholc sphcrc oI
rcsurrcctcdculturcísítsclIprccísclythcrcIusc,thcrubbíshIromvhích,
as Ì saíd carlícr, culturc ís tryíng to cscapc. Jhís rcsurrcctcd culturc
rcscmblcsthc ruínsíthasclcarcd avay; havíngrcmovcdthcm ítthcn
rcínstallcd ítsclI on thcm ín thc vrctchcdIy makcshíIt vay vhích ís
symboIícallyrcvcalcdbythcoutvardímagcoIourrcbuíItcítícs.Jhís
cuIturc has nov bccomc ubo//y thc ídcology vhích, through thc
dívísíon bctvccnmcntalandphysícalvork,íthasalvaysµart/y bccn.
Ìn Iacc oIthís, onc íscaughtín an antínomy; Ior anyonc vho plcads
IorthcprcscrvatíonoIthísculturcmakcshímsclIanaccomplíccoIíts
untruth and oIídcologícal ílIusíon ín gcncral; but vhocvcr docs not
do so and dcmands thc crcatíon oIa ta|u/a rasa, dírcctly promotcs
thc barbarísm ovcr vhích culturc had clcvatcd ítsclIand vhích thc
mcdíatíons oIculturc had actualIymodcratcd. Iotcvcn sílcncclcads
outoIthíscírcIc, síncc hc vho kccpssíIcnt,vhosaysnothíngatall-
and,hcavcnknovs, thctcmptatíon to do thatísstrongcnough- not
only attcsts to hís íncapacítyto sayvhatnccds to bc saíd, butíntcr-
prcts thís subj cctívc íncapacíty as pcrmíttíng a scrcnc dctachmcnt
víthrcgardtoobj cctívctruth.JhcabolítíonoIculturcaspcrpctratcd
ín thc castcrn bloc, that ís, cuIturc`s transIormatíon ínto a mcrc ín-
strumcnt oI povcr, only combats líkc víth líkc, síncc culturc has
alvays bccn cnmcshcd víth povcr. But thís abolítíon ís not, ítsclI,
bcttcrthanculturc, butcvcnvorsc, sínccítstranglcscvcnthcclcmcnt
oI promísc and hopc vhích culturc had contaíncd and vhích vcnt
bcyond thc cvcr-samcncss oI control, and turns ít back ínto dírcct
opprcssíon- vhílc tryíng toconvíncc pcoplc that thís statc oI dírcct
opprcssíon ís
Irccdom. Ìn poíntíng to thís cultural and phíIosophícaI
antínomy, thcr
cIorc, ! bcIícvc ! havc also cxprcsscd a polítícal onc.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ bÍ7á¡P
22 ]u/y I º65
ÌamaIraídyoumaybcthínkíng'thatÌhavcadjourncdthcdíscussíon
oI mctaphysícal subj ccts by cnquíríng ínto thc possíbílíty oI sayíng
anythíng aboutthosc subjccts. But that cnquiry has not bccn ínto a
partícularsubj cct,oIvhatcvcrkínd,ashappcnsínthccurrcntídcalíst
thcorícs, butíntoculturcìtsclI. Ì appcarto bcmcasuríngmctaphysícs
bythc statcoIculturc, makíngthc ansvcrsto so-callcdmctaphysícal
qucstíonsdcpcndonaconscíousncssoIthchistoríco-culturalsítuatíon,
vhcrcas, accordíng to currcnt notíons, vhích cndov mctaphysícs
víth an absolutc truth transccndíng all human condítíonalíty, no
such constítutívc rclatíonshíp should bc attríbutcd to that kínd oI
conscíousncss. Ì thínk Í ovc ít to you, thcrcIorc, to say somcthíng
about thc íntcrtvíncmcnt bctvccn vhat ís commonly callcd culturc
andmctaphysícalqucstíons.Youvíllhavcnotíccdthatatsomccrucíal
poínts ín my argumcnt - and thc discussíon Ì am carryíng on at
prcscnt ís vhat pcoplc call a mcthodologícal díscussíon- Ì havc not
dravn thc currcntly acccptcd, cpistcmologícal conclusíon Irom thc
intra-culturalcxpcrícnccsoImctaphysícs.thatvhílcthcconscíousncss
oIthc absolutc dcpcnds on thc givcn statc oIcultural conscíousncss,
thc absolutc ítsclI ís untouchcd by ít. Ì think ít may bc uscIul hcrc,
vhílcvc arccnquiríngintothcpossíbílítyoImctaphysícs,toprovídc
a dccísívc claríhcatíon oI thís poínt, so that you do not havc thc
ímprcssíonthatÌ amcvadíngthc crucíalíssucortryíngtomuddythc
vatcrs víth ínconsístcnt thínking. Ny posítíon ís as Iollovs. such a
qucstíon- hov thc thíngs vhích havc happcncd vcrc possíblc- not
onlyhas an cpístcmologícaÌ or nosologícal ínIlucncc on thc qucstíon
ÏLLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ 1Z1
about thc naturc oI mctaphysícs but rcaÌÌy and direct/y aIIccts thc
mctaphysícal ansvcrs. Ì bclícvc, ín othcr vords, that thc mctaphys-
ícal thcsís oIthc ínhcrcntmcaníng oIthc vorld, or oIa cosmíc plan
undcrlyíngcvcrythíngvhíchhappcns,mustbccallcdíntoqucstíonat
thc vcry momcnt vhcn a mcaníngIul conncctíon can no longcr bc
cstablíshcd bctvccn vhathas happcncd andthc mctaphysícal ídcas.
Jhc momcnt onc Ialls back on thc vholly abstract notíon oI thc
vorld`sínscrutablcvays- andthc attríbutíonoIínscrutablcvaysto
anythíng hasalvays bccncalamítous- thcassumptíon oImctaphys-
ícalmcaníngítsclI ¦ andnotj ustourconscíousncss oIít) ís shattcrcd.
Íor Ì bclícvc that vc havc nothng cxccpt our rcason, that vc havc
nooptíonbuttomcasurcbyourconcrctccxpcrícncc,andthatvíthín
thcconstcllatíonsvhíchnovdchnc ourcxpcrícnccallthctradítíonal
amrmatívc or posítívc thcscs oI mctaphysícs - Ì thínk Ì can put ít
mostsímplylíkc thís - símply bccomc blasphcmícs.
Jhcrc arc manypcoplc vho, ín Iacc oIthc rcsultíng dcspaír, takc
rcIugc ín thcology. Ì thínk ít should bc saíd that thc dcmand thís
placcsonthcmandonthcírconccptoIthcabsolutc- thcímplícatíon
thatthcscthíngs¯couldbclocatcdvíthínthcmcaníngoIthcabsolutc
ítsclI- cIIcctívclydcmonízcsthcabsolutc.Jhíspossíbílítyvasalrcady
ímplícít índíalcctícal thcology as thc doctrínc oIthc 'vholly othcr`,
vhíchturns Godínto anabyss.' Ìt thcnírruptcd,víthovcrvhclmíng
Iorcc,íntothcvorkoIKaIka,vhcrctradítíonalthcologícalcatcgorícs
arcmcasurcdagaínstcxpcrícnccína vayvhíchturnsthcmíntothcír
opposítc, a sínístcrmythologyordcmonology.¨JhatísvhatÌ hadín
mínd. Þnd Ior thatrcason Ì ask youto undcrstand thatthc conncc-
tíons bctvccn culturc andmctaphysícs vhích Ì nov proposc do not
rclatc to thc spcctaclcsvclookthroughorthc glassvíndov bchínd
vhích vc arc trappcd,'but that thc cvcnts Ì havc rcIcrrcd to rclatc
dírcctlytorcalítyatítsmostcsscntíallcvcl.Jhcybríngabouta svítch
Iromquantítytoqualíty,ínthatvhílcsuchhorrorshavcalvays bccn
prcscnt, andthcologícal j ustíhcatíon has alvays Iound ítdcspcratcly
díIhcult to comc totcrmsvíththcm, vhat carlícr appcarcd mystcrí-
ous and unIathomablc only ín índívídual cascs has nov bccomc so
much a part oIthc obj cctívc and unívcrsal coursc oIthc vorld that,
ín Iacc oIthc prcpondcrancc oI thís obj cctívc ordcr, any attcmpt at
harmonízatíon víth thc so-callcd cosmíc plan or provídcncc ncccs-
sarílydcgcncratcsínto lunacy. JhcthcologyoIcrísís- thcnamcgívcn
tothc díalcctícalthcologygoíngbacktoKarlBarth`scommcntaryon
thc Lpístlc to thc Komans" - dctcctcd thc IatcIul íntcrtvíncmcnt oI
mctaphysícs andculturcvíththat agaínstvhíchthcyabstractly and
ímpotcntly protcstcd. !t ís undoubtcdly thc cnormous mcrít oI all
thcscthínkcrs- !mílBrunncr,!bncr,´ÍrícdríchGogartcn'andsomc
M
1ZZ ÏLLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ
othcrs apart Irom Barth ¦ although thcrc vcrc othcrs vhosc thought
took a sínístcr turn' ") - to havc rccognízcd that thc ímmancncc oI
culturc, and thc amalgamatíon oI cultural catcgorícs and ídcas víth
mctaphysícaloncs,hasthctcndcncytodcprívcthcscídcasthcmsclvcs
oIthcír obj cctívc truth, to rcducc thcmto thc lcvcI oIthc subj cct, or
tomínd¦ Ceistì, asthcanccstoroIthísmovcmcnt,Kícrkcgaard,callcd
ít. Kícrkcgaard aIso saíd that such tcndcncícs `mcdíatc' thc ídcas,
although, íIyou víll Iorgívc mc thc pcdantry, hc cntírcly mísundcr-
stoodthc!cgclíanconccptoImcdíatíon,vhíchísamcdíatíonuitbin
tbe extreme itse/[ KícrkcgaardundcrstoodthísconccptoImcdíatíon
Iromoutsídc, as a kíndoIbrídgcbctvccnthcabsolutcandthchnítc,
contíngcnt human mínd. Jhís íntcrtvíncmcnt oI sclI-dcccívíng
culturc and an ínncr dccay oI thc mctaphysícal ídcas vas rcgístcrcd
víthcxtraordínaryhoncstyandrígour bythcdíalcctícalthcoIogíans.
But ¦ as ís dcmonstratcd ín thc stíll unpublíshcd book oI !crmann
bchvcppcnhauscr' ' ) , thcy vcrc dcnícd thc Iruíts oI thcír ínsíght, or
rcmaíncd trappcd ín a subj cctívíst posítíon - thc posítíon thcy most
vchcmcntly opposcd- bybclícvíng that thc ansvcr layínthc notíon
oIthcabsolutclydíIIcrcnt andíndctcrmínatc, vhíchthcyopposcdto
thc dccay oImctaphysícs. Jhís conccpt oIthc absolutcly othcr, thcy
thought, vasvhatvas nccdcd. ¤hatcanbcsaídaboutthísconccpt
oIthcabsoIutclyothcrísthatcíthcrítrcmaínscntírclyíndctcrmínatc
andabstract,sothatítcannotpcrIormvhatítíssupposcdtopcrIorm;
or ít takcs on dctcrmínantsvhích arc thcmsclvcs subjcctto thc crítí-
císmoIthcscthcologíans, sínccthcyarcdctcrmínantsoIímmancncc;
or,hnally- andthísísthcpathtakcnbymostoIthcscthínkcrs- thís
contcnt ís summoncd up Irom outsídc, ín a dogmatíc and arbítrary
lcap, so that thc díalcctíc vhích Iorms thc corc oI thís thcologícal
standpoínt ís at thc samc tímc rcvokcd by ít. Jhc Iact ís that thc
príncíplc oIthc absolutcspírít,vhíc:ísa curíouslyíndíIIcrcnt dctcr-
mínant cxístíng bctvccn transccndcncc and thc quíntcsscncc oI thc
humanmíndasítsovnmostcomprchcnsívctotalíty,tírclcsslydcstroys
vhat ít purports to cxprcss. Ìt ccasclcssly absorbs ínto ítsclIvhatít
scckstoIormulatcasthcabsolutc,vhíchíssupposcdlyímpcrvíousto
such assímílatíon. Ior thís rcason - and on thís poínt !cgcl, íI you
Iíkc, nccds to bc takcn bcyond hímsclI - íts suprcmc conccpt, thc
absolutc, ín vhích cvcrythíng ís supposcd to comc to rcst, bccomcs
díalcctícalvíthínítsclI, so thatspírít, ínbccomíngabsolutcIor itsclI,
ísatthc samctímc, byvírtuc oIcvcrythíngthatís, absorbcdínto thc
mínd as a humancntíty, thus dcstroyíng thc transccndcncc or abso-
lutcncss oIthc ídcavhích ít asscrts.
I bclícvcthatthchrstconclusíontobcdravnIromthís,vhíchvas
not dravn bythcdíalcctícal thcologíansvho, dcspítcthcdoctríncol
ÏLLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ
1ZJ
thcabsolutclyothcr,contínucdtouscthctradítíonalvordsoIthcology
víthoutíntcrruptíon- ísthatnoblc,clcvatcdvords- andthíngssuch
asÞuschvítz cannot bcthoughtcxccptínvords, íII may rcpcatthc
poínt- canno longcr bcuscd.Jhís ísnotonlyIorthcrcasons!havc
alrcadysctout- thatloItyvordshavc bccomcsímplyíncommcnsur-
ablcvíthcxpcrícncc- butIorthc,íIyoulíkc,Iarmorcdcvílíshrcason
that ít ís charactcrístíc oI cvíl today to appropríatc thc most noblc
andclcvatcdvordsIor íts ovnusc.!tíspractícallythctradcmark oI
totalítarían movcmcnts that thcy havc monopolízcd all thc so-callcd
sublímc and loIty conccpts, vhílc thc tcrms thcy usc Ior vhat thcy
pcrsccutcanddcstroy- basc,ínscct-líkc,hlthy, subhumanand allthc
rcst - thcytrcat asanathcma. Þndthc díssímulatíng tíssuc or spcll Ì
havc spokcn oIís so tíghtly vovcn that anyonc vho rcIuscs to con-
lorm,andthustrulystandsIorothcrncss,ísalmostalvaysdísparagcd
asbasc,vhílcídcalshavc,toanalmostínconccívablcdcgrcc, bccomca
scrccnIorvilcncss. Þnd oncoIthcmostímportantgoals ¦ apartIrom
thosc ! havc alrcady mcntíoncd) that Ì sct mysclI ín my tcxt on thc
'j argonoIínauthcntícíty`, íIÌ míghtalludcto ítagaín,vastoanalysc
thís mcchanísm, and to shov concrctcly hov thc sublímc, clcvatcd
tradítíonal vords havc bccomc a covcr Ior bascncss, cxploítatíon,
opprcssíon andcvíl. Cncvould nccd to bc a vcry supcrhcíal and, íI
you líkc, a vcry nomínalístíc línguístíc phílosophcr to dcnythat thís
cxpcrícncc oIbcíngunablcto takcccrtaínvords ínto onc`smouth -
vhíchyoucanallhavcandvhíchvasprobablyhrstrcgístcrcd,though
ínavcrydíIIcrcntvay,ín!ugovon!oImannsthal`s'Chandos`lcttcr'¯
- also says somcthíng aboutvhat thc vords stand IOr. I bclícvc that
oncoIthccrucíalpoíntsonvhíchthcthcoryÌadvocatc,andoIvhích
I can prcscnt you at lcast somc sízcablc Iragmcnts ín thcsc lccturcs,
díIIcrsIromthccurrcntlyprcvalcntonc,ísmyvícvthatthchístorícal-
phílosophícalIatcoIlanguagcísatthcsamctímcthchístorícal-phílo-
sophícalIatcoIthcsubj cctmattcrtovhíchítrcIcrs.Jhísíssupportcd,
íncídcntally,byavícvpoíntvhíchvasbynomcansIorcígntoGcrman
ídcalísm, and cspccíally to ¤ílhclm von !umboldt: that languagc
constítutcsthoughtnolcssthanthoughtlanguagc. Jhísínsíghthasín
thcmcantímcbccntroddcnsoIlatbynomínalísmthatIcvpcoplccan
rcmcmbcrít,althoughanyrcIlcctíononthoughtcanshovyouto vhat
dcgrcc thought ís asmuch mcdíatcd by languagc as vícc vcrsa. Karl

Kraus`scntírcvorkcanbcundcrstoodasdcmonstratíngthatthcIatc
oIlanguagc ís thc hístory oI thc dccay oIthc contcnts cmbodícd ín
languagc, sothat thc dcclínc oIlanguagc víthín bourgcoís socícty ís
Ior hímanindcx oIvhat has bccomc oIthc grcat ídcas thcmsclvcs.
!canpcrhapsclaríIyvhat! amsayínghcrc, andvhatísconstítut-
ívc oIthc standpoínttovards mctaphysícsthat!amtryíngto outÌínc
B
1Z+ 1LLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ
Ior youínthcsc lastlccturcs, by tcllíng you a story aboutsomcthíng
vhích happcncd, I bclícvc, last ycar. I vas on holíday ín company
víth a vrítcr vhom I valuc híghly Ior hís moral íntcgríty, hc had
spcntmanyycars ína conccntratíoncamp- a ]cv, onc oIthc pcrsc-
cutcd- andhadhadthcstrcngthtorccordandobj cctíIythcthíngshc
hadsccn ínthc camps. Þnd hc ís onc oIthc Icv to vhomvcovc ít
that,thankstohísrcport,vccanrcndcrthconlyscrvícctothcvíctíms
oIvhíchvcarcstíllcapablc.nottoIorgctthcm. ' 'Ìvcntvalkíngvíth
thísman- vcvcrcínhíghmountaíns- andvhcnthctalkturncdto
Bcckctt hc rcvcalcd an cxtrcmcly víolcnt aIIcct agaínst that vrítcr,
gìvíng vcnt to thc commcnt: 'IIBcckctt had bccn ín a conccntratíon
camp hc probably vould not vrítc thcsc dcspaíríng thíngs, hc`d
vrítcthíngsvhíchgavcpcoplccouragc. ` I bclícvcthatthcconIusíon
maníIcstcd ín thís rcmark - thc subj cctívc motívatíon oI vhích I
Iully undcrstand and rcspcct aItcr vhat that man had gonc through
- throvs líght onthc spccíhc charactcrvhích ídcology has takcnon
ín dcalíng víth mctaphysícal conccpts today. Jhcrc ís an Þmcrícan
sayíng that thcrc arc no athcísts ín thc trcnchcs; thc old Gcrman
provcrbthatdangcrtcachcsustopraypoíntsínthcsamcdírcctíon-
and,Iundamcntally,thíshcroícmanhadargucdínavcrysímílarvay.
Jhís argumcnt ís íllogícal bccausc thc sítuatíons ínvhíchpcoplcarc
Iorccd tOthínk 'posítívcly` símply ín ordcr to survívc arc thcmsclvcs
sítuatíons oI compulsíon, vhích Iorcc pcoplc back on purc sclI-
prcscrvatíon, and on thínkíng only vhat thcy nccd to ín ordcr to
survívcínsuchasítuatíon,toapoíntvhcrcthctrutb content oIvhat
thcy thínk ís hopclcssly undcrmíncd anduttcrly dcstroycd. It ís pos-
síblc that, had Bcckctt bccn ín a conccntratíon camp, hc vould not
havc vríttcn 1be Unnama|/e or |ndgame, but I do not thínk ít
possíblc that thís vould havc madc vhat hc vrotc bcttcr or trucr.
Jhc ídca you víll comc across agaín and agaín ínthís contcxt, that
onc has to gívc pcoplc somcthíng, has to gívc thcm couragc - all
thcsc thíngs arc condítíons vhích restrict thc thínkíng oItruth, but
vhích may vcll bríng dovn on somconc vho thínks thc truth thc
odíum oI ínhumaníty, as I dcmonstratcd to you carlícr. But I also
thínk that thís modc oI thínkíng, thís dcmand placcd on thought,
docsanínj ustícctothcpcoplcínvhoschonourítísostcnsíblymadc.
Þlthoughthís dcmandíssccmínglymadcoutoIa charítablcconccrn
Ior thc víctíms, ín Iact ít rcduccs thcm to thc obj ccts oI a thínkíng
vhíchmanípulatcs andcalculatcsthcm,andassumcsínadvanccthat
ít ís gívíng thcm vhat thcy nccd and vant. By thc cvaluatíon maní-
Icstcdínsuchostcntatíouslynoblcínj unctíons,thcpcoplcthcyprctcnd
to scrvc arc ín rcalíty dcbascd. Jhcy arc trcatcd by mctaphysícs ín
Iundamcntallythc samcvayas bythcculturc índustry. ÞndIvould
ÏLLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ 1 Zó
say that thc crítcríon to bc applícd to any mctaphysícal qucstíon
today ís vhcthcr ít posscsscs or docs not posscss thís charactcr oI
connívanccvíththcculturcíndustry. !rccall, bycontrast,thatvhcn,
many ycars ago, ímmcdíatcly aItcr thc var, vhílc vc vcrc stíll ín
Þmcríca, !orkhcímcr and I rcad togcthcr Kogon`s book on thc 'bb
statc`,''andalthoughítvasthchrsttogívcusa IullídcaoIvhathad
happcncd, thc rcactíon oI both oI us vas to cxpcrícncc thc rcadíng
as somcthíng ímmcnscly líbcratíng. Þnd I am dcmocratíc cnough
to bclícvc that vhat vc cxpcrícnccd could bc thc samc Ior all vho
conccrnthcmsclvcsvíththcscthíngs,cxccptthatmostpcoplcarcso
ín thrall to currcnt notíons that thcy lack thc couragc Ior such an
cxpcrícncc.IIthcrcísanyvayoutoIthíshcllíshcírclc- andÌvould
notvíshtocxaggcratcthatpossíbílíty,bcíngvcllavarcoIthcvcak-
ncss and susccptíbílíty oI such conscíousncss - ít ís probably thc
abílítyoImíndto assímílatc, tothínkthc last cxtrcmcoIhorrorand,
ín Iacc oI thís spírítual cxpcrícncc, to gaín mastcry ovcr ít. Jhat ís
líttlc cnough. Ior, obvíously, such anímagínatíon, such an abílítyto
thínkcxtrcmcncgatívíty, ísnotcomparablctovhatoncundcrgocsíI
onc ís oncsclI caught up ín such sítuatíons. Icvcrthclcss, I vould
thínk that ínthc abílíty not to Iccl manípulatcd, butto Iccl that onc
hasgoncrclcntlcsslytothcIurthcstcxtrcmc,thcrclícsthconlyrcspcct
vhích ís httíng. a rcspcct Ior thc possíbílíty oI thc mínd, dcspítc
cvcrythíng, to raíscítsclIhovcvcrslíghtlyabovcthatvhíchís. ÞndI
thínkthatítrcallygívcsmorccouragc ¦ íII canuscthatIormulatíon)
íI onc ís not gívcn couragc, and docs not Iccl bamboozlcd, but has
thc Icclíng that cvcn thc vorst ís somcthíng vhích can bc thought
and, bccauscítIallsvíthínrcIlcctíon, docsnotconIrontmcas somc-
thíngabsolutclyalícn and díIIcrcnt. Ì ímagíncthat such a thought ís
probably morc comIortíng than any solacc, vhcrcas solacc ítsclI ís
dcsolatc, sínccítísalvays attcndcd byíts ovn untruth.
JhcrcísapassagcínKant,inthcthcoryoIthcdynamícallysublímc
ín thc Critique oj ]udgement, vhcrc hc spcaks oI thc Icclíng oI thc
sublímc. It ís a rcmarkablc passagc, onc oI thosc ín vhích Kant no
longcr uscs thc rococo díctíon oI thc cíghtccnth ccntury, but takcs
on, cvcn ín hís languagc, thc tonc oIthc grcat Gcrman and ínglísh
lyríc poctryvhíchcmcrgcd about I/80. Iníthc spcaksoIthcIcclíng
oIthc sublímc as a pcculíar víbratíon bctvccn thc povcrlcssncss Iclt
by thc cmpírícal pcrson ín Iacc oI thc ínhnítudc oI natural Iorccs,
and, onthcothcrhand,thc|oyoImínd, asthccsscnccoIIrccdom, ín
bcíng supcríor to and strongcr than thís naturalpovcr. '` Comparcd
tothcspacíousgrandcurvhíchsucha thcory stíll hasínKantvc arc
nov, hcavcn knovs, crovdcd togcthcr on a tíny ísland. Þndvhat I
amtrying to c×prcss todayccrtainlydocsnot prcsumc to rcclaimIor
#
Æ
1Z6
1LLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ
thcsclIcvcna rcmnantoIthcautonomyanddígnítyvhíchKantvas
ablc to asscrt. But somcthíng oI ít stíll rcmaíns, though ímpalpablc
andcxtrcmclyconhncd- andlícspcrhapsínthcIactthatthcpossíbílíty
oIanychangcdcpcndsonthcabílítytobccomcavarcoIthcultímatc
ncgatívíty, vhích ís thc ncgatívíty locatcd ín thc Iundamcntal strata
and not j ust ín cphcmcral surIacc phcnomcna. Ïcrhaps changcs can
only bc madc today through thoughts vhích do not dìrcctly aím at
changc. Þndítíscharactcrístícthatvhcncvcroncscríouslycxprcsscs
thoughts vhích do not addrcss thc qucstíon. 'Ycs, but vhat am I
supposcdtodo, hcrcandnov: ` - oncísrcgularlymctvítha hovloI
ragc'" ¦ít can also bc a sílcnt hovl) vhích rcspccts no dcmarcatíon
líncs, polítícal or othcrvísc, símply bccausc ít ís unbcarablc not to
gívconcsclIupto somcpraxísorothcr.Jhísísratíonalízcd, andvcry
vcll ratíonalízcd - ít's díIhcult to say anythíng agaínst ít - by thc
argumcnt. '¤cll, ís thc vorld supposcd to stay as ít ís, víth all íts
horríblc possíbílítícs: bhould onc not do somcthíng agaínst ít: ` I
honourthís nccd, Ì vouldbc thc lastto darc to sayanythíng agaínst
ít. I only ask you to consídcr, Iadícs and Gcntlcmcn, vhcthcr thc
compulsíontodosomcthínghcrcandnov,andthctcndcncytoIcttcr
thought vhích ít contaíns, docs not bríng thought to a standstíll
prccíscly vhcrc ít ought to go Iurthcr, ín ordcr to rcach thc placc
vhcrc somcthíng can rcally bc changcd. ¤hcn Ì oncc saíd - ín an
íronícandmclancholyscnsc- thatthísísthctímcIorthcory,Ìmcant
onlythat. JhcspcllvhíchbíndsustodayconsístsnotlcastínthcIact
thatítccasclcsslyurgcs pcoplc to takcaction vhíchthcy |e/ieue víll
brcak thc spcll, andthat ítprcvcnts thc rejection onthcmsclvcs and
thccírcumstanccsvhíchmíghtrea//y brcakít.I bclícvcthatthcrc ísa
prccísc corrclatíon bctvccn thcsc tvo phcnomcna. on thc onc hand,
thc ragcvhíchcomcs ovcr pcoplc ín Iacc oI- shallvcsay: - rcIlcc·
tíon víthout conscqucnccs, and, on thc othcr hand, thc momcnt oI
líbcratíoncontaíncd ín suchrcIlcctíon.Jhoscvho appcalIor actíon,
Ior thc sakc oIhuman bcíngs, chcatthcm oIthcír ríght, cvcn íIthcy
bclícvc thc opposítc - dcprívíng thcm oI thcír ovn possíbílíty, thcír
humaníty. I gívc thc samcansvcr to thosc vho accusc mc oIa ' lack
oIlovcIor humanbcíngs`, bccauscIgívcnoguídclíncsIorpraxísand
oIIcr noconsolatíon. Ì varnthcmthatvhcnthcrcístalkoIa lackoI
lovcthcrcísalmostalvaysa dcsírcthatthíslovcbcsomchovdírcctcd
tovardscvíl.ÞndínIaccoIthat, btríndbcrg`svordsín8/ack 8anners
arcundoubtcdlytruc. '!ovcouldIlovcgoodíIIdídnothatccvíl: ` '
IIoncrcallyundcrstandsthcvorldoItodayasoncoItotalcntrap-
mcnt, ínthc vayI havc trícd to sct out Ior you, ! do notknov hov
onccouldbcuncrítícal,hovonccouldadoptanattítudcoIunqualíhcd
lovc ínIacc oIvhat ís. But, oIcoursc
·
by conIcssíng thís onc makcs
J  * 
1LLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ 1Z/
oncsclIthctargctoIallthcínstínctsandaIIcctsvhícharcrcadyto bc
unlcashcd,víthagrcatIcclíngoImoralj ustíhcatíon,agaínstanythíng
vhíchtrícs to strctch outíts hcador íts Icclcrs cvcn a líttlcvay. Jhc
dcsírc Ior thc cxístíng culturc to bc svcpt avay and an absolutcly
ncv start to bc madc has bccn vcry strong ín Gcrmany síncc thc
catastrophc. Þnd I bclícvc that thc qucstíon oIthc posítíon oImcta-
physícstodayhasmuchtodovíththísdcsírc- ínthatthcrchas bccn
a bclícIthat, íIonlythcdcbrís oIthísculturccould bchnallyclcarcd
avay,acccsscouldbcgaíncdtothcorígínaltruthtovhíchmctaphysícs
poínts andvhích, accordíng to thís vícv, has bccnmcrclyconccalcd
byculturc. Jhís dcmandIor ancvbcgínníngplaccsthcmctaphysícal
thínkcrínasomcvhatprccaríousposítíon,hcísrathcrlíkcthcvomcn
vhopíckcdovcrthcrubblcínthchrstycarsaItcrthcvar.Youarcso
youngthatmostoIyouvíllprobablynothavchcardoIthoscvomcn,
vho vcrc oncc a Iamílíar síght. Jhc ídca oI a ncv start vas cxtra-
ordínarílycompcllíng. buchtcndcncícshadcxístcdcvcnbcIorc!ítlcr.
Jhcrc ís, hovcvcr, a curíous ambívalcncc ín thís. on thc onc hand,
crítícal thought - ídcas oI thc kínd Ì havc sct out Ior you ín thcsc
lccturcs- ísbrandcdasdcstructívcandthcpackíslctloosconít, but
at thc samc tímc thc conccpt oI dcstructíon ís monopolízcd by thc
samcpcoplcvhohavcuscdítncgatívclyagaínstothcrs.Ìamthínkíng
hcrc oI !crr !cídcggcr, vho bclícvcd hímsclI thc truc, that ís, thc
posítívc, dcstroycr, vho, by dcmolíshíng all thc vastc products oI
cívílízatíon, allthcalícnatcd,rcíhcdthínkíng,vouldopcnthcvayto
thc ríghtly prízcd authcntícíty oIthíngs. !ovcvcr, ít vas provcd by
subscqucnt cvcnts - írrcvocably, Ì vould say - that thís attcmpt to
dcmolísh culturc, thís dcstructíon carrícd out ín thc hopc oIgaíníng
dírcctacccsstothcabsolutconcccvcrythíngthatvasmcrcJcoc:had
dísappcarcd, lcd dírcctly to barbarísm and Iascísm. Iov thcrc ís
much to bc crítícízcd ín culturc ¦ and I do not thínk that I could bc
suspcctcdoIadoptíng anapologctíc oraIhrmatívcstancctovards ít)
- not íníts so-callcddcgcncratc maníIcstatíons but íníts actual con-
ccpt. ButvhílcculturchasundoubtcdlyIaílcd,throughíts ovnIault,
and ís bcíngpuníshcd Ior that, thc straíghtIorvard barbarísmvhích
ísbrought ínto bcíngthrough íts Iaílurc ís alvays cvcnvorsc. Ìt ís, I
vouldsay, a mctaphysícal IallacyíntovhíchÌ shouldlíkctoprcvcnt
youIrom Iallíngto bclícvcthat bccauscculturc has Iaílcd, bccauscít
hasnotkcptítspromísc,bccauscíthasdcnícdhumanbcíngsIrccdom,
índívídualíty, truc unívcrsalíty, bccausc ít has not Iulhllcd íts ovn
conccpt, ítshould thcrcIorc bc throvn onthc scrap-hcap andchccr-
Iullyrcplaccd bythccynícal cstablíshmcnt oIímmcdíatc povcr rcla-
tíonshíps. !nc ol thc most dangcrous crrors nov lurkíng ín thc
collcctívc unconscíous - and thc vord crror ís lar too vcak and
B
1Z8 ÏLLÅ1VL b 1 7ÅLLÏ
íntcllcctualIorít- ístoassumcthatbccauscsomcthíngísnotvhatít
promíscsto bc, bccausc ítdocsnot yct matchítsconccpt, ítísthcrc-
Iorc vorsc than íts opposítc, thc purc ímmcdíacy vhích dcstroys ít.
Cnthcscgroundstoo,thcrcIorc,IorrcasonsarísíngIromthcdíalcctícal
naturcoIculturc,thcabstractscparatíonoIculturcIrommctaphysícs
vhích ís takcn Ior grantcdtodaycannot bc cndorscd.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ b¡N¡Pá¡P
2 ¯ ]u/y I º65
Ì spokc ín thc Ìast lccturc about thc íntcrconncctíon oI mctaphysícs
and culturc, and saíd that thc spcctacular Iaílurc oI culturc today
hadradícallyundcrmíncdthcpossíbílíty oImctaphysícs. But!vould
novlíkctoadd- not onlytoprcvcntmísundcrstandíng but bccausc
complctcncss oI thought rcquírcs ít - that, on thc othcr hand, thc
Iaílurc oI culturc docs not gívc thought a kínd oI Ircc passagc to
somc natural statc. It cannot do so bccausc thc Iaílurc oI culturc
stcms Irom íts ovn naturalncss, íl I míght put ít líkc that; ít ís thc
rcsult oIíts ovn pcrsístcntcharactcrasa natural cntíty. Jhísculturc
hasIaílcdbccauscíthasclungtomcrcsclI-prcscrvatíonandítsvaríous
dcrívatívcs ín a sítuatíon ín vhích humaníty has símply outgrovn
thatpríncíplc.Ìtísnolongcrconhncdbydírcctncccssítytocompulsívc
sclI-prcscrvatíon, andísno longcr compcllcd to cxtcnd thc príncíplc
oImastcryovcrnaturc, bothínncrandoutcrnaturc,íntothcíndchnítc
Iuturc. Cn thcothcrhand, ít ís ídlcandIutílc Ior thoughtto attcmpt
nov to appropríatc mctaphysícs as a collcctíon oI purc catcgorícs
vhích arc ímmcdíatc to conscíousncss, síncc knovlcdgc can ncvcr
dísovn íts ovn mcdíatcncss, or, ín othcr vords, íts dcpcndcncc on
culturc ín cvcry scnsc. Ïhílosophy ís ítsclI a píccc oI culturc, ís cn-
mcshcd ínculturc; andíIít bchavcs asíIítvcrcrcndcrcd ímmcdíatc
by somc allcgcdly prímal qucstíons vhíchclcvatc ítabovcculturc, ít
blínds ítsclIto íts ovn condítíons and truly succumbs to íts cultural
conditionality; inothcrvords, ít bccomcs straightIorvard ídcology.
Jhcrci snoknovlcdgcvhíchcanrcpudíatcítsmcdíatíons,ítcanonly
rcIlcct thcm. Boththc allcgcdprímal cxpcrícnccs, and thc thrcadbarc
B
1 J0 ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ
catcgorícs oIculturc as somcthíng man-madc, arc ínaIícnably mcdí-
atcdandhavcthcírovnncgatívítyínthísmcdíatíon.Þslongasculturc
lívcs on ín a vorld arrangcd líkc ours, ín vhích, vhcthcr ín bouth
ÞIríca orVíctnam, thíngs happcn oIvhích vc knov and onlyvíth
díIhculty rcprcss thc knovlcdgc that thcy happcn - ínsuch a vorld
culturcandaIlthcnoblcandsubIímcthíngsínvhíchvctakcdclíght
arc líkc a líd ovcr rcIusc. But naturc, ínso Iar asvc bclícvc vc can
sharc ín íts orígínaI quaIítícs índcpcndcntIy oI cuIturc, ís no morc
thana projcctíonoIthcculturaIdcsírcthatcvcrythíngshouldrcmaín
unchangcd, thatvc shouId stay ín thc good, untruc old days, ínthc
'acon`,'tospcakvíthbchclIíng,ínvhích,asKaIkaputít,noprogrcss
has yct takcn placc.¯
Jhat, I bclícvc, ís thc Iramcvork víthín vhích onc should thínk
aboutthccomplcxoIídcasÌhavcspokcnaboutínthcsclastlccturcs,
ín vhích I no longcr took ÞrístotIc`s tcxt as my startíng poínt but
dírcctIyprcscntcd somc oImyovnrcIlcctíons. I havcaIrcadyspokcn
rcpcatcdlyaboutthíscompIcx,vhíchconccrnsthcqucstíonoIdcath.
Ocathj utsíntoculturc,íntothcnctvorkoIcívílízatíon,assomcthíng
cntírcly alícn, vhích cannot bc mastcrcd cvcn víth thc bcst conncc-
tíons, and ín Iacc oI vhích onc cannot cut a povcrIuI hgurc. Þnd
bccausc,íIÌmayputítlíkcthís,culturchasnotíntcgratcddcath- or,
vhcníthasdonc so, íthasmadcítsclIasrídículous asítís shovnto
bc ín Lvclyn ¤augh`s novcl 1be Loued Òne,
·
Ior cxamplc - phílo-
sophy has uscd dcath, cxprcssIy or tacítly, as thc gatcvay through
vhích to brcak ínto mctaphysícs. Jhís has not j ust happcncd síncc
!cídcggcr, bythc vay; íthasalvays bccn saíd that dcathísthc truc
spur to mctaphysícal spcculatíon, that thc hclplcssncss oIpcoplc ín
IaccoIdcathprovídcsthcímpctusIorthoughtsvhíchsccktopcnctratc
bcyondthc boundarícsoIcxpcrícncc.JhcmctaphysícsoIdcathsccms
tomcínpríncíplcímpotcnt- butnotínthcscnscthatoncshould not
rcIlcct on dcath. Curíously, !cídcggcr sought to usc rcIlcctíon on
dcath to díscouragc, prccíscly, rcIlcctíon on dcath,¯ and ít ís onc ot
thc quaíntcst Icaturcs oI hís phílosophy that, on thc onc hand, ít
gaínsítsconccptoIauthcntícíty,andthusítsccntralspcculatívcmotor,
throughrcIlcctíngonvhathccalIsthcstructurcoIdcath, but, onthc
othcr, hcvasIuríousvíthanyoncvho, ashccontcmptuouslyputít,
'broodcd` on dcath.`as íI vhat hc díd vas cvcn slíghtly díIIcrcnt
Irom such broodíng; índccd, as íIany thought about dcath- vhích,
oI coursc, ís somcthíng closcd oII and ímpcnctrablc to thought -
couldpossíbly bcanythíng othcrthan broodíng. I bríngthíspoíntto
yourattcntíononlytoshovyouhovínconsístcnthísthoughtís, and
hovmuch, cvcnonsucha ccntralmattcr, ítísorganízcd byprívíIcgc
andthcnccdIorcontrol.¤hatappcarstomcto bc thcimpotcnccoI
ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ 1 J1
thc mctaphysícs oI dcath ís not thc Iruítlcssncss oIbroodíng, vhích
!cídcggcr crítícízcd, or thc bclícI that ín thc Iacc oI dcath only a
posturc oI tíght-líppcd rcadíncss, or somc such thíng, vas sccmly.
IncídcntaIly, vcry símílar Iormulatíons arc to bc Iound ín]aspcrs; ín
thcírcultívatíonoIthchcroícpossíbíIítícsoIdcaththcsctvosccmíngly
so antíthctícal thínkcrs got alongvcryvcll. !cídcggcr's mctaphysícs
ís ímpotcnt, cíthcr bccausc ít ncccssaríly dcgcncratcs ínto a kínd oI
propagandaIordcath,clcvatíngíttosomcthíngmcaníngIul,andthus,
ín thc cnd, prcparíng pcoplc to rcccívc thc dcath íntcndcd Ior thcm
bythcìr socíctícs and statcs as| oyIully aspossíblc- ¡ ustasÏroIcssor
Krícck"dcclarcd at thís unívcrsíty duríng thc Jhírd Kcích that onIy
thc sacríhcíal víctíms vould makc 'you`, mcaníng thc studcnts, Ircc,
orbccausc- lcavíngasídcthísaspcctoIthcdcathmctaphysícs,vhích
| ustíhcs dcath asthc mcaníngoIcxístcncc- any rcIlcctíons on dcath
arcoIsuchancccssarílygcncraIandIormaIkíndthatthcyamountto
tautologícs,líkcthcdchnítíonoIdcathasthcpossíbílítyoIthc absoIutc
non-bcíng oI cxístcncc, vhích Ì quotcd ín 1be ]argon oj Autbentic-
ity, oranothcr,lcssvcll-knovnIormuIatíonoI!cídcggcr's,ínvhích
hc solcmnlyannounccs that, vhcn vc díc, a corpsc íslcIt bchínd.´
I bcIícvc that thís ínsuIhcícncy oIconscíousncss ín Iacc oIdcath,
íts ínabílíty to cxtract thc allcgcd mcaníng Irom ít, not onIy has to
do víth thc absolutc ínacccssíbílíty oIvhat ís bcíng talkcd about. I
bclícvcthatíIvclcavcasídcthctrulyunIathomabIcqucstíonvhcthcr
onc can talk mcaníngIully about dcath at all, somcthíng clsc ís ín
play,vhíchísrcallyconncctcdvíthconscíousncss, andpcrhapsvíth
thcprcscntstatcoIconscíousncss,víthhístory. ÏcrhapsÌmíghtrcmínd
youonccagaín- and thísís probablyoncoIthc strongcstargumcnts
agaínstthcattcmpttovríngamctaphysícsIromdcath- thatalthough
naturc,ínthcIormoIdcath,| utsíntosocíctyandcuIturcassomcthíng
notyctíntcgratcd,ncvcrthclcssthccxpcrícnccoIdcath,thcsídcvhích
ít turns tovards us, thc lívíng, ísundoubtcdIy dctcrmíncd ín part by
socícty. Oyíng, íInot dcath, ís ccrtaínly a socíalphcnomcnon, and íI
anyonc took thc troublc to ínvcstígatc hov pcopIc díc, that pcrson
vouIdhnd asmanymcdíatíonsoIculturc ínthís sídc oIdcath vhích
ísturncdtovards us as ín any othcrphcnomcna. ButvhatI mcan ís
somcthíngdíIIcrcnt, thathumanconscíousncssclcarIy ís notcapablc
oIvíthstandíngthc cxpcrícncc oIdcath. Ì am unsurc vhcthcrvcarc
dcalínghcrcvíthakíndoIbíologícaIIactvhíchcxtcndsbackbcyond
ourhuman andconscíous hístory, or vhcthcr ít ís somcthínghístor-
ícal. Þtany ratc, ítísthc casc that, íncontrastto thc othcranima|ia
knovnto us, humansarcclcarlythc onlyoncsvhíchí ngcncral havc
a conscíousncss oIthc Iact that thcy must díc. But ít sccms to mc-
andI suspccttharlorrcasonsconncctcdvíththcsocíalarrangcmcnts
V
Æ
1 JZ ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ
ourmcntalorganizationisnotcqualtothisknovlcdgc- thatalthough,
vith this knovlcdgc, vc havc, iI you likc, clcvatcd oursclvcs so Iar
abovc naturc that on this crucial pointvc canrcIlcct on our natural
origin, onthc othcr hand, vc arc still so govcrncd by naturc onthis
samc point, so attachcd to our intcrcst oI sclI-prcscrvation, oI sclI-
pcrpctuation, that vc can only havc this cxpcricncc in a curiously
abstract Iorm. I`d likc to bc vcry cautious hcrc. iIvc vcrc to bring
vividly to mind, at cach momcnt, that vc must dic . . . In any casc,
this is not a discovcry oI minc, in Book + oI bchopcnhaucr`s 1be
Wor/d as Wi// and Reµresentation thcrc is a passagc in vhich hc
notcsvith surprisc hov untroublcdpcoplc arc,inthcgcncralcoursc
oIthcir livcs, bythc thought oIthcir mortality. ` !c cxplains this by
thcvciloINaya,andthusbythcµrinciµium indiuiduationis. Ìvould
say, rathcr, that thcrc is a kind oI intcrnal antagonism in this, that
pcoplcarc, as itvcrc, uncqual to thcirovn minds- an antagonism,
morcovcr,vhich,iIyouconsidcrthcactualarrangcmcntoIthcvorld
in rclation to thc potcntials ovcr vhich human bcings nov havc
control, is bcing inccssantly rcproduccd and intcnsihcd. Cur con-
sciousncsshasclcarlyrcmaincdtoovcaktovithstandthccxpcricncc
oIdcath, too vcak bccausc it is too much in thrall to thc biological
liIc oI vhich consciousncss is itsclI a kind oI dcrivativc, a divcrtcd
cncrgy. Bccausc consciousncss imagincs itsclI, in its Iorms, in thc
IormsoIpurcthought,to bcsomcthingctcrnal,itIortihcsitsclIagainst
anything vhich might rcmind it oI its ovn unstcady Iloor, its ovn
Irailty.CncmightaddtothisanidcavhichLrnstBlochhascxprcsscd
again and again vith cxtraordinary cmphasis in our timc,'¨ apart
Irom thc motiIoI utopia, vith vhich it is intimatcly conncctcd, it is
pcrhaps thc dccisivc motiI oIBloch`s mctaphysics. that in thc vorld
in vhich vc cxist thcrc is not a singlc human liIc vhichrcmotcly
matchcs vhat cach oIuscou/d bc. Ìt is, incidcntally, anoldthought,
conccivcd in thc Lnlightcnmcnt by!clvctius, although in him itvas
still accompanicd by thc illusion that cducation vas all that vas
nccdcdtochangcthisandto makcus,iII mtghtputitlikcthis,cqual
to our ovn possibility, toattain anidcntity bctvccnour potcntiality
and our actuality. ' ' ¤c knov nov, oI coursc, that thc mcchanisms
prcvcntingusIromdoingsocxtcnddccplyintothcorganizationoIthc
vcrysclIvhich!clvctius, andthc Lnlightcnmcntthinkcrsin gcncral,
bclicvcd could bc changcd and pcrIcctcd simply by bccoming con-
scious. I vould say that only iIvc vcrc truly oursclvcs, only iI thc
inhnitc possibilityvhich is radicallycontaincdincvcry humanliIc -
andyoumaythinkmc anold-Iashioncdínlightcnmcntthinkcr,butÌ
amdccplyconvinccdthatthcrcisno humanbcing,notcvcnthcmost
vrctchcd, vho has nota potcntialvhich, byconvcntional bourgcois
ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ 1JJ
standards,íscomparabÌctogcníus- onÌyíIsuchastatcvcrcrcachcd,
ínvhíchvc vcrcrcaÌÌyídcntícaÌtothatvhíchvcarc notbutvhích
vcdccpÌyknovvccouÌdbccomc,thoughvcmayvantto bcÌícvcthc
contrary- onÌythcnmíghtvchavcthc possíbíÌítyoIbcíngrcconcíÌcd
to dcath. CnÌy thcn, probabÌy, vouÌd vc bc cquaÌ to thc cxpcrícncc
oI dcath, and as Ìong as that possíbíÌíty ís attríbutcd to anyothcr
condítíon,ítísmcrcÌya Ìíc.bodccpÌy,IvouÌdsay, ísthcmctaphysícs
oIdcath, unÌíkcthcdístortcdvcrsíonoIítconcoctcd bya statíconto-
Ìogy,boundupvíthhístoryandvíththcdccpcststrataoIhumaníty`s
hístorícaÌ ÌíIc.
Jhc mctaphysícs oI dcath, as practíscd today, ís, ít sccms to mc,
much morc a vaín soÌacc Ior thc Iact that human bcíngs havc Ìost
vhat may at carÌícr tímcs havc madc dcath cndurabÌc. thc uníty oI
cxpcrícncc.ÌvouÌdsay,íngcncraÌ,thatthcprobÌcmatícIcaturcoIaÌÌ
thcrcsurrcctcdmctaphysícaÌsystcms,vhíchoncvouÌdprobabÌynccd
to dcstroy to bc Ircc to rcIlcct on thcsc mattcrs víthout ídcoÌogy, ís
that thcy act as a kínd oI substítutc; and that vhat ís most dccpÌy
suspcct ín thc popuÌar mctaphysícaÌ systcms oI today ís that thcy
aÌvaysconvcythc mcssagc,cvcníIpcríphcraÌÌyandasíIIromIaroII,
that thíngs arc notrcaÌÌy so bad. Jhat ís to say, thcy try to rcassurc
pcopÌcaboutccrtaíncsscntíaÌítícsvhích,prccíscÌy,havcbccomcprob-
Ìcmatíc. Ì am rcIcrríng hcrc, abovc aÌÌ, to time. Jhcrc can bc ÌíttÌc
doubt that thc avarcncss human bcíngs havc oI tímc, and thc vcry
possíbíÌíty oI a contínuous cxpcrícncc oItímc, has bccn dccpÌy dís-
ruptcd. Þndít sccms to mc to bc a prccísc rcsponsc to thís sítuatíon,
though actuaÌÌy a mcrc rcIlcctíon oIít, thatthc currcnt mctaphysícaÌ
systcmsarc nov attcmptíngtorcscuc thísconccptíonoItímc, vhích
ísno ÌongcracccssíbÌctocxpcrícncc, and to prcscnttcmporaÌíty asa
constítucnt oI cxístcncc ítscÌI. Jhcsc systcms thcrcIorc havc atcnd-
cncy to con¡urc up vhat ís no Ìongcr cxpcrícnccd. Þnd that ís thc
truc rcason - vhích gocs much dccpcr than a supcrhcíaÌ, so-caÌÌcd
socíoÌogícaÌ íntcrprctatíon - vhy thc currcnt mctaphysícaÌ thínkcrs
sympathízc ín thís curíous vay víth archaíc condítíons no Ìongcr
ímportantto socícty, cspccíaÌÌy víth agrarían condítíons or thosc oI
a símpÌc,smaÌÌ-tovnbartcrcconomy.Jhcso-caÌÌcdcpícdcath,vhích
ísprcscntcd ín !cídcggcr'sdoctrínc oIdcath asa ncccssary momcnt
oIthc 'vhoÌcncss oIcxístcncc', and vhích ís rcaÌÌy at thc root oIaÌÌ
thcscdcathmctaphysícs,ísnoÌongcrpossíbÌc, bccausc sucha vhoÌc-
ncssoIÌíIcnoÌongcrcxísts. InmyÌntroductíonto¤aÌtcrBcnj amín`s
Scbrijten'´ I attcmptcdto cxprcssthc ídcathata conccptsuchas `thc
ÌíIc`svork` has bccomcprobÌcmatíc today bccausc ourcxístcncc has
Ìong ccascd to loÌÌov a quasí-organíc Ìav ímmancnt to ít, but ís
dctcrmincd by aÌÌ kínds oI povcrs vhích dcny ít such an ímmancnt
B
Æ
1 J+ ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ
unIoldíng; and that a bclícI ín such a vholcncss oI líIc, to vhích
dcath míght corrcspond as somcthíng mcaníngIul, alrcady has thc
charactcroIachímcra.ButIshouldlíkctogoIurthcr. Ithasdoubtlcss
bccomc obvíous by nov that thc notíon oI vholcncss ís a kínd oI
crsatz mctaphysícs, bccausc ítattcmpts to undcrpín thc asscrtíon oI
mcaníngIul bcíng or mcaníngIul líIc víth thc posítívíst crcdcntíals
oI somcthíng ímmcdíatcly gívcn, as ín Cesta/t thcory. But I should
líkctogoa stcpcvcnbcyondthat. Iorítmíghtbcaskcdvhcthcrthat
kíndoIcpícvholcncssoIlíIc,thc bíblícalídcathatÞbrahamdícdold
and satcd víth líIc, vhcthcr thís víshIul ímagc oI a líIc strctchíng
outíntímcsothatítcanbcnarratcd,androundcdoIIínítsovndcath,
vasnot alvays a mcrc transhguratíon. I cannotcscapcthc suspícíon
that vhcrcvcr such a harmony bctvccn a sclI-contaíncd líIc and
dcath appcars to havc cxístcd ín thc past, thc líIc oIthosc to vhích
thc harmony ís attríbutcd vas subj cctcd to so ínordínatc a burdcn,
vas,asoncísapttosaytoday, soalícnatcdIromthcm,thatthcydíd
not cvcn gct so Iar as to pcrccívc thc hctcrogcncousncss oI dcath,
andíntcgratcdthcmsclvcsvíthdcathoutoIakíndoIvcakncss.Con-
scqucntly, thc ídca oIa complctc líIc, mcaníngIul víthín ítsclI, must
probably bc abandoncd víth thc conccptíon oI thc cpíc dcath - Ior
catastrophcs alvays havc thc povcr to drav ínto thcmsclvcs rcmotc
rcalítícs and cvcnts Irom thc dístant past. II mortally vcary pcoplc
takcanaIhrmatívcvícvoIdcath, ítísmostlíkclythccascthatdcath
rclícvcs thcm oIa burdcn. Jhc rcasonIor thc allcgcdly posítívc rcla-
tíonshíp to dcathtaught bythcsc mctaphysícs ís nonc othcr than thc
onc vhích comcs Iorcíbly to mínd today, and vhích I alrcady mcn-
tíoncd. that thc líIc ín qucstíon amountcd to so líttlc that thcrc vas
líttlc rcsístancc to íts cndíng.
Itísrcmarkablc,allthcsamc,thatvcarcsolíttlcablctoíncorporatc
dcath, síncc, ín vícv oI our contínuíng statc oI non-ídcntíty víth
oursclvcs,thc opposítc míghtbccxpcctcd. ÞndcvcnthcpovcroIthc
ínstínct oI sclI-prcscrvatíon - íI onc víshcs to spcak oI an ínstínct
hcrc; Ircud díd sanctíon ít by íntroducíng thc conccpt oI thc cgo-
drívcs'' - sccms to mc ínsuIhcícnt to cxplaín ít, íI ít ís takcn on íts
ovn.ÞsIar asI amablcto obscrvcthcscmattcrs, ítísthccascthatít
ís prccíscly thc pcoplc vho arc not old and Iraíl vho put up no
rcsístanccto dcath,vhocxpcrícnccítascontíngcntand,ín a curíous
vay, accídcntal . IIa vcrylargc numbcroIpcoplc Iallvíctímto accíd-
cntstoday,incomparísontocarlícrtímcs,thíssccmstomctoíndícatc
somcthíng structural ín thc cxpcrícncc oI dcath. that to thc prccísc
cxtcnt thatvc arc rclatívcly autonomous bcíngs avarc oIoursclvcs,
vc cxpcrícncc dcath, orcvcna scríous ílIncss, as a mísIortunc vhích
comcs uponusIromoutsídc.Þtthcsamctimc, hovcvcr,itisalsothc
M B
1  ¬

ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ 1 Jó
casc that, vhcn pcoplc díc vcry old, thcír grcat agc oItcn docs not
appcar as somcthíng j oyous. Ì am spcakíng hcrc oI thc íntra-
mundancaspcctsoIdcath,vhíchrcIlcctíonondcathcannotígnorc,but
ín vhích ít has shovn ítsclIcuríously uníntcrcstcd up to nov. I am
not spcakíng hcrc oI thc díscomIorts assocíatcd víth old agc ín thc
cpícídcal.But,asIarasmycxpcrícncccxtcnds,thcrcísalsosomcthíng
ímmcasurablysadínthc Iactthat,víththcdcclíncoIvcryoldpcoplc,
thc hopc oI non conjundar, oI somcthíng vhích víll bc prcscrvcd
Irom dcath, ísalsocrodcd, bccausc, cspccíallyíIonc lovcsthcm, onc
bccomcs so avarc oIthc dccrcpítudc oIthat partoIthcm vhích onc
vould líkc to rcgard as thc ímmortal that onc can hardly ímagínc
vhatísto bc lcItovcrIromsuch a poor, ínhrmcrcaturc vhích ís no
longcr ídcntícal víth ítsclI. Jhus, vcry old pcoplc, vho arcrcally
rcduccdtovhat!cgclvouldcallthcírmcrcabstractcxístcncc,thosc
vho havc dchcd dcath longcst, arc prccíscly thc oncs vho most
strongly avakcn thc ídca oI absolutc annulmcnt. Icvcrthclcss, thís
cxpcrícncc oI dcath as somcthíng Iortuítous and cxtcrnal - rathcr
líkcaníllncssonchasbccnínIcctcdvíth,víthoutknovíngítssourcc
- docscontaína momcntconncctcdvíththcautonomyoImínd.Ìtís
that, bccausc thc mínd has vrcstcd ítsclIso strongly Irom vhat vc
mcrcly arc, hasmadc ítsclIso autonomous, thís ín ítsclIgívcs rísc to
a hopc that mcrc cxístcncc míght not bc cvcrythíng.
II onc docs not clíng to thc thcsís oI thc ídcntíty oI subjcct and
obj cct taught by ídcalísm; íIthc subj cct, mínd, rcIlcctíng ítsclIcrítíc-
ally, docsnotcquatc ítsclIto, and 'dcvour', cvcrythíng vhích cxísts,
ítmayhappcnthatthcmínd,vhích hasbccomcasunídcntícal tothc
vorld as thc vorld has bccomc to ít, takcs on a small momcnt oI
not-bcíng-cngulIcd-ín-blínd-contíngcncy: a vcryparadoxícal Iorm oI
hopc,íIyoulíkc.ÞndthcvcrycuríouspcrsístcnccoIthcídcaoIímmort·
alítymay bcconncctcdto thís. Ior thís ídca sccms to mc to maníIcst
ítsclImorc substantíally vhcrc conscíousncss ís mostadvanccd than
ín thc oIhcíal rclígíons. Lvcn as a chíld I vas surpríscd hov líttlc
attcntíonvaspaídtothcsclastthíngs- j ustaIcvpagcsína Ïrotcstant
hymn-book, Ior cxamplc- vhcrcasoncvould cxpcctthcmto bcthc
only oncs vhích mattcrcd to a rclígíon. I vould rcmínd you hcrc oI
thc magníhccnt passagc ín Narccl Ïroust dcpíctíng thc dcath oIthc
vrítcrBcrgottc,vhovasÞnatolcIrancc,ínvhích, ína trulygrandí-
osc, rcgcncratívc, mystícal spcculatíon, thc vrítcr` s books, dísplaycd
by hís dcathbcd, arc íntcrprctcd as allcgorícs oI thc Iact that, on
account oIíts goodncss, thís líIc vas not vholly ín vaín.'¯You víll
hnd somcrhìng simílar in thc vrìtíngs oI Bcckctt, vho ís, ol coursc,
anathcma ro all alhrmatívc pcoplc and ín vhosc vork cvcrythíng
rcvolvcsaroundthc qucstíonvhatnothíngncss actuallycontaíns;thc
M
Æ
1 J6 ÏLLÅ1VL b LNLÏÅLLÏ
qucstíon, onc míght almost say, oI a topography oI thc voíd. Jhís
vork ísrcallyanattcmpt so toconccívc nothíngncss thatítís, atthc
samc tímc, not mere/y nothíngncss, but to do so uitbin complctc
ncgatívíty.' ` But that, too, should bc saíd víth cxtrcmc gcntlcncss
andcírcumspcctíon. Þndítíspcrhapsnoaccídcntthatínthcpassagc
oIÏroustIhavcj ustrcIcrrcdtothcvrítcrchooscsaIormulatíonvhích
bcars a curíous rcscmblancc to thosc oI KaIka, víth vhom hc has
nothíng dírcctly ín common. I attcmptcd to cxplorc thís conncctíon
ínthc'KlcíncÏroust-Kommcntarc` ínthcsccondvolumcoINoten zur
Literatur,'
ª
and I do notvantto spcak oIítnov. Butthc lcsspcoplc
rcallylívc- or, pcrhapsmorc corrcctly, thcmorcthcybccomc avarc
that thcy havc not rcally lívcd - thc morc abrupt and Iríghtcníng
dcath bccomcs Ior thcm, and thc morc ít appcars asa mísIortunc. It
ísasíI,índcath,thcycxpcrícnccdthcírovnrcíhcatíon.thatthcyvcrc
corpscs Irom thc hrst. buchancxpcrícncc vascxprcsscd ín thc most
dívcrscpassagcsoILxprcssíonístpoctry, byBcnn'andJrakl,takíng
a curíouslyídcntícalIormínvrítcrsothcrvísc atopposítc polcs. Jhc
tcrror oI dcath today ís largcly thc tcrror oI sccíng hov much thc
lívíngrcscmblcít.ÞndítmìghtthcrcIorc bcsaídthatíIlíIcvcrclívcd
ríghtly, thc cxpcrícncc oIdcath vould also bc changcd radícally, ín
&  &  # & 
tts mncrmost compositton.
Jhat ís probably thc most cxtrcmc spcculatíon by vhìch I can
dcmonstratc, atlcast asa possíbílíty, thc línk ì amtryíng to cxplaín
ín thcsc last lccturcs bctvccn thc hístorícal, ímmancnt sphcrc and
vhatarc callcd thc grcatmctaphysícal catcgorícs. Ocathand hístory
Iormaconstcllatíon.!amlct,thchrstvhollysclI-avarcanddcspond-
cntly sclI-rcIlcctíng índívídual, cxpcrícnccd hís csscncc as somcthíng
absolutclytransítory. InhímthcabsolutccxpcrícnccoIthc índívídual
asthc sclI, andthc cxpcrícncc oIíts absolutc transícncc, thatthc rcst
ís sílcncc, coíncídcd. By contrast, ít ísprobably thc casc today that,
bccausc thc ìndívídual actually no longcr cxísts, dcath has bccomc
somcthíng vholly íncommcnsurablc, thc anníhílatíon oI a nothìng.
!cvhodícsrcalízcsthathchasbccnchcatcdoIcvcrythíng.Þndthat
ísvhydcathíssounbcarablc. Ivíllclosc bypoíntíngoutthatínthís
Iact that thc horízon oIdcath has bccn dísplaccd ín thc curíousvay
I havcj ustíndícatcd,vhatI míghtcallthc goodsídcoIthc dcclíncoI
thc índívídual ís maníIcstcd. It ís that thc cxpcrícncc oI thc nullíty
oI thc índívídual rcvcals not only our cgo-vcakncss, not only our
Iunctíonalízatíon, but also takcs avay somcthíng oI thc íllusoríncss
andguíltvhíchhavcalvayspcrsístcdínthccatcgoryoIìndívíduatíon,
up to thc thrcshold oIthís agc.
Í¡LÃ\H¡ ¡ÍLMá¡P
2º ]u/y I º65
ladícs and Gcntlcmcn, vhcn onc oI thcsc lccturc scrícs rcachcs íts
cnd,ítsccmstobc a naturalÌav- or an unnatural onc- thatonchas
notrcmotclycovcrcdthcgroundonchadíntcndcdto.Jhatísthccasc
víthmc.Jhatístosay,Ihavcbccnablcto prcscntyouonlyIragmcnts
oI vhat íscontaíncd ín thc manuscrípt ' KcIlcctíons on Nctaphysícs`
onvhíchIhavcbccnbasíngthcsccondhalIoIthcscrícs,'andhavcnot
gotncarlyasIar asI hadhopcd. Jhatís duc ínpartto thc díIIcrcncc
bctvccnthcIormsoIvríttcnandspokcncxprcssíon.¤hcnoncvrítcs,
oncísoblígcdtoprcscntthcmattcrasclcarlyandprccísclyaspossíblc,
and can pcrmít oncsclI cxtrcmc conccntratíon Ior thc sakc oI clcar
cxprcssíon. ¤hcn onc ístalkíngto lívíngpcoplc ítvould bc absurd,
and proIcssoríal ín thc bad scnsc, to clíng to thc hctíon thatonc can
cxprcsspurcthought,andoncmustdoonc`sbcst,Iollovíngonc'sovn
ínncrvatíons,tomakcthíngsclcartothcpcoplconcístalkíngto.Jhís
docs,hovcvcr,havcthcdísadvantagcthatvhcnpcoplclíkcyoucomc
to lístcn to a pcrson líkc mc, you víll almost íncvítably bc dísap-
poíntcd,asyouvíllcxpcctIromvhatIvrítctohcarsomcthíngmuch
morc píthy than ís possíblc ín a spokcn lccturc. Ìn short, onc ís, ín
cducatcd languagc, ín anaporía; ínlcss cducatcd languagc. hovcvcr
youdoít,ít`svrong.Þndso,ínIullavarcncssoIthísIragmcntaríncss,
I vould say to you today that vhat Ì havc told you, ín thc Iorm I
havc told ít, can do nomorc than cncouragc you to thínk Iurthcron
itIoryoursclvcs, andcspccíallytoIrccyoursclvcsIrom acollcctíonoI
clíchcs and ídcas vhích havc bccn Ioístcd on you. Jo cxpccr thcsc
ÌccturcstohavcgivcnyouacomprchcnsívcaccounroIhovorínvhat
B
1 J8 1LLÅ1V1 L1 L1ÅLLÏ
Iormmctaphysícs,orítsopposítc,íspossíblctodayvouldbcaIoolísh
prcsumptíon. Þnd I should Iíkc to makc ítquítc clcarthat I havc no
such prctcnsíon.
I spokc at díIIcrcnt poínts about thc conccpt oI mctaphysícal
cxpcrícncc,¯ and pcrhaps ít vould not bc a bad thíng to say a Icv
morcvordsaboutítín thísIastlccturc.¤hatImcanbymctaphysícal
cxpcrícncc ccrtaínly cannot bc rcduccd to vhat arc callcd prímal
rclígíous cxpcrícnccs. Jhc rcason ís símply that íIonc spcnds a Iíttlc
tímc studyíngthc stratumoIthcoIogyvhíchclaímsto havc acccssto
suchprímalcxpcrícnccs- thatís, íncrudctcrms,thcmystícalstratum,
vhích placcs such prímarycxpcrícncc híghcrthananycodíhcdthco-
Iogy- oncbccomcsavarcoIsomcthíngvcrypcculíarand,Ìmustsay,
vcry surprísíng. It ís that mystícal tcxts, and dcscríptíons oI Iunda-
mcntalmystícalcxpcrícnccs,bynomcanshavcthcprímary,ímmcdíatc
qualítyoncmíghtcxpcct, butarcvcrystronglymcdíatcdbycducatíon.
IorcxampIc,thcíntrícatcíntcrrclatíonshípsbctvccngnostícísm,Ico-
ÏIatonísm, thc Cabbala and latcr Chrístían mystícísm gívc rísc to an
arcaoIhístorícítyvhíchíscqualto anythíngínthc hístoryoIdogma.
Þndítísccrtaínlynoaccídcntthatthccorpusínvhíchthcdocumcnts
oI]cvíshmystícísmarcbroughttogcthcrmorcorIcssdísconncctcdly,
thcCabbaIa, bcarsthctítIc oItradítíon. Iarlcsscmphasísísputon a
prímary, ímmcdíatc vísíon than onc ímagíncs¡ Iar morc attcntíon
ís paíd to thc -ó-e: oI so-callcd rclígíous cxpcrícncc than to purc
subj cctívítythanmíght bc supposcd.¤hatthcrcasonsmíghtbc Ì do
not vant to díscuss¡ that ís rcaIIy a mattcr Ior thc phílosophy oI
rclígíon. I shall contcnt myscIIvíth onc obscrvatíon, thatalmost all
thc mystícal spccuIatíons vhích cxíst hnd thcír support ín so-callcd
sacrcd tcxts, vhích ínthc cycs oImystícal-mctaphysícaI thínkcrs bc-
comc symbolíc ínthc scnsc thatthcymcansomcthíng quítc díIIcrcnt
Iromvhatíssaídínthcm. Iorcxamplc, ín thc Iamousíntcrprctatíon
oIthchrstchaptcroIGcncsís,assctoutínthcbook`bohar',thchístory
oIthc crcatíon oI thc vorld ís íntcrprctcd as a hístory oI thc ínncr
proccss oIcrcatíon vhích took placc víthín thc dívíníty ítsclI.' Jhís
ís, íncídcntally, thc modcl Ior thc spcculatíons oIbchcIlíngvhích, ín
alatcrphasc, bccamcIamousundcrthcnamcoIposítívcphílosophy.'
I do notvísh to sayanythíng aboutthc truth oIthcscmattcrs¡ but I
should Iíkc atlcastto makc you avarc oIa probIcm.
Jhroughourphílosophícaland,abovcalI,ouracadcmíccducatíon
- as long as ít ís bascd onthc modcl, hovcvcr latcnt, oIthc natural
scícnccs - vc havc bccomc tacítly accustomcd to an írrcconcílablc
antíthcsís bctvccn tradítíon andcognitíon. It ísno accídcntthat thc
most vchcmcnt ínvcctívc agaínst tradítíon ís to bc Iound ín thc tvo
phílosophcrs vho mark thc bcgínning oI vhat ís callcd modcrn
ÏLLÅ1VL L 1 L1ÅLLÏ 1J¬
phílosophy,Ocscartcs andBacon,vhocmancípatcdthcmsclvcs Irom
tradítìon. Itís, hovcvcr,qucstìonablc ¦ andÌshallonlyraíscthc qucs-
tíon hcrc) vhcthcr thc ìdca undcrlyìng thís posítíon- that tradítíon,
vhat ìs not knovn at hrst hand, should bc spurncd ín Iacc oI thc
ìmmcdíacy oI lívcd cxpcrícncc - vhcthcr thìs motìI, vhích vc takc
almost Ior grantcd, ìs rcally so valíd, ìn vícv oIthc Iact that many
such tradítíonal clcmcnts arc unknovíngly contaíncd ín knovlcdgc
vcrcgardasnot tradìtíonal, butaspurc,autonomouscognítíon.Cnc
míght bc ínclìncd to thìnk that thc subjcct supposcdly capablc oI
cognìtìon asa kínd oIactus jurus, asa pìccc oIpurc actualìty- and
thís, ìmplìcítly, ís thc cpìstcmologìcal ídcal oI thc vholc oImodcrn
phìlosophy- ìsanabstractíonvhíchdocsnotcorrcspondtoanyactual
subjcct oI cognítìon, and that thc tradìtìonal, that ìs, thc hìstorìcal
momcnt, not only pcrmcatcs supposcdly authcntìcatcd knovlcdgc
Iar morc dccply than ísgcncrally admìttcd, but actually makcs that
knovlcdgcpossìblc. Cncmìghtcvcnsupposcthatthc momcntvhìch
I havc rcpcatcdÍy brought to your notícc undcr thc hcadíng oI thc
mcdíatcdncss oIthought, ìscontaìncd ínthìs tradítìonal momcnt, ìn
thc ìmplícìt hìstory vhìch ís prcscnt víthìn any cognítíon. Þnd ít ís
probablc ¦ atanyratc, I shouldlìkc tothínksotoday) thatthccrucíal
thrcshold bctvccn thís and posìtívìst thìnkìng Íìcs ìn thc qucstíon
vhcthcrthoughtìsavarcoIthísìnalícnablctradìtìonalmomcntcon-
taíncdvíthìnìt,vhcthcrknovlcdgcrcIlcctsìtvìthínítsclIorvhcthcr
ìtsìmplydcnícs ìt- vhìchísnotto asscrt, oIcoursc, thatknovlcdgc
shouldsìmplyabandonìtsclItothìstradítíonalmomcnt. Jhccrítícísm
vhìchhasbccnlcvcllcdattradìtìonhasítsrcasonsandìtslcgítìmacy,
hcavcnknovs. Butìtísalsonaìvc ínbclìcvìngthatítcandívcstìtsclI
cntírcly oI thìs momcnt. Jhc truth probably lícs ín a kínd oI scÍI-
rcIlcctíonvhìch bothrccognìzcsthc ìnalìcnablcprcscncc oIthctradì-
tìonalmomcntvìthìnknovIcdgc,andcrìtìcallyìdcntìhcsthcdogmatìc
clcmcntìnìt- ínstcadoIcrcatínga ta|u/a rasa onbothsídcs,asnov,
and thus succumbíngcìthcrtodogmatìsmorto a tìmclcss and thcrc-
Iorcìnhcrcntlyhctítìousposítìvìsm.`ouvìllpcrhapsundcrstandthat,
Ior thís rcason, I am unvíllíng to attach mctaphysícal cxpcrìcncc to
rclìgíous cxpcrìcncc ashrmly asìs gcncraIly asscrtcd, Ì amunvìllìng
to doso,abovcall,bccauscthískíndoIcxpcrìcncc,ashandcddovnby
vcrygrcathgurcsoICatholícìsm,suchasbt]ohnoIthc Cross,hardly
sccms to bc acccssìblc any longcr, gìvcn thc assumptíons rcgardíng
thc phílosophy oI hìstory undcr vhích vc lívc today. Cn íts actual
truth contcntI víll holdmy pcacc.
Þmorcdccísívccontríbutíontothcscmartcrs,I bclícvc,ísmadcby
Narccl !roust, vhosc vork, as a prccipìtatc oI cxpcricncc and an
cxplorarionolrhcpossibilityoIcxpcrícncc,shouldbctakcncxtrcmcly
W
Æ
1+0 ÏLLÅ1VL L 1 L1ÅLLÏ
scríously Irom a phílosophícal poínt oI vícv. I vould mcntíon ín
passíng that thc scparatíon bctvccn art and so-callcd scholarshíp ín
thc sphcrcínvhíchvcarcnovmovíngíscntírclyvíthoutsubstancc
andís a mcrc Iabrícatíon oIthc dívísíon oIlabour. I mcan- thc ídca
that !crr Bollnov should bc qualíhcd to contríbutc scríously to a
díscussíon on mctaphysícs vhílc Narccl Ïroust should not - vclI,
I vouldj ustmcntíonthat ídca to you víthoutcommcntíngIurthcr. I
do notvísh to rcproducc Ïroust's thcory oImctaphysícalcxpcrícncc
to you hcrc. I vould just poínt out that pcrhaps onc oIthc clcarcst
maníIcstatíonsoIvhatI amconccrncdvíthhcrc ísthcvayínvhích
ccrtaín namcs can vouch Ior that cxpcrícncc. Ìn Ïroust thcy arc thc
namcs oI Illícrs and Jrouvíllc, Cabourg and Vcnícc.`I mysclI havc
had a símílar cxpcrícncc víth such namcs. ¤hcn onc ís on holíday
as a chíld and rcads or hcars namcs líkc Nonbrunn, Kcucnthal,
!ambrunn, onc has thc Icclíng. íIonlyonc vcrc thcrc, atthatplacc,
thatvouldbcít.Jhís'ít`- vhatthc 'ít'ís- íscxtraordínarílydíIhcult
tosay,oncvíllprobablybcablctosay, IollovíngÏroust`strackshcrc
too, thatítís happíncss. ¤hcnonc latcrrcachcs suchplaccs, ítísnot
thcrc cíthcr, oncdocsnothnd'ít` . CItcnthcyarc| ustIoolíshvíllagcs.
IIthcrc ísstíll a sínglc stablcdooropcnínthcm and a smclloIa rcal
lívc cov and dung and such thíngs, to vhích thís cxpcrícncc ís no
doubtattachcd, oncmustbcvcrythankIultoday. Butthccuríousthíng
ísthat, cvcníI'ít` ís not thcrc, íIonc docsnothnd ín Nonbrunnany
oI thc Iulhlmcnt vhích ís storcd up ín íts namc, ncvcrthclcss, onc ís
notdísappoíntcd. Jhc rcason,íIÌ amíntcrprctíngítcorrcctly, ísthat
- and youmustIorgívc mcíII ramblc a bítínthíslccturc, ínj ustthc
vaythatKantIorbíds"- oncís, asítvcrc, too closc,oncísínsídcthc
phcnomcnon,andhasthc Icclíngthat, bcíngcomplctclyínsídcít, onc
cannot actually catch síght oIít. Cncc, many ycars ago, ínMinima
Mora/ia, I vrotc about thankíng and gratítudc, vhích havc thcír
dígníty - and I díd not mcan dígníty ín thc ídcalíst scnsc - bccausc
thc gívíng oI thanks ís thc only rclatíonshíp that conscíousncss can
havc to happíncss,vhcrcasthc pcrsonvhois happyístooclosctoít
to bc ablc to havc any standpoínt tovards ít víthín conscíousncss. ´
ÞtsuchmomcntsonchasacuríousIcclíngthatsomcthingísrcccdíng
- as ísaIso Iamílíar Irom an old symboloIhappíncss, thc raínbov-
rathcr than that onc has rcally bccn donc out oI ít. I vould say,
thcrcIorc, that happíncss- and thcrc ís ancxtrcmcly dccp constclla-
tíon bctvccn mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc and happíncss - ís somcthíng
víthín objccts and, at thc samc tímc, rcmotc Iromthcm.
But as Ì mcntíon thís cxamplc to you, I bccomc avarc ol hov
cxtraordínaríly prccaríous such spcculatíons arc. ! havc j ust píckcd
outa stratum oIthcsccxpcrícnccs quítc arbítraríly; anorhcr, pcrhaps
Ï1LÅ1V1 11 L1Å11Ï 1+1
Iar morc crucíal onc, ís thc cxpcrícncc oIdêjà UM¡ thc Icclíng: ¤hcn
dídIsccthatbcIorc:thatcanbcínduccdbyaccrtaíntypcoIchíldrcn`s
book. In such cxpcrícnccs onc succumbs to thc condítíons oI thc
cmpírícalvorld; onc succumbs to allthc Iallíbílítyvhích attachcs to
onc`s ovnpsychology, onc`svíshcs, onc`s longíng. Þll mctaphysícal
cxpcrícnccs- Ishouldlíkctostatcasaproposítíonhcrc- arcIallíblc.
I vould say, ín gcncral, that all cxpcrícnccs vhích havc to bc lívcd,
vhích arcnotmcrccopícs orrcconstructíons oIthatvhích ísínany
casc, contaín thc possíbílíty oI crror, thc possíbílíty that thcy can
complctclymíssthcmark. Þnd, ínmuchthc samcvayasIíndícatcd
carlícr víth rcgard to thc conccpt oI tradítíon, ít may bc onc oIthc
¢cuò¸,thcdcccptíonsínvhíchscícntíhc-ídcalístthínkínghascnmcshcd
us, that vc bclícvc a píccc oIknovlcdgc to rankhíghcr thc lcss ít ís
líablc to Iaílurc, todísappoíntmcnt. !t míght vcll bc that, accordíng
to thís crítcríon, cvcrythíngvhích rcallymattcrs vould bc cxcludcd
asunvorthy oIbcíngknovn; vhcrcas íntruth- so ít sccmsto mc-
only vhat can bc rcIutcd, vhat can bc dísappoíntcd, vhat can bc
vrong,hasthcopcnncssI havcspokcnoI, thatís, ítísthconlythíng
vhích mattcrs. It ís ín thc conccpt oIopcnncss, as that vhích ís not
alrcadysubsumcdundcrthc ídcntíty oIthcconccpt, thatthcpossíbíl-
íty oI dísappoíntmcnt lícs. Þnd I should líkc to say that víthín thc
mcaníngoIthcscrcIlcctíonsonthcpossíbílítyoImctaphysícsthcrclícs
a pcculíar aIhníty to cmpírícísm. Ior cmpírícísm, víth ítscmphasís
on cmpírícal sourccs, ímplícs an clcmcnt oI mctaphysícs at lcast ín
thc scnscthatthcessentia/ knovlcdgcís sccn asthatvhíchdocsnot
coíncídc víth conccpts, but vhích, as ít vcrc, Ialls accídcntally ínto
mylap, and thus alvays íncludcs thc possíbílítythat ít migbt not do
so. buch knovlcdgc thcrcIorc has an ínhcrcnt Iortuítousncss, Irom
vhích ít dcrívcs anclcmcnt oImcaníngvhích, accordíngto thc prc-
valcnt logíc, ís cxcludcd prccíscly by thc conccpt oI thc accídcntal.
Iallíbílíty, I vould say, ís thc condítíon oI thc possíbílíty oI such
mctaphysícalcxpcrícncc. Þndítsccms to attachmoststronglyto thc
vcakcst and most Iragílc cxpcrícnccs.
Cn thc othcr hand, hovcvcr, Irom thc cxtrcmc doubtIulncss oI
vhat!havcj ustsaíd,adoubtIulncssvhích,I bclícvc,ísíndíspcnsablc
tothought íIítvants to bc anythíng at all, you míght gaín a crítícal
ínsíghtvhích, Irom thcopposcd standpoínt, sounds híghlyhcrctícal.
`ou all knov that thc crítícal thcory oI socícty, and cspccíally íts
popularízcdIormínthcmodcrnístícvulgarthcologyoItoday,ís Iond
oIadducíngthc!cgclíanandNarxíanconccptoIreijcation, andthat,
Iorít, onlyvhatíscntírclycxcmptIromrcíhcatíoncanbccountcdas
knovlcdgc or truth. But íI you bcar ín mínd thc pcculíarly Iallíblc
and unavoídablyproblcmatícnaturcoImctaphysícalcxpcrícnccthat
Ø

r
1+Z Ï1LÅ1V1 11 L1Å11Ï
I havc dcscríbcd, thcconccpt oIrcíhcatíonmay, ína complcmcntary
vay, takc on a mcaníng vhích ísIar Irom purcly dcrogatory. !t ís a
mcaníngínvhích, asínNarx, thcvholc oIídcalísm íscontaíncd, ín
that thc assumptíon ís madc that cvcn that vhích ís not I, vhích ís
not ídcntícal, must bc ablc to rcsolvc ítsclI cntírcly, as ítvcrc, ínto
thc actual, prcscnt I, ínto thc actus µurus. Jhat nonc oIthís ís plain
saílíng, that thcsc qucstíons arc not so símplc - !cgcl undoubtcdly
hadanínklíngoIthísínhíslatcrphasc. ÞndthctraítsoIrcactíonary
harshncss vc hnd so dísturbíng ín !cgcl arc ccrtaínly conncctcd to
thc rcalízatíon that thc momcnt oI thc complctc díssolutíon oI all
obj cctívíty ínvhatmíght bc callcd thc lívíng subj cct also contaíns a
dcccptívc clcmcnt, ín thc absolutc prcscncc oI thc subjcct ín that
vhích ítísnot.¤hcnI saídcarlícr thatpurc mystícal cxpcrícncc ísa
somcvhatdubíousmattcr, that ítís Iar lcsspurc and ínvardandIar
morc concrctcly obj cctívc than onc vould cxpcct Irom íts conccpt, I
vasrcIcrríngto thís samc dcccptíon.
¤hat I am sayíng to you appcars to bc ín sharp contradíctíon to
thc ídca that cognítíon should ncccssaríly bc Iallíblc íI thc rcsultíng
knovlcdgcístobcvorthyoIbcíngthought.ÞndIvouldnotprcsumc,
andccrtaínlynotínthcmíscrablyIcvmínutcsvchavclcIt,torcsolvc
thís contradíctíon. I vould say, hovcvcr, that prccíscly thc polaríty
I am rcIcrríng to - that, onthc onc hand, ít ís a condítíon oImcta-
physícal cxpcrícncc that ít can míss thc mark, that ít can bc quítc
vrong; and that, onthcothcr, ítrcquírcs anobj cctívc momcnt, antí-
thctícaltoítandíncapablcoIbcíngassímílatcdto ít- thatthcsctvo
motíIs togcthcr Iorm thc díalcctícal hgurc, thc díalcctícal ímagc,'¨
through vhích alonc onc can, pcrhaps, gaín avarcncss oI vhat ís
mcantby thc conccpt oImctaphysícal cxpcrícncc. Jhc obj cctívc cat-
cgorícs oI thcology arc not only - as ìt appcars Irom !cgcl's carly
thcologícal vrítíngs publíshcd by !crman Iohl' ' - rcsíducs oI thc
posítívc momcnt vhích arc thcn rcsolvcd ínto subj cctívíty, ínto líIc,
ína proccssoIíncrcasíng,díalcctícalídcntíhcatíon, butactuallycom-
plcmcntthcvcakncssoIímmancntdíalcctícs.thcyrcclaím,ína scnsc,
vhat ís not assímílatcd by thc díalcctíc and vould, as thc mcrcly
othcr, bc dcvoíd oI any dctcrmínatíon. Jhus, not only thc ossíhcd
socícty, but also thc momcnt oI thc µrimacy oj tbe o|ject vhích I
havc rcpcatcdly mcntíoncd,'¯ vas prccípítatcd ín thc objcctívíty oI
thc mctaphysícal catcgorícs. Þnd bctvccn thcsc tvo momcnts - on
thc onc hand thc Ilashcs oIIallíblc conscíousncss vhích I íllustratcd
bythc cxamplc oIplacc namcs, and onthc othcr thcprímacy oIthc
objcct- thcrc sccmstomctocxísta curíousconstcllatíon. Jruc, ítís
onc vhích ís díschargcd abruptly at ccrtaín momcnts, rathcr than
bcíngamcrclycontcmplatívccntítyvhíchcouldbcgraspcdasa kínd
Ï1LÅ1VL 11 L1Å11Ï I+J
oI catcgoríal structurc oI a so-callcd mattcr oI Iact. II cvcrythíng
obj cctívc ísvolatílízcd by conscíousncss - and thís applícs cspccíally
tomctaphysícal objccts- thoughtrcgrcsscsto thcsubj cctívísmoIthc
purc act. !t thcn hnally hypostatizcs thcmcdíatíoncarrícd out bythc
subjcct ítsclI, asa kínd oIpurc ímmcdíacy. Jhísmayhc|p to cxp|aín
thc quítcsígníhcantIact thatKant, vho attcmptcdínthc Critique oj
|ractica/ Reason toíntcrprctmctaphysícalídcasasa Iullpartícípatíon
oIthcsubj cct,índccd, asnothíngothcrthanpurcrcasonítsclI, hnally
movcd almost ímpcrccptíbly to a posítíon vhcrc hc sought Ior that
subj cctívítyprccísclythcobj cctívccorrclatívcsthathchadprcvíously
crítícízcd andradícally cxcludcd. Itís a rcmarkablc Iact that, ínthís
vay,cvcnthcconccptoIthchíghcstgoodandthcconccptoIhuman·
íty arc rcsurrcctcd ín thc Critique oj |ractica/ Reason. '` But dcspítc
allthísíthastobcsaídthat,ínthccourscoIadvancíngcnlíghtcnmcnt,
thc possíbílíty oImctaphysícal cxpcrícncc ís tcndíngto bccomcpalcr
and morc dcsultory. !Ionc rcads Ïrousttoday, thcaccounts oIsuch
mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc, vhích play such an cnormous rolc ín hís
vork- although cvcn thcrcthcy arc Iar morc barc and límítcd than
oncmíghtcxpcct- havcaKomantícmomcntthroughvhíchthcyarc
alrcady cxposcd to crítícísm. It ís as íIthc j oy oIhndíng that somc-
vhcrc somc such thíng as líIc vcrc possíblc at all - and thís ís thc
countcr-motíIto rcíhcatíon- hadlurcdthc subj cct oIthccxpcrícncc
íntodírcctlycquatíngthcscsurvívíngtraccsoIthclíIcvíththcmcaníng
oIlíIc ítsclI.
Þsa rcsult, oncvíllhavc topursucmctaphysícalcxpcrícnccíntoa
stratum vhích orígínal|y vas cxtrcmc|y a|ícn to it. Ior ín rca|íty ít
nov survívcs only ncgatívcly. I vould say- andthís must bc undcr-
stood vcry stríctly and madc ínto a kínd oIcanon Ior mctaphysícal
thínkíng ítsclI- that thc Iorm ínvhích mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc stíll
maníIcstsítsclIvíthanycompcllíngIorcctodayísnotthatvhíchhas
madc ítsclI suspcct as a sphcrc oI Komantic víshíng, but ís thc cx-
pcrícncc vhich lcads to thc qucstíon. !s that all : !t ísthc cxpcrícncc
vhích, íII míght spcak Ior oncc |ikc ancxistcntía|íst, pcrhaps bcars
thc grcatcst rcscmblancc, among thc 'sítuatíons` vc pass through,'¯
tothcsítuatíonoIIruítlcssvaítíng.thatísnodoubt thcIormínvhích
mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc maníIcsts ítsclImoststronglyto us. !t madc
an unIorgcttablc ímprcssíon on mc vhcn my composítíon tcachcr,
Þlban Bcrg, told mc morc than oncc that vhat hc rcgardcd as thc
crucíal and most ímportant parts oIhís ovn vork, and thc oncs hc
líkcd bcst,vcrc thc bars ínvhíchhccxprcsscdsítuatíons oIIruít|css
vaíting. !c cxpcricnccd thcsc things so dccply thatthcyrcachcdthc
thrcshold ol consciousncss, although, hcavcn knovs, that is not rc-
quircdolanartist. ButthcauthcnticityoIcvcnthisisnotguarantccd,
M
1++ ÏLL²1VL LÏ L1¯LLÏ
Ior vhcrc thcrc ís no longcr any líIc, vhcrc ímmcdíacy has bccn so
truly abolíshcd as ínthc vorld ínvhích vc cxíst, thc tcmptatíon ís
doublystrongtomístakcthcrcmnantsoIlíIc, orcvcnthcncgatíonoI
thc prcvaílíng condítíon, Ior thc absolutc.
¤c rcach hcrc, íI you líkc, thc crucíal dístínctíon bctvccn thc
consídcratíonsI havc bccnprcscntíngro you andthc!cgclíanphílo-
sophy to vhíchthcscconsídcratíons ovc so much. It lícs ín thc Iact
that!cgcl`sphílosophycontaínsamomcntbyvhíchthatphílosophy,
dcspítc havíng madc thc príncíplc oI dctcrmínatc ncgatíon íts vítal
ncrvc, passcs ovcr ínto aIhrmatíon and thcrcIorc ínto ídcology: thc
bclícI that ncgatíon, by bcíng pushcd Iar cnough and by rcIlcctíng
ítsclI,ísoncvíthposítívíty.Jhat,ladícsandGcntlcmcn,thcdoctrínc
oIthc posítívc ncgatíon, ís prccíscly and stríctly thc poínt atvhích !
rcIusctoIollov!cgcl.Jhcrcarcothcrsuchpoínts,butínthccontcxt
oIthís díscussíon thís ís thc onc to vhích I should rcIcr. Cnc míght
bcínclíncd to thínkthat íIthc prcscnt sítuatíon ísrcally cxpcrícnccd
asncgatívclyasvcallcxpcrícnccít, and asonly I havctakcnítupon
mysclI,asakíndoIscapcgoat,tocxprcssít¦thatísthconlydíIIcrcncc
scparatíng mc Irom othcr pcoplc) , onc míght thínk that by negating
thís ncgatívíty onc had alrcady attaíncd thc posítívc; and that ís a
vcrygrcattcmptatíon.ÞndvhcnItoldyouthatthcIormoIdctcrmín-
atcncgatíonísthconlyIormínvhíchmctaphysícalcxpcrícnccsurvívcs
today, I mysclIvasmovíng at lcastínthc dírcctíon oIthat ídca. But
thís transítíon ís not ítsclIcompcllíng: Ior íI! saíd that thcncgatíon
oIthcncgatíonísthcposítívc, thatídcavouldcontaínvíthínítsclIa
thcsísoIthcphílosophyoIídcntítyandcouldonlybccarrícdthrough
íI I had alrcady assumcd thc uníty oI subjcct and objcct vhích ís
supposcd to cmcrgc at thc cnd. !I, hovcvcr, you takc scríously thc
ídca I put Iorvard carlícr today, that thc truth oIídcas ís bound up
víththcpossíbílítyoIthcírbcíngvrong,thcpossíbílítyoIthcírIaílurc,
youvíllsccthatthísídcaísínvalídatcdbythcproposítíonthat,mcrcly
by ncgatíng thc ncgation, I alrcady havc thc posítívc. In that casc'`
oncvouldbcbackínthcsphcrcoIIalsc, dcccptívcand,!vouldsay,
mythícal ccrtaínty, ín vhích nothíng can bc vrong and ín vhích,
probably Ior that rcason, cvcrythíng onc saídvould bc all thc morc
hopclcsslylost.Iorthoughtthcrcísrcallynoothcrpossíbílíty,noothcr
opportuníty,thantodovhatthcmíncr'sadagcIorbíds:tovorkonc's
vay through thc darkncss víthout a lamp, víthout posscssíng thc
posítívc through thc híghcr conccpt oIthc ncgatíon oIthc ncgatíon,
and toímmcrsconcsclIìnthcdarkncssasdccplyasoncpossíblycan.
Ioroncthíng ís undoubtcdly truc: ! toldyou that, vhcrc thcrc ís no
longcr líIc, thc tcmptatíon to místakc íts rcmnants Ior thc absolutc,
Ior IÌashcs oImcaníng,íscxtrcmclygrcat- andI donotvishtotakc
Ï1LÅ1V1 1 1 L1ÅLLÏ 1+ó
that back. IcvcrthcIcss,nothìng can bc cvcn cxpcrìcnccd asIìvìng ìI
ìt docs not contaìn a promìsc oI somcthìng transccndìng IìIc. Jhìs
transccndcncc thcrcIorc is, and atthc samc tìmcis no/- and bcyond
that contradìctìon ìt ìs no doubt vcry dìIhcuIt, and probabIyìmpos-
sìbIc, Ior thought to go. '"
Insayìngthat,ladìcsandGcntIcmcn,IhavcthcIccIìngthatIhavc
rcachcdthc poìntvhcrcthc ìnsuIhcìcncy oImyovnrcIlcctìons con-
vcrgcsvìththcìmpossìbìIìtyoIthìnkìngthatvhìchmustncvcrthcIcss
bc thought. ' Þnd aII I hopc ìs thatI mayhavc gìvcn you at Icast an
ìdca oIthatconvcrgcncc.
B
¡LÍÃLH`b PLáb
Abbrcviations
Adorno`s vrítíngs, vhcn translatcd, arc quotcd Irom thc !nglísh-languagc
cdítíons. Vhcn no !nglísh translatíon ís avaílablc, thc rcIcrcnccs arc to
thc Ccrman cdítíons, Gesamme/te Scbri[ten ¦cdítcd by KolI Jícdcmann ín
collaboratíon víth Crctcl Adorno, 5usan Buck-Norss and Klaus 5chultz,
!rankIurt/Naín I970- } and Nacbge/assene Scbri[ten ¦cdítcd by Jhcodor
V. Adorno Archív, ÍrankIurt/Naín I99J- ), vhcn íncludcd thcrc. 1hc IolÌov-
íng abbrcvíatíons arc uscd.
C5 I
C5 J
C5 ó
C5 6
C5 8
C5 9. I
C5 I0. I
C5 I0.Z
C5 I I
C5 Z0. I
C5 Z0.Z
Ia5 I. I
|bi/osojbiscbe |rúbscbri[ten, Jrd cdn, I996
Nax Morkhcímcr and Jhcodor V. Adorno, Dia/ektik der
Au[k/arung. |bi/osojbiscbe |ragmente, Jrd cdn, I996
Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistbeorie/Drei Studien zu Hege/,
4th cdn, I 996
Negatiue Dia/ektik/]argon der Eigent/icbkeit, óth cdn, I996
Sozio/ogiscbe Scbri[ten |, 4th cdn, I 996
Sozio/ogiscbe Scbri[ten 1. Erste Ha/[te, 4, I9¯ó
Ku/turkritik und Gese//scba[t |· |rismen/Òbne Leitbi/d, Znd
cdn, I996
Ku/turkritik und Gese//scba[t II: Eingri[[e/Sticbuorte/Anbang,
I9¯¯
Noten zur Literatur, 4th cdn, I996
\ermiscbte Scbri[ten |, I986
\ermiscbte Scbri]ten II, I986
8eetbouen. |bi/osojbie der Musik, cd. KolI Jicdcmann, Znd
cdn, l994
ÏLÅ1b ÅL 1DL1b 1-J 1+/
Ia5 IV.4 Kants 'Kritik der reinen \ernun[t` ¦ I 9ó9} , cd. KolI Jícdcmann,
I99ó
Ia5 lV. I0 |rob/eme der Mora/jbi/osojbie ¦ I 96J} , cd. Jhomas 5chrödcr,
I 99ó
Ia5 IV. I ó Ein/eitung in die Sozio/ogie ¦ I 968j , cd. Chrístoph Cöddc, I 99J
Lccturc Ònc
I Adorno ìs rcIcrrìng to Negatiue Dia/ectics, vríttcn bctvccn I9ó9 and
I966, ín hís lccturc scrìcs ín thc summcr scmcstcr oI I 96ó hc ís thínkíng
ín partícular oI 'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysícs` ¦Adorno, Negatiue Dia-
/ectics, trans. !.B. Ashton, !ondon I990, pp. J6IIl, cI. C5 6, pp. Jó4ll),
on vhích hc vas vorkíng íntcnsívcly ín Nay I 96ó and to vhích hc
rcIcrrcd ín !ccturcs I J-I8, hcld ín ]uly I 96ó ¦scc n. 9 bclovj.
Z Apart lrom thc díscussìon ín 'Ncdìtatìons on Nctaphysícs`, Adorno
dcals víth Kant`s attítudc to mctaphysícs abovc all ín Lccturcs 4 and ó
ìn thc scrìcs Kants 'Kritik der rein en \ernun[t` ol I 9ó9 ¦cI. Ia5 IV.4,
pp. ó¯ff}. Jhc most lucíd account oI Kant`s rcncval oI thc Ioundatíons
oI mctaphysícs knovn to thc !dítor ís to bc Iound ìn an carly lccturc by
Morkhcìmcr, Irom thc víntcr scmcstcr I 9Zó/6 ¦cI. Nax Morkhcímcr,
Gesamme/te Scbri[ten, cd. AlIrcd 5chmìdt and Cunzclìn 5chmídt Iocrr,
vol. I0: Nacbge/assene Scbri[ten ! V!~-! V· ! , Z. \or/esung über die
Gescbicbte der deutscben idea/istiscben |bi/osojbie ju. a.], !rankIurt/
Naín I990, pp. Z4ff}, Adorno ìs líkcly to havc takcn ovcr Morkhcímcr`s
account víthout qucstíoníng ít.
J CI. !rícdrìch Iíctzschc, Tbus Sjoke Zaratbu:tra, trans. K.]. Mollìngdalc,
Marmondsvorth I96I, p. ó8 ¦ although thc tcrm ís translatcd hcrc as
'aItcrvorld` } , a dírcct cquatíon bctvccn mctaphysícs and thc 'back·
vorld` ís to bc Iound, Ior cxamplc, ín Human, A// Too Human. 'Vhcn
vc hcar thc subtlc talk ol thc mctaphysícìans and backvorldsmcn,
vc ccrtaínly Iccl that vc arc thc "poor ín spírít", but vc also Iccl that
ours ís thc hcavcn oI changc, víth spríng and autumn, víntcr and
summcr, vhílc thcírs ís thc backvorld, víth ìts grcy, Irosty, cndlcss
místs and shadovs` ¦ Iíctzschc, Samt/icbe Werke, vol. Z, Nuních I 99J,
p. J86} . Kcgardíng thìs mctaphor oI Iíctzschc`s vhích Adorno vas
Iond ol quotíng scc Ia5 IV.4, p. I6ó and pp. J8ZI, and Ia5 IV. Ió,
p. J8, and nnally Jhcodor V. Adorno, |bi/osojbiscbe Termino/ogie.
Zur Ein/eitung, cd. KudolI zur !íppc, vol. Z, óth cdn, !rankIurt/Naìn
I 989, p. I 6Z.
4 CI. C5 9. I, p. 4¬6 - Adorno also cìtcs thìs statcmcnt by thc tcst sub¡cct
ín 'Jhcscs agaínst occultìsm` ín Minima Mora/ia, trans. !dmund ]cphcott,
!ondon I 974, pp. ZJ8-44, dcalíng prímarìly vìth occultìsm ín contcm-
porary socìcty, thc 'Jhcscs` ncvcrthclcss contaín nothíng lcss than
Adorno`s thcory oI thc rclatíonshíp oI occultìsm to mctaphysìcs, ol thc
'conramìnarìon ol mìnd and cxìstcncc, thc lattcr bccomìng ìtsclI an
attrìbutc ot mìnd` (ìbìd., p. Z4Jj . Adorno`s aphorìsm 'Cccultìsm ìs thc
Æ
1+8 ÏLÅ1b ÅL 1DLLb +-ó
mctaphysíc oI dunccs` ¦íbíd., p. Z4I j has mcanvhílc appcarcd ín thc
Historiscbes Worterbucb der |bi/osojbie as an cxamplc oI hís 'radícal
antagonísm` to occultísm, vhích, ín Iact, thc authors hnd rathcr too
radícal ¦c. M. Bcndcr and V. Bonín, 'Ckkultísmus`, ín Hist. Wb. |bi/os.,
vol. 6, Baslc, 5tuttgart I984, col. I I44Ij.
ó 5cc Lccturc 4.
6 Nost probably an allusíon to thc book by Mcímsocth ¦prcscnt ín
Adorno`s líbraryj, vhích dcals víth thc dísputc ovcr unívcrsals undcr
thc títlc 'Ías lndívíduum`, c. Mcínz Mcímsocth, Die secbs großen
Tbemen der abend/andiscben Metajbysik und der Ausgang des
Mitte/a/ters, 4th cdn, Íarmstadt I9ó8, pp. I ¯Zn.
¯ 5cc Lccturc 6, p. J8 abovc
8 5cc lart I oI thc Encyc/ojaedia o[ tbe |bi/osojbica/ Sciences ot
I 8J0. 'Jhoughts can bc callcd . . . objectiue thoughts and thcsc íncludc
thc Iorms vhích arc consídcrcd ín ordínary logíc and arc uscd only as
Iorms oI conscious thought. Logic thcrcIorc coíncídcs víth metajbysics,
thc scícncc oI tbings couchcd as thoughts vhich vcrc supposcd to cx-
prcss thc essences oI tbings` ¦trans. Irom Mcgcl, Werke in Z0 8anden,
!rankIurt/Naín I969-¯I , vo|. 8, pp. 80Ij. Cr ín thc Introductíon to
'Jhc Cb¡cctívc Logíc`: 'Jhc ob¡cctívc logíc . . . takcs thc placc . . . oI
Iormcr mctaphysícs vhích vas íntcndcd to bc thc scícntíhc construc·
tíon oI thc vorld ín tcrms oI thoughts alonc` ¦ Hege/`s Science o[ Logic,
trans. A.V. Níllcr, London/Icv York I 969, p. 6Jj .
9 Adorno scldom cxprcsscd hímsclI as cxplícítly on thc systcmatíc ímport·
ancc oI thís motíI as ín thc lccturcs on 'Acsthctícs` oI I9ó8/9. Mcrc hc
spokc oI thc ncccssíty oI gaíníng acccss to 'somcthíng líkc a phílosophícal
prchístory oI conccpts vhích, ín our vícv [í. c. hís and Morkhcímcr`sj
should rcplacc mcrc vcrbal dchnítíons, vhích arc alvays arbítrary and
non-bíndíng`¡ as an cxamplc hc mcntíons 'thc thcory oI art as mímctíc
bchavíour, dcvclopcd ín Dia/ectic o[ En/igbtenment' ¦Jhcodor V.
Adorno Archív, Vo JóJ9Ij . Jhc lccturc scrícs on |bi/osojbiscbe
Termino/ogie, hcld by Adorno ovcr tvo scmcstcrs ín I 96Z and I 96J, ís
hís most cxtcnsívc trcatmcnt oI thc 'prchístory` oI phílosophícal conccpts
¦c. Adorno, |bi/osojbiscbe Termino/ogie. Zur Ein/eitung, Z vols, !rank-
Iurt/Naín I 97J, I 9¯4j . !or othcr aspccts oI hís ídca oI phílosophícal
prchístory c. KolI Jícdcmann, ' ''Iícht díc !rstc !hílosophíc sondcrn
cínc lctztc". Anmcrkungcn zum Ícnkcn Adornos`, ín Jhcodor V.
Adorno, 'Òb nacb Auscbuitz nocb sicb /eben /asse`. Ein jbi/osojbiscbes
Lesebucb, !rankIurt/Naín I 997, pp. I 6I.
I0 Adorno dcalt víth Comtc`s 'lav oI thrcc stagcs` agaín ín |ntroduction
to Socio/ogy, thc lccturc scrícs hcld ín thc summcr scmcstcr oI I968 ¦c.
Adorno, Introduction to Socio/o¿, trans. Ldmund ]cphcott, Cambridgc
Z000, p. I JI j .
I I Comtc charactcrízcs thc transítíon Irom Ictíshísm to polythcísm as Iol·
lovs: 'Jhc transIormatíon oI Ictíshcs ínto gods cndovs cach thíng víth
an abstract pcculíaríty, ínstcad oI thc líIc attríbutcd to ít. Jhís makcs ít
susccptíblc to anímatíon by a supcrnatural povcr. Iach god assumcs a
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 6-10 1+¬
qualíty common to many Ictíshcs, and such a conccpt dcmands a
mctaphysícal manncr oI thínkíng` ¦ Augustc Comtc, Die Sozio/ogie. Die
jositiue |bi/osojbie im Auszug, cd. !rícdrích Blaschkc, Lcípzíg I9JJ,
p. I9J} .
I Z Cn Arístotclíanísm ín lslamíc phílosophy and thc rcvíval oI Arístotlc
ín thc Chrístían Níddlc Agcs, c. CtIrícd MöIIc, Aristote/es, Nuních
I 996, pp. Z69II, on thc Iormcr cspccíally !rnst Bloch, 'Avíccnna und
díc Arìstotclíschc Línkc`, ìn L. Bloch, Das Materia/ismusjrob/em, seine
Gescbicbte und Substanz, ÍrankIurt/Naín I97Z ¦ Ccsamtausgabc vol. ¯},
pp. 479II.
I J Cn thc closíng oI thc school oI !roclus ín Athcns by an cdíct oI ]ustínían
ín to óZ9 onc should consult Zcllcr, vho vas also Adorno`s Iavourítc
authoríty ín othcr mattcrs oI Crcck phílosophy ¦c. Lduard Zcllcr, Die
|bi/osojbie der Griecben in ibrer gescbicbt/icben Entuick/ung [hcncc-
Iorth 'Zcllcr,`j J. Jcíl, Z. Abt., Die nacbaristote/iscbe |bi/osojbie. Z.
MalItc, Míldcshcím, Zurích, lcv York I 990 [Znd rcprìnt oI thc óth
cdnj, pp. 9IóI} , Ior morc dctaíls on thc lcrsían cxílc choscn by 5ímplíkíos
and síx othcr phílosophcrs scc \cbcrvcg-lracchtcr ¦c. !rícdrích
\cbcrvcg, Grundriß der Gescbicbte der |bi/osojb ie, ! . Tei/· Die
|bi/osojbie des A/tertums, IZth cdn, cd. Karl lracchtcr, Bcrlín I 9Z6,
pp. 6J4I} .
I 4 As a mcans oI 'notíng` vhat mctaphysícs vas, as undcrstood by Adorno,
thc rcadcr ís rcIcrrcd dchnítívcly to Lccturc JJ ín |bi/osojbiscbe
Termino/ogie, hís most concísc 'cxplanatíon oI thc tcrm mctaphysícs`,
vhích also dchncs íts sub¡cct mattcr ¦c. Adorno, |bi/osojbiscbe Ter-
mino/ogie, vol. Z, pp. I 60II}.
Lccturc Two
I Io transcríptíons oI thc lccturcs on IJ and I 8 Nay havc bccn prc·
scrvcd, ínstcad thc brícI notcs on vhích Adorno bascd thc lccturc arc
rcproduccd.
Z Jhís passagc connccts víth thc díscussíon oI thc Iormalízatíon oI thc
conccpt oI mctaphysícs at thc cnd oI thc hrst lccturc ¦pp. 8I abovc} .
J Jhís charactcrízatíon oI thc 'usual dchnítíon` oI mctaphysícs alrcady
contaíns a clcar allusíon to Arístotlc`s Metajbysics, to vhích tvo-thírds
oI thc lccturc arc dcvotcd. thc scícncc vhích ínvcstígatcs thc ultímatc
ground or causc oI cxístíng thíngs ¦c. Aristot/e`s Metajbysics, trans.
]ohn Varríngton, London I9ó6, p. ó4 [¬ Z, 98Z b 8I] } ís íntrínsícally
a 'Iundamcntal scícncc`, and ín Arístotlc`s tcrmínology ís callcd thc
'prímary scícncc` ¦c. íbíd., pp. I óóII [1 I , I0Z6 a Z4j } . !po:¿ oôc/o,
'prímary substancc`, ís uscd by Arístotlc as a synonym Ior eíðo,: 'By
"Iorm" l mcan a thíng`s csscncc and prímary substancc` ¦íbíd. , p. I 8 I
[Z 7, I0JZ b II] } . mctaphysícs, accordíng to Arístotlc, ís thc scícncc oI
lorms, according to Adorno, ít 'ís csscntíally conccrncd víth conccpts,
and vith conccpts ín a strong scnsc` ¦p. ó abovc} .

1 ó0 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLL I0
4 Adorno alvays had a strong ìntcrcst ìn gnostìc ìdcas, although hc mcn-
tìoncd thìs maìnly ìn convcrsatìons, vhcn hc vas tryìng to pcrsuadc
Mans ]onas to gìvc a lccturc on Narcìonìan gnostìcìsm ìn I 9ó9, hc
charactcrìzcd hìs ìntcrcst ìn thc phìlologìst Irom 5ìnopc. 'Norcovcr,
Valcntìnus` gnostìcìsm ìs ¡ ust as ìmportant to mc as Narcìon`s, ìn vhìch
only a vcry spccìhc motìI ìntcrcsts mc spccìally. thc dcnuncìatìon oI thc
dcmìurgc` ¦ Lcttcr to Mans |onas, IZ. I0. I9ó9} . II ìt ìs rcmcmbcrcd that
thc qucstìon `vhcthcr onc can stìll lìvc aItcr Auschvìtz` ¦ cI. Negatiue
Dia/ectics, p. J6Z} ìs ccntral to thc 'Ncdìtatìons on Nctaphysìcs`, thc
conncctìon vìth thc accusatìon ol thc '¡ust`, crucl and malcvolcnt Cod
by Narcìon ìs obvìous cnough.
ó Vìth thc doctrìnc oI thc 'dìvìnìty as a comìng-to·bc` ìn hìs latc mcta-
physìcs, Irom thc carly I 9Z0s, 5chclcr partcd company vìth thc pcr-
sonal conccpt oI Cod hc had advocatcd carlìcr, ìn hìs Catholìc phasc.
'Nan - a brìcI Icstìval ìn thc ìmmcnsc span oI unìvcrsal cvolutìon -
signiµes . . . somcthìng vìth rcgard to thc bccomìng oI thc diuinity itse/[.
Mìs hìstory ìs not a mcrc spcctaclc Ior an ctcrnally pcrIcctcd dìvìnc
spcctator and ¡ udgc, but ìs vovcn ìnto thc cvolutìon oI thc dìvìnìty
ìtsclI` ¦Nax 5chclcr, Gesamme/te Werke, vol. 9. Sjate Scbri[ten, cd.
NanIrcd !rìngs, Bonn I99ó, pp. I 0I f} . Vìth thc ìdca oI thc 'bccomìng
oI Cod`, 5chclcr rcturncd to mystìcal spcculatìon.
It is thc oId idca oI 5pinoza, lcgcÍ and many othcrs. primaÍ bcing bc-
comcs awarc oI itscÍI in thc samc act by which man sccs himscÍt as
Ioundcd in it. Vc onÍy nccd to rcIormuÍatc this idca, which up ro now
has bccn prcscntcd in Iar too onc-sidcd and intcÍÍcctuaÍist a way, to mcan
that man`s knowing himscÍI to bc Ioundcd is a conscgucncc oI thc activc
commitmcnt oI thc ccntrc oI our bcìng to thc idcaÍ dcmand oI thc dcity,
and thc attcmpt to accompÍish it, and in this accompÍishmcnt to hcÍp to
cngcndcr Ior thc hrst timc thc cvoÍving 'God` as thc incrcasing intcrpcn-
ctration oI spirit and urgc. (ibid. p. /0)
Movcvcr, thc doctrìnc oI thc cvolvìng Cod ìs only lully dcvclopcd ìn
5chclcr`s notcs on mctaphysìcs publìshcd Irom hìs posthumous papcrs,
vhìch rcmaìncd a Iragmcnt and ol vhìch Adorno cannot havc knovn,
cI. thc scctìons 'Vcltvcrdcn` and 'Ícìtas` ìn 'Nanuskrìptc zur Lchrc
vom Crundc allcr Íìngc` ìn 5chclcr, Gesamme/te Scbri[ten, vol. I I .
Scbri[ten aus dem Nacb/aß, Bd. 11: Erkenntnis/ebre und Metajbysik,
cd. NanIrcd 5. !rìngs, Bcrnc, Nunìch I 9¯9, pp. Z0III.
6 Adorno vas thìnkìng abovc all oI spcculatìons hc had Iound ìn thc
'Vcltaltcr` Iragmcnts, vhìch hc dìscusscd ìn thc vìntcr scmcstcr I960/
I , Ior cxamplc, thc scntcncc. '5carccly had thc hrst stcps bccn takcn ìn
rcunìtìng phìlosophy vìth naturc vhcn thc grcat agc oI thc physìcal
vorld had to bc acknovlcdgcd, and thc Iact that, Iar Irom bcìng thc
last thìng, ìt vas thc hrst, Irom vhìch all othcrs, cvcn thc dcvclopmcnt
oI dìvìnc lilc, took thcìr bcgìnnìng` ¦!rìcdrìch Vìlhclm |oscph von
5chclling, Die We/ta/ter. |ragmente, in den Ur[assungen uon ! ò! ! und
! ò! ·¸ cd. Nanlrcd 5chrötcr, Nunìch I946, p. 9) . Ñhi Ic Adorno sav thc
´+ ?
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 10-1 J 1ó1
Ý 
1 ` 
´ ¨ tradítíonal doctrínc 'that vhat has bccomc cannot bc truc` advocatcd ín
thc 'Vcltaltcr` Iragmcnts ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno, margínal notc at íbíd.,
p. 4} , hc notcd ín thc margín bcsídc thc scntcncc quotcd. 'Jurníng
poínt. Cod as somcthíng vhích cvolvcs` ¦íbíd., p. 9} . And bclov thc
kcyvords ìn hís lccturc notcs vc rcad: 'thc past ìn Cod " thc absolutc

.
º
´·' J
7
8
9
as a jrocess. Íístínctíon bctvccn momcnts uitbin thc absolutc` ¦Jhcodor
V. Adorno Archív, Zur !ínlcítung ín díc 'Vcltaltcr`, Sticbuorte, Bl. I } .
'Jhís conccpt` appcars to rcIcr to mctaphysícs as thc doctrínc oI thc
cnduríng, ín vhích, accordíng to Adorno`s Iundamcntal crítíquc,
mctaphysícs and cpístcmology convcrgc. 'Víth thís substítutíon oI thc
cnduríng Ior thc truth, thc bcgínníng oI truth bccomcs thc bcgínníng
oI dcccptíon` ¦ C5 ó, p. Zó¡ c. Ia5 IV.4, pp. 4óII and jassimì .
Jhc scntcncc íntcrruptcd by thís ínscrtíon ís contínucd ín thc hrst scn-
tcncc oI thc 'Iotcs Ior Lccturc Jhrcc`, scc p. IZ abovc.
Cnc cxccptíon, hovcvcr, ís Mcídcggcr, vho ín thc summcr scmcstcr oI
I 9J I gavc a lccturc on 'Vcscn und Vírklíchkcít dcr KraIt` conccrníng
Book Ô oI Arístotlc`s Metajbysics, subscqucntly publíshcd ¦c. Nartín
Mcídcggcr, Gesamtausgabe, ||. Abt., 8d. ··: Aristote/es, Metajbysik Ô
! -·, 'Von Vcscn und Vírklíchkcít dcr KraIt`, cd. Mcínrích Miìní, Znd
cdn, !rankIurt/Naín I 990} .
I 0 VolIgang Köhlcr ¦ I 887-I967} , a rcprcscntatívc oI thc Bcrlín school oI
Ccstalt thcory. Adorno díscusscs thc rclatíonshíp oI Ccstalt thcory to
Kant`s conccpt oI synthcsís, though víthout addrcssíng thc problcm oI
psycho-physícal parallclísm, ín Lccturc Iínc on thc Critique o[ |ure
I I
keason, c. Ia5 IV.4, pp. I óJI.
In thc manuscrípt thís ís Iollovcd by a scntcncc vhích should possíbly
bc rcad as. `lhíl[osophíschc] !ragcn hangcn vcítab von dcm ab vas
cíncm [cíncn:] schvant [trcnnt :j , díc McxcnIcucr [ :j ` ¦Jhcodor V.
Adorno Archív, Vo I 0788Zv} . Jhc rcadíng oI thc scntcncc ís cxtrcmcly
unccrtaín, and íts mcaníng cntírcly unclcar, thc Ccrman cdítor has thcrc·
Iorc omíttcd ít Irom thc tcxt.
Lccturc Thrcc
I Jhc ídca oI substítutíng constcllatíons and mode/s Ior vcrbal dchnítíons
had bccn Iundamcntal to Adorno`s phílosophy síncc hís ínaugural lccturc
ín I9JI, c. C5 I , p. J4I and KolI Jícdcmann, ' BcgríII Bíld Iamc.
[
bcr
Adornos \topíc dcr !rkcnntnís`, ín |rank[urter Adorno 8/atter ||,
Nuních I 99J, pp. I 0JII.
Z ' Inductívc mctaphysícs` rcIcrs, abovc all, to phílosophcrs oI thc sccond
halI oI thc nínctccnth ccntury, such as !cchncr, Lotzc or !duard von
Martmann, vho sought to arrívc at spcculatívc proposítíons on thc
basís oI thc ínductívc proccdurcs oI thc natural scícnccs. Accordíng to
Narx ít ís 'thc absolutc gcncral lav oI capítalíst accumulatíon` vhích
'corrcsponds` to 'an accumulatíon oI míscry` ¦Narx, Cajita/, vol. I ,
trans. Bcn Iovkcs, Marmondsvorth I 979, pp. 798I}, thc thcory oI

M
Æ
¨
:
¬  1
J + 
1 óZ
J
4
ó
6
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLL 1 J
'rclatìvcly íncrcasíng míscry` vas crcatcd ín ordcr to rcscuc Narx`s lav
oI thc ìncrcasìng ímpovcríshmcnt oI thc prolctaríat, vhích appcarcd
to bc contradíctcd by thc lacts. As carly as I 94Z, ín keµexionen zur
K/assentbeorie, Adorno had notcd that 'thc tradítìonal constructíon oI
ìncrcasíng míscry` had 'Iallcn ìnto ruìn`, 'to patch ít up víth thc makc-
shíIt conccpt oI rclatívc míscry, as vas donc at thc tímc oI thc rcvísíon-
ìst dísputc, could only suít socìal-dcmocrat countcr-apologísts vhosc
cars had bccn so dullcd by thcìr ovn clamour that thcy could not cvcn
dctcct thc mockíng cchocs vhìch thc phrasc "rclatívc míscry` scnt back
to thcm` ¦ C5 8, p. J84} . And ín onc oI Adorno`s last vorks, thc lccturc
'5patkapítalísmus odcr IndustrícgcscllschaIt:` hc vrìtcs laconìcally.
'lrognoscs oI thc class thcory, such as thosc oI íncrcasíng mìscry or thc
collapsc oI capítalísm, havc not bccn Iulhllcd as drastícally as thcy must
bc undcrstood íI thcy arc not to bc dcprívcd oI thcír contcnt, talk oI
rclatívc míscry can only bc comíc` ¦C5 8, p. Jóó} .
Jhc tvo prcccdíng scntcnccs sum up Mcídcggcr`s Iundamcntal onto-
logy, as dcvclopcd ìn 8eing and Time, and Adorno`s crítíquc ol ít, ín
thc brícIcst Iormula, Adorno dcvclopcd hís crítíquc ín thc hrst part oI
Negatiue Dia/ectics ¦c. pp. 6III} .
Vhat thc namc Ludcrbach stood Ior ín Adorno`s mctaphysícal cxpcrìcncc
ìs rcvcalcd ín 'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysìcs`, vríttcn a Icv days bcIorc
thc lccturc.
Jhc coursc oI history Iorccs matcriaIism on mctaphysics, traditionaÍIy thc
dircct antithcsis oI matcriaÍism . . . . Jhc point oI no rcturn has bccn rcachcd
in thc proccss which irrcsistibÍy Iorccd mctaphysics to | oin what it was
oncc conccivcd against. !ot sincc thc youthIuÍ lcgcI has phiÍosophy -
unIcss scÍIing out Ior authorizcd ccrcbration - bccn abÍc to rcprcss how
vcry much it sÍippcd into matcriaÍ gucstions oI cxistcncc. ChiÍdrcn scnsc
somc oI this in thc Iascination that issucs Irom thc fIaycr`s zonc, Irom
carcasscs, Irom thc rcpuÍsivcÍy swcct odor oI putrcIaction, and Irom thc
opprobrious tcrms uscd Ior that zonc. Jhc unconsctous powcr oI that
rcaÍm may bc as grcat as that oI inIantiÍc scxuaÍity, thc two intcrmingÍc in
thc anaÍ hxation, but thcy arc scarccIy thc samc. An unconscious know·
Icdgc whispcrs to thc chiÍd what is rcprcsscd by civiÍizcd cducation; this is
what mattcrs, says thc whispcring voicc. And thc wrctchcd physicaÍ cxist·
cncc strikcs a spark in thc suprcmc intcrcst that is scarccIy Icss rcprcsscd;
it kindÍcs a 'Vhat is thatr` and 'Vhcrc is it goingr` Jhc man who man-
agcd to rccaÍÍ what uscd to strikc him in thc words 'dung hilI` and 'pig
sty` might bc cÍoscr to absoÍutc knowÍcdgc than lcgcI`s chaptcr in which
rcadcrs arc promiscd such knowÍcdgc onÍy to havc it withhcÍd with a
supcrior micn. (Negatiue Dia/ectics, pp. J6ó-6}
Also scc pp. I I 6II abovc, vhcrc Adorno takcs up thís ìdca agaín.
CI. thc scctìon 'Jhc Chíld`s Qucstíon` ín Negatiue Dia/ectics ¦ pp. I I 0I} .
Jhís agaìn rcIcrs to 'Ncdìtatíons on Nctaphysícs`, Irom vhích Adorno
dcrívcd hìs last six lccturcs on mctaphysícs ìn an 'cvolvìng varìatíon`¡
scc n. I abovc.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb I+-I 6 I óJ
7 Iylozoísm ís thc namc gívcn síncc thc scvcntccnth ccntury to thc doctrínc
ol thc lonían !rc-5ocratícs accordíng to vhích lílc ,¸ ¸o¸ì cmcrgcs
lrom a basíc substancc ,¸ ùAq} vatcr, aír, hrc ctc., on thc crítíquc ol
thís by Arístotlc (c. Metaµbysics, pp. 7h j¬ Jh, 98J a Z4llj j and
Zcllcr`s íntcrprctatíon.
În thc carÍicr Îonìan phiÍosophcrs hc ccnsurcd . . . thcìr ncgÍcct oI thc primc
movcr and thc supcrhciaÍity with which thcy madc any cÍcmcnt thcy chosc
ìnto thc basic substancc, whcrcas, according to him, thc scnsibÍc propcrtics
and thc changcs oI bodics wcrc conditìoncd by thc oppositìon oI thc cÍc-
mcnts. !hc samc appÍics to lcracÍitus, ìnsoIar as hc agrccd with thcm in
sctting up a basic substancc. ( ZcÍÍcr, ¿. !ciÍ, Z. Abt., Aristote/es unJ Jie
a/ten |eri¡atetiler, liÍdcshcìm, Zurich, lcw York l 990 [¿nd rcprint oI
4th cdnj, p. ¿84}
8 Icrc Adorno probably gavc rclcrcnccs to thc cdítíons ol Arístotlc to bc
uscd - ccrtaínly to thc rcccnt translatíon ol thc Metaµbysics by !aul
Cohlkc ¦scc Lccturc 4, n. I Jj and possíbly also to Zcllcr`s hístory ol
ancícnt phílosophy ¦scc Lccturc I, n. I Jj .
I 5cc Lccturc Z, n. J.
Lccturc lour
Z Adorno kncv ol thc dísputc bctvccn !lato and thC LyuIC PutI8thCuC8
prímaríly through Zcllcr.
Vhcrcas lÍato dcrivcd a cÍcarÍy rcaÍistic systcm Irom thc 5ocratìc dcmand
Ior conccptuaÍ knowÍcdgc, Antisthcncs drcw Irom it an cguaÍÍy thorough-
going nominaÍism: univcrsaÍ conccpts, hc maintaìncd, wcrc mcrc things
oÍ \hought, hc saw pcoplc and horscs, no\ pcoplcncss and horscncss.
Irom thìs standpoint hc Íaunchcd against his IcÍÍow dìscipÍcs a poÍcmìc
not Íacking in coarscncss, whìch was answcrcd robustÍy cnough Irom thc
othcr sidc. ¦ZcÍÍcr, Z. !ciÍ, l. Abt., Solrates unJ Jie Solratiler, |/ato unJ
Jie a/te AlaJenie, liÍdcshcim, Zurich, lcw York l 990 [Znd rcprìnt oI
óth cdn], pp. Z9óI)
J Cl. |o/iteia, Book 7, 5t. óI4ll.
4 Lockc`s thcory ol thc prímary and sccondary qualítícs ol bodícs ís to
bc lound ín Book Z ol An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,
Ch. VllI, ¸ 8h.
!hc powcr to producc any idca in our mind, Î caÍÍ guaÍity oI thc sub|cct,
whcrcìn that powcr is . . . . QuaÍìtics . . . arc hrst such as arc uttcrÍy
inscparabÍc Irom thc body, in what cstatc socvcr it bc. - !hcsc Î caÍÍ
originaI or prìmary gua|ìtics oI body . . . . Sccond|y, thc powcr that is in
any body, by rcason oI its inscnsibÍc primary guaÍitics to . . . producc in
1b thc diIIcrcnt idcas oI scvcraÍ colours, sounds, smcÍÍs, tastcs ctc. !hcsc
M
Æ
1 ó+ ÏL¯1b ¯L 1DLLb 1/-1¬
arc usuaÍÍy caÍÍcd scnsibÍc guaÍitics . . . . !hcsc Î caÍÍ sccondary guaÍìtics.
(]ohn Lockc, An Issay Concerning Hunan UnJerstanJing, voÍ. l, lcw
York l 9ó9, p. 169}
ó !or Adorno, vho sav causalíty as rcplaccd ín a ccrtain scnsc by 'par-
tícípatíon` ín !lato, thc doctrínc ol µcöc¸:, vas partícularly ímportant
ín thc vcrsíon ín vhích ít ís put lorvard ín thc |baedo ¦c. Negatiue
Dia/ectics, 5t. 99h}.
6 Kcccnt !lato scholarshíp, as rcprcscntcd by a trcatísc by Chrístían Ibcr,
lor cxamplc, sccs ín thc |armenides díaloguc a díalcctícal 'rcscuc` ol thc
'Nany` ín !lato agaínst !armchídcs`s crítíquc ol Zcno: 'Nany prcsup-
poscs Cnc and Cnc produccs Nany. lt ís thís doublc thcsís vhích thc
|armenides scts out to provc. !lato thcrclorc agrccs to a consídcrablc
cxtcnt víth Zcno`s crítíquc ol multíplícíty, but rcgards thc Llcatíc`s
monístíc conclusíon as lalsc` ¦ Chrístían Ibcrs, '!latons cígcntlíchc
phílosophíschc Lcístung ím Ííalog "!armcnídcs¯ `, ín Dia/ektiscber
Negatiuismus. Micbae/ Tbeunissen zum 6J. Geburtstag, cd. Lmíl
Angchrn ct aÌ. , !ranklurt/Naín I 99Z, p. I 88j .
7 Jhc rclcrcncc ís to thc scctíon '
[
bcrlíclcrtcs` lrom !art J ol thc
'Iístoríschcr Jcíl` ol thc |arben/ebre ¦ Tbeory o[ Co/ours¦ .
lÍato's attitudc to thc worÍd is that oI a bÍcsscd spirit who is pÍcascd to
so|ourn ìn ìt Ior a whiÍc. 5incc hc aÍrcady knows ìt, hc is not so much
conccrncd with gctting to know thc worÍd as with kìndÍy ìmparting to it
what hc has brought with him, and what it nccds so badÍy . . . . ^ristotÍc's
attìtudc, by contrast, is that oI a man, a mastcr-buiÍdcr. low that hc
ìs hcrc hc has to sct about hìs busincss. lc cnguircs about thc soiÍ, but
onÍy untiÍ hc has Iound hrm ground. ¦Gocthc, Sant/icbe Werle, voÍ. 10,
Nunich l 989, p. ó/J}
8 Jhc tcxt sourcc íncorrcctly has 'Arístotlc`.
9 Icídcggcr argucs thís ín, lor cxamplc, thc Introductíon to thc óth cdí-
tíon ol 'Vhat ís Nctaphysícs: ` .
5uch thinking, which rccaÍÍs thc truth oI ßcing, ìs no Íongcr satishcd
with mctaphysics, to bc surc, but it docs not opposc and think against
mctaphysics cìthcr. !o rcturn to our imagc, ìt docs not tcar up thc root
oI phiÍosophy. Ît tìÍÍs thc ground and pÍows thc soìÍ Ior this root. Ncta-
physics rcmains what comcs hrst in phìÍosophy. Vhat comcs hrst in
thinking, howcvcr, it docs not rcach. Vhcn wc think thc truth oI ßcing,
mctaphysics is ovcrcomc. Vc can no Íongcr acccpt thc cÍaim oI mcta-
physics to prcsidc ovcr our IundamcntaÍ rcÍation to ' ßcing' or to dccìsìvcÍy
dctcrminc cvcry rcìation to bcings as such. ('Întroduction to "Vhat is
Nctaphysics³¨ `, trans. VaÍtcr KauImann, in lcìdcggcr, |atbnarls, Cam·
brìdgc, Nass., I998, p. Z/9}
And ìn 'Ibcrvíndung dcr Nctaphysík` ín hís notcs vrttcn bctvccn
I 9J6 and I946 vc rcad.
T
1
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb Z0-ZJ 1óó
!hc truth oI bcing dccays ncccssariÍy as thc cuÍmination oI mctaphysics.
Îts dccay is hastcncd by thc coIIapsc oI thc worÍd shapcd by mctaphysics
and thc dcvastation oI thc carth originating in mctaphysics. !his coIÍapsc
and this dcvastation havc thcir htting cxccutor in mctaphysicaÍ man un-
dcrstood as thc rationaÍ animaÍ, thc working animaÍ. . . . Vith thc onsct
oI this cuÍmination oI mcta physics bcgins thc prcparation, unrccognizcd
by and inhcrcntÍy inacccssibÍc to mctaphysics, oI a hrst maniIcstation oI
thc duaIity oI ßcing and cxistcncc. În this maniIcstation is conccaÍcd thc
hrst intimation oI thc truth oI ßcing, which takcs back into itscÍI thc
prcccdcncc rcgarding thc workings oI ßcing. ( Nartin lcidcggcr, Vortrage
unJ Aujsatze, lIuIIingcn l 9ó4, pp. /Z and /8}
I 0 CI. |mmanue/ Kant`s Critique o[ |ure keason, trans. lorman Kcmp
5míth, London I 97J, pp. JI0II ¦ A J IJII, B J70II}.
I I Adorno rcpcatcdly díscusscs Kant's tvoIold aím oI crítíquc and rcscuc
ín hís lccturcs 'Kants ¨Krítík dcr rcíncn VcrnunIt" ', c. la5 lV.4,
pp. ó4, I JZI, I4J and µassim.
I Z Arístotlc, Metaµbysics, A I , 980 a ZI.
I J CI. Aristote/es, Die Lebrscbri[ten, hrsg., iìbcrtragcn und ín íhrcr
Lntstchung crlautcrt von !aul Cohlkc, Bd. V. Metaµbysik, Jrd cdn,
!adcrborn I 97Z, p. Jó.
I4 Icídcggcr, 8eing and Time, Jiìbíngcn I 96J, p. ZI ó.
I ó Jhís vordíng jCcrman: úberbauµt erst das Tbema] appcars ín thc orí·
gínal. An altcrnatívc rcadíng vhích míght sccm plausíblc [úberbauµt
nicbt das Tbema] ís íncorrcct, as sccms to bc provcd by thc Iormulatíon
rcpcatcd ín thc pcnultímatc scntcncc oI thís paragraph, conccrníng die
Ònto/ogie, die bier [í.c. ín Arístotlc] erst tbematiscb ist. 'Jhcmc' and
'thcmatíc', as uscd by Adorno ín thís contcxt, arc líkcly to bc assocíatcd
víth thc ídca oI a thcmc touchcd on Ior thc hrst tímc but not yct
dcvclopcd.
I 6 5cc p. I 6 abovc.
I 7 ln thc tcxt sourcc thc Ccrman vordíng has bccn amcndcd to claríIy thc
scnsc.
I 8 Jhís ¸Liebe zur Weisbeit] ís thc orígínal vordíng. lt cannot bc rulcd
out that thc usual translatíon oI ¡:Acoo¡ío rcprcscnts a slíp ín thís casc,
as thc co¡ío oI thc 5ocratíc-!latoníc tradítíon Iaíls to cxprcss vhat
Arístotlc mcant, knovlcdgc ín thc scnsc oI scícncc, ín that casc Adorno
vould havc vantcd to say 'lovc oI knovlcdgc' or, bcttcr, ' strívíng Ior
knovlcdgc', an cxprcssíon hc uscs at thc cnd oI thc lccturc ¦ scc p. ZJ
abovc} .
I9 Adorno may possíbly bc thínkíng oI ¸ 6 oI 8eing and Time, ín vhích
Mcídcggcr vrítcs that Arístotlc, ín vhosc vork 'thc ancícnt ontology as
dcvclopcd by !lato turns ínto "díalcctíc" ', 'no longcr has any undcr-
standíng' oI ít, ' Ior hc has put ít on a morc radícal Iootíng and raíscd ít
to a ncv lcvcl [au[hob]' ¦ Icídcggcr, 8eing and Time, pp. 47-8}, vhílc
thís docs rclatc syntactícally to thc díalcctíc, ít ímplícítly applícs cqually
to ontology. Norcovcr, Adorno`s and Mcídcggcr's conccpts oI ontology
arc hardly compatíblc víthout Iurthcr qualíhcatíon. Vhcrcas ^dorno
B

1ó6 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb Z+-Z6
undcrstands ít to mcan a thínkíng vhích, líkc that oI thc !rc-5ocratícs,
' posìts and prcsupposcs thc csschtìal` and vhìlc hc uscs ìt ìh thìs scnsc
vhcn spcakíng oI Icídcggcr`s ontology, Ior Icídcggcr ontology ís al·
vays somcthíng 'dccomposcd` by ratíonalíty vhích actually blocks thc
dcsírcd path tovards `Bcíng ìtsclI` . !vcn ín 8eing and Time, vhích vas
stíll rclatívcly undccídcd on thís íssuc, thc 'títlc ontology` ís 'cxplícítly
dcvotcd to thc mcaníng oI cntítícs` ¦íbíd., p. JZ} . ' Cntologícal íntcrprcta·
tíon,` and thcrcIorc Arístotlc`s as vcll, 'pro|ccts thc cntíty prcscntcd to
ít upon thc Bcíng vhích ís that cntíty`s ovn, so as to conccptualízc ít
víth rcgard to íts structurc` ¦ íbíd., p. Jó9), to vhích conccptualízatíon
thc truth oI Bcíng cannot bc rcduccd, síncc, accordíng to thc 'Lcttcr on
Iumanísm`, ít calls rathcr Ior a thínkíng 'vhích ís stríctcr than conccp·
tual thought` ¦ Icídcggcr, Wegmarken, ÎrankIurt/Naìn I 96¯, p. I 8¯} .
Bccausc Arístotlc rcmaíncd víthín thc Iramcvork oI díscursívc phílo-
sophízíng, Adorno maíntaíns, hc Icll víctím to Icídcggcr`s crítícísm as
an ontologíst, that Icídcggcr rc|cctcd díscursívíty and lcll back on an
archaíc murmuríng about Bcíng ís thc pcrsístcnt thrust oI Adorno`s
crítíquc oI Icídcggcr.
Lccturc livc
I 5cc thc bíblíographícal rcIcrcncc, ín Lccturc I , n. IJ. Zcllcr`s |bi/osoµbie
der Griecben in ibrer gescbicbt/icben Entuick/ung vas hrst publíshcd
ín I 844-óZ ín thrcc volumcs, and latcr cdítíons ín síx volumcs. Adorno
ovncd thc sccond cdítíon oI I 8ó6-68. Zcllcr also vrotc a Grundriß der
Gescbicbte der griecbiscben |bi/osoµbie ¦ I 88J} , but thís vas not uscd
by Adorno.
Z CI. thc bcgínníng oI Lccturc Z ín Adorno`s kcyvords, p. I0 and
n. J.
J Arístotlc, Metaµbysics, pp. óIll ( A I , 98Z b 8I}.
4 CÍ. ZclIcr II. Z, pp. J0JÍI.
ó Kcgardíng thc rcccnt status ol Arístotlc scholarshíp on thís poínt c.
Klaus Lchlcr, Die Lebre uom noetiscben und dianoetiscben Denken bei
|/aton und Aristote/es. Ein 8eitrag zur Er[orscbung der Gescbicbte des
8euußtseinsµrob/ems in der Antike, Nuních I 96Z, and thc rcvícv oI
Cchlcr`s book by Lrnst Jugcndhat ¦Jugcndhat, |bi/osoµbiscbe Au[satze,
!rankIurt/Naín I 99Z, pp. 40Z!I}.
6 Adorno hcrc Iollovs Zcllcr, vho alvays translatcs Arístotlc`s oúcío as
substancc ¦Substanz) ¦c. Zcllcr II.Z, p. J0ó) . Vhcrcas, at thc bcgìnnìng
oI Book A, Ior cxamplc, AdolI Lasson and Lugcn KolIcs lollovcd Zcllcr
ín thís, most othcr Ccrman translators prcIcr Wesenbeit ¦csscncc, csscn·
tíalíty} (Icrmann Bonítz} or Wesen ¦ bcíng, cntíty} ¦!aul Cohlkc, !ranz
!. 5chvarz} , Cadamcr Iollovs Icídcggcr`s usagc and translatcs ít by.
']bcr das 5cín gcht díc \ntcrsuchung.` Adorno díd not vant, oI coursc,
to asscrt a 'dcrívatíon` ín thc ctymologícal scnsc.
¯ Iusscrl `s c×prcssíon, c. C5 ó, p. IZ8.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb Z/-Z¬
1 ó/
8 Adorno dcals vìth thìs problcm abovc all ìn Lccturc 8 oI |rob/eme der
Mora/µbi/osoµbie, c. la5 lV. I 0, pp. I I ¯II.
9 CI. Alcxandrc Koyrc, Descartes und die Scbo/astik, Bonn I 9ZJ.
I 0 '!cr substantiam nìhìl alìud ìntcllìgcrc possumus, quam rcm quac ìta
cxìstìt, ut nulla alìa rc ìndìgcat ad cxìstcndum' ( Òeuures de Descartes,
publìcs par Charlcs Adam Ö !aul Janncry, vol. VIII- I . |rinciµia
|bi/osoµbiae, !arìs I 964, p. Z4 j!ars !rìma, LI] } . 'By substancc vc can
only undcrstand a thìng vhìch so cxìsts that ìt nccds no othcr thìng Ior
ìts cxìstcncc' ¦ Kcnc Ícscartcs, |rinciµ/es o[ |bi/osoµby, trans. Valcn-
tìnc Kodgcr Nìllcr ahd Kccsc !. Nìllcr, ÍordrcchtlBostohlLondon I 98J,
p. ZJ} .
I I '!cr substantìam ìntcllìgo ìd, quod ìn sc cst, ct pcr sc concìpìtur. hoc cst
ìd, cu|us conccptus non ìndìgct conccptu altcrìus rcì, a quo Iormarì
dcbcat' ¦ 'By substancc l undcrstand vhat ìs ìn ìtsclI and ìs conccìvcd
through ìtsclI, ì. c. that vhosc conccpt docs not rcquìrc thc conccpt oI
anothcr thìng, Irom vhìch ìt must bc Iormcd' ( Tbe Co//ected Works o[
Sµinoza, trans. Ldvìn Curlcy, !rìnccton l| I 98ó, p. 408 ¸Etbics, l, J] } .
IZ KcIcrcncc not traccd.
I J In hìs brìcI notcs Adorno gìvcs as thc rcIcrcncc Kateg. 5 ¦Jhcodor V.
Adorno Archìv, Vo I 0789} , ì.c. Ch. ó oI Tbe Categories, vhìch bcgìns.
' 5ubstancc, ìn its strìctcst, hrst, and chìcÍ scnsc, ìs that vhich ìs ncìthcr
prcdìcatcd oI any sub|cct, nor ìs ìn any, as ¨a ccrtaìn man," or ¨a
ccrtaìn horsc'' ( Tbe Òrganon, or Logica/ Treatises o[ Aristot/e, trans.
Cctavìus !rcìrc Cvcn, London/lcv York I 89J, vol. I , p. 6} . Zcllcr
also takcs thìs as hìs basìs vhcn ìntcrprctìng as Iollovs.
ÎI thc univcrsaÍ is not somcthìng cxìstìng Ior ìtscÍI, it cannot bc substancc .
. . . ÒrigìnaÍÍy, thc tcrm substancc . . . was onÍy propcrÍy appÍicd to that
which can ncithcr bc statcd as a dctcrmìnatìon oI thc naturc oI somcthìng
cÍsc, nor as somcthing attachcd to somcthìng cÍsc as a dcrivativc, in othcr
words, to that which i> onÍy sub|cct and ncvcr prcdìcatc. 5ubstancc is
bcing in thc originaÍ scnsc, thc substratum by which aÍÍ othcr cxistcncc is
carricd. ßut Ior ArìstotÍc onÍy thc sìngÍc bcìng is oI that kind. !hc univcr-
saÍ, as hc hìmscÍt dcmonstratcd against lÍato, is not somcthing cxisting
Ior itscÍI: cvcrything univcrsaÍ, incÍuding thc unìvcrsaÍìty oI thc spccics,
dcrìvcs ìts cxistcncc onÍy Irom thc singÍc bcing, it is aÍways statcd to bc oI
somcrhing cÍsc, it rctcrs onÍy to a ccrtain propcrty, not to a 'this`. !hc
singÍc bcìng aÍonc bcÍongs onÍy to itscÍI, is not carricd by somcthing cÍsc,
is what ìt is through itscÍI, and not mcrcÍy by rcason oI somc othcr bcìng.
(ZcÍÍcr íí.Z, pp. J0óII).
I 4 Jhc namc oI thc dìaloguc ìs mìssìng ìn thc tcxt sourcc, probably bccausc
thc transcrìbcr vas not Iamìlìar vìth ìt. ln thc Tbeaetetus 5ocratcs
¦5t. I óZbII} spcaks oI thc rclatìvìty oI scnsc pcrccptìons, but |o/iteia,
5t. óZJbII may also bc rclcvant.
I ó Jhc sccrctary sccms also to havc undcrstood thìs tìtlc only partìally, as
thc tcxt sourcc has thc vords. ' . . . dc la conscìcncc`. Adorno Ircqucntly
mcntìoncd Bcrgson's hrst book in sìmìlar contcxts.
B
Ió8 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb Z¬-J8
I 6 CI. thc Science o[ Logic. 'ln thc sphcrc ol thc lotìon thcrc can bc no
othcr immediacy than onc ín vhích mcdíatíon ís essentia//y and exµ/i-
cit/y a momcnt and vhích has comc to bc only through thc sublatìng oI
that mcdíatíon' ¦Hege/`s Science o[ Logic, p. 6JI } . Cr. ' . . . ìmmcdíacy
ín gcncral procccds only Irom mcdíatìon, and must thcrcIorc pass ovcr
ínto mcdíatíon` ¦ ìbìd., p. 800j .
I 7 lt ìs unlíkcly that Adorno vas thínkìng ol a spccíhc prooI vhích could
bc ídcntíhcd by pagc numbcrs, rathcr, thc vholc oI thc logíc rclatíng to
conccpts should bc sccn as such a 'prool`.
I 8 Cn thc conccpt oI thc thíng ín Iumc and Kant c. Adorno's lccturcs
on Kants 'Kritik der reinen \ernun[t`, cspccíally Lccturcs 9 and I 0,
la5 IV¬, pp. I4JIl.
I 9 CI. Tbe Categories, Ch. ó, Z a I ó. 'But sccondary substanccs arc thcy,
ín vhích as spccícs, thosc prímarìly-namcd substanccs arc ínhcrcnt,
that ís to say, both thcsc and thc gcncra oI thcsc spccìcs, as "a ccrtaín
man" cxísts ìn ¨man¨, as ín a spccícs, but thc gcnus oI thís spccícs ìs
"anìmal`` ¦ Arístotlc, Tbe Òrganon, vol. l, p. 6} . Accordíng to Zcllcr
thc cxprcssíon oco-cpo: oôc/o: only appcars ín Ch. ó oI Tbe Categories
¦c. Zcllcr II.Z, p. J07, n. I } .
I 5cc p. 8 µassim abovc.
Lccturc Six
Z CI. Ana/ytica µosteriora, Book l, Ch. I I , 77 a 8. 'onc thíng oI thc
many` ¦Arístotlc, Tbe Òrganon, vol. l, p. Z69} .
J Cn thc Kantìan conccpt ol uníty ín dívcrsíty c. Adorno's lccturcs on
Kants 'Kritik der rein en \ernun[t`, cspccially Lccturc I J ¦la5 !V¬,
pp. ZI0II}.
4 5cc pp. I 6I abovc.
ó Kcgardìng Adorno's dìscussíons oI Iorm and mattcr, cvcp¡co and
ouvo
}
, c. Zcllcr II.Z, pp. J IJII.
6 CI. |mmanue/ Kant`s Critique o[ |ure keason, pp. ZJ8II ¦ A ZI 8lI, B
Z6óll} .
7 Cl. p. I 9 abovc.
8 At thc IZth conlcrcncc oI Ccrman socìologísts, hcld ìn Icídclbcrg on
I ó-I7 Cctobcr I 9ó4, Adorno rcad a papcr 'Zum ldcologíc·!roblcm`
¦ C5 8, pp. 4ó7ll, undcr thc tìtlc 8eitrag zur |deo/ogien/ebre¦ , accordíng
to thc procccdíngs, publíshcd ín thc Ko/ner Zeitscbri[t [úr Sozio/ogie,
vol. 6, no. J/4 ¦ I 9óJ/4} , AlIrcd Vcbcr díd not rcad a papcr, but madc
scvcral contrìbutíons to a 'round-tablc díscussìon on thc problcm oI
ídcology` . Jhc rcmarks by Vcbcr to vhìch Adorno rcIcrs, vhích unIor-
tunatcly arc rcportcd only brícIly by Lcopold von Vícsc, sccm to havc
bccn madc ín thís díscussìon. Cnly onc rcIcrcncc to thcm, ín a contríbu-
tíon to thc díscussìon by Arnold Iauscr, has survìvcd ¦ 'But to comc back
to thc cxamplc oI thc dísputc ovcr unívcrsals gìvcn by Icrr Vcbcr - ít
ís probably thc bcst cxamplc oI hov clcmcnts condítioncd by cxístcncc
' ·v1
1

*
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1PLLb J8-J¬ 1ó¬
pcrmcatc thought. lomínalísm, too, vould ncvcr havc comc ínto bcíng
through íts ovn íntrínsíc logíc, had not thc índívídual as such bccn
strívíng to cmancípatc hímsclI` [íbíd., p. 3º5] ¦ .
º AlIrcd Vcbcr vas born ín J868.
JO ln Iº65 Karl Icínz Iaag ¦ b. Jº24¦, vhosc doctoratc had bccn avardcd
by Iorkhcímcr and Adorno ín Jº5J, taught phílosophy at thc |ohann
VolIgang Cocthc-\nívcrsítat ín !rankIurt/Naín, vhcrc hc had qualí-
hcd as a lccturcr ín Jº56. Iís most rcccnt publícatíon had bccn a
contríbutíon to thc Adorno !cstschrílt ol Jº63, ít touchcs on Adorno`s
díscussíons many tímcs, but docs not contaín thc cxact lormulatíon
ín qucstíon ¦ lor símílar lormulatíons cl. Maag, 'Ías \nvícdcrholbarc',
ín Zeugnisse. Tbeodor W. Adorno zum secbzigsten Geburtstag, cd.
Nax Morkhcímcr, !rankIurt/Naín Jº63, pp. J 52h, also Iaag,
|bi/osoµbiscber |dea/ismus. Untersucbungen zur Hege/scben Dia/ektik
mit 8eisµie/en aus der Wissenscba[t der Logik, !rankIurt/Naín Jº67,
pp. 7h¦, ít ís also possíblc that Adorno vas rcIcrríng hcrc to an oral
contríbutíon that Maag may havc madc at Adorno's advanccd scmínar
ín phílosophy, vhích hc attcndcd rcgularly.
J J 'Jhc rclatíonshíp oI gcncsís to valídíty [Genesis und Ge/tung] ís dís-
cusscd Ircqucntly by Adorno, Ior cxamplc, at lcngth víth rcIcrcncc to
Iusscrl ín Metakritik der Erkenntnistbeorie jcI. C5 5, pp. 7ºh], and
also ín hís íntroductíon to Tbe |ositiuist Disµute in German Socio/ogy
jtrans. C. Adcy and Í. !rísby, London Jº76] , onc oI hís most rcccnt
vorks' ¦la5 IV.4, p. 3º7¦ . Cn gcncsís and valídíty ín Kant cI. Lccturc
J5 on Kants 'Kritik der reinen \ernun[t` ¦íbíd., pp. 242h¦ .
J2 Nax 5chclcr ¦ J 874÷Jº28¦ vas appoíntcd !rolcssor ol !hílosophy at
!ranklurt/Naín as succcssor to Ians Cornclíus carly ín Jº28, but dícd
thcrc on Jº Nay thc samc ycar. Adorno brícIIy playcd víth thc ídca oI
qualíIyíng as a lccturcr undcr 5chclcr, as vc lcarn Irom a lcttcr to Alban
Bcrg oI J4 Nay Jº28.
!hc gucstion now is whcthcr Nax 5chcÍcr, IrcshÍy appointcd to thc Chair
at Irankturt, and oI whom you must know through Iranz ßIci or through
cssays by lcrmann ßahr, and who is ccrtainÍy an cxccptionaÍ man, wiII
supcrvisc my labiÍìtatìon. !hcrc arc somc rcasons to supposc hc wiÍÍ, as
many oI thc inIÍucntiaÍ pcopÍc hcrc wìIÍ support mc, but it ìs Iar trom
ccrtain, as 5chcÍcr wiÍÍ bring his own candidatcs with him Irom CoIognc.
Vhcthcr my prcscnt, not cxactÍy 5chcÍcrian work (an cpistcmoÍogy ot
psychoanaIysis} wìIÍ bc suìtabÍc is stiÍI guitc unccrtain, and it wouId bc
hìghÍy inconvcnìcnt Ior mc iI this book, wrìttcn primariIy wìth this pur-
posc in mind, shouÍd compIctcÍy miss its objcctivc and it Î had to wrìtc
somcthing cÍsc - aÍthough with 5chcIcr Î couÍd gct by with Icwcr conccs-
sìons. AÍÍ thc samc, to bc Irank, Î rcaÍÍy worry vcry ÍittÍc about aII thìs,
and iI my whoÍc labiÍitation - which Ior mc is a socìaÍ atIair but not a
practìcaI or cconomìc ncccssity - wcrc to comc to nothing, Î shouÍd bc
hcartìIy ìndiIIcrcnt and cvcn, au Iond, gÍad. (!hc odor V. Adorno and
Alban ßcrg, 8riejuecbse/ I 92S-I 9JS, cd. lcnri Lonitz, IrankIurt/Nain
J997, Ç. J69,
M
1 60
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb J¬-+0
Jhat Adorno alvays rcgardcd 5chclcr as an 'cxccptíonal man' ís also
shovn by a dísscrtatíon rcport oI I 96ó, ín vhích hc dcIcnds thc phílo·
sophcr agaínst hìs crítícs. 'Jhc vcalth oI phìlosophícal cxpcrícncc vhích
anìmatcs 5chclcr's vork and vhích hc strìvcs to organízc ìs dísmísscd
too rcadíly. Jhc author ought to havc rccognízcd thc obvíous contra·
díctíons and ríIts ín 5chclcr's doctrínc as rcIlcctíons oI ob¡cctìvc oncs,
and ìntcrprctcd thcm as such' ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, 'Amtlíchc
5chríItcn' } .
I J Adorno probably had ín mìnd 5chclcr's svìtch to a matcríalìst phcnom-
cnology, Ior vhìch thc cídctíc sphcrc oI Iusscrl's phcnomcnology, vhìch
vas contcnt to rcmaìn víthín thc mcrcly logìcal sphcrc, had bccn aban·
doncd ín Iavour oI a 'rcncval oI intuitiue !latonísm . . . though onc
Irom vhìch thc !latoníc rcíhcatìon oI Idcas and all mythìcal ad|uncts
had bccn complctcly clímínatcd` ¦5chclcr, Gesamme/te Werke, vol. 7.
Wesen und |ormen der Symµatbie. Die deutscbe |bi/osoµbie der
Gegenuart, cd. NanIrcd 5. !ríngs, Bcrnc, Nunìch I97J, p. JI0) . 5chclcr
sought to crcct on íntuítívcly pcrccívcd csscnccs, vhích vcrc stríctly
dìstínguìshcd Irom thc spccìcs oI logíc, a dualìstíc mctaphysícs, a 'rcalm
oI bcìng' organízcd hícrarchìcally on scholastíc prìncíplcs, to vhìch
hnítc thíngs stood ìn a 'rclatíonshìp oI bcíng' as 'partícípants' ìn thc
!latoníc µcöcç:,. 'Knovlcdgc ís a rclatìonshíp oI bcíng,' hc vrítcs ín
Die Wissens[ormen und die Gese//scba[t, usíng Iormulatíons hc rcpcatcd
ín hís last book, Die µbi/osoµbiscbe We/tanscbauung, 'ìt ìs a rclatíon-
shíp oI µarticiµation by an cxístcnt ìn thc tbusncss (Sosein¦ oI anothcr
cxístcnt, through vhích no changc ìn thís thusncss ìs posìtcd' ¦5chclcr,
Gesamme/te Werke, vol. 8. Die Wissens[ormen und die Gese//scba[t,
Jrd cdn, Bcrnc, Nunìch I980, p. Z0J, also c. vol. 9. Sµate Scbri[ten,
p. I I I j . 5uch khovlcdgc, vhìch vould rcprcscnt a valìdity ìn ìtsclI,
vould índccd bc scparatcd Irom íts gcncsís by a ¿opmµó,. Iovcvcr,
thc latc 5chclcr sccms to vant to movc avay Irom thìs posìtíon agaín,
as ín tcxts publìshcd posthumously undcr thc títlc Zusatze aus den
nacbge/assenen Scbriµen.
'LtcrnaÍ truths` arc . . . not assumcd by 1b cvcn with rcgard to tbe truths
which touch on gcnuinc rcÍationships ot bcing. According to our doc-
trinc, thc supra-singuÍar spirit has no iJea ante res (which, as in thc
thcistic systcm, wouÍd onÍy rcaÍizc its crcativc wiÍÍ), but activcÍy produccs
thc csscntiaÍitics which arc rcprcscntcd through thc worÍd onÍy in and
with thc rcaÍization oI thc worÍd in abso/ute tine, so that tcmporaÍity,
not ctcrnity, obtains . . . cvcn in thc rcaÍm oI csscntiaÍitics. (ibid., p. Z89}
I4 CI. Ldmund Iusscr|, Logica/ |nuestigations, trans. |. l. !ìndlay, vol. I ,
|ro/egomena to |ure Logic, Londonllcv York I 970. Also scc thc
díscussíons ìn Adorno's Metakritik der Erkenntnistbeorie rcIcrrcd to ìn
n. I I .
I ó Cuntcr KalIs commcnts as Iollovs on thc rclatìonshìp oI gcncsìs ahd
valídíty ìn ^rìstotlc Irom thc phìlologícal vìcvpoìnt.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb +0-+I I 61
AristotÍc was convinccd that thc tcmporaÍ gcncsis and dcvcÍopmcnt ot
human knowIcdgc was thc cxact invcrsc ot thc mctaphysìcaI and IogìcaÍ
rcÍatìonshìp ot things: what Î hrst pcrccivc scnsibIy in thìngs, thc ¬potepov
¬po, ¡µq, ìs, ì n thc mctaphysìcaI structurc oÍ thc phcnomcnon cxam-
incd, thc uctepov ¡úce: and Ao¡q; what is bcÍorc our cycs points back to
what it was originaÍÍy. AristotÍc thcrctorc ÍormuÍatcs thc princìpIc that
thc rpotepov ¡úcc: ìs thc uctepov ¬po, qµn, . . . ; ì. c. thc orìginaI bcing ì s
pcrccivcd Íast. AristotÍc thcrctorc dìstìnguishcs bctwccn thc origin and
thc grounds ot knowÍcdgc. lc thus arrìvcs at thc dccp insìght that thc
highcst and hrst principIcs rcvcaÍ thcmscÍvcs Íast, as prìncìpÍcs, at thc vcry
cnd oÍ thc tcmporaI dcvcÍopmcnt: rhc ¬potov Ao¡q is thc uctepov _povq.
¦Güntcr KaIts, 'Vas bcdcutct dic AristotcÍìschc IormcI to t/ qv eÎvo: ì`,
in KaÍts, Lcbcnstormcn dcs Gcistcs. Vortragc und AbhandÍungcn, cd.
lcrmann GÍockncr, CoIognc 1 964, p. JJ)
I 6 Arístotlc, Metaµbysics, p. ó8 ¦ last scntcncc modíhcd} ,A, 98J b Z7h}.
Adorno also uscs thís quotatíon ín thc chaptcr on Irccdom ín Negatiue
Dia/ectics, p. ZI6.
I ¯ Arístotlc, Metaµbysics, p. J46 ¦ 18, I0IZ b J I }, also c. íbíd., . 8 I0¯J
a, |bysica VIII ó, Zó6 b IJh, De anima III I0, 4JJ b.
I 8 Jhc unsatísIactoríncss oI Arístotlc`s solutíon to thc problcm ol ¬ooe ¬t
and c/ðo, ís Iormulatcd concíscly by Iaag.
Ior lÍatonic idcaÍism thc Iorm, as thc onÍy cntity susccptìbÍc to cogni-
tìon, was at thc samc tìmc thc truIy cxìstcnt. ArìstotÍc wantcd to brcak
with this. Jhc ÷óòc ¯L_ thc rcs singuÍaris, whìch dìd not coincidc with thc
Iorm, was to bc thc truÍy rcaÍ. ßut thìs intcntion couÍd not bc main-
taincd. Jhc partìcuÍar was too radicaIÍy cstrangcd trom thc univcrsaI to
mcan anythìng on tts own account. ÒnIy thc cmos ottcrcd ìntcIItgìbIc
contcnt. Jhc unknownncss oÍ mattcr and ot thc indìviduaÍ compcÍÍcd
AristotÍc to conccivc thcm as dctcrmincd by Íorm, thc structurc oÍ which
thcy adopt. Jhcir own mcanìng was thcrcby rcduccd to that ot torm. Jhc
probIcm ot thc synthcsis ot unìty and dìvcrsity, thc aboÍitìon oI thc
lÍatonìc chorismos, rcmaincd unsoÍvcd. ( laag, |bi/oso¡biscber |Jea/isnus,
p. 8)
I> Cn thc qucstíon oI thc substantíalíty ol thc oe¬epo oúÕío c. thc
passagc quotcd by Zcllcr ín Lccturc ó, n. I J and íts contínuatíon.
!hc gcncra can bc caÍÍcd substanccs onÍy dcrivativcIy, in that thcy rcprcscnt
thc common csscncc ot ccrtain substanccs. Jhis is morc strongÍy thc casc
thc cÍoscr thcy arc to thc sìngÍc substancc, so that thc spccìcs mcrit that
namc morc than thc gcncra. lowcvcr, ìt thc strict conccpt ot thc sub-
stancc is appIìcd thcy do not dcscrvc it at aÍÍ, as thcy arc constìtutcd by
sìngÍc bcings, and bccausc it is truc ot thcm as ot any univcrsaÍ that thcy
do not cxprcss a Jhìs but a 5uch, not substancc but thc constìtutìon oÍ
substancc. ( CÍ. ZcÍÍcr íí.Z, pp. J06Í)
Z0 At thís poínt Adorno dístanccs hímscll lrom Zcllcr, vho cxprcssly dcnícd
that thc 'ídca ol mcdíatíon` vas prcscnt ín Arístotlc.
1 6Z ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb +Z-+ó
Iorm and mattcr rcguirc . . . no turthcr mcdiation to torm a whoÍc,
but arc immcdiatcÍy unitcd: torm is thc cIoscr dctcrmination oÍ mattcr
indctcrminatc in itscÍÍ, which dircctÍy absorbs thc ÍormaÍ dctcrmination it
Íacks. Vhcn thc possibÍc bccomcs thc rcaÍ, thc two do not stand oppositc
cach othcr as two things, but possibiìity, considcrcd tn tcrms ot its mat-
tcr, is onc and thc samc thing as that oI which its torm is thc rcaÍity. (Ct.
ZcÍIcr íí.¿, p. JZJ}
lccturc Scvcn
I Jhc Iollovíng halI-pagc ís bascd largcly on con|ccturc, as thc tcxt sourcc
contaíns a largc numbcr oI gaps, at lcast somc oI vhích must bc thc
rcsult oI a malIunctíon oI thc rccordíng apparatus.
Z Adorno's Iundamcntal crítíquc oI thc qucstíon oI thc 'absolutcly prímary
thíng' and oI thc 'strong usc oI thc conccpt oI thc hrst' can bc consultcd
ín thc lntroductíon to Metakritik der Erkenntnistbeorie ¦ C5 ó, pp. IZII,
cspccíally pp. I óI} .
J An allusíon to Narx's polcmíc Misere de /a µbi/osoµbie. keµonse 0 /a
|bi/osoµbie de /a miscre de M. |roudbon, publíshcd ín I 84¯, vhích
íncludcd thc hrst systcmatíc account oI hístorícal matcríalísm, ín thc
sccond part, cspccíally, ít compríscd a crítíquc oI phílosophy as prac·
tíscd by thc Icgclían school, vhích Narx conIrontcd víth thc scnsc oI
hístory vhích Icgcl hímsclI had posscsscd. Vhcrcas Narx drcv Irom
thc povcrty oI phílosophy thc conclusíon that ít should bc rcplaccd by
hístory, Ior Adorno, vho hcld Iast to phílosophy ín a changcd hístorícal
sítuatíon, thc 'povcrty oI phílosophy' consístcd, as thc Iollovíng scn-
tcnccs dcmonstratc, ín thc ob|cctívc compulsíon línkíng thought to thc
díscursívc sphcrc, Irom vhích, ncvcrthclcss, ít must dctach ítsclI íI ít ís
to bccomc matcríalíst ín carncst, also scc thc rcIcrcnccs in thc ncxt notc.
4 Cn thc Iar·rcachíng conscqucnccs oI thís ídca - that all phílosophy 'by
vírtuc oI íts proccdurcs' ncccssaríly 'prc·|udgcs' ín Iavour oI ídcalísm
¦ C5 6, p. óJI } - ín Adorno's thought cI. thc lntroductíon to Negatiue
Dia/ectics, pp. I III, also c. Jícdcmann, 'BcgríII Bíld lamc', p. I0J.
ó CI. Adorno's 8eitrag zur |deo/ogien/ebre ¦ C5 8, pp. 4ó¯Il} and thc
rcvíscd vcrsíon ín thc volumc oI thc lnstítut Iur 5ozíalIorschung,
Sozio/ogiscbe Exkurse. Nacb \ortragen und Diskussionen, !rankIurt/
Naín I 9ó6 ¦!rankIurtcr Bcítragc zur 5ozíologíc, Bd. 4} , pp. I 6ZII.
6 ln vol. I oI Logica/ |nuestigations, vhích, hovcvcr, vas not publíshcd
untíl I 900, c. thc rcIcrcncc ín Lccturc 6, n. I4.
¯ But scc Lccturc 6, n. IJ. Kcgardíng Adorno's crítíquc oI thc 'tvo·
vorlds thcory' oI thc latc 5chclcr, scc Negatiue Dia/ectics·
A socioÍogy oÍ knowÍcdgc . . . dcnics not onÍy thc ob| cctivc structurc oI
socicty but thc idca oÍ ob| cctivc truth and its cognition . . . . CÍassihcation
scrvcs thc tcl qucl ÍocaÍization oÍ thc mind. 5uch a rcduction oI so-caIÍcd
'torms oÍ consciousncss' gocs pcrtcctÍy with ¡hiÍosophicaÍ a¡oÍogctics.
!hc cxcusc oI thc socioÍogy oI knowÍcdgc - that thc rrurh or untruth oÍ
ÏLÅ1b ÅL 1DL1b +ó-+¬ I 6J
phiÍosophicaÍ tcaching has nothing to do with sociaÍ conditions - rcmains
undisturbcd¡ rcÍativism aÍÍics itscÍI with thc division oÍ Íabor. !hc Íatc
SchcÍcr did not hcsitatc to cxpÍoit this in his 'two·worÍds thcory`. (ibid.,
p. I98}
8 Jhc Iormulatíon ís quotcd Irom Bcn|amín`s notcs Ior thc Arcades pro|cct.
'A dccìsìvc rc|cctìon oI thc conccpt oI "tímclcss truth" ís ín ordcr.
Yct truth ís not only - as Narxísm claìms - a tcmporal Iunctìon oI
knovlcdgc, but ìs bound to a tcmporal corc, vhìch ís contaíncd both ìn
thc knovn and ín thc knovíng sub| cct` ¦Valtcr Bcn|amín, Gesamme/te
Werke, untcr Nítvírkung von Jhcodor V. Adorno und Ccrshom
5cholcm hrsg. von KolI Jìcdcmann und Mcrmann 5chvcppcnhauscr,
vol. ó, 4th cdn, !rankIurt/Naín I 996, p. ó¯8} .
V lot ídcntíhcd as a quotatíon, but c.,Ior cxamplc, ¸ I ó oI Die Krisis der
euroµaiscben Wissenscba[ten und die transzendenta/e |banomeno/ogie,
ín vhích thc 'gcnuìnc rcIlcctíon oI thc phílosophcr on vhat hc rea//y
aims at` ís dcscríbcd as Iollovs. 'Jhc scdímcntcd conccptualíty, vhích
ìs takcn Ior grantcd as thc ground oI hìs prívatc and unhìstorícal vork,
ís to bc brought back to líIc ìn íts híddcn hístorícal mcaníng` ¦Musscrl,
Logica/ |nuestigations, vol. 8, pp. Vl, ¯ZI}.
I0 5cc Lccturc 4.
I I Jhrcc Etbics by Arìstotlc havc bccn passcd dovn. vhcrcas thc authcn-
tìcìty oI parts oI thc Magna Mora/ia ís dísputcd, thc Eudemian Etbics ís
rcgardcd as an carly vcrsíon oI thc Nicomacbean Etbics, vhìch con-
taíns thc most cxtcnsívc díscussíons.
IZ ln thc díalogucs |rotagoras ¦ 5t. Jó0 BIf} and Lacbes ¦ 5t. I 9I ÍIf},
hovcvcr, Arístotlc hímsclI dchncs óvopeio morc unambìguously ìn thís
scnsc: 'Vc scc that thc covard, thc darcdcvìl and thc man oI couragc
Iacc thc samc sítuatìon, but hov thcy Iacc ìt ìs díIIcrcnt. Jhc hrst tvo
rcprcscnt too líttlc and too much, vhìlc thc thìrd stccrs a mìddlc coursc
and thcrcIorc conducts hímsclI corrcctly` ¦Nicomacbean Etbics, lll I0,
I I I6 a} .
IJ Jhat a Iundamcntal motìI oI Adorno`s vholc phílosophy stcms Irom
thìs ìdca can bc sccn Irom a comparíson vìth thc opcníng oI thc ccntral
sccond part oI Negatiue Dia/ectics.
!hcrc is no ßcing without cntitics. 'Somcthing` - as a cognitativcÍy indis-
pcnsabÍc substratc ot any conccpt, incÍuding thc conccpt oI ßcing - is thc
utmost abstraction ot thc sub|cct-mattcr that is not idcnticaÍ with think-
ing, an abstraction not to bc aboÍishcd by any Iurthcr thought proccss.
Vithout 'somcthing` thcrc is no thinkabÍc tormaÍ Íogic, and thcrc is no
way to cÍcansc this topic ot its mctaÍogicaÍ rudimcnt. (ibid., p. 1Jó)
Adorno sought, ín thc rcIlcctìon oI tradìtíonal phìlosophy, to takc Iur-
thcr thc analysís oI thc ' strong phílosophícal conccpt` 'ín thc dírcctíon
oI nonconccptualíty` ¦ ìbìd. } .
I4 Jhc rclatíonshíp bctvccn Iorm and contcnt ìs thc samc, ì.c. 'cxtcrnal`
¦scc p. 46 abovc} in Kant, as Adorno rcpcatcdly argucs ín hís lccturcs,
Kants 'Kritik der rein en \ernun[t` ,c. la5 lV.4, pp. ¯9II}.
Æ
I 6+ ÏLÅ1b ÅL 1DL1b ó0-óJ
I ó ln hís ycars at CxIord ¦ I9J4-8j Adorno camc across thc ínIIucncc oI
thc school oI !rancís Icrbcrt Bradlcy ¦ I 846-I9Z4j, thc ímportant
Icgclían. Jhc namc oI thc 'CxIord phìlosophcr` rcIcrrcd to hcrc ís not
ìn thc lccturc transcrípt, Adorno probably namcd CcoIIrcy Kcgínald
Cílchríst Nurc, and vas thínkíng oI hís book A Study o[ Hege/`s Logic
¦ CxIord I 9ó0j .
I 5cc pp. I9l abovc.
lccturc Líght
Z ' l havc thcrcIorc Iound ìt ncccssary to dcny knou/edge, ìn ordcr to
makc room Ior [aitb. Jhc dogmatísm oI mctaphysícs, that ìs, thc prc·
conccption that it is possiblc to makc hcadvay in mctaphysics vithout
a prcvíous crìtícìsm oI purc rcason, ís thc sourcc oI all that unbclícI,
alvays vcry dogmatíc, vhích vars agaínst moralíty' ¦ |mmanue/ Kant`s
Critique o[ |ure keason, p. Z9 [B XXX] ) .
J Jhc Ccrman lccturc transcrìpt has thc vords 'ímmcr auch das` ìnstcad
oI 'ímmcr auI das` and somc omíssíon marks. Jhc amcndmcnt ís bascd
on Adorno`s notcs Ior thc lccturc ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo
I0¯9Zj . Also c. thc corrcspondíng passagc ín Zcllcr.
)ust as . . . lÍato had distinguishcd knowIcdgc, as cognitìon ot thc
ctcrnaÍ and ncccssary, Írom imaginatìon or opinìon, whosc sphcrc is thc
accìdcntaÍ, so, too, did AristotÍc. Ior hìm, as tor lÍato, knowIcdgc ariscs
trom wondcrmcnt, trom thc dcrangcmcnt ot commonpIacc ìdcas, and Ior
him, too, its ob|cct is thc univcrsaÍ and thc ncccssary, thc accidcntaÍ
cannot bc knowÍcdgc, onIy opinìon. (CI. ZcIÍcr íí.¿, p. 1 6Z)
4 Jhc Crcck quotatíon ís míssìng Irom thc transcrípt, hcrc ít ís takcn
Irom Adorno`s lccturc notcs ¦c. Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo I0¯9Zj ,
ín Arístotlc c. Nct. Ô 8, I0ó0 b I I f.
ó 5cc p. ¯ó abovc.
6 ln hís |orma/ and Transcendenta/ Logic oI I 9Z9 Iusscr| dìstínguíshcs
bctvccn thc contíngcnt and thc Iormal a príorí, ín dchníng thc
'| udícatívcly cognízíng sub|cctívíty` hc cncountcrs
rcstrictìvc csscntiaÍ structurcs that taII undcr thc hcading ot purc rcason
and, in particuIar, purc |udicativc rcason. Such a sub|cctivity aIso ìn-
voÍvcs as a prcsupposìtìon a contìnuaI and csscntiaÍIy ncccssary rcÍatcdncss
to somc hyÍctic componcnts or othcr¡ as appcrccptìonaÍ Ioundations Ior
thc possibIc cxpcricnccs that | udging ncccssariÍy prcsupposcs. !hcrcÍorc,
ìt wc dchnc thc conccpt oÍ Íorm, as a principÍc, by thc csscntiaÍIy ncccs-
sary componcnts ot any rationaÍ sub| cctivìty whatcvcr, thc conccpt hyÍc
( cxcmpÍìhcd by cvcry 'Datum oÍ scnsatìon`} is a torm-conccpt and not
what wc shaÍÍ dchnc as thc oppositc oI this, a contingcnt conccpt. Cn thc
othcr hand, thcrc ìs no csscntìaì rcguìrcmcnt that a j udìcatìvcìy cognizing
sub| cctìvity . . . bc capabÍc ot scnsing coÍors or sounds, that ir bc capabÍc
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb óJ-ó/ I6ó
ot scnsibIc ÍccIings having | ust such and such a dittcrcntia, or thc Íikc -
though thc conccpt oÍ such mattcrs too can bc Iramcd as apriori (as Írccd
Irom cvcrything cmpiricaÍÍy ÍactuaÍ } . AccordingÍy thcy too havc thcir
Apriori, which, howcvcr, is contingcnt and not an Apriori oI purc rcason¡
or, as wc may aÍso say, introducing an oÍd word that tcndcd bÍindÍy in
thc samc dircction, it is not an 'innatc` Apriori. (Ldmund lusscrÍ, Forna/
anJ TranscenJenta/ Logic, trans. Dorion Cairns, !hc laguc 1 969, p. J0)
7 Adorno ìs thìnkìng oI thc 'aprìorì oI thc cmotìonal` vhìch 5chclcr
advocatcd ìn opposìtìon to Kant`s 'cquatìng oI thc aprìorìstìc vìth thc
conccptual` , oI 'aprìorìsm vìth ratìonalìsm`.
Cur entire mcntaÍ ÍiÍc, and not | ust ob|cctivc cognition and thought as
cognition ot bcìng, which has ¡ure acts and Íaws ot action in accordancc
with its own naturc and contcnt, and inJe¡enJent/y ot thc tact oI human
organization. !hc enotiona/ aspccts oI mind, ÍccÍing, prcIcrring, Íoving,
hating and ui//ing, aÍso havc an origina/ a-¡riori contcnt which thcy do
not dcrivc Irom 'thinking`, and which cthics can idcntity guitc indcpcn-
dcntÍy oI Íogic. !hcrc is an a priori 'ordrc du cocur` or 'Logiguc du cocur`,
as ßIaisc lascaÍ aptÍy puts it. (SchcÍcr, Cesanne/te Werle, voÍ. Z, ßcrnc/
Nunich 1 980, p. 8Z)
8 Adorno vas probably thìnkìng hcrc oI hìs tcachcr Ians Cornclìus, as
thc ncxt cxamplc cìtcd, rcIcrrìng to thc optìcal sìmìlarìty scrìcs, sccms
to provc, c. thc rcIcrcncc to Cornclìus`s commcntary on Kant ìn la5
lV.4, pp. J66I, n. J9.
V CI. thc dìscussìon on thc possìbìlìty oI synthctìc a prìorì | udgcmcnts,
vhìch ncvcrthclcss stcm Irom cxpcrìcncc, ìn Adorno`s lccturcs, Kants
'Kritik der reinen \ernun[t` ¦la5 lV÷, pp. 49Ij .
I0 5cc thc opcnìng oI thc sccond part oI Negatiue Dia/ectics, cìtcd ìn
Lccturc ¯, n. IJ, and thc cnsuìng dìscussìon oI thc ìndìssolubìlìty oI thc
'somcthìng` .
I I Cn Kant`s dìstìnctìon, c.thc '!ostulatcs oI cmpìrìcal thought ìn gcncral`,
accordìng to vhìch possìbìlìty and rcalìty arc 'catcgorìcs oI modalìty`,
vhìch 'havc thc pcculìarìty that, ìn dctcrmìnìng an ob|cct, thcy do not
ìn thc lcast cnlargc thc conccpt to vhìch thcy arc attachcd as prcdìcatcs.
Jhcy only cxprcss thc rclatìon oI thc conccpt to thc Iaculty oI knov-
lcdgc` . ' I. Jhat vhìch agrccs vìth thc Iormal condìtìons oI cxpcrìcncc,
that ìs, vìth thc condìtìons oI ìntuìtìon and oI conccpts, ìs µossib/e. Z.
Jhat vhìch ìs bound up vìth thc matcrìal condìtìons oI cxpcrìcncc,
that ìs, vìth scnsatìon, ìs actua/' ¦ |mmanue/ Kant`s Critique o[ |ure
keason, p. ZJ9 ¦ A ZI 8I, B Z6óIj. ln othcr vords, 'Jhc postulatc bcarìng
on thc knovlcdgc oI thìngs as actua/ docs not, ìndccd, dcmand ìmmcdì-
atc µerceµtion, and, thcrcIorc, scnsatìon . . . . ln thc mere conceµt oI a
thìng no mark oI ìts cxìstcncc ìs to bc Iound` ¦ ìbìd. , pp. Z4Z-J jA ZZó,
B Z¯Z] j .
IZ CI. |mmanue/ Kant`s Critique o[ |ure keason, pp. J84II ¦ A 406II, B
433!I) .
I J 5cc p. 66 abOvc.
M
I 66 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb ó/-6J
I4 CI. !r. I oI Anaxímandcr oI Nílctus. 'Jhc bcgínníng and orígín oI
cxístíng thíngs ís oµov ¦thc boundlcssly índctcrmínatc}. But vhcrcoI
cxístíng thíngs arc bccomc, thcrcín also thcy pass avay accordíng to
thcír guílt, Ior thcy rcndcr cach othcr | ust puníshmcnt and pcnancc
accordíng to thc ordínancc oI tímc' ¦Íícls/Kranz, Die |ragmente der
\orsokratiker, 6th cdn, vol. I , p. 89} . Arístotlc uscs thc tcrm ín Meta
µbysics 1 I0, I066 a Jó ¦c. Arìstotlc, Metaµbysics, pp. J6¯Il} and
clscvhcrc, also c. thc |bysics, vhìch contaìns no rcIcrcncc to a sub·
stantìal ínhnítc.
I ó CI. |mmanue/ Kant`s Critique o[ |ure keason, pp. 409II ¦ A 444II, B
4¯ZII} . Adorno díscusscs thc thírd antínomy ín Negatiue Dia/ectics ¦c.
pp. Z44IIj and, abovc all, ín thc lccturcs |rob/eme der Mora/µbi/osoµbie
,c. la5 lV. I0, pp. ó4Il}.
I6 5cc pp. 40I abovc. Cn thc thcory oI thc unmovcd movcr c. csp. Klaus
Cchlcr, Der Unbeuegte 8eueger des Aristote/es, !rankIurt/Naín I984.
I ¯ Vílhclm Vcíschcdcl`s maín vork, Der Gott der |bi/osoµben.
Grund/egung einer µbi/osoµbiscben Tbeo/ogie im Zeita/ter des
Nibi/ismus, Z vols, rcprínt oI Jrd cdn, Íarmstadt I994, ís dcvotcd to
thc conncctíon bctvccn mctaphysícs and thcology, on Arístotlc c.ìbìd.,
vol. I , pp. ó4II.
I 8 Jhc scholastíc doctrínc oI thc ana/ogia entis, an oIhcìal dogma oI thc
Church síncc IZIó, rcgulatcs thc corrcspondcnccs bctvccn Cod and
that vhìch Ic has crcatcd ín tcrms oI sìmílaríty and díssímílaríty,
thc thcorcm contaìns ín csscncc thc corc contcnt oI ontology as ít
dcvclopcd Irom thc !rc·5ocratícs, to rcach a hígh poínt and a turníng
poínt ín 5t Jhomas Aquínas. CI. c.g. Cunthcr Ncnschíng, Tbomas uon
Aquin, !rankIurt/Naín, lcv York I 99ó ¦ Kcíhc Campus LínIuhrungcn,
Bd. l08¯} , pp. 94II.
I 5cc p. óó abovc.
lccturc Nínc
Z ln hís |deas [or a |bi/osoµby o[ Nature oI I ¯9¯ 5chcllíng vrìtcs. 'víth
thc rcmoval oI thc problcm oI hov mattcr ìs origina//y possíblc, thc
problcm oI a possíblc unívcrsc ís also rcmovcd' (Scbe//ings Werke,
Nuních I 9ó6, p. I90} . And.
Cb|ccts thcmscÍvcs can bc considcrcd as products ot jorces, causing thc
phantasm oI thc tbing in itse/j, whìch is supposcd to bc thc causc oI our
rcprcscntations, to vanish ot its own accord. Îndccd, what can havc any
cÍtcct on ninJ cxccpt mind itscÍt, or somcthing rcÍatcd to it by naturc³ Ît
ìs thcrctorc necessary to conccivc oÍ mattcr as a product oÍ jorces, sincc
jorce ìs thc onÍy non-scnsibÍc aspcct ot ob| ccts, and mind can onÍy
cncountcr what is anaÍogous to itscÍI. (ibìd., p. ZZ6}
CI. Kroncr's íntcrprctatíon. 'Jhc notíon oI thc Iorccs by mcans oI vhích
mattcr ís constructcd ís nothíng othcr than an attcmpt
[
y thc mínd
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 6ó-6/ I67
to rcconstruct ìn thought thc orìgìnal synthcsìs produccd ìn pcrccptìon.
Jhc truc conccpt oI mattcr vould bc thc onc vhìch rc-cstablìshcd that
pcrccptìon' ,c. Kìchard Kroncr, \on Kant bis Hege/, Z vols ìn I vol.,
Znd cdn, Ji¡bìngcn I96I, vol. Z, p. Zó} . Cn thc changcs undcrgonc by
thc thcory oI mattcr ìn 5chcllìng's natural phìlosophy c. Kroncr, ìbìd.,
pp. ZJII.
J 5cc thc hrst oI thc '!ostulatcs oI cmpìrìcal thought ìn gcncral' . 'Jhat
vhìch agrccs vìth thc Iormal condìtìons oI cxpcrìcncc, that ìs, vìth thc
condìtìons oI ìntuìtìon and oI conccpts, ìs µossib/e,' rcIcrrcd to ìn n. I I
abovc.
4 Cn thìs 'most Iamous oI Kant's Iormulatìons' c.Adorno's nìnth lccturc
on Kants 'Kritik der reinen \ernun[t` ¦la5 lV.4, pp. I4¯I}. Cn Kant's
'Copcrnìcan rcvolutìon', ìbìd., pp. óóI µassim and Negatiue Dia/ectics,
pp. Z4¯I.
ó CI. Metaµbysics Z 4, I0Ió a óII. 'laturc . . . ìs attrìbutcd to thosc
thìngs . . . vhìch arc composcd oI mattcr and Iorm. lt consìsts oI
prìmary mattcr j~po-¸ óa¸] and thc Iorm or csscncc, and ìs thc cnd
jpurposc] oI all bccomìng' ¦Arìstotlc, Metaµbysics, p. 9} . Zcllcr, on
vhom Adorno bascs hìs argumcnt hcrc, ìntcrprcts ~po-¸ óa¸ as
Iollovs.
Ît ìn a givcn casc wc abstract that whìch an ob|cct has yct to bccomc Írom
cvcrything cÍsc, wc obtain a ccrtaìn mattcr whìch Íacks a ccrtain Íorm, and
thus contains onÍy thc posstbìÍìty oÍ that torm. Ît wc abstract trom abso·
IutcIy cvcrythìng which is thc rcsult oI bccoming, ìÍ wc ìmaginc somcthing
ob|cctìvc which has not yct bccomc anything, wc obtain purc mattcr wìth-
out any ÍormaÍ dctcrmìnation, somcthìng which ìs nothìng but can bccomc
cvcrythìng, thc sub|cct or substratc to which no conccivabÍc prcdicatc can
bc appÍicd but ìs thcrcIorc cguaÍÍy rcccptivc to thcm aIÍ. În othcr words, wc
obtain somcthing which is cvcrything in tcrms ot possibiÍity and nothing
in tcrms ot rcaÍìty, purc potcntiaÍ bcing without any actuaIìty.
Ic adds ìn O notc.
ArìstotIc caÍÍs this purc mattcr - which, howcvcr, ncvcr cxists - ×potq
uA¸, contrasting it to uAq ¿o_otq ( |oæ; c/-aeuootou}, mattcr which is
combìncd wìth a ccrtain Íorm wìthout nccdìng any Iurthcr cÍaboration:
×potq uAq ìs mattcr prior to cIcmcntary diIÍcrcnccs; thc ec_ot¸ uAq oI a
scuÍpturc, tor cxampÍc, ìs bronzc or stonc, whiÍc thc ¿o_otq uAq oI thc
human bcing arc thc mcnstruaÍ huìds jas thc 'matcriaÍ causc']. (Ct. ZcIIcr
ÎÎ.Z, p. JI 9t)
6 CI. Zcllcr.
Nattcr as such, what was caIIcd primary mattcr, ìs dcvoid ot Iorm or
dctcrmination, bcing that whìch prcccdcs aÍÍ bccoming and shapìng. Ît is
thc substratum cndowcd with nonc oI thc propcrtìcs ìn which
thc
[
orm oI
thìngs consists. Ît is thus aÍso thc unÍimitcd or inhnìtc, not in thc
spatiaÍ
scnsc ( Ior AristotÍc docs not admit thc possibiÍity oI spatìaÍ inhnìt¡
. . . },
I 68 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 6/-/J
but in thc broad scnsc oI this tcrm, whcrc ìt rcÍcrs to anything whìch ìs
not Itmìtcd or hxcd by any IormaI dctcrmìnatton, has attaìncd ncìthcr
concÍusion nor pcrtcction.
!rom thc appcndcd notc. 'By u×e:pov Arístotlc mcans, hrstly, thc spatíally
unlímítcd, and hc ínvcstígatcs thc conccpt Irom thís standpoínt
ín . . . |bysics lll, 4II. But síncc hc nov hnds that ín rcalíty no ínhnítc
spacc can cxíst, thc unlímítcd hnally coíncídcs Ior hím víth ooputov
or uAq´ ¦Zcllcr II.Z, pp. JZIf} . Cn thc orígínal conccpt oI u×e:pov ín
Anaxímandcr scc Lccturc 8, n. I4.
7 Adorno ìs rcIcrrìng hcrc to thc dchnìtìon oI thc ' Apollonìan soul' and ìts
'ahístorícíty', a ccntral motíI oI 5pcnglcr, vhích ís to bc Iound, ín somc
Iorm, on all but a Icv pagcs oI Tbe Dec/ine o[ tbe West. !or cxamplc,
cI. thc díscussíon ín thc chaptcr on 'Nusíc and 5culpturc' .
!hc lcÍÍcnic tcmpÍc is conccivcd and Íormcd as a soIìd body. Ior thc
IormaÍ scnsibìÍity which produccd it no othcr possìbiÍìty cxistcd. Ior this
rcason thc history ot thc pÍastic arts oI antiguity ìs that oÍ an unccasing
Íabour to pcrIcct a sìngÍc idcaI, and to mastcr thc Ircc-standìng human
body as thc guintcsscncc oÍ purc ob¡cctìvc prcscncc . . . . Ît has ncvcr bccn
rcmarkcd . . . how rarc this gcnrc i-, an cxccption, anything but a ruIc. În
tact, thìs scuÍpturaÍ art, which pÍaccd thc nakcd body ÍrccÍy on a ÍcvcÍ
pÍanc and tormcd it trom aÍÍ sidcs cxistcd onIy oncc, ìn antiguity, sìncc
this was thc onÍy cuÍturc whìch compÍctcÍy rc|cctcd any transccndcncc oI
scnsibÍc boundarìcs ìn Íavour oI spacc . . . . !his ApoIIonìan scuÍpturc ì s a
pcndant to LucÍidcan mathcmatics. ßoth rcpudiatc purc spacc and scc thc
a priorì ot pcrccption in boJi/y Iorm. !hìs scuIpturc acknowÍcdgcs ncithcr
ìdcas poìntìng into thc distancc nor pcrsonaÍìtics or hìstorìcaI cvcnts, but
onÍy thc scÍt·Íìmitcd cxistcncc oI bodìcs conhncd within thcir own surtaccs.
(Ct. CswaÍd SpcngIcr, Der Untergang Jes AbenJ/anJes, voÍ. I, Nunìch
I 9Z0, pp. JI0t )
8 Adorno ís probably thínkíng oI thc Iamous íssuc oI Logos dcvotcd to
5pcnglcr, ín vhìch Karl jocl and Lduard 5chvartz vrotc on 5pcnglcr's
trcatmcnt oI phílosophy and hístory, Ludvíg Curtí us, ín an cssay
'Norphologíc dcr antíkcn Kunst', crítícízcd thc trcatmcnt oI thcsc sub-
¡ccts ín Tbe Dec/ine o[ tbe West, c.Logos. |nternationa/e Zeitscbri[t [úr
|bi/osoµbie der Ku/tur, cd. Kíchard Kroncr and Ccorg Nchlís, vol. 9
¦ I 9Z0/I } , pp. IJJII.
9 An allusíon to De conso/atione µbi/osoµbiae, thc maín vork, vríttcn ín
príson, oI thc Koman lco-!latoníst Bocthíus ¦ 480-óZó} , vho vas also
ímportant as a translator and cdítor oI Arístotlc.
lccturc Tcn
I !ublíshcd ín I 9J8 ín Lcídcn. 5cc Adorno's rcvícv ot thc hook, C5 Z0. I ,
pp. Z40I.
Z !or cxamplc, by Zcllcr.
ÏLÅLb ÅL VDLLb /+-/8 16¬
ArìstotÍc gcncraÍÍy mcntions Íour kìnds ot grounds or causcs: thc matcrìaÍ,
thc conccptuaÍ or tormaÍ, thc prìmc movcr and thc hnaÍ causc. lowcvcr,
on cÍoscr cxaminatìon thcsc Iour causcs boiÍ down to thc hrst two. !hc
conccpt ot any thing cannot dìItcr trom ìts purposc, as aÍÍ purposivcncss
aìms at thc rcaÍization oÍ a conccpt. !hìs conccpt, howcvcr, is aÍso thc
movìng causc, whcthcr ìt scts thc thing in motion trom wìthìn as its souÍ,
or whcthcr ìts motìon comcs to ìt Irom outsìdc. Ior cvcn ìn thc sccond casc
it is thc thing`s conccpt which brings about thc motion, both in thc works
oI naturc and in thosc oÍ art: onÍy a human bcìng can cngcndcr a human
bcing, onÍy thc conccpt ot hcaÍth can impcÍ thc physìcian to work towards
thc brìnging Íorth oI hcaÍth. Likcwìsc, wc wiÍÍ hnd purc torm, thc highcst
purposc oÍ thc worÍd and thc causc ot its motìon, combincd in thc hìghcst
causc or thc dìvinity. ßut cvcn in hìs cxpÍanation oI naturc ArìstotÍc
distìnguishcs onÍy two kinds ot causcs, ncccssary and hnaÍ causcs, ì.c. thc
cItcct oI mattcr and thc cÍtcct oÍ Íorm or thc conccpt. Ît ìs onÍy this
ditIcrcncc, thcrctorc, that wc must rcgard as originaÍ. !hc distinction
bctwccn thc tormaÍ, cItcctivc and hnaÍ causcs ìs mcrcÍy sccondary, and
cvcn ìÍ aÍÍ thrcc arc not aÍways unìtcd ìn thc singÍc thìng, ìn thcmscÍvcs,
by thcir naturc, thcy arc onc, and arc onÍy spÍìt apart ìn thc rcaÍm ot
scnsibÍc phcnomcna: that which has bccomc has scvcraÍ causcs, but thc
ctcrnaÍ has onÍy onc, thc conccpt. (ZcÍÍcr !!.Z, pp. JZ/h)
J 5cc Lccturc 8, n. I4. Adorno also rcIcrs to Anaxímandcr's 'sayíng' ín
C5 ó, p. JZ and la5 lV÷, p. JJZ.
4 Adorno díscusscs thc gcncral crísís oI causalíty today ín thc chaptcr on
Irccdom ín Negatiue Dia/ectics, pp. Z6óII, also c.la5 lV÷, p. I4I and
pp. ZIZII.
ó 5cc p. 40 abovc.
6 Cn thc Kantían conccpt oI causalíty bascd on Irccdom c. cspccíally
Lccturcs 4 and ó ín |rob/eme der Mora/µbi/osoµbie, la5 lV. I0, pp. ó4II.
¯ CI. Arístotlc, Metaµbysics, pp. IJ8II. , M6-9, I080 a IZII}
lccturc LIcvcn
I Jhc poct ís Cvíd, c. thc opcníng oI Metamoqboses. 'Antc marc ct
tcrras ct quod tcgít omnía caclum / unus crat toto naturac vultus ín
orbc, / qucm díxcrc Chaos. rudís índígcstaquc molcs . . .' ¦ 'BcIorc thc
land and sca vcrc madc / ln all thc vorld onc only Iacc oI laturc díd
abídc, / Vhích vas callcd Chaos, a hugc rudc hcap . . . ` ¦ Cvíd, Se/ected
vorks, London/lcv York I9J9, p. IJ0} .
Z CI. Nolícrc, Le 8ourgeois Genti/bomme, l, ¯.
N^ÎJKL OL lH!!C5CÏH!L! !out cc gui n`cst point prosc cst vcrs, ct tout cc
gui n'cst poìnt vcrs cst prosc.
NCI5!L\K )C\KO^!I! Lt commc Í`on parÍc gu`cst-cc guc donc guc ccÍa:
NAÎJKL OL lH!!C5CPH!L. Dc Ía prosc.
NCÞ5!L\K ]C\KO^II: Quoì³ Quand | c dìs: '!ìcoÍc, apportcz-moì mcs
pantouI!cs, ct mc donncz mon bonnct dc nuìt`, c'cst dc l a prosc³
B
1/0 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLL /8
N^ίKL OL lH!ICSClH!L! Cui, Nonsicur.
NCIS!L\K )C\KD^!I! lar ma Ioi! ÎI y a pÍus dc guarantc ans guc |c dis dc Ía
prosc sans guc | 'cn sussc ricn, ct | c vous suis Ic pÍus obÍigc du mondc dc
m'avoir appris ccÍa.
¦Noììcrc: Òeuures con¡|ètes !Î. !cxtcs ctabìts, prcscntcs ct annotcs par
Gcorgcs Couton, laris 19/1, p. /J0}
PH!IC5CÏHLK! Vhatcvcr isn't prosc is vcrsc and anything that isn`t vcrsc is
prosc.
NK |CKO^!M. And taÍking, as Î am now, which is that³
lHI!CSClHLR. !hat is prosc.
NK )LKO^!Þ! You mcan to say that whcn Î say '!icoÍc, Ictch mc my
sÍippcrs` or 'Givc mc my night·cap' that`s prosc³
ÏH!IO5Cl!LK. CcrtainÍy, sir.
NK |CKO^!Þ! VcÍÍ, my goodncss| lcrc Î`vc bccn taÍking prosc Ior Íorty
ycars and ncvcr known it, and mighty gratctuÍ Î am to you Íor tcÍÍing mc|
(trans. )ohn Vood, London 1 9óJ}
J Adorno díscusscs Augustínc`s phílosophy oI hístory ín thc tcxt
|ortscbritt, cI. C5 I0. Z, pp. 6Z0h.
4 Kcgardíng thc gradual charactcr oI thc Arístotclían conccpt oI dcvcl·
opmcnt cI. Lrnst Bloch, vho hnds 'an clcmcnt oI thc transícnt` vìthìn
Arístotlc`s logíc.
thc cÍcmcnt oI dcvcÍopmcnt, which Íor us crics out tor thc diaÍcctic, docs
not procccd by Ícaps in AristotÍc. DcvcÍopmcnt contains no rcvoÍutionary
cÍcmcnt, but is cxcÍusivcÍy cvoÍutionary . . . . DcvcÍopmcnt Ior him is a
graduaÍÍy cvoÍving cntcÍcchy, !cptunic, torming Íìkc watcr ovcr Íong,
Íong pcriods, not VuÍcanic, coming into bcing with suddcn vioÍcncc, abrupt
transitions. !hus thc diaÍcctic is cÍiminatcd Irom AristotÍc`s conccpt oI
dcvclopmcnt. ¦Lrnst ßÍoch, Iei¡ziger Vor|esungen zur Cescbicbte Jer
|bi/oso¡bie 1 ¬J0-J6, voÍ. 1 : Antile |bi/oso¡bie, IrankIurt/Nain 1 98ó,
p. ZZ9}
ó ln 5chopcnhaucr`s phílosophy thc conccpt oI thc urgc or ycarníng
( Drang¦ rcIcrs to 'thc ob|cctívíty oI thc Víll on thc lovcst rung`, hc
dcpìcts thc Víll as 'a blínd urgc, a dark, dull drívc, rcmotc Irom any·
thíng dírcctly pcrccptíblc`. But
wc arc prcscntcd with thc vcry pccuÍiar phcnomcnon that thc bÍind action
oI thc ViÍÍ, and thc action iÍÍuminatcd by knowÍcdgc, cross ovcr into
cach othcr's sphcrcs in a vcry surprising way . . . . KnowÍcdgc in gcncraÍ,
whcthcr oÍ rcason or mcrcÍy oÍ pcrccption . . . stcms originaÍÍy Irom thc
ViÍÍ, Iorming part ot thc highcr stagc- oI its ob|cctihcation as a mcrc
|}
¡a.j, a mcans ot survivaÍ tor thc individuaÍ and thc spccics, Íikc any
othcr organ oI thc body. ¦Arthur Schopcnhaucr, Sant|icbc Wcrke, voÍ. I ,
Darmstadt I98Z, pp. 2Z1 II}
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb /¬-8+ I/1
]ust as 5chopcnhaucr cstablíshcs a líncagc bctvccn urgc and cognítíon,
5chclcr ídcntíhcs an unconscíous 'urgc oI Icclíng` cvcn ín plants vhích,
through partícípatíng ín thc 'prímal phcnomcnon oI cxprcssíon`, rcp-
rcscnt 'a kínd oI ycarníng tovards thc híghcst príncíplc`, plants, hc maín-
taíns, havc 'a ccrtaín physíognomy cxprcssíng thcír ínncr statcs, thcír
urgcs ol Icclíng . . . such as lístlcssncss, vígour, l uxuríancc, povcrty`
¦Nax 5chclcr, Gesamme/te Werke, vol. 9, p. Ió} .
6 A problcmatíc passagc vhích cannot bc cmcndcd víth ccrtaínty. ¦ CI.
Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo I 046If} .
¯ In thc víntcr scmcstcr I 964/ó Adorno vas lccturíng on 'thc doctrínc oI
hístory and Irccdom`, c. la5 ÌV. I J ¦ ín prcparatíon} .
8 Zcllcr concludcs Irom thc Arístotclían dchnítíons oI mattcr that
onc might think that mattcr couId not bc distinguishcd Irom Iorm soÍcÍy
by a Iack, by a not-bcing-thcrc-yct, but must add to it somcthing oI its
own. ßut wc shaÍI ratc this sìgnìhcancc ot mattcr cvcn morc highÍy it wc
rccaÍÍ that thc phiÍosophcr rcgards onÍy thc individuaÍ cntity as somcthing
substantiaÍ in thc IuIÍ scnsc. ÎI onÍy thc individuaI thing is substancc,
whiIc Iorm . . . is aÍways somcthing univcrsaÍ, and iI thc ground oI thc
individuaI thing thcrcIorc rcsidcs in mattcr, it is hard to avoid thc concÍu-
sion that thc ground oI substantiaÍ bcing must aIso Iic in mattcr, and that
substancc is not purc Iorm, but onÍy an cntity composcd oI Iorm and
mattcr. Îndccd, as substancc is dchncd as thc substratum ¦ù×oueí
}
evov},
whiÍc mattcr is supposcd to bc thc substratum oI aÍI bcing, mattcr aÍonc,
it sccms, couÍd cIaim to bc rccognizcd as thc originaI substancc oI aIÍ
things. !his, howcvcr jZcÍÍcr gocs onj, ^istotIc couId not possibIy con-
ccdc. (ZcIÍcr íí.Z, p. J44)
9 Jhís passagc ís bascd on an cmcndatíon ín thc cdítcd tcxt oI vhích thc
cdítor ís Iar Irom ccrtaín. ¦ CI. Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo I 046J. }
I 0 CI. thc Ìntroductíon to thc Lectures on tbe |bi/osoµby o[ History. 'Vorld
hístory ís progrcss ín conscíousncss oI Irccdom - a progrcss vhích vc
havc to rccognízc ín íts ncccssíty` ¦ Mcgcl, Werke, vol. IZ, \or/esungen
úber die |bi/osoµbie der Gescbicbte, p. JZ} .
I I CI. thc prcIacc to thc |bi/osoµby o[ kigbt· 'Vhat ís ratíonal ís actual
and vhat ís actual ís ratíonal` (Hege/`s |bi/osoµby o[ kigbt, trans. J.N.
Knox, CxIord I 96¯, p. I0} .
IZ |bysica III I , Z0I a I 0, quotcd ín Zcllcr II, p. JóI. 'Jhc hnal comíng-
to-rcalíty oI somcthíng prcscnt mcrcly as possíbílíty, as Iar as ít ís such,
ís ¦ cvolutíonary} changc.` ¦CI. Arístotlc, |bi/osoµbiscbe Scbri[ten in secbs
8anden, vol. 6, p. ó I . }
I J 5cc p. 6J abovc and Lccturc 9, n. Z.
I 4 CI. thc passagcs cítcd as support by Zcllcr II.Z, p. Jó6, n. Z, csp. lrom
thc |bysics, Zcllcr concludcs.
AristotÍc imagincs thc cIIcct oI thc movcr ji.c. Iormj on thc m
ovc
d [i.c.
matrcr] to bc conditioncd by a continuous toucbing oI thc two
, and this
condirion sccms to him aII thc morc ncccssary sincc hc maintains that thc
M
1/Z ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 8ó-¬0
purcÍy incorporcaÍ aÍso has its cIIcct through touching: cvcn thinking is
supposcd to assimiIatc what is thought through touching it, thc thought
thus stands in thc samc rcÍation to thc thinkcr as Iorm to mattcr. And thc
divinity is supposcd Iikcwisc to touch thc worId as thc primc movcr.
¦ibid., pp. Jó6I)
Lccturc TwcIvc
1 CI. pp. 80I abovc.
Z 5cc Lccturc J, p. I4, and csp. n. ¯.
J 5cc p. J6 abovc.
4 5cc p. 8 I abovc.
ó Cn Mcídcggcr's conccpt oI hístorícíty and Adorno`s crítíquc oI ít, c.
la5 ÌV.4, pp. J94I, n. Z04, but csp. Negatiue Dia/ectics, pp. IZ8If.
6 CI. 'Vcnn ím \ncndlíchcn`, Irom Zabme Xenien. '\nd allcs Írangcn,
allcs Kíngcn / Ist cvígc Kuh' ín Lott dcm Mcrrn.` [All ycarníng and
strugglc ís cvcrlastíng pcacc ín thc Lordj ¦ Locthc, Samt/icbe Werke.
8rie[e, Tagebúcber und Gesµracbe, hrsg. von Mcndrík Bírus [u. a. |, Ì.
Abt., Bd. Z. Gedicbte I 800-I 832, ÍrankIurt/Naín I 988, p. 680} .
¯ Cn thc ínvcrsíon oI dynamíc and statíc víth rcIcrcncc to Arístotlc,
Morkhcímcr vrítcs.
Novcmcnt as such, dctachcd Irom its sociaÍ contcxt and its human
aim, bccomcs thc mcrc appcarancc oI movcmcnt, thc bad inhnity oI mcch-
anicaÍ rcpctition . . . . Ît is no accidcnt that in thc basic tcxt oI wcstcrn
phiÍosophy, AristotÍc`s Meta¡bysics, thc idca oI univcrsaI dynamism couId
bc combincd dircctÍy with an unmovcd primc movcr. !hc circumstancc
that thc bÍind dcvcIopmcnt oI tcchnoÍogy hcightcns sociaÍ rcprcssion and
cxpÍoitation thrcatcns at cach stagc to turn progrcss into its oppositc,
totaÍ barbarism. ¦ lorkhcimcr, Cesanne/te Scbrijten, voÍ. 6, IrankIurt/
Nain 1991, pp. I40I}
8 Mardly anyvhcrc morc clcarly than ín Metaµbysics, A J, I069 b JóII;
Lohlkc`s commcntary on thís ís as Iollovs.
!his must bc IoÍIowcd by a dcmonstration that ncithcr mattcr nor Iorm
comcs into bcing as an uItimatc raw matcriaI. Lvcrything is transÍormcd
Irom somcthing through somcthing into somcthing. Ît is transIormcd
'through` thc primc movcr, 'Irom` mattcr 'into` Iorm. ÎI not onIy thc
bronzc sphcrc, but aIso bronzc and sphcricaIity, camc into bcing, that
wouÍd go on Ior cvcr. So thcrc must bc a stopping point somcwhcrc.
(Aristote|es, Meta¡bysil, iìbcrtr. von lauÍ GohÍkc, p. Jó/)
9 5cc csp. Lccturc I , pp. JI abovc.
I0 5cc p. óJ abovc.
I I 5cc pp. J0I abovc.
1Z Metaµbysics, . ¯, I 0¯Z b Ió, I 8H contains argumcntation on thc lílc
oI thc unmovcd movcr.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb ¬0-¬Z I/J
lt is a ÍiIc which is aÍways thc nobÍcst and thc happicst that wc can
Íivc . . . . !hought . . . must bc thought oI what is bcst in itscÍI¡ i.c. that
which is thought in thc IuÍÍcst scnsc must bc occupicd with that which is
bcst in thc IuÍÍcst scnsc. !ow thought docs think itscÍI, bccausc it sharcs
in thc intcÍÍigibiÍity oI its ob|cct. Ît bccomcs intcÍÍigibÍc by contact with
thc intcÍÍigibÍc, so that thought and ob|cct oI thought arc onc. ( Aristot/e's
Meta¡bysics, p. J46). AÍso scc Lccturc 1J, n. J.
I J ¬ò ¡op oú¯o voeiv corív re «o| eÎvo:; translatcd as. 'lor thínkíng and
bcíng arc thc samc thíng' ¦Íícls/Kranz, Die |ragmente der \orsokratiker,
vol. I , p. ZJI } .
I4 CI. Jhcodor V. Adorno, 'Ías !roblcm dcs Ìdcalísmus. 5tíchvortc zur
Vorlcsung I 9óJ/ó4', ín |rank[urter Adorno 8/atter \, Nuních I 998.
Karl Kcínhardt's book |armenides und die Gescbicbte der griecbiscben
|bi/osoµbie ¦4th cdn, ÍrankIurt/Naín I98ó} vas cspccíally ímportant
lor Adorno's undcrstandíng ol !armcnídcs, although ít touchcs only
pcríphcrally on thc proposítíon oI thc ídcntíty oI thínkíng and bcíng.
I ó CI. Zcllcr II.Z, pp. J68I, n. I .
AristotÍc statcs IrcgucntÍy and with grcat Iorcc that ncithcr a vc|
(
o.; nor
a vpoç: can bc attributcd to thc divinity . . . . Kathcr, hc says vcry gcncr-
aÍÍy that . . . both vpd--c:: and vc:c|: must bc sccn as Iorcign to thc
divinity, that thc pcrIcction maniIcstcd in action ¦practicaÍ virtuc) hnds
room onÍy in human intcrcoursc and among crcaturcs sub|cct to human
passions . . . and that aÍÍ action is a mcans to an cnd diIIcrcnt to it, and
cannot thcrcIorc bc attributcd to thc divinity, Ior which thcrc is no goaÍ
stiÍÍ to bc attaincd.
I 6 Íor thc rcccnt posítíon oI Arístotlc scholarshíp on thís qucstíon c.
]oachím Kíttcr's cssay ol I 9óJ, 'Ííc Lchrc vom \rsprung und 5ínn dcr
Jhcoríc bcí Arístotlc', ín Kíttcr, Metaµbysik und |o/itik. Studien zu
Aristote/es und Hege/, ÍrankIurt/Naín I 969, pp. 9lI.
I ¯ A sharply dívcrgcnt hístorícal-phílosophícal íntcrprctatíon ís to bc Iound
ín Morkhcímcr`s cssay 'Ííc gcscllschaItlíchc !unktíon dcr !hílosophíc`
oI I 940.
AÍthough AristotÍc, in his Meta¡bysics, rcgards thc scÍI-contcmpÍation
ot thc souÍ, thc thcorcticaÍ attitudc, as thc highcst happincss, hc says
c×pÍicitÍy that this happincss is onÍy possibÍc on a spccihc matcriaÍ basis,
that is, undcr ccrtain sociaÍ and cconomic conditions. lÍato and AristotÍc
do not bcÍicvc, Íikc Antisthcncs and thc Cynics, that rcason is capabÍc oI
constant dcvcÍopmcnt to a highcr ÍcvcÍ in pcopÍc who ÍitcraÍÍy Ícad a
dog`s ÍiIc, or that wisdom couÍd go hand in hand with pcnury. Ior thcm,
|ust conditions wcrc a prcrcguisitc Ior thc unIoÍding oI thc intcÍÍcctuaÍ
powcrs oI human bcings, and this idca undcrÍics thc whoÍc oI wcstcrn
humanism. ¦ lorkhcimcr, Cesanne/te Scbrijten, voÍ. 4, IrankIurt/Nain
1 988, p. J46}
I 8 Iot traccd.
I 9 5cc lcLt¼rc 1 , n. 8.
Ø
1 ¯4 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb ¬+-¬ó
lccturc Thirtccn
I In thc ]ohann VolIgang Locthc-\nívcrsítat ín ÍrankIurt/Naín thc
granítc sculpturc Emµedoc/es ¦ I 9ó4} stood ín thc cntrancc hall ol thc
maín buíldíng, ín Iront oI thc Kcctor`s oIhcc.
Z CI. Kcmark J ín Chaptcr I oI thc Science o[ Logic.
Vith this whoÍÍy abstract purity ot continuity, that is, indctcrminatcncss
and vacuity oI conccption, it is indiIIcrcnt whcthcr this abstraction is
caÍÍcd spacc, purc intuiting, or purc thinking¡ it is aÍtogcthcr thc samc as
what thc Îndian caÍÍs ßrahma, whcn Ior ycars on cnd, physicaÍIy motìon-
Ícss and cguaÍÍy unmovcd in scnsation, conccption, Iantasy, dcsirc and so
on, Iooking onIy at thc tìp oI his nosc, hc says ìnwardìy onIy Òn, Òn,
Òn, or cIsc nothing at aIÍ. (Hege/`s Science oj Logic, trans. A.V. NiÍÍcr,
London I 969, p. 9/)
J CI. Arístotlc. 'Jhcrclorc, síncc thc suprcmc íntcllcct ís thc bcst thíng ín
thc vorld, ít must thínk ítsclI, íts thínkíng ís a thínkíng oI thínkíng`
¦Aristot/e`s Metaµbysics, p. J49} . Cn thís qucstíon Zcllcr vrítcs.
God is . . . thc activity oI absoÍutc intcÍÍcct, and to this cxtcnt hc is that
which is absoÍutcIy rcaI and Íiving, and thc primaI sourcc oI aÍÍ ÍiIc. ßut
what is thc contcnt ot this thinking³ AÍÍ thinking dcrivcs its vaÍuc Irom
what is thought, but divinc thinking can dcrivc it trom nothing Íying
outsidc itscÍI, and can havc no contcnt othcr than what is bcst; but it
aìonc ìs thc bcst. God thcrcIorc thìnks hìmscìI, and hìs thìnkìng ìs a
thinking oI thinking, so that in divinc thinking, as cannot bc othcrwisc
Ior purc intcÍIcct, thinking and its ob|cct coincidc absoÍutcÍy. !his immut-
abÍc abiding oI thinking in itscII, this indivisibIc unity oI thc thinkcr and
thc thought, is thc absoIutc bIiss ot God. ¦ZcÍÍcr íí.Z, pp. J66t}
4 ln hís lccturc scrícs Kants 'Kritik der reinen \emun[t` Adorno attachcs
hís ovn dchnítíon oI phílosophy to that oI Arístotlc vhcn hc says
that phílosophy 'ís rcally conccrncd víth thc "thínkíng ol thínkíng¯, as
Arístotlc has dchncd ít - ín vhich thc thought proccsscs oI logíc and thc
posítívc scícnccs must rcvícv thcmsclvcs crítícally' ¦la5 IV.4, p. IZ¯} .
ó CI. thc paragraph víth thís títlc ín 'Krítík dcs logíschcn Absolutísmus`.
!hc ncccssìty oI thc contingcncy oI thc ÍactuaI ìn idcaIism ìs madc by
lusscrÌ into thc virtuc oI thc purity oI thc idca. !hc idcas rcmain bchind
as thc ca¡ut nortuun oI a ìiIc dcscrtcd by spirìt. !hc varìous matcrìaì
scicnccs arc conccivcd in a totaÍIy cmpiricist way . . . . În his conccption oI
'a bsoÍutcÍy strict rcguIarity` hc is too Ircc with thc 'thousands oI accidcnts`
which arc not accidcnts. Ior thc scicntist, chancc is thc unwcIcomc rc·
siduc which scttIcs at thc bottom ot his conccpts, whiIc Ior thc 'common
man`, whosc namc lusscrÍ uttcrs without any compunction, it is what
bcIaÍIs him and against which hc is dcIcnccÍcss. !hc scicntist Iancics that
hc can prcscrìbc ìaws to thc worìd, thc 'common man` must obcy cach
law in practicaI tcrms. lc can do nothing about this, and may rightly
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb ¬6-¬8 I/ó
considcr it Iortuitous; but that thc worÍd is madc up oI thosc who arc
cxposcd to such accidcnts and othcrs who, though thcy may not makc
thc Íaw, can consoIc thcmscÍvcs with its cxistcncc, is no accidcnt, but is
itscÍI thc Íaw oI rcaÍ socicty. !o phiÍosophy which considcrs thc 'worId`s
conccption` shouÍd ignorc this. Ior lusscrI, howcvcr, thc sacrihcc oI
cmpiricism docs not opcn unrcstrictcd insight to such conncctions, but hc
simpIy rcpcats thc shouÍdcr-shrugging prc|udicc that it aII dcpcnds on
onc`s point oI vicw. KnowIcdgc oI thc IactuaÍ nccd not bc too punctiIi-
ous, sincc it in any casc bcars thc taint ot Iortuitousncss. KcaÍity bccomcs
an ob|cct oI mcrc opinion. !his modcsty is as IaÍsc as its compÍcmcnt, thc
hubrìs oI thc absoÍutc. ( G5 ó, pp. 9ZI)
6 CI. thc prcIacc to thc |benomeno/ogy o[ Sµirit. 'Jo pít thís sínglc ínsíght,
that ín thc Absolutc cvcrythíng ís thc samc, agaínst thc Iull body oI
artículatcd cognítíon, vhích at lcast sccks and dcmands such Iulhlmcnt,
to palm oII íts Absolutc as thc níght ín vhích, as thc sayíng gocs, all
covs arc black - thís ís cognítíon naívcly rcduccd to vacuíty` ¦ Hege/`s
|benomeno/ogy o[ Sµirit, trans. A.V. Níllcr, Cxlord I 9¯¯, p. 9} .
¯ Vhích tcxt oI Lcssíng`s Adorno vas thínkíng oI hcrc, and vhcthcr hc
vas thínkíng oI a partícular tcxt, has not bccn asccrtaíncd. Bchínd ít ís
probably Lcssíng`s rcalízatíon that thc 'gratuítous truths oI hístory
. . . can ncvcr bccomc prools oI ncccssary truths oI rcason`, Lcssìng
callcd thís thc 'vrctchcd vídc dítch . . . that I can ncvcr gct across, no
mattcr hov oltcn and carncstly I havc attcmptcd thc lcap` ¦ Lotthold
Lphraím Lcssíng, Gesamme/te Werke in I 0 8anden, cd. !aul Kílla,
vol. 8. |bi/osoµbiscbe und tbeo/ogiscbe Scbri[ten ||, Bcrlín I 9ó6,
pp. IZ, I4} - a dítch vhích, accordíng to Lrnst Cassírcr, had bccn
ovcrlcapt ín Die Erziebung des Menscbengescb/ecbts ¦ Tbe Education o[
tbe Human kaceì, víth íts díscovcry oI thc truth ol thc hístorícal, as a
young lccturcr Adorno gavc onc oI hís hrst scmínars on Lcssíng`s last
vork on thc phílosophy oI rclígíon.
8 CI. lor cxamplc, thc rcport by Míppolytos ¦to c. ZZ0} ín hís ke[utatio
omnium baeresium:
Lpicurus assurcs us that God is ctcrnaI and immortaÍ, but that hc troubIcs
himscÍI about nothing, in short, that thcrc is ncithcr soÍicitudc nor Iatc,
Ior cvcrything takcs pÍacc by itscÍI ( mcchanicaIIy} . !hc god abidcs in
what hc caIÍs thc VorÍd-ßctwccn . . . !hcrc hc cn|oys a IccÍing oI suprcmc
happincss in tranguiÍ unconccrn, has no diIhcuÍtics himscII and causcs
nonc to othcrs. , Criecbiscbe Atonisten. Texte unJ Konnentare zun
nateria/istiscben Denlen Jer Antile, cd. Iritz ]tìrss ct aÍ., Lcipzig I9//,
p.
JJJ}
V Adorno ís rcIcrríng to Negatiue Dia/ectics, cspccíally thc last scctíon,
`Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysìcs`, thc hrst cdìtíon ol thc
[
ook camc out ín
I 966. Jhc 'rcIIcctíons on mctaphysícs vhích sccm [tn Adorno| tímcly
and unavoídablc today`, vhích arc sct out ín thc Iollowíng pagcs, drav
on thc hrst hvc ¦ol thc total oI tvclvc} 'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysícs`
, see lecture 1, n. I } , a 'sccond íntcrmcdíatc copy' ÞÍ vhich ís datcd
M
1 /6 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb ¬8-10ó
¯.¯. I 96ó ¦cl. Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Js I ó8IJll} . Adorno prob·
ably drcv on thís íntcrmcdíatc copy lor thc notcs on vhích hc bascd
thc last lccturcs, vhích vcrc gívcn cxtcmporc. a kínd ol ímprovíscd
varíatíon on vhat had alrcady bccn hxcd ín vrítíng, vhích, altcr lur-
thcr rcvísíon, vas hnally publíshcd lor thc hrst tímc ín Negatiue Dia/ektik
thc Iollovíng ycar. Jhc notcs rclatc, víth somc omíssíons, to thc tcxt
runníng Irom p. J6I to p. J¯6 ín Negatiue Dia/ectics, vhcrcas thc
lccturc notcs concludc víth 'Jhc to tum ís thc totcm' ¦cl. íbíd., p. J¯6} ,
Adorno had to cnd thc lccturc somcvhat carlícr through lack oI tímc
¦scc Lccturc I 8, n. I6} .
I 0 5cc p. Z0 µassim abovc.
I I Cl. thc quotatíons lrom thc Encyc/oµaedia and thc Logic ín Lccturc I ,
n. 8.
IZ Cl. Jhcodor V. Adorno, Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistbeorie. Studien
úber Husser/ und die µbanomeno/ogiscben Antinomien, 5tuttgart I 9ó6,
nov L5 ó, pp. 48-9ó.
I 5cc p. I0I abovc.
Lccturc lourtccn
Z 5chopcnhaucr`s 'doctrínc oI thc dcníal oI thc Víll to Lívc', vhích Iorms
part ol hís systcm rclatíng to moral phílosophy, ís to bc lound ín Book
4 oI Tbe Wor/d as Wi// and keµresentation, ín ¸ 68 oI vol. I and ín
Chaptcr 48 ol vol. Z, also scc Chaptcr I4 ol vol. Z oI |arerga and
|ara/iµomena ¦cI. 5chopcnhaucr, Tbe Wor/d as Wi// and keµresenta·
tion, trans. L.!.]. !aync, lcv York I 9ó8, vol. I , pp. J¯8Il, vol. Z,
pp. 60JII, |arerga and |ara/iµomena, trans. L.!.|. !aync, CxIord
I 9¯4, vol. Z, pp. JI ZII} .
J Cn I lovcmbcr I ¯óó thc !ortugucsc capítal vas dcvastatcd by an
carthquakc ín vhích a quartcr oI íts ínhabítants lost thcír lívcs. Voltaírc,
dccply shakcn, vrotc hís `!ocmc sur Ìc dcsastrc dc Lísbonnc, ou cxamcn
dc cct axíomc. tout est bien'.
L maÍhcurcux mortcÍs| ô tcrrc dcpIorabÍc!
L dc to us Ícs IÍcaux asscmbÍagc cIIroyabÍc!
D`ìnutìÍcs douÍcurs ctcrncÍ cntrcticn!
&  &  Æ
QucÍ crimc, guc ÍÍc Iautc ont commis ccs cnIans
5ur Ic scìn matcrncÍ ccrascs ct sangÍans:
Lisbonnc gui n`cst pÍus cut-cÍÍc pÍus dc viccs
Quc Londrcs, guc laris, pÍongcs dans Ícs dcÍiccs:
Lisbonnc cst ab¡mcc, ct Í`on dansc a Paris.
& R  Æ
Cc mondc, cc thcâtrc ct d`orguciÍ ct d`crrcur,
!st pÍcin d`inIortuncs gui parIcnt dc bonhcur.
W W R 
!os chagrins, nos rcgrcts, nos pcrtcs sont sans nombrc.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 1 06-1 08
Lc passc n'cst pour nous gu`un tristc souvcnir;
Lc prcscnt cst aIIrcux s`ìÍ n`cst point d`avcnir,
5i Ía nuit du tombcau dctruit Í`ctrc guì pcnsc.
Un jour tout sera bien, voiÍà votrc cspcrancc:
Tout est bien aujourJ`bui, voìÍà Í`iÍÍusion.
1 //
Voltaírc`s '!ocmc`, vhích, víth anothcr 'sur la loí naturcÌlc` vas pub-
líshcd as a book, vas condcmncd and burncd ín I ¯ó9. Kousscau`s
'Lcttcr on !rovídcncc` ís datcd I 8. 8. I¯ó6, hc latcr commcntcd rathcr
aptly on ít ín hís Con[essions.
5truck by sccing that poor man, wcìghcd down, so to spcak, by Iamc and
prospcrity. ßìttcrÍy compÍainìng, ncvcrthcÍcss, against thc wrctchcdncss
oI thìs ÍìIc and hndìng cvcrythìng ìnvarìabIy bad, Î Iormcd thc ìnsanc pIan
ot brìnging him back to hìmscÍI and proving to hìm that aÍÍ was wcÍÍ.
!hough VoÍtairc has aÍways appcarcd to bcÍicvc in God, hc has rcaÍÍy
onÍy bcÍicvcd in thc DcviÍ, bccausc his so-caÍÍcd God is nothing but a
maÍìcìous bcing who, according to his bcÍìct, onÍy takcs pÍcasurc in doing
harm. (Kousscau, Tbe Conjessions, trans. ].N. Cohcn, larmondsworth
1 9óJ, pp. J99I)
And. 'Ìn thc mcantímc Voltaírc has publíshcd thc rcply that hc promíscd
mc. It ís nothíng lcss than hís novcl Candide . W  .` ¦ íbíd. , p. 400j .
4 CI. Jhcodor V. Adorno, Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity, trans. Knut
Jarnovskí and !rcdcríc Víll, Lvanston I 9¯J.
ó Cl. ]can Amcry, 'Ííc Jortur', ín Merkur Z08, vol. I 9 ¦ I 96ó} , pp. 6ZJII
¦ Issuc ¯, ]uly I 96ó} , nov ín a rcvíscd vcrsíon ín Amcry, ]enseits uon
Scbu/d und Siibne. 8eua/tigungsuersucbe eines Uberua/tigten, Znd cdn,
5tuttgart I980, pp. 46II.
6 CI. Ch. I . 'Íascín's !ossíbílíty oI Bcíng·a-Vholc, and Bcíng-Jovards-
Ícath` oI Íívísíon Z on 'Íascín and Jcmporalíty` ¦Mcídcggcr, 8eing
and Time, pp. Z¯9IIj, 'Jhc "cnd¯ oI Bcíng-ín·thc·vorld ìs dcath. Jhís
cnd, vhích bclongs to thc potcntíalíty·lor-Bcíng - that ís to say, to
cxístcncc - límíts and dctcrmíncs ín cvcry casc vhatcvcr totalíty ís
possíblc Ior Íascín,' and 'Vhcn Íascín rcachcs íts vholcncss ín dcath,
ít símultancously loscs thc Bcíng ol íts "thcrc`` (íbíd. , pp. Z/6-¯ and
Z8I } , also Adorno`s crítíquc ín Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity, pp. I J0ll.
¯ CI. Brccht, A Man`s A Man, ín 8aa/, A Man`s A Man and Tbe E/eµbant
Ca/¡ trans. Lríc Bcntlcy, lcv York I 964, pp. I I ¯II, on thc status oI
thc tcxt oI thc play, vríttcn ín I 9Z4-6, cI. Brccht, Gesamme/te Werke
in acbt 8anden, !rankIurt/Naín I 9¯6, vol. I , pp. J6J, n. and p. 4° .
8 CI., Ior cxamplc, thc chaptcr on thc 'culturc índustry`.
Vhcncvcr thc cuÍturc industry stìÍÍ issucs an invitation naivcÍy to idcntìty,
ìt ìs ìmmcdìatcIy withdrawn. !o onc can cscapc Irom hìmscÍI any morc.
Òncc a mcmbcr oI thc audìcncc couÍd scc his own wcddìng tn thc onc
shown in thc hÍm. !ow thc Íucky actors on thc scrccn arc copics oI thc
samc catcgory as cvcry mcmbcr oI thc pubÍic, but such cguaÍity onÍy
M
1 /8 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 108-10¬
dcmonstratcs thc insurmountabÍc scparation oI thc human cÍcmcnts. !hc
pcrIcct simiÍarìty is thc absoÍutc diIIcrcncc. !hc ìdcntity oI thc catcgory
torbids that oI thc individuaÍ cascs. IronìcaÍÍy, man as a mcmbcr oI a
spccics has bccn madc a rcaÍìty by thc cuÍturc ìndustry. !ow any pcrson
sìgnìhcs onÍy thosc attrìbutcs by which hc can rcpÍacc cvcrybody cÍsc: hc
ìs ìntcrchangcabÍc, a copy. As an individuaÍ hc is compÍctcÍy cxpcndabÍc
and uttcrÍy insignihcant, and this is |ust what hc hnds out whcn tìmc
dcprivcs him oI thìs simiÍarity. (!hcodor V. Adorno and Nax lorkhcìmcr,
Dia/ectic oj In/igbtennent, trans. ]ohn Cumming, London/!cw York
Jºº7, pp. I+5÷6)
Jhc rcductíon ol thc índívídual to thc mcrc spccímcn ol íts spccícs ís
onc ol thc ccntral ídcas ín Dia/ectic o[ En/igbtenment. Ìn `Llcmcnts
oI Antí-5cmítísm', vhcrc thc thcory oI logíc ís traccd ríght to thc cxtcr-
mínatíon camps, thc lormulatíon 'spccímcn' ís, hovcvcr, lackíng.
În thc worÍd oI mass scrics production, stcrcotypcs rcpÍacc individual
catcgorìcs . . . . ÎI, cvcn wìthin thc Iramcwork oI Iogic, thc conccpt cn-
countcrs thc particuÍar onÍy on an cxtcrnaÍ pÍanc, cvcrythìng which stands
tor diIIcrcncc in socicty is thrcatcncd. !vcryonc is cìthcr a Iricnd or an
cncmy¡ thcrc arc no haÍI mcasurcs. !hc Íack oI conccrn Ior thc sub¡cct
makcs things casy Ior administration. Lthnìc groups arc Iorccd to movc
to a diItcrcnt rcgion, individuaÍs arc brandcd as ]cws and scnt to thc gas
chambcr. ¦ibìd., pp. 2OJi)
Kcgardíng thc tcxt oI thc lccturc scc thc parallcl passagc ín Negatiue
Dia/ectics: `hat ín thc conccntratíon camps ít vas no longcr an índí-
vídual vho dícd but a spccímcn - thís ís a Iact bound to allcct thc dyíng
oI thosc vho cscapcd thc admínístratívc mcasurc` ¦ íbíd., p. J6Z} , and
cspccíally thc conclusíon oI thc book. `hc smallcst íntramundanc traíts
vould bc oI rclcvancc to thc absolutc, Ior thc mícrologícal vícv cracks
thc shclls oI vhat, mcasurcd by thc subsumíng covcr conccpt, ís hclp-
lcssly ísolatcd and cxplodcs íts ídcntíty, thc dclusíon that ít ís but a
spccímcn' ¦ íbíd. , p. 408} .
9 CI. Brccht's pocm ' Cn thc 5uícídc oI thc Kclugcc V. B. ' . '5o thc Iuturc
lícs ín darkncss and thc lorccs oI ríght / Arc vcak. All thís vas plaín to
you / Vhcn you dcstroycd a torturablc body' ¦ Brccht, |oems I ºI 3÷
I º56, cd. |ohn Víllctt and Kalph Nanhcím, Iondon I 9¯6, p. J6J} .
I 0 CI. thc scctíon 'Absolutc !rccdom and Jcrror'.
!hc soÍc work and dccd oI univcrsaÍ Irccdom is thcrcIorc Jeatb, a dcath
too which has no inncr signihcancc or hÍÍing, tor what is ncgatcd is
thc cmpty poìnt oI thc absoÍutcÍy Ircc scÍI. Ît ìs thus thc coÍdcst and
mcancst oI aÍÍ dcaths, with no morc signihcancc than cutting oII a hcad
oI cabbagc or swaÍÍowing a mouthIuÍ oI watcr. , Hege/`s |benoneno/ogy
oj S¡irit, p. 36Oj
I I CI. Lugcn Kogon, Der SS-Staat. Das System der deutscben
Konzentrations/ager, Znd cdn, Bcrlín I 94¯. Jhc quotatíon, also to bc
!
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb I0¬-I 1 0 I/¬
Iound, though not attríbutcd, ín Negatiue Dia/ectics ¦c. p. J6Z} , has
not bccn traccd; hovcvcr, a símìlar passagc has bccn Iound. '5omconc
callcd out to a |cv. "It's nov IZ o'clock. At IZ.0ó you'll bc víth
]chovah| ` It dìdn't takc cvcn hvc mìnutcs' ¦translatcd Irom Kogon, Der
SS-Staat, p. 94} .
IZ Amcry dcscríbcs bcíng torturcd.
!ow thcrc was a cracking and spÍintcrìng in my shouÍdcrs which Î havc
not Iorgottcn to this day . . . . Anyonc who has bccn torturcd rcmains
torturcd. !hc torturc is burnt into him incxtinguishabÍy, cvcn iI no cÍin-
icaÍ or objcctìvc traccs can bc Iound . . . . linaÍÍy Î bccamc unconscious -
and it was ovcr Ior oncc. Ît is stìÍÍ not ovcr. . . . You cannot rid yourscÍI oI
torturc any morc than you can rid yourscÍÍ oI thc gucstion about thc
possibiÍitics and Íimits oI thc powcr to rcsist it. (Amcry, in Merlur Z08,
pp. 6JZ, 6J4 and 6J6j
And at thc cnd oI thc cssay hc vrítcs.
As Iar as any knowIcdgc rcmaìns Irom thc cxpcrìcncc oI torturc bcyond
that oI mcrc nightmarc, it is that oI a grcat amazcmcnt, and oI bcing a
strangcr in thc worÍd, which cannot bc compcnsatcd by any Íatcr human
communication. Astonishmcnt at thc cxistcncc oI thc Òthcr which asscrts
itscÍI boundIcssIy in torturc, and at what onc can oncscÍI bccomc: ÍIcsh
and dcath. !hat ÍìIc is IragiÍc, and that it can bc cndcd 'wìth a mcrc
nccdÍc' - that truism has aÍways bccn known. ßut that a Íiving human
bcing can bc madc haÍI-and-haÍI thc prcy oI dcath whìÍc stiÍÍ aÍivc is onÍy
cxpcricnccd undcr torturc. Jhc shamc oÍ such annihì|ation can ncvcr bc
cIIaccd. Anyonc who has bccn tormcntcd rcmains dcIcnccÍcssIy cxposcd
to Icar. |t hcnccIorth wicIds its sccptrc ovcr him. Ît - and aÍso what is
caÍÍcd ressentinent, which rcmains bchind and has not cvcn thc chancc to
condcnsc ìnto a dcsirc tor rcvcngc - and to bc purgcd. Irom thcrc, no onc
Íooks out onto a worÍd in which thc principIc oI hopc hoÍds sway. (ibid.,
p. 6J8)
Jhat ís thc tcxt to vhích Adorno rcIcrs. Amcry latcr ìntcnsíhcd ìt stìll
Iurthcr ín a book vcrsíon. 'Anyonc vho has bccn sub| cctcd to torturc
cannot agaín lccl at homc ín thc vorld. Jhc shamc oI anníhìlatíon
cannot bc cxpungcd. Jhc trust ín thc vorld, vhích collapscs partly
vìth thc hrst blov but only Iully undcr torturc, ís ncvcr rcgaíncd' ¦ Amcry,
]enseits uon Scbu/d und Súbne, ¡. ¯Jj .
I J !írst in thc cssay 'Kulturkrìtík und LcscllschaIt` oI I 949.
Lvcn thc most cxtrcmc awarcncss oI caIamìty thrcatcns to dcgcncratc
into chattcr. CuÍturaÍ criticism hnds itscÍÍ Iacing thc Iast stagc in thc
diaÍcctic oI cuÍturc and barbarism: to writc a pocm aItcr Auschwitz is
barbaric, and that corrodcs cvcn thc knowÍcdgc whìch statcs why it has
bccomc impossibIc to writc poctry today. !hc criticaÍ mind, as Íong as it
rcmains comIortab|y cnsconccd in contcmp|ation, . . . ìs no match Íor
absoÍutc rcihcation. ¦GS I0. I, p. J0j
M
1 80 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 1 1 0-1Z0
Adorno latcr camc back rcpcatcdly to hís díctum, Ior thc last tímc ín
'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysícs', vhcrc hc sccms to rcvokc ít ,c. Neg-
atiue Dia/ectics, p. J6Z} , Ior an ·íntcrprctatíon c. Jícdcmann, 'lícht
díc Lrstc !hílosophíc sondcrn cínc lctztc` , pp. I I ll.
I 4 Cn thc proposítíon ín qucstíon, c. la5 IV.4, p. 400, n. ZJ4.
I ó Cl. 5artrc, Morts sans seµu/ture, Jablcau IV, sccnc ÌÌÌ.
HLIK\. \st-cc quc ça gardc un scns dc vivrc guand ì I y a dcs hommcs gui
vous tapcnt dcssus |usgu`à vous casscr Ícs osr !out cst noir. (|l regarJe
¡ar /a jenetre. } !u as raison, Ia pÍuic va tombcr. j'Oo you stiÍI IccÍ aÍivc
whiIc mcn bcat you untiI thcy brcak your boncsr Ît`s vcry dark. ( He /ools
out o] tbe uinJou.) You arc right, ìt`s going to rain.`|
¦]can-lauÍ 5artrc, Ia ¡ . . . res¡ectueuse . . . suiui Je Morts sans sé¡u/ture.
|ièce en Jeux actes et quatre tab/eaux, laris 19/Z, p. Z10j
Lccturc liftccn
I Jhc títlc oI Bcckctt's last novcl ¦ !arís I 96I } , Ircqucntly quotcd by
Adorno ín Aestbetic Tbeory.
Z Cl. Mannah Arcndt, Eicbmann in ]erusa/em, Nuních I 964.
J An allusíon to thc book víth thc samc títlc by Ctto !rícdrích Bollnov
¦ 5tuttgart 1 9ó6) , c. Adorno, Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity, p. 9I and

µasstm.
4 5cc Lccturc I I , n. ¯.
ó Cn thc catcgory oI thc addcndum c. Negatiue Dia/ectics, pp. ZZ6II,
also c. Lckart Locbct, 'Ías Mínzutrctcndc. Lín Kommcntar zu dcn
5cítcn ZZ6 bís ZJ0 dcr Negatiuen Dia/ektik', ín |rank[urter Adorno
8/atter |\, Nuních I 99ó, pp. I09II.
6 5cc Lccturc I4, p. I08 and n. 9.
¯ Mcrc Adorno ís rcIcrríng to hís cssay on Bcckctt`s Endgame ,c. L5 I I ,
pp. Z8III}. Adorno's íntcrcst ín 5amucl Bcckctt ís nov documcntcd
lully ín |rank[urter Adorno 8/atter ||| ¦Nuních I 994} .
8 5ímílarly in Negatiue Dia/ectics. 'lt [culturc] abhors stcnch bccausc ít
stínks - bccausc, as Brccht put ít ín a magníhccnt línc, íts mansíon ís
buílt oI dogshít. Ycars aItcr that línc vas vríttcn, Auschvítz dcmon·
stratcd írrcIutably that culturc has laílcd' ¦ íbíd., p. J66} . Jhc passagc ín
Brccht has not bccn traccd.
9 lot traccd.
I 0 lot traccd.
I I Cl. thc cssay 'Ííc aulcrstandcnc Kultur' ol I9ó0, nov L5 Z0.Z, pp. 4óJIl.
Lccturc Sixtccn
I Cnc or morc scntcnccs appcar to bc míssíng at thc starr oI thc lccturc,
at any ratc, thc tcxt sourcc bcgíns. ' . . . Icb meine damit konkret, Sie
konntcn denken . . . `
W
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLL IZI 1 8 I
Z !or 'thcsc thíngs' rcad 'Auschvítz or thc atomíc bomb or all thcsc
thíngs vhích cohcrc' ¦c. p. I I 6 abovc} .
J Jhc catcgory ol thc 'vholly othcr' vas íntroduccd by thc Narburg
!rotcstant thcologían Kudoll Ctto ¦ I 869-I 9J¯}, vho dchncd thc
numìnous, thc mysterium tremendum and hnally thc dívínc ítscÍI víth
thís tcrm, hovcvcr, thc thíng rcIcrrcd to as thc mysterium,
that is, thc rcÍigious mystcry, thc gcnuinc nirun, is, to cxprcss it pcrhaps
most aptIy, thc `whoIIy othcr`, thc tbateron, thc anyaJ, thc a/ienun, thc
a/iuJ ua/Je, thc aIicn and pcrpÍcxing thing which IaÍIs outsidc thc rcaIm
oI thc IamiÍiar and undcrstood and thus outsidc thc 'homcÍy`, sctting
itscÍI up in opposition to it and thcrcIorc hIIing thc mind with pctrihcd
amazcmcnt. (KudoÍI Òtto, Das Hei/ige. Cber Jas |rrationa/e in Jer |Jee
Jes Cott/icben unJ sein Verbd/tnis zun Rationa/en j Ist cdn 1 91 /j ,
Nunich I991, p. J 1 )
Ctto hnds momcnts oI thc vholly othcr cspccíally ín mystícísm. 'Nyst-
ícìsm contaíns csscntíally and prímaríly a thcology ol thc mirum, thc
"vholly othcr'` ¦ íbíd., p. J6} . Morkhcímcr appcars to havc rcspondcd
aIhrmatívcly to thís catcgory ín hís last ycars, at any ratc, hc díd not
ob¡cct to thc publícatíon oI a convcrsatíon on thcology and crítícal
thcory vìth thc tìtlc 'Íìc 5chnsucht nach dcm ganz Andcrcn' |c.
Morkhcímcr, Die Sebasucbt nacb dem ganz Aaderen. 1tn |nteruieu mit
Kommentar uon He//mut Gummior, Mamburg I 9¯0} . Movcvcr, all
hc actually saíd vas. 'Crítícal thcory contaíns at lcast onc ídca about
thc thcologícal, thc othcr' ¦ Morkhcímcr, Gesamme/te Scbri[ten, vol. ¯.
\ortrage und Au[zeicbnungen I º1º÷Iº73, !rankIurt/Naín I 98ó,
p. J98} , and hc spokc oI 'thc poínt on vhích ]udaísm ís oI such íntcrcst
to mc. thc ídcntíhcatíon not víth thc otber but víth tbe otbers' ¦ íbíd.,
p. 40I } . Llscvhcrc, hc dcscríbcs thcology as 'thc cxprcssíon oI a ycarn-
íng`, 'a ycarníng Ior a statc ín vhìch thc murdcrcr might not tríumph
ovcr thc ínnoccnt víctím' ¦íbíd., p. J89} . Adorno vould havc subscríbcd
to thís.
4 Cl. Adorno's Au[zeicbnungen zu Ka[ka.
KaIka's thcoÍogy - iI onc can spcak ot such a thing at aÍÍ - is antinomian
towards thc samc God whosc conccpt Lcssing had championcd against
orthodoxy, thc God oI thc !nÍightcnmcnt. ßut that is a Jeus absconJitus.
KaIka bccomcs an accuscr oI diaÍccticaI thcoÍogy, which hc is mistakcnÍy
bcÍicvcd to support. Îts absoIutcÍy Òthcr convcrgcs with thc mythicaI
powcrs. !hc cntircIy abstract, indctcrminatc God cIcanscd oI aÍÍ anthro-
pomorphic and mythoIogicaÍ guaÍitics is transIormcd into thc IatcIuÍ,
ambivaÍcnt and thrcatcning God who instiÍs nothing but Icar and trcm-
bìing. În thc tcrror ìn Íacc oÍ thc radìcaììy unknown, hìs ' purìty` , modcìlcd
on mind, which thc cxprcssionist inwardncss in KaIka scts up as abso-
Íutc, rcinstatcs thc ancicnt humanity cntrappcd in naturc. KaIka's work
rccords rhc srriking ot thc hour whcn purihcd Iaith rcvcaÍs itscII as im-
purc, dcmythologization as dcmonoIogy. (GS 1 0. 1 , p. Z8J}
Ø
W
1 8Z ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 1 Z1-IZZ
Jhat Adorno had a no lcss crítícal attítudc tovards thc rcstítutíon ol
thc thcology ol thc Lnlíghtcnmcnt can bc sccn lrom hís corrcspondcncc
víth !aul Jíllích ol I 964. Jíllích had askcd hím. 'Vhat do you thínk
about thc ncv phasc ol thcology vhích - Iollovíng Mcídcggcr and
Bultmann's phílosophy ol languagc - rcplaccs all ontology víth thc
¨ uord ol Cod` : Víth Mcídcggcr thcy lct languagc bc as thc "housc ol
bcíng" , but víthout any "bcíng" ín thc housc| ` ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno
Archív, !aul Jíllích to Adorno, undatcd [c. carly Cctobcr I 96ó] j . !rom
Adorno`s rcply.
!hc word-oI-God thcoIogy in thc scnsc you rcIcr to, which, by thc way,
had bccn prcparcd by lcidcggcr sincc his 'turning point`, Í rc|cct no Ícss
than you do. !hc mysticaÍ conccption oI Íanguagc oI which it is so rcmin-
isccnt has mcanìng onÍy in thc contcxt oI a posìtivc thcoIogy. Òthcrwisc
thc phiÍosophy oI Ianguagc bccomcs somcthing Íikc a Ictishism oI Ían-
guagc. Vhat is thc word oI God supposcd to mcan wìthout Godr !o,
that won't do, and not onIy wiII it hnaIÍy Ícad to a rcsurrcction oI thc
IibcraI-sccuIar moraIizatìon oI thcology, but thcsc thcologians wiII makc
common causc with thc ÍogícaÍ positivists, Ior whom Íanguagc has a vcry
sìmíÍar Iunctíon, namcÍy to rcpIacc thc sub|cct. ( 9. 10. I96ó, to lauI !iÍÍichj
ó !robably an allusíon to thc mctaphor uscd by Klcíst to dcscríbc hís
acquaíntancc víth 'thc ncv, so-callcd Kantían phílosophy' ¦c.la5 lV.4,
pp. J¯6l, n. 99j .
6 Cl. Karl Barth, Der Romerbrie[, Ist vcrsíon I 9I 9, Znd vcrsíon I 9Z0,
nov I óth cdn, Zurích I 989.
¯ Jhc tcxt sourcc rcads 'Konstantín Brunn`, but undoubtcdly thc Zurích
!rolcssor ol 5ystcmatíc and !ractícal Jhcology Lmíl Brunncr ¦ I 889-
I966j ís mcant, hc vas onc ol thc co·loundcrs ol díalcctícal thcology,
and vas also a partícípant, víth Adorno and Morkhcímcr, ín thc so
callcd !ranklurt convcrsatíon ol I9JI on thc 'mcctíng` ol !rotcstant
thcology víth thc prolctaríat and víth sccular culturc, c. 'Ías !rank
Iurtcr Ccsprach', ín !aul Jíllích, 8rie[uecbse/ und Streitscbri[ten.
Tbeo/ogiscbe, µbi/osoµbiscbe und µo/itiscbe Ste//ungnabmen und
Gesµracbe, cd. Kcnatc Albrccht and Kcnc Jautmann, !ranklurt/Naín
I98J, pp. JI 4llj .
8 !crdínand Lbncr ¦ I 88Z-I9J I j , an Austrían prímary school tcachcr and
Catholíc línguístíc phílosophcr, vas a mcmbcr ol thc círclc assocíatcd
víth thc pcríodícal Der 8renner.
9 !rícdrích Cogartcn ¦ I 88¯-I 96¯j, a !rotcstant thcologían and pupíl ol
Lrnst Jrocltsch. 5íncc I 9JJ Cogartcn had hcld a Chaír at Cottíngcn.
I0 Adorno ís thínkíng prímaríly ol Cogartcn, vho vrotc ín I9JJ on thc
'uníty ol Cospcl and natíonal charactcr', arguíng that 'vc must strívc,
bound by Cod`s vords, to pcrccívc ín thc grcat cvcnts ol our days a
ncv task vhích our Iord has sct lor our Church' ¦quotcd by Lrích
Jrícr [rcvícv] . `!rícdrích Cogartcn, Línhcít von Lvangclíum und
Volkstum:` Mamburg I9JJ, In Zeitscbri[t [úr Sozia/[orscbuag 3 [ I 9J4],
p. J0¯ jvol. Z] ) .
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb IZZ-IJ0 I 8J
I I Adorno ís rclcrríng to 5chvcppcnhauscr`s doctoral thcsís, not publíshcd
untíl I 96¯, and cspccíally to thc last chaptcr, cntítlcd 'lostscrípt` ¦ cl. Mcr-
mann 5chvcppcnhauscr, Kierkegaards Angri[[ au[ die Sµeku/ation. Eine
\erteidigung, !ranklurt/Naín I96¯, Znd, rcvíscd vcrsíon, Nuních I99J} .
IZ !írst publíshcd ín I 90Z, nov ín Mugo von Molmannsthal, |rosa ||,
cd. Mcrbcrt 5tcíncr, !ranklurt/Naín I 9ó9 ¦ Ccsammcltc Vcrkc ín
!ínzclausgabcn}, pp. ¯ll.
I J Adorno ís spcakíng ol M. C. Adlcr ¦ I 9I0-88) and hís book
Tberesienstadt I º1I÷I º15. Das Ant/itz einer Zuangsgemeinscba[t.
Gescbicbte Sozio/ogie |sycbo/ogie ¦Jiìbíngcn I 9óó) . Cn M.C. Adlcr
also cl. C5 Z0. Z, p. 49ó, on Bcckctt`s statcmcnt rclcrrcd to ín thc lol-
lovíng tcxt cl. Negatiue Dia/ectics, pp. J6¯l.
I4 5cc Iccturc I 4, n. I I . ln a lcttcr ol Z4.ó. I 94¯ Morkhcímcr rcportcd on
hís rcadíng ol Der SS-Staat, cl. Morkhcímcr, Gesamme/te Scbri[ten,
vol. I ¯. 8rie[uecbse/ I º1I÷I º18, !ranklurt/Naín I !96, p. 8 I4.
1 ó Jhc passagc Adorno ís rclcrríng to ís ín ¸ Z8 ol thc Critique o[
]udgement.
!aturc considcrcd in an acsthcticaÍ | udgmcnt as mìght has no dominion
ovcr us, is Jynanica//y sub/ine. II naturc is to bc | udgcd by us as
dynamicaÍÍy subIimc, it must bc rcprcscntcd as cxcitìng Icar . . . . ßut wc
can rcgard an ob|cct as jearju/, without bcing aIraid oj it; viz. it wc | udgc
oI it ìn such a way that wc mcrcÍy tbinl a casc in which wc wouÍd wish
to rcsist it, and yct in which aÍÍ rcsìstancc wouId bc aÍtogcthcr vain.
jAdorno annotatcd thc Íast scntcncc in hìs copy with. ' Critique oj ]uJge
nent: rathcr: thc ìmagc mcdìatcs thc Icar conccaÍcd in rcaÍity' . ] ßoÍd,
ovcrhanging, and as it wcrc thrcatcning, rocks¡ cÍouds piIcd up in thc sky,
moving with Íightnìng IÍashcs and thundcr pcaIs, voIcanocs in aÍÍ thcir
vioÍcncc oI dcstruction; hurricancs with thcir track ot dcvastation, thc
boundIcss occan in a statc ot tumuIt, thc ÍoIty watcrtaÍÍ oI a mighty rivcr,
and such Íikc; thcsc cxhibit our tacuÍty ot rcsistancc as insignihcantIy
smaÍÍ in comparison wìth thcir might. ßut thc sight oI thcm ìs thc morc
attractivc, thc morc IcarIuÍ it is, providcd onIy that wc arc in sccurity.
(Kant`s Kritil oj]uJgnent, trans. ].l. ßcmard, London/!cw York I 89Z,
pp. 1ZJ-ó}
Adorno annotatcd thc last paragraph ín thc margín. 'Iíkc thc poctry ol
thc young Cocthc.` Cl. la5 I . I, p. Z4J, and íbíd., n. Z84.
I 6 !art ol thc scntcncc has bccn omíttcd lrom thc tcxt sourcc.
I ¯ August 5tríndbcrg's novcl 8/ack 8anners ¦cl. A. 5trìndbcrg, Scbuarze
|abnen, Nuních/ Icípzíg I 9I 6, p. Zó4} .
lccturc Scvcntccn
I
Allusìon to 5chcllíng`s vrítíngs on 'Ííc Vcltaltcr' ¦ scc thc rclcrcncc
ín Iccturc Z, n. 6) on vhích Adorno and Morkhcímcr had hcld thcìr
advanccd phílosophy scmínar ín thc víntcr scmcstcr ol I960/1 .
V
1 8+ ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb I J0-IJ1
Z Cl. !ranz Kalka, Nacbge/assene Scbri[ten und |ragmente || in der
|assung der Handscbri[ten, cd. ]ost 5chíllcmcít, !ranklurt/Naín I 99Z,
p. IZJ: 'Jo havc laíth ín progrcss docs not mcan to havc laíth that any
progrcss has yct takcn placc. Jhat vould not bc laíth.'
J !ublíshcd ín Iondon, I 948.
4 Con¡cctural rcadíng.
ó Cl. ¸ óJ ol 8eing and Time.
it by ßcing towards dcath wc do not havc in vicw an 'actuaÍizing` ot
dcath, ncithcr can wc mcan 'dwcIÍing upon thc cnd in its possibiÍity' . !his
is thc way onc comports oncscIt whcn onc 'thinks about dcath`, pondcr-
ing ovcr whcn and how this possibiÍity may pcrhaps bc actuaÍizcd. Òt
coursc, such brooding ovcr dcath docs not IuÍÍy takc away Irom it its
charactcr as a possibiÍity. Îndccd, it aÍways gcts broodcd ovcr as somcthing
that is coming; but in such brooding wc wcakcn it by caÍcuIating how wc
arc to havc it at our disposaÍ. ¦ lcidcggcr, 8eing anJ Tine, pp. J0ó-6¡ c.
Adorno`s Tbe ]argon o] Autbenticity, whcrc this tormuIation is guotcd
(ibid., p. 1 Jl )
6 Jhc latíonal 5ocíalíst !rnst Krícck ¦ I 88Z-I 94¯}, prolcssor at thc
!adagogíschc Akadcmíc ín !ranklurt/Naín síncc I 9Z8, had bccomc
rcctor ol thc ]ohann Vollgang Cocthc-\nívcrsítat ín I9JJ. In a rcport
on Arnold Cchlcn, Morkhcímcr rclcrs to thc samc quotatíon vhcn
hc comparcs Cchlcn's thcory ol ínstítutíons víth 'Krícck's thcsís' 'that
only sacríhcc makcs us lrcc, sacríhcc lor íts ovn sakc' ¦Morkhcímcr,
Gesamme/te Scbri[ten, vol. I 8. 8rie[uecbse/ I º1º÷73, !ranklurt/Naín
I996, p. 4Z0} . Vhcthcr thc quotatíon ís corrcctly attríbutcd to Krícck,
ín vhosc vork ít has not bccn traccd, sccms doubtlul ín vícv ol a
passagc ín Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity: 'In I 9J8 a latíonal 5ocíalíst
Iunctíonary vrotc, ín a polcmícal varíatíon on a 5ocíal Ícmocratíc
phrasc. " 5acríhcc víll makc us lrcc" ', thc sourcc gívcn ís. 'c. Mcrbcrt
Narcusc's crítíquc ín Zeitscbri[t [úr Sozia/[orscbung, vol. Vll ¦ I 9J8} ,
p. 408' . Movcvcr, Narcusc's crítíquc ís ol a book by !ranz Böhm
(Anti-Cartesianismus. Deutscbe |bi/osoµbie im Widerstand, Icípzíg
I 9J8} , as a rcvícv ol a book by Krícck bcgíns on thc ncxt pagc, a lapsc
ol mcmory by both Morkhcímcr and Adorno sccms líkcly.
¯ Cl. Adorno, Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity, p. IJ8 . `Ícath ís thc possíbíl-
íty ol thc absolutc ímpossíbílíty ol Íascín.' ¦ Quotcd lrom 8eing and
Time, ¸ ó0. }
8 Adorno probably has a passagc lrom ¸ 4¯ ol 8eing and Time ín mínd.
Yct whcn somconc has dicd, his ßcing-no-Iongcr-in-thc-worId (iI wc
undcrstand it in an cxtrcmc way) is stiÍÍ a ßcing, but in thc scnsc oI thc
ßcing-| ust-prcscnt-at-hand·and-no-morc oI a corporcaÍ !hing . . . . !hc enJ
oI thc cntity qua Dascin is thc beginning oI thc samc cntity qua somc-
thing prcscnt·at·hand . . . . Irom a thcorcticaÍ point oI vicw, cvcn thc corpsc
which is prcscnt·at-hand is stiÍI a possibÍc ob|cct Ior thc studcnt oI patho-
ÍogicaÍ anatomy, whosc undcrstanding tcnds to bc oricntcd to thc idca oI
ÍiIc. |ibid., pp. Z81-Z}
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1 DLLb 1 JZ-IJ+
I 8ó
9 Cl. thc Iollovíng passagc lrom ¸ ó4.
Nan aÍonc carrìcs about wìth him ìn abstract conccpts thc ccrtaìnty ot
his dcath, and yct, most strangcÍy, thìs ccrtaìnty arouscs anxicty in
him onÍy at isoÍatcd momcnts whcn somc causc brìngs ìt vìvìdÍy to hìs
ìmaginatìon. Against thc mìghty voìcc oI naturc rcIIcction can do ÍittIc. ln
man too, as in thc anìmaÍ whìch cannot think, prcvaìIs thc ccrtainty
sprung trom his inncrmost conscìousncss, that hc is naturc, is thc worId
ìtscÍI, so that no-onc is notìccabÍy troubÍcd by thc idca oI thcìr ccrtaìn
and ncvcr dìstant dcath, but cach carrìcs on his Iìtc as iI hc must Iìvc tor
cvcr . . . . ( Schopcnhaucr, Sant/icbe Werle, voÍ. l, pp. J88I)
1 Ü In hís cssay on Bloch`s Sµuren Adorno conncctcd thís motíl to thc
scctíons cntítlcd 'Klcínc Críllc` and 'Vcítcr gcbcn` ín that vork.
În thc traccs which thc cxpcrìcncc ot ìndìviduaÍ consciousncss hcIps to
unIoÍd, thc rcscuc oI ìÍÍusìon has ìts ccntrc in what thc book on utopia
caIIcd thc cncountcr wìth scÍt. !hc sub|cct, man, hc argucs, is not hìmscÍI
at aÍI, hc ìs ìÍÍusory both as an unrcaI cntìt, which has not yct cmcrgcd
Irom possìbiIity, and as a rcIIcction ot what hc couÍd bc. !ictzschc's idca
ot thc human bcìng as somcthing whìch must bc ovcrcomc ìs moduIatcd
ìnto a sphcrc wìthout vioÍcncc: 'Ior man is somcthing which has yct to bc
Iound`. (G5 1 I , p. ZJ8)
Jhc rcason lor hís non-ídcntíty vìth hímscll, hovcvcr, ís thc matcríal-
+  & 
rstic onc
that human bcings in a unìvcrsaI cxchangc socicty arc not thcmscÍvcs but
agcnts oI thc Iaw ot vaÍuc. lor ìn hìstory up to now, whìch ßÍoch wouÍd
not hcsitatc to caÍI prchistory, humanity was an ob|cct, not a sub|cct. 'ßut
no onc ìs what hc thìnks, and cvcn Icss what hc rcprcscnts. And ìndccd,
aÍÍ arc incÍincd to bc too much ìn Iavour oI what thc, havc bccomc, not
too ÍìttÍc.` ¦ìbid., p. ZJ9)
I I Cn thc lunctíon ol cducatíon ín thc socíal phílosophy ol Iclvctíus
cl. Nax Morkhcímcr, 'VorÌcsung ubcr díc Ccschíchtc dcr ncucrcn
!hílosophíc`, ín Morkhcímcr, Gesamme/te Scbri[ten, vol. 9. Nacb-
ge/assene Scbri[ten I ºI 1÷I º3I , !ranklurt/Naín I 98¯, pp. J6Zll, and
thc dísscrtatíon by Cunthcr Ncnschíng, supcrvíscd by Adorno and
Morkhcìmcr, Tota/itat und Autonomie. Untersucbungen zur µbi/osoµ-
biscben Gese//scba[tstbeorie des [ranzosiscben Materia/ismus, !ranklurt/
Naín I9¯I .
IZ Cl. C5 I I , p. ó6¯.
I J !n \rcud`s carly thcory ol thc drívcs thc conccpt ol thc cgo-drívcs ís
uscd synonymously vìth that ol thc scll·prcscrvatíon drívcs and con-
trastcd to thc scxual drívcs:
!hcsc instìncts arc not aÍways comparìbIc with cach othcr, thcìr ìntcrcsts
ottcn comc ìnto conIÍìct. Òppositìon bctwccn ìdcas ìs onIy an cxprcssìon
V
Æ
1 86 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb 1 Jó-1 J6
oÍ strugglcs bctwccn thc various instincts . . . . A guitc spccìaIly important
part is playcd by thc undcnìabÍc opposition bctwccn thc instincts whìch
subscrvc scxuaÍit,, thc attainmcnt oI scxuaÍ plcasurc, and thosc othcr
instincts, which havc as thcir aim thc scÍI-prcscrvatìon oI thc individuaÍ
- thc cgo-tnstincts. As thc poct has said, aÍÍ thc organic instincts that
opcratc in our mind may bc cÍassihcd as 'hungcr` or 'Íovc`. ( 5igmund
Ircud, Con¡/ete |sycbo/ogica/ Worls, trans. ]amcs 5trachcy, voÍ. 1 1
| 19I0} , London 1 96Z, pp. Z1J-14}
Accordíng to !rcud`s latcr thcory, vhích opcratcs víth thc antíthcsís ol
thc Lros and dcath drívcs, thc scll-prcscrvatíon drívcs arc a spccíal casc
among thc !ros drívcs.
I4 Cl. Narccl !roust, Remembrance o[ Tbings |ast, trans. C.K. 5cott
Noncrícll, Iondon I 9ó¯, Tbe Caµtiue, !art l, pp. Z4Jll. Jhc passagc,
vhích Adorno also íntcrprcts ín hís K/eine |roust-Kommentare ,c.
C5 I I , pp. ZI Jll} , ínIIucnccd hís thínkíng about ímmortalíty morc than
anythíng clsc. Bcrgottc dícs vhílc vísítíng an cxhíbítíon vhcrc hc vantcd
to study 'a líttlc patch ol ycllov vall` ín Vcrmccr`s \ieu o[ De/[t.
lc was dcad. lcrmancntly dcad³ Vho shall sayr Ccrtainly our cxpcri-
mcnts ìn spìrìtuaÍism provc no morc than thc dogmas oI rcÍìgion that thc
souÍ survivcs dcath. AÍÍ that wc can sa, is that cvcrything is arrangcd in
this ÍiIc as though wc cntcrcd ìt carrying thc burdcn oI obÍigations con-
tractcd in a Íormcr IìÍc; thcrc is no rcason ìnhcrcnt in thc conditions oÍ
ÍìIc on this carth that can makc us considcr oursclvcs obÍìgcd to do good,
to bc Iastìdious, to bc politc cvcn, nor makc thc taÍcntcd artìst considcr
hìmscÍt obÍigcd to bcgin ovcr again a scorc oI timcs a piccc oI work thc
admìration arouscd by which wiÍl mattcr ÍìttÍc to his body dcvourcd by
worms, Íikc thc patch oI ycÍÍow waÍÍ paintcd wìth so much knowÍcdgc
and skiÍÍ by an artìst who must Ior cvcr rcmain unknown and is barcÍy
idcntìhcd undcr thc namc Vcrmccr. AlÍ thcsc obÍigations which havc not
thcir sanction in our prcscnt ÍìIc sccm to bcÍong to a ditIcrcnt worÍd,
Ioundcd upon kindncss, scrupuÍosìty, scÍI-sacrihcc, a worÍd cntircl, diI-
Icrcnt Irom this, whìch wc Ícavc ìn ordcr to bc born into this worÍd,
bcIorc pcrhaps rcturning to thc othcr to Íìvc oncc again bcncath thc swa,
oÍ thosc unknown Íaws which wc havc obcycd bccausc wc borc thcir
prcccpts in our hcarts, knowing not whosc hand had traccd thcm thcrc -
thosc Íaws to which cvcry proIound work oI thc ìntclÍcct brings us ncarcr
and which arc invisiblc only - and stiÍÍ| - to IooÍs. 5o that thc idca that
ßcrgottc was not whoÍÍy and pcrmancntly dcad ìs by no mcans improb·
abÍc. (ìbid., pp. Z'0I}
I ó Cl. thc skctch ol thc cssay planncd by Adorno on 'I`ínnommablc'. `Is
nothíngncss thc samc as nothíng: Jhat ís thc qucstíon around vhích
cvcrythíng ín Bjcckctt] rcvolvcs. Absolutcly cvcrythíng ís throvn avay,
bccausc thcrc ís only hopc vhcrc nothíng ís kcpt back. Jhc lullncss ol
nothíngncss. Jhís thc rcason lor thc ínsístcncc on thc zcro poínt.` And.
'Jhc posítívc catcgorícs, such as hopc, arc thc absolutcly ncgatívc oncs
ín Bjcckctt] . Mopc ís dírcctcd at nothíngncss` ¦sourcc. Roll Jícdcmann,
``Ccgcn dcn Jrug dcr !ragc nach dcm 5ínn" . !ínc Íokumcntatíon zu
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1PLLb 1 J6-1J8 18/
Adorno`s Bcckctt-Icktiìrc`, ín |rank[urter Adorno 8/atter |||, Nuních
I994, pp. ¯J, 44} .
I 6 Cl. C5 I I, pp. ZIJll, rcgardíng thc comparíson bctvccn !roust and
Kalka. `Mcrc . . . vc hnd a statcmcnt vhích, at lcast ín thc Ccrman
vcrsíon, has cchocs ol Kalka. It ís. "thc ídca that Bcrgottc ís not vholly
and pcrmancntly dcad ís by no mcans ímprobablc`` ¦íbíd., c. !roust,
Remembrance, p. ZóI } .
I ¯ Jhc namc ol thc hrst poct mcntíoncd vas not undcrstood by thc
sccrctary, possíbly Mcym should bc conjccturcd.
lccturc Lightccn
1 5cc Iccturc I , n. I and Iccturc IJ, n. 9. Cn Z9. ¯. I 96ó, vhcn Adorno
gavc thc last ol thc lccturcs on mctaphysícs, thc hrst manuscrípt vcrsíon
ol Meditationen zur Metaµbysik, vhích hc had bcgun to díctatc on
J. ó. I 96ó, vas complctcd. It vas stíll cntítlcd Zur Metaµbysik, but lrom
thc sccond vcrsíon, datíng lrom I8. ó. I 96ó, ít vas callcd Meditationen
zur Metaµbysik. Vhílc Adorno also rclcrs ín his notcs to Metaµbysiscbe
Tbesen, no othcr rclcrcncc to Rejexionen zur Metaµbysik as a títlc has
bccn traccd.
Z 5cc pp. I óll, I0I-Z and I04 µassim.
J Adorno kncv ol thc 5ohar spcculatíons through 5cholcm, c.thc lattcr`s
translatíon ol thc hrst chaptcr and cspccíally thc íntroductíon to thc
translatíon ¦Die Gebeimnisse der Scboµ[ung. Ein Kaµite/ aus dem Sobar
uon Gjerscbom] Scbo/em, Bcrlín I9Jó} . Cl. Adorno`s lcttcr ol I9.4. I9J9
to 5cholcm ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno, '\m Bcn|amíns Vcrk. Bríclc an
Ccrschom 5cholcm I 9J9-I 9óó` , ín |rank[urter Adorno 8/atter \,
Nuních 1998j .
4 As carly as I 804 5chcllíng uscd thc tcrm 'posítívc phílosophy` to rclcr
to hís ovn phílosophy, cqually opposcd to ratíonalísm and cmpírícísm,
thís phílosophy vas not contcnt víth rcason - rcgardcd as 'ncgatívc` ín
rclatíon to thc rcal - but vas dírcctcd tovards thc rcal ítscll. 'Jhc posítívc
phílosophy . . . docs not takc as íts startíng poínt vhat ís mcrcly prcscnt
ín thought, or anythíng occurríng ín cxpcrícncc . . . . Its príncíplc ís lound
ncíthcr ín cxpcrícncc nor ín purc thínkíng. lt can thus sct out only lrom
thc absolutcly transccndcnt . . . ` ¦5chcllíng, |bi/osoµbie der Ò[[enbarung
I 81I/12, cd. Nanlrcd !rank, Jrd cdn, !ranklurt/Naín I 99J, p. I46} .
5cholars havc trcatcd 5chcllíng`s latc thought, vhích hc himscll claímcd
to bc both an 'cxístcntíal phílosophy` and a loundatíon lor a 'phílo·
sophícal rclígíon`, as vcrgíng on thc apocryphal, íl not on obscurantísm,
only rcccntly has ít also bccn sccn as an attcmpt to ovcrcomc ídcalísm.
In hís rclcrcncc to thc thcologícal spcculatíon ín thc Cabbala Adorno
probably had ín mínd an cssay by ]iìrgcn Mabcrmas vhích díscusscs
conncctíons bctvccn 5chcllíng on thc onc hand and thc 5ohar, Isaak
Iuría and ]akoh Böhmc on thc othcr (c.]iìrgcn Mabcrmas, 'Ííalcktíschcr
!dcalísmus im
]
hcrgang zum Natcríalísmus - Ccschíchtsphílosophíschc
Ø
I88 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLLb I+0-I+ó
!olgcrungcn aus 5chcllíngs ldcc cíncr Contractíon Cottcs', ín Mabcrmas,
Tbeorie und |raxis. Sozia/µbi/osoµbiscbe Studien, lcuvícd/BcrÌín I96J,
pp. I08ll}.
ó Jhc placc namcs ín !roust havc bccn con¡ccturcd, síncc thc tcxt sourcc
contaíns only omíssíon marks.
6 Adorno ís thínkíng ol a passagc ín thc chaptcr on amphíboly ín thc
Critique o[ |ure Reason. `Jhc crítíquc ol thís purc undcrstandíng . . .
docs not pcrmít us . . . to stray ínto íntcllígíblc vorlds, nay, ít docs not
allov ol our cntcrtaíníng cvcn thc conccpt ol thcm' ¦|mmanue/ Kant`s
Critique o[ |ure Reason, p. Z94 ¦ A Z89, B J4ó} } . Also c. la5 lV.4,
p. I ¯, µassim.
¯ Cn thc constcllatíon ol happíncss and placc namcs ín Adorno c.
Negatiue Dia/ectics, p. J¯J, and la5 I . I , p. Z¯9, n. I .
8 Cl. Minima Mora/ia, p. I09 ¦ ` 5ccond Marvcst' } .
9 Cl. p. 68 abovc.
I0 Adorno took ovcr thc conccpt ol thc díalcctícal ímagc lrom Bcn|amín,
but charactcrístícally rcmodcllcd ít ín hís ovn thcory, on Adorno's usc
ol thc tcrm c. Jícdcmann, 8egri[[ 8i/d Name, pp. 9Zll.
I I Cl. Mcgcl, Tbeo/ogiscbe ]ugendscbri[ten, nach dcn Mandschríltcn hrsg.
von Mcrman lohl, Jubíngcn I 90¯.
IZ lot ín thís lccturc, at lcast thc survívíng part, but c. Negatiue Dia·
/ectics, pp. I ¯Jll, and C5 I0. Z, pp. ¯4I ll.
I J ln thís conncctíon c. Adorno's lccturc scrícs Kants 'Kritik der rein en
\ernun[t`, la5 lV. I0, pp. I I 8ll, and íbíd., pp. Z6Zl.
I4 Jhc conccpt ol thc 'sítuatíon' vas cndovcd víth thc valuc ol a catcgory
by ]aspcrs, ít vas cmphasízcd lcss by Mcídcggcr, but most ol all ín
thc cxístcntíalísm ol 5artrc, c. thc scctíon '!rccdom and !actícíty. thc
5ituation' in 8eing and Notbingness, !ondon I 9¯Z.
I ó Ncaníng. víth thc ídca ol thc ncgatíon ol thc ncgatíon as a posítívíty
attaíncd.
I 6 At thc conclusíon ol hís last lccturc Adorno had rcachcd pagc Z0 ol hís
notcs ¦c.Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo I0806} and thus almost thc
cnd ol thc lourth ol thc 'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysícs' ¦c. Negatiue
Dia/ectics, p. J¯ó} . Movcvcr, thc notcs lor thc lccturc contínuc somc
vay bcyond thís poínt, íncludíng thc hrst thírd ol thc hlth 'Ncdítatíon'
¦c. íbíd., pp. J¯6l}, as Adorno clcarly mcant to takc thc lccturc to at
lcast that poínt, thc rcmaíníng notcs - somc ol vhích Adorno had,
hovcvcr, alrcady dcalt víth outsídc thc planncd scqucncc at thc cnd ol
thc lccturc - víll bc lístcd hcrc, as thcy vcrc notcd dovn ¦thc small typc
clcarly índícatcs latcr addítíons, as dístínct lrom thc maín tcxt} .
Tbe Jes¡air at ubat is is s¡reaJing to tbe transcenJenta/ iJeas.
|araJox is ¡assing ouer into s/anJer (a tenJency a/reaJy jounJ in
KierlegaarJ, in bis attituJe to ¡ouerty).
In Kant tbe - unrea/izab/e - neta¡bysica/ iJeas uere su¡¡oseJ, at
/east, not to co//iJe uitb reason; absurJ toJay. N8. Tbeir antbro¡ocentri>n
anJ cosno/ogy. Anbiguity o] tbe Co¡ernican reuo/ution.
ÏLÅLb ÅL 1PLL I+ó I 8¬
Fa/se e/euation o] tbe jate oj neta¡bysica/ iJeas to a neta¡bysics.
Tbe Jece¡tion tbat Jes¡air guarantees tbe existence o] ubat is bo¡e-
/ess/y /o>t. Tbe bou/s oj re/igious joy ouer Jes¡air. A//e/uia!
]ust as socia//y tbe neans re¡/ace tbe enJs, neta¡bysica//y tbe /acl
re¡/aces ubat is /acling.
Tbe trutb oj ubat is absent is beconing inJijjerent; it is asserteJ
because it is gooJ jor ¡eo¡/e, as a beart-uarner. A curious inuersion, in
re/ation to tbe situation oj I¡icureanisn, tbat too is subject to a bistor
ica/ Jia/ectic.
Meta¡bysics is turning into ¡ragnatisn.
Tbe trutb oj negation nust not be subuerteJ as ¡ositiuity.
Tbe rea/ criticisn oj Hege/: it is untrue tbat tbe negation oj tbe nega-
tion is tbe ¡ositiue. (|rojection oj consequentia/ /ogic on to tbe abso/ute.
Disso/ution oj tbe non-iJentica/ into iJentity.)
Tbe question oj tbe 'neaning oj /ije`.
Tbe associateJ iJea tbat it is ubat tbe questioner giues to /ije.
8ut neaning ougbt to be ob)ectiue/y beyonJ a// Joing, otberuise ja/se,
a nere Ju¡/ication.
A// neta¡bysics ains at sonetbing ob|cctìvc.
Subjects in¡risoneJ in tbeir constitution, neta¡bysics neans reþec-
tion on bou jar tbey can see beyonJ tbe ¡rison oj tbeir se/ues.
Any otber question about neaning is an aJuertisenent jor tbe uor/J.
Tbe Nazis· tbe uor/J has a neaning. Tbe terrorist e/enent in tbis
iJea/isn`s /a¡se into tbe question oj neaning conJenns it retros¡ectiue/y.
it a/reaJy containeJ tbe untrutb oj tbe nirroring.
Mirroring is tbe ¡rinary ¡benonenon oj iJeo/ogy.
Tbe totaÍity oj tbe question oj neaning as a s¡e//.
|j a suiciJa/ ¡erson asls about tbe neaning oj /ije, tbe be/¡/ess be/¡er
ui// be unab/e to nane one.
|j be atten¡ts to Jo so be can be conuicteJ oj ta/ling rubbisb.
Lije ubicb baJ neaning uou/J not asl about it, it sbuns tbe question.
8ut abstract nibi/isn just as untrue.
|t uou/J baue no ansuer to tbe question: Wby, in tbat case, are you
yourse/j a/iue°
To ain at tbe ubo/e, to ca/cu/ate tbe net ¡roþt oj /ije is ¡recis/y tbe
Jeatb ubicb ca/cu/ation seels to euaJe.
Wbere tbere is neaning, it is in tbe o¡en, not in ubat is c/oseJ in on
itse/j
Tbe tbesis tbat /ije bas no neaning is, as a ¡ositiue statenent, as ja/se
as its antitbesis, true on/y as a b/ou against en¡ty agrnation.
Tbe c/ose agnity oj Scbo¡enbauer to tbe Cernan iJea/ists.
Tbe relinJ/ing oj nature re/igions, tbe b/inJ ui// as Jenon.
Tbe truth in nonotbeisn against Scbo¡enbauerian irrationa/isn.
Regression to tbe stage bejore tbe aualening oj genius aniJ tbe nute
uor/J.
Denia/ oj jreeJon, tbis nales tbe esca¡e by tbe bacl Joor in 8ool 4
[oj !hc VorÍd as VìÍÍ and Kcprcscntatìon] so jeeb/e.
Tota/ Jeterninisn no /ess nytbica/ tban tbe tota/ities in Hege/ian
/ogic.
Tbe totum is tbe tote
n.
[Jhcodor V. Adorno Archiv, Vo 10806-10808)
1 ¬0 ÏLÅLb ÅL 1DLL I+ó
I¯ Kcgardíng Adorno's paradox ol thc 'ímpossíbìlíty ol thínkíng that vhích
must ncvcrthclcss bc thought', cl. Kícrkcgaard. 'Jhc paradox ís not an
admíssìon, but a catcgory, an ontologìcal dctcrmìnatíon, vhìch cxprcsscs
thc rclatíonshíp bctvccn an cxístìng, cognízant mínd and thc ctcrnal
truth' ¦ sourcc. 5orcn Kícrkcgaard, Die Tagebücber, cd. Mayo Ccrdcs,
vol. Z, Íusscldorl, Colognc I96J, p. 80 [Vlll, A I I] } . But also scc
Adorno's crítíquc ín Negatiue Dia/ectics. 'Jhc thcologícal conccptíon ol
thc paradox, that last, starvcd-out bastíon, ís past rcscuìng - a lact
ratíhcd by thc coursc ol thc vorld ín vhìch thc skanda/on that caught
Kícrkcgaard`s cyc is translatcd ìnto outríght blasphcmy' ¦ìbíd., p. J¯ó} .
¡LÍÃLH`b PÏáHÑLHL
Þs a rulc, Þdorno`s acadcmíc tcachíng and hís vrítíng procccdcd
scparatclysídc-by-sídc, butnotalvays. !ardlyqualíhcdasa lccturcr
ín thc summcr scmcstcr oI 1 ¬JZ, hc dcvotcd onc oI hís hrst lccturc
scrícs to thc phílosophy oI Kícrkcgaard, thc sub|cct oI hís stíll
unpríntcd doctoral thcsís. Latcr, aItcr thcír rcturn Irom cmígratíon,
Þdorno and !orkhcímcr covcrcd thc contcnt oI both Dia/ectic oj
|n/igbtenment and Metakritik der |rkenntnistbeorie ín thcír |oínt
phílosophy scmínars bctvccn 1 ¬ó6 and 1 ¬ó8. But thc most stríkíng
cxccptíon to thc rulc ísNegatiue Dia/ectics, oIvhích Þdorno vrotc
ìn 1 ¬68, vhcn ít had alrcady bccn publíshcd, that ít rcprcscntcd
`vhat jhc| had to put on thc scalcs` ¦cI. Gb /, p. óJ/) . Jhís book
vhích, dcspítcÞdorno`srcscrvatíonsaboutthcgcnrc, onccanhardly
hclp callíng hís magnum oµus, crystallízcd duríng a lccturc scrícs
cntítlcd' CntologyandOíalcctícs` thathcgavcínthcvíntcrscmcstcr
oI 1 ¬60/1. Jhc lccturc víth thc samc títlc that Þdorno gavc at thc
Collcgc dc Irancc ín Narch 1 ¬61 vas thc hrst vcrsíon oI thc hrst
part oI Negatiue Dia/ectics thc systcmatíc, crítícal díscussíon oI
!cídcggcr`s phílosophyvhích Iormcd thc startíngpoínt oIÞdorno`s
'antí-systcm`.Jhcn,Irom1¬6+to 1¬66,no Icvcrthanthrccsucccssívc
lccturc scrícs by Þdorno had thcmcs vhích arc ccntral to Negatiue
Dia/ectics, onvhích hc vasvorkíng íntcnsívcly at that tímc. !n thc
summcrscmcstcroI1 ¬6/andínthcIollovíngvíntcrscmcstcr,vhcn
thc book vas alrcady hnishcd, ít vas díscusscd ín thc phílosophy
scmínar. JhclccturcsonNegatiue Dia/ectics arcthc onlycvídcnccoI
thccourscsvhichÞdornohcldincon| unctíonvíth hisovnvrítíngs,
1 ¬Z L L1 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLVL
and cvcn thcy havc not bccn complctcly prcscrvcd. Jhc hrst vas
announccd Ior thcvíntcr scmcstcr oI 1¬6+/ó víth thc títlc `Jhcorícs
oI!ístory and Irccdom`, and dcalt víth thc thcmatíc complcxcs to
vhích thc studícs oI Kant and !cgcl ín Negatiue Dia/ectics arc dc-
votcd- thchrsttvo 'modcls`ínÏartJ. Jhclccturcscrícs'Nctaphysícs.
ConccptandÏroblcms`,contaíncdínthcprcscntvolumcandrclatíng
to thc last 'modcl` ín Negatiue Dia/ectics, thc 'Ncdítatíons on Ncta-
physícs`, Iollovcd ín thc summcr scmcstcr oI 1 ¬6ó. Jhc last lccturc
scrícs, hcldínthcvíntcrscmcstcr oI1 ¬6ó/6, dcvclopcdthcídca oIa
díalcctíc oI non-ídcntíty Irom a ccrtaín dístancc, Þdorno gavc thís
ídca thc namc 'ncgatívc díalcctícs`, and uscd thc samc títlc Ior thc
lccturcs as Ior thc book. Þdorno` síntcntíon ínthcsc lccturcs vas to
provídc ` akínd oImcthodologícal rcIlcctíon on vhat Ì do` ¦Jhcodor
¤.ÞdornoÞrchív,Vo 1081 J) - a dchnítíoncorrcspondíngtothatoI
thc 'mcthodology oI thc author`s matcríal vorks` ín thc prcIacc oI
Negatiue Dia/ectics ¦ p. 7Ì7) .
Cnthc rclatíonshíp bctvccnhíslccturcsandthc bookvíthvhích
thcy arc assocíatcd Þdorno madc somc rcmarks at thc bcgínníng oI
hìs lccturcs cntítlcd `Icgatívc Oíalcctícs` vhích throv líght on thc
clímatc ín vhích hc vas thcn havíngto tcach.
As you knov, thc tradítíonal dchnítíon ol a unívcrsíty calls lor a uníty
ol rcscarch and tcachíng. As you also knov, thc rcalízatíon ol thís
idca, vhích ís still uphcld, ís vcry problcmatíc. Ny ovn vork sullcrs
badly lrom thís problcmatíc, síncc thc quantíty ol tcachíng and admín-
ístratívc tasks I havc to contcnd víth makcs ít almost ímpossíblc lor
mc to attcnd to my so-callcd rcscarch tasks - íl onc víshcs to spcak ol
phílosophy as rcscarch - duríng tcrm tímc ín thc vay vhích ís not only
ob¡cctívcly callcd lor but vhích, abovc all, matchcs my ovn ínclína-
tíon and dísposítíon. In such a sítuatíon, and undcr such compulsíon
and prcssurc, onc dcvclops ccrtaín charactcrístícs vhích can bcst bc
dcscríbcd as pcasant cunníng. l try to makc thc bcst ol thís sítuatíon
by . . . dcrívíng a substantíal part ol my lccturcs lrom thc copíous and
quítc oncrous book I havc bccn vorkíng on lor thc last síx ycars and
vhích víll bcar thc títlc Negatiue Dia/ectics . . . . I am avarc that onc
míght ob|cct to such a proccdurc, as thosc víth a posítívíst outlook
víll bc partícularly ínclíncd to do, that an acadcmíc tcachcr ought only
to scrvc up hníshcd, valíd, vatcrtíght rcsults. Vhílc l do not vísh to
makc a vírtuc ol ncccssíty, I do not thínk that thís vícv quítc hts
thc conccpt ol phílosophy, that phílosophy ís thought ín a pcrmancnt
status nascendi, and that, as thc grcat loundcr ol thc díalcctíc, Mcgcl,
saíd, vhat mattcrs ín phílosophy ís thc proccss as much as thc rcsult,
that proccss and rcsult . . . arc cvcn thc samc thíng. Bcyond that, l
thínk that phílosophícal thínkíng has an ínhcrcnt momcnt ol tryíng
out, cxpcrímcntíng, ol non-conclusívcncss, vhích dístínguíshcs ít lrom
1 11 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLV1 1 ¬J
thc posítívc scìcnccs, and to ínvcstìgatc thìs lurthcr vìll bc not thc lcast
oI my conccrns ín thcsc lccturcs. Accordìngly, thc rcIlcctíons I am
prcscntìng to you hcrc víll havc such cxpcrímcntal traíts as long as
thcy havc not rcachcd thc dchnítìvc lìnguìstíc lorm attaìnablc to mc,
as Iar as my strcngth allovs. And I vould rcally líkc to cncouragc
you . . . by vhat I havc to say to thínk víth mc and to conduct your
ovn rcIlcctìons, rathcr than handíng you a pìccc ol ccrtaín knovlcdgc
that you can conhdcntly takc homc. ¦Jhcodor V. Adorno Archív, Vo
I08IZl}
An ímportant Icaturc oI thc lccturc scrícs rclatíng to Negatiue
Dia/ectics ísthatallthrccor- íIvcíncludc'CntologyandOíalcctícs'
- all Iour vcrc hcld at a tímc vhcn thc parallcl tcxts ín thc book
vcrsíon had not yct rcachcd thcír hnal Iorm, so that thc lccturcs
stcmmcd,asÞdornolíkcdtoputít, Iromvorkínprogrcssor, bcttcr,
rcIlcctcd a spccíhc stagc ín thc stíll contínuíng cvolutíon oINegatiue
Dia/ectics. Jhc rcadcr mayhnd conhrmcd ín thcmvhat vas saíd oI
thc lccturcs on 'Kant`s Critique oj |ure Reason'.
Jo bc ablc to accompany Adorno`s thínking ín íts dctours and by¬ays
rcvcals aspccts ín vhìch thc closcd and conclusívc lorm charactcrístìc
oI Adorno`s vrítíngs ís brokcn opcn, gívíng rísc to possíbílítìcs thc
author vas unablc to lollov up ín hís hníshcd vorks . . . . Cnly thc
transcrípts ol hís lccturcs cnablc us to vatch hím ín hìs cxcrtíons
ol thought, to gct a glímpsc ínto thc vorkshop vhcrc, líkc 5ícglrícd
lorgìng hís svord ín Nímc`s cavc, thc phìlosophcr vas lashíoníng hís
conccpts . . . . ¦la5 IV.4, pp. 4Z0l}
Þdorno hímsclI, as can bc casíly gathcrcd Irom hís commcnts, had
a vcry índccísívc attítudc tovards thc cxpcrímcntal charactcr oI hís
lccturcs. Cn thc onc hand thc cxpcrímcntal aspcct vas supposcd to
rcprcscntaníntcgratíngmomcntoIphílosophícalthínkíng,Iorvhích,
onthc othcr, Þdorno ncvcrthclcss hopcd to achícvc thc bíndíng, dc-
hnítívc Iormulatíonvhích vould 'dísposcoI' thcprovísíonalqualíty
oI thc cxpcrímcntal stagc, ín kccpíng víth !oImannsthal's díctum
that 'thc Iorm dísposcs oI thc problcm'. !n thc tcnsíon bctvccn thc
línguístíc Iorm ín thc strong scnsc and thc thought vhích cannot bc
concludcd, thc spccíal charactcr oIÞdorno's phílosophy ís probably
to bc sought, a charactcr vhích cmcrgcs Iar morc clcarly Irom hís
lccturcs than Irom thchníshcd vrítíngs.
Jhc coursc on 'Nctaphysícs' díIIcrs Irom thc dírcctly prcccdíng
andsuccccdínglccturc scrícs ín thatítscontcntsgo bcyond thcscopc
oI'NcdítatíonsonNctaphysícs'andNegatiue Dia/ectics. Jvo-thírds
oI ít arc dcvotcd to Þrístotlc`s Metaµbysics. Þs Iar as can bc sccn
^
#
1 ¬+ 111 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLVL
Irom our prcscnt knovlcdgc oIÞdorno` stcachíng actívítícs, hc only
lccturcd tvícc on Grcck phílosophy. !n thc víntcr scmcstcr oI 1 ¬óJ/
+ andínthc Iollovíng summcr scmcstcr oI 1 ¬ó+ hcgavc a tvo-part
scrícs on 'Jhc Ïroblcm oI !dcalísm`; vhílc thc sccond part vas an
'!ntroductíon to Kant`s Critique oj |ure Reason', thchrst dcalt víth
thc prc-bocratícs, cspccíally Ïarmcnídcs and !craclítus, Ïlato`s doc-
tríncoIIormsandthccrítíqucoIítbyÞrístotlc. CnlyÞdorno`sbrícI
notcs Ior thc lccturcs havc bccn prcscrvcd, and vhílc thc outlìnc oI
thc Iccturcs can bc prccíscIy rcconstructcd Irom thcsc, líttlc oI thc
argumcntatíoncanbcglcancd ¦c.Jhcodor¤.Þdorno,'OasÏroblcm
dcs !dcalísmus. btíchvortc zur Vorlcsung`, ín lrankjurter Adorno
8/atter \, Nuních 1¬¬8) . JhcdíscussíonoIthcÞrístotclíancatcgorícs
ínthclccturcson'Nctaphysícs` IromthcsummcrscmcstcroI1 ¬6óís
thc only cxtcnsívc trcatmcnt oIa thcmc Irom ancìcnt phílosophy by
Þdornovhíchhasbccnprcscrvcd. JhcrclcvanccoIthcscdíscussíons
lícsnotsomuchínthcIactthatthcyconccrnoncoIthckcyvorksín
thc hístory oIphíIosophy as ín thc contcxt ínvhích Þdorno placcd
thcm: víth thc qucstíon 'vhcthcr aItcr Þuschvítz you can go on
lívíng` ¦ Negatiue Dia/ectics, p. J6J) , thc last thírd oIthc Iccturcs on
'Nctaphysics` poscs thc most scríous qucstíon Iaccd by phílosophy
today. Þlthough thc part dcvotcd to Þrístotlc sccmsto bc somcvhat
sclI-contaíncdandunconncctcdtothcIrcclyímprovíscdcommcntary
on'NcdítatíonsonNctaphysícs` , Þdorno`srcIlcctíonsarcnotmotív-
atcdbyanhístorícalíntcrcstínÞrìstotlc`sphílosophy, butarcguídcd
rathcr byproblcms arísíngIrom hís ovn thought. Jhus, thcy do not
nccdtobcbascdonÞrístotlc`stcxtítsclI, butcanIargclymakcdovíth
íduardZcllcr`saccountoIít.JhcídcntítyanddíIIcrcnccoIÞrístotlc`s
catcgorícs ín rclatíon to thosc oI a 'ncgatívc` mctaphysícs, vhích ís
only possìblcaItcr Kant, arc not a phìlologìcaI probIcm.\nlìkcÏaul
Jíllích, Ior cxamplc, vho cxplícítly took ovcr Þrístotlc`s dístínctíon
bctvccn ðuroµ:, and c:cpyc:a as 'príncípal qualítícs oI bcíng` ín hís
díscussíon oI thc so-callcd 'líIc-dímcnsíons` ín hís Systematiscbe
1beo/ogie - cspccíally ín thc thírd volumc, vhích Þdorno askcd thc
author to lcnd hím vhílc vrítíng 'Ncdítatíons on Nctaphysícs` -
Þdorno sccks to hnd out vhat hístory has madc oI such supra-
tcmporalcatcgorícsínthcmcantímc,vhcthcr andhovIarÞrístotlc`s
catcgorícs stíll hold goodínthcuttcrIyadmínístcrcdvorld. Jhat thc
díscussíon oIÞrístotlc`sMetaµbysics hasno countcrpart ín thc book
vcrsíon oI Negatiue Dia/ectics docs not mcan that antíquíty ís not
ubíquítouslyprcscntínít- orIor thatmattcr,ínÞdorno`sphilosophy
asavholc.!tísprcscnt, andto aIar híghcrdcgrccthanthcrclativcly
rarcmcntíonsoIGrcckphílosophcrsínÞdorno`svritíngsmíghtsug-
gcst. Lvcn íIthcrc is no vork by hím vhích ís cxplícítly dcvotcd to
Æ  ×. 
L 11 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLVL 1¬ó
ancícnt phílosophy, Þdorno`s thought prcsupposcd Ïlato and Þrís-
totlc¡ ust asmuchasanyothcrgrcatphílosophyhas donc,atlcastup
to thc thrcshold at vhích posítívísm sílcnccd ít. Ior Þdorno, `as Iar
backasvccantracc ít, thc hístoryoIthoughthasbccn a díalcctícoI
cnlíghtcnmcnt` . !nNegatiue Dia/ectics hctraccd ít backto íts orígíns
ínarchaícthought,ínvhíchhcdídnotdíIIcr Irom!cídcggcr,cxccpt
ín opposíng thc archaíc and Iavouríng dcmythologízatíon. `Jhc toíl
and troublc oI thc mctaphysícísts oI antíquíty - Irom Ïarmcnídcs,
vho had to splít thínkíng and Bcíng so that hc míght ídcntíIy
thcm, dovn to Þrístotlc - consístcd ín Iorcíng thc dívísíon.
Ocmythologízatíon ís dívísíon; thc myth ís thc dcccptívc uníty oIthc
undívídcd` ¦Negatiue Dia/ectics, p. 1 1 8} . Bccausc ídcntíty and uníty,
víthout vhích no thought can bc thought, tcrmínatcd ín thc catas-
trophcoImodcrníty,Þdorno`s`thínkíngaItcrÞuschvítz`,ínítssolíd-
aríty víth thc multíplc, thc non-ídcntícal, cnquírcs oncc agaín ínto
thc catcgoríal dístínctíons oI Þrístotlc, a `last phílosophy` cnquíríng
ínto thc `hrst`. !ovcvcr suspcct thc proxímíty oIóp_¸, thcmythícal
conccptoIorígín,mayhavcbccntothatoIthcIathcrlandIorÞdorno,
hc vould ncvcrthclcss havc agrccd víth !cgcl, vho `alvays Iclt at
homcvhcn jhcj hcard thc vord Grcccc`.
Jo mcdítatc on mctaphysícs vas alrcady as untímcly ín thc míd·
1 ¬60s, vhcn Þdorno gavc hís lccturcs, atít sccms thírty ycars latcr,
at thc tímc oI thcír publícatíon. Ior Þdorno mctaphysícs vas morc
than a 'convcrsatíon` ín vhích thc partícípants arc morc conccrncd
víth cach othcr than víth thc contcnt oIthcconvcrsatíon, thcprob-
lcms tradítíonally callcd mctaphysícal; hc pcrsístcd ín bclícvíng that
phílosophyhadto do víth thcpcrccptíonoItruth, and couldnot bc
díssolvcd ínto such casual contcxts as a 'convcrsatíon oI mankínd`
(c. Kíchard Korty, |bi/osoµby and tbe Mirror oj Nature, CxIord
1 ¬80,pp. J8¬II} . !I mctaphysícs ísto bc undcrstood, víth Þrístotlc,
asa `thínkíng oIthínkíng`, asthc `conccpt vhích has bccomc avarc
oI ítsclI`, víth vhích thínkíng ítsclI and íts Iorms arc clcvatcd
to catcgorícs oI bcíng, to somcthíng absolutc, thcn, víth Þdorno,
mctaphysícstodaycanbc`nothíngothcrthana thínkíngaboutmcta-
physícs`, about `vhcthcr thínkíng and íts constítutívc Iorms arc in
jact thc absolutc` ¦ p. ¬¬ abovc} . !n thc `Nctaphysícs` lccturcs, as
ín Negatiue Dia/ectics, thís qucstíon rcccívcs an unqualíhcd `no`, ín
vhíchÞdorno ísínagrccmcntvíth thc!orkhcímcr oIDammerung.
`Jhcrc ís no mctaphysícs; no posítívc statcmcnt on anythíng abso-
lutc ís possíblc` ¦ Nax !orkhcímcr, Cesamme/te Scbrijten, vol. Z.
|bi/osoµbiscbe Irubscbrijten í 922-)932, cd. GunzclínbchmídIocrr,
IrankIurt/Naín 1 ¬87,p. +J0} , althoughhcaddcd: `Nctaphysícscan-
notbca posítívc doctríncaboutanyontologícalcontcntvhíchmíght
B

1¬6 L 11 ÅLV´ b DÏÅ1VÑLV1
bcproclaímcdasmctaphysícal;ítconsístsoIthcquestions rclatíngto
suchcntítícs. . . . Jo putíttrcnchantly. ncgatívc mctaphysícsís mcta-
physícs no lcss than posítívc mctaphysícs` ¦Jhcodor ¤. Þdorno,
|bi/osoµbiscbe Termino/ogie. /ur |in/eitung, cd. KudolI zur Líppc,
vol. Z,IrankIurt/Naín 1¬/+, p. 1 66) . Þdorno, ín hís rccordcd com-
mcntson`mctaphysícalcxpcrícncc`,vouldlíkctoínsístthatcxpcrícncc
oIthcmctaphysícal,thcsphcrcvhích,sínccKant,cannotínpríncíplc
bc Iulhllcd bycxpcrícncc, ísncvcrthclcss possíblc. It ís, ncvcrthclcss,
an íncontrovcrtíblc cxpcrícncc oI contíngcncy, oI dcath, oI loss oI
mcaníng, that mctaphysícs, throughout hístory thc quíntcsscncc oI
thc spírítual, has `slíppcdínto matcríaI qucstíons oIcxístcncc` ¦ Neg-
atiue Dia/ectics, p. J66) ín thc cra oIÞuschvítz. Ior Þdorno, mcta-
physícs- oIvhích hcmíghthavcsaíd, asBcnjamínsaídoIthcology,
that ít ís small and ugly and should not shov íts Iacc today - has
víthdravnínto thcrclatíonoIthought to nccd, tothc matcríalvant
oIhuman bcíngs, thís nccd ` survívcs` only asncgatíon.
Kcprcscntcd ín thc ínmost ccll oI thought ís that vhích ís unlíkc thought.
Jhc smallcst íntramundanc traíts vould bc oI rclcvancc to thc abso-
lutc, Ior thc mícrologícal vícv cracks thc shclls ol vhat, mcasurcd by
thc subsumíng covcr conccpt, ís hclplcssly ísolatcd and cxplodcs íts
ídcntíty, thc dclusíon that ít ís but a spccímcn. Jhcrc ís solídaríty
bctvccn such thínkíng and mctaphysícs at thc tímc ol íts Ial l . ¦íbíd.,
p. 408}
Nctaphysícs no longcr lcads ínto any Ïlatoníc hcavcn oI Iorms,
ít ís no longcr guarantccd any -ócpe; _opm-ó;, ít ís only a last
rcIugc both agaínst thc ídcology oI 'thc mctaphysícs that has ríscn
novadays` ¦ íbíd., p. J7Z) and agaínst thc cult oI 'that vhích ís thc
casc` . InthconlyplaccvhcrcÞdornobroughthímsclItooIIcr a kínd
oIdchnítíon oImctaphysícs, hcgavc ít thc Iorm oIa ncgatíonoIthc
hrst proposítíon oI thc Tractatus /ogico-µbi/osoµbicus. mctaphysícs,
hcvrotc, stood
agaínst scícntísm, lor cxamplc Víttgcnstcín`s posítíon that Iunda·
mcntally conscíousncss has to do only víth that vhích ís thc casc.
Jhat míght call Iorth anothcr dcnnítíon. mctaphysícs ís thc lorm oI
conscíousncss ín vhích ít attcmpts to knov vhat ís morc than thc
casc, or ís not mcrcly thc casc, and yct must bc thought, bccausc that
vhích, as onc says, ís thc casc compcls us to do so. ¦Adorno,
|bi/osoµbiscbe Termino/ogie, vol. Z, p. I6¯, on Víttgcnstcín`s díctum
also cl. C5 8, pp. JJ¯I}
!t vas Þdorno' s hopc that rcIÌcctíon on thc límíts víthín vhích
thought ís blockcd míght opcn thc príson a líttlc. ` jthc abílíty oI
L11 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLV1 1 ¬7
phíIosophyj to thínk bcyond ítscII, ínto opcnncss- that, prccíscIy, ís
mctaphysícs` ¦ p. 68abovc) . Þdorno rcIuscd to ancxtcnt to sharc ín
thc pcssímísm oI hís Irícnd !orkhcímcr, ín hís matcríaIíst grícIthat
pastsuIIcríngcouIdnotbcmadcgood,vhcnhcvrotcthat'íIthought
ísnotdccapítatcdítvíIIIÌovíntotransccndcncc, dovntothcídcaoI
a vorId that vouId not onIy aboIísh cxtant suIIcríng but rcvokc thc
suIIcríng that ís írrcvocabIy past` ¦ Negatiue Dia/ectics, p. +0J) . !t
maybcthat suchrcvocatíonínaIIítsímpotcnccrcprcscntsthcmcta-
physícaI mínímum vhích ís IcIt to a ncgatívc díaIcctícs.
Jhc cdítcd tcxt oI thc Iccturcs ís bascd on a transcrípt oI thc tapc-
rccordíng - a transcrípt vhích vas madc ín thc !nstítut Iur
bozíaIIorschung, usuaIIy dírcctIy aItcr thc índívíduaI Iccturcs. Jhc
transcríbcd tapcs vcrc crascd at that tímc so that thcy couId bc
rcuscd.JhctranscríptísnovkcptínthcJhcodor¤. ÞdornoÞrchív
and numbcrcd Vo 10J+7-10808.
!ncstabIíshíngthc tcxt thc cdítor hastrícd to procccd ínthc samc
vay as Þdorno vhcn cdítíng cxtcmporc Iccturcs, íI índccd hc rc-
IcascdthcmIor pubIícatíon, ín partícuIar, hchastrícd to rctaínthcír
charactcr as Iccturcs. Þs thc tcxt oI thc transcrípt has dctcríoratcd
badIy, anunusuaIIyIargcnumbcroIíntcrvcntíonshadto bcmadc, ín
comparíson,Ior cxampIc,víththcIccturcsonKants 'Kritik der reinen
\ernunjt`. Jhc transcrípt vas cIcarIy madc by somconc vho vas
ncìthcr IamíIíar víth Þdorno`s pccuIíarítícs nor rcmotcIy abIc to un-
dcrstand thc subjcctmattcr oIthc Iccturcs. !t not ínIrcqucntIy shovs
omíssíonsIromthctcxt, Grcckvords havcaIvays bccn omíttcd and
namcs oItcn mísundcrstood, ín addítíon, thcrc arc numcrous IactuaI
crrors vhcn thc transcríbcr IaíIcd to hcar propcrIy. IcvcrthcIcss,
ít vas, asa ruIc, not díIhcuIt to surmísc and tacítIy ínscrt vhatvas
saíd or at Icast íntcndcd. !n vícv oI thc ncccssíty to makc Ircqucnt
cmcndatíons to thc tcxt, thc cdítor bcIícvcd hímscII authorízcd to
rctouch ít Iurthcr ína vay vhích vouId not havc bccn appropríatc
ín a morc authcntíc orígínaI, and vas not donc, Ior cxampIc, ín thc
casc oI thc Kant Iccturcs j ust mcntíoncd. CIcar víoIatíons oI gram-
matícaI ruIcs havc bccncorrcctcd, and supcrIÌuousvords, cspccíaIIy
thcpartícIcsnun, a/so, ja havc bccnrcmovcdvhcrcthcymcrcIyhIIcd
avkvard gaps. Þdorno` s usc oI thc dchnítc artícIc bcIorc namcs,
IoIIovíng a pccuIíaríty oIthc !cssían díaIcct ¦ ' dcr ÞrístotcIcs` ), vas
dcIctcdvhcrcítoccurrcdovcr-IrcqucntIy. Þnytoo-dístractíngrcpctí-
tíonsvcrc díscrcctIyrcmovcd, andcumbcrsomcsyntactícaIconstruc-
tíonsvcrcoccasíonaIIymodíhcd.JhccdítorIcItmostIrccínínscrtíng
míssíngpunctuatíon,attcmptíngtoartícuI
µtcthcspokcntcxtascIcarIy
and unambíguousIy as possíbIc, rcgardI
css oI thc ruIcs appIícd by
B
1 ¬8 L11 ÅLV´ b DÏÅLVÑLV1
Þdorno to vríttcn tcxts. !ovcvcr, hc ncvcr attcmptcd to 'ímprovc`
Þdorno`s tcxt, but onlytocstablísh bis tcxt, as Iar as thc cdítor vas
ablc. JhcnotcsgívcrcIcrcnccstothc quotatíonsuscdínthc lccturcs,
andcítc passagcs to vhích Þdorno rcIcrs or míght havc rcIcrrcd. !n
addítíon, parallclpassagcsIromÞdorno`svrítíngs arc adduccd both
toclaríIyvhatíssaídínthclccturcsandtodcmonstratcthatmaníIoÍd
conncctíons cxíst bctvccn thc author`s lccturcs and vrítíngs. ' Cnc
nccds to dcvclop a Iaculty Ior dísccrníng thc cmphascs and acccnts
pcculíar to that phílosophy ín ordcr to uncovcr thcír rclatíonshíps
víthín thc phílosophícal contcxt, and thus to undcrstand thc phílo-
sophyítsclI- thatísatlcastasímportant as knovínguncquívocally.
such and such ís mctaphysícs` ¦ p. ó1 abovc) . Jhc notcs arc íntcndcd
toassísta rcadíngvhíchIollovsthísín| unctíonoIÞdorno`s.!nthcír
totalíty thcy arc mcant to hclp thc rcadcr gaín an avarcncss oI thc
contcxtoIlcarníngínvhíchÞdorno` slccturíngtookplacc,andvhích
cannotbctakcn Ior grantcdnov. !Ithc notcs hcrcandthcrcgívcthc
ímprcssíon oIvcrgíng on a commcntary, ít should bc bornc ín mìnd
thatthís ímprcssíon ís not uníntcntíonal.
LÍLbbPHX LÏ
LH¡¡K áHNb
-cdyoJóc ¦thcgood)
d-/:¸-e;, -ec¦unmovcd)
q d:ay-¸ ¦ ncccssìty)
o ócJpooe; ¦ man)
q dcòpc/o¦ couragc)
dópo-e;, -ec¦ índchnítc)
-c óoc:pe:¦ thc ínhnítc)
q dp¿¸ ¦príncíplc, bcgínnìng)
-c oú-ój:o-e:¦chancc)
yap ¦ Ior)
òcú-cpe;, -o, -ec¦ sccondary), scc eúc/o, òcú-cpa
q ò:-oacú:¸ ¦ j ustìcc)
q òú:oj::;¦povcr, potcntíalíty)
c/òcco: ¦to knov)
-cc/òe;¦ Iorm)
c/co: ¦ to bc)
c-oc-e;, -¸, ec¦cach, cach índívídual)
ccòc¿ej:o: ¦ to bc possìblc, to admít)
q c:cpyc:o¦ actualíty)
c': -o-ooeòòo: ¦ onc ínthc many)
q c:-ca_c:a ¦rcalízatíon)
cc-:: ¦ ís, ís thccasc)
Z00 L1 Lb b DV3 LÏ LV11b Å1VÄb
.
¦ l }
 
co_o-e;, -·¡, -ec ast , scc ·¡ co¿o-·¡
q ¸o¸ ¦líIc}
¸pc:; ¦vc}
e|Jce/¦ thc gods}
o Jcó;¦ God}
Jcoc ¦ by posítíon}
q Jcop/o ¦ study, spcculatìon)
q /òco ¦thc ídca}
lò:e;, -o, -ec¦pcrsonal, private¦
-o/¦ and)
q -o-·¡yep/o ¦catcgory}
-c [ó-a¸-e:| -::eu: ,thc juumoved] mover¦
o -óope; ¦vorld, ordcr}
o òóye;¦ spccch, rcason, dchnítìon)
q pcJcç:; ¦ partícípatíon}
q pccó-¸; ¦mcan statc}
pc-a ¦ aItcr}
pc-aþoo:;c/;o'òeyc:e; ¦ transítìon to anothet kìnd)
p¸ ¦ not}
-cp¸ ô: ¦vhat ís not thc casc)
q p·¡_oc¸ ¦ dcvícc}
q µopç¸ ¦ Iorm}
:ec:: ¦ to thínk, pcrccívc}
:e·¡-ó;, -¸, ó:¦ mcntal}
q có·¡c:; ¦ thought, pcrccptíon)
o ceu;¦ íntcÌlcct, mínd}
q e/-/o ¦ housc}
-cô:, -ôô:-o¦ that vhìch ís thc casc, existing things¦
ô:-o;¦rcally)
ópcyopo: ¦ to dcsírc, rcach Ior}
q òpµ¸ ¦ímpulsc}
-c oõ c:c-o¦hnal causc, purposc}
q eúc/o ¦ substancc}
eúc/o, -po, ¦prímary substancc}
eúc/o, 8cú-cpo ¦ sccondary substancc}
L1 Lb b DV3 L Ï LVLLb ÅLVÄb
vó;, vóco, vóc,pÌ. rórrc; |ah, cvcry)
-cnc|pop |cnd, boundary, boundíng)
ne:c|:|to makc, do, act)
¸ ne/¸c:;|crcatíon, poctry)
¸ nó':;|cìty-statc)
¸ npoç:;| actíon)
npa--c:|to do)
npó;|víth rcgard to)
npó-cpe;, -o, -ec| Iormcr, príor)
-cnpo-e:| thc hrst)
npo-e;, -¸, -ec|hrst)
¸ ceç/o |vísdom)
¸ c-cp¸c:;|prívatíon)
-c-c'e; | cnd)
-c-/¸:c/:o:|csscncc)
-óòc-: |índívídual thíng)
-eaû-e;, -e:oú-¸, -eaû-e(v) | such)
o -óne;|placc, topíc)
¸-ú¿¸| Iatc, chancc)
¸ o'¸ | mattcr)
o'¸, cc_o-¸ | last mattcr)
o'¸, npe-¸ |prímary mattcr)
-cène-c/pc:e: |thc substratum)
óc-cpe;, -o, -ec |latcr)
ç:'eceç/o |phílosophy)
ç:'eceç/o, npe-¸ | hrst phílosophy)
çúcc| by naturc)
r çuc:-o|physícs)
¸ çúc:;|naturc)
¿pó:ç |íntímc)
_op/; | scparatcly)
o _opmpó;| scparatíon)
¿opo-ó; | scparablc)
`01
M
Æ
ÍPL¡7
a prìorí I 64-ón
contìngcnt and valíd óJ-4
logìc ó4-ó
mattcr óJ-ó
thc absolutc
dcmonìzcd IZI
Mcgcl IZZ
Adlcr, I. C. I 8Jn
Adorno, Jhcodor V.
antì·systcm I 9I
Dia/ectic oj £n/igbtenment ¦vith
Morkhcímcr} I08
Tbe ]argon oj Autbenticity I 06,
1JI
K/eine |roust-Kommentare IJ6
Metakritik der £rkenntnistbeorie
9ó, 99
Minima Mora/ia I40
Negatiue Dia/ectics I 9I-ó
Aestbetics ¦Icgcl j I I0
Amcry, ]can I 06, I 09
torturc I ¯9n
Anaxagoras oI Clazomcnac 9I
Anaxìmandcr ol Nílctus ó¯, ¯4,
I 66n
Andronícus ol Khodcs IZ
bt Ansclm ol Cantcrbury 89
antínomícs, doctrìnc ol ó¯
Antísthcncs I6, I óJn
Aquínas, bt Jhomas ¯J, I0ó
Chrístìan mctaphysícal
spcculatíon 6
| ustíhcatìon ol mctaphysícs 8
occultìsm J
Arcndt, Mannah l I ó
Arístotlc 4, IZ
absolutc índctcrmínatìon ol
mattcr óZ-J
absolutc pcrlcctíon cquatcd víth
absolutc rcalìty 89
Adorno's rc!lcctíoh I 94-ó
bríngíng togcthcr tvo sphcrcs
J¯-8
Categories Zó
causc ¯J-4, I69n
changc and thc unchangcablc
ó6-8, 60, 8¯
Chrístìan mctaphysícal
spcculatíon 6
con!líctìng approach to prìmary
bcíng 80-I
dctcmporalízation ol conccpts
69-¯I
thc díalcctic +¯, +8
1 ÏLL7
`0J
dívínc actíon I ¯Jn
c:cpyco ¦ actualíty} and òú:oµ:
¦potcntíalíty} J6-¯
csscncc ín thíngs thcmsclvcs
Z6-JZ
cthícs 4¯, I 6Jn
hrst mattcr ¦npo-¸ úè¸} 66-¯
Iorm ¦µopç¸} and mattcr ¦ úè¸}
Jó-6
gcncsís and valídíty 4Z, 44,
I60-In
Mcídcggcr` s íntcrprctatíon ol
'human urgc to knov' ZI-J
hylozoísm I4, 8ó, I óJn
hypostasís ol lorm and
ímmortalíty ¯J
ímpcrlcctíon aríscs lrom mattcr
¯¯-9
índívíduatíon ¯9-80
íntcrvcníng actívíty ol Cod 9¯
lcgacy ol dualísm ¯¯-8J
mattcr 64, I 6¯-8n, I¯In
mcdíatíon 4ó-¯, I 6I-Zn
mctaphysícs bcgíns víth I ó
motíon 8I-4, I¯I-Zn
no sub|cctívc rcIlcctíon 9J
not a nomínalíst I 9, Z6, J8
ob¡ cctívc ídcalísm 48-9, 6Z-4
thc Cnc ín thc Nany JJ-ó
ontology ZZ-J
Òrganon Zó, 28
ovcrlooks abstractívc qualíty ol
conccpts óó-6
thc partícular and thc unívcrsal
Zó-6 J9-4I ,
and !lato I¯-I 8, Z0, I ó4n
|o/itics 4¯
prímary status ol lorm ovcr
mattcr J6-4I, 4Z, óZ, 6I, 6J
príncíplc ol modcratíon ¦µoó-¸;}

scícncc oI hrst príncíplcs and
causcs Z4-6
spíríts J, 4
thc statíc and dynamíc I ¯Zn
substancc Z8-J0, JI-Z, 66-¯
synthcsis 6å-6
tcnsíon and dílhculty ín conccpt
oI úè¸ ¯4
thcology and thought 88-90
thínkíng oI thínkíng ¦:ó¸o,
:o¸oco;} 94-ó
transícncc I ¯0n
thc unmovcd movcr 40, ó 8-9,
¯6, 88, I ¯Z-Jn
see a/so Metaµbysics
Arístotlcan !crípatctícs 9¯
ataraxy I IZ
5t Augustínc ¯8
Auschvítz see cxtcrmínatíon camps
Tbe Autboritarian |ersona/ity
¦Adorno} J
Bacholcn, ]ohann ]akob ¯8
'back vorld' Z-J, 8, I4¯n
Bacon, !rancís
líbcratcd lrom tradítíon IJ9
Barth, Karl
mctaphysícs and culturc IZI-Z
Bcck, Naxímílían
|sycbo/ogy. Tbe Nature and
Rea/ity o[ tbe Sou/ ¯I-J
Bcckctt, 5amucl I I4, I I ¯-I 8
ncgatíon and truth IZ4, I Jó-6,
I 86n
8eing and Time ¦ Mcídcggcr} ZI ,
I 0¯, I ¯¯n
Bcn|amín, Valtcr I JJ, I6Jn
Bcrg, Alban I4J-4
Bcrkclcy, Bíshop Ccorgc 4
8/ack 8anners ¦ 5tríndbcrg} IZ6
Bloch, Lrnst I JZ, I ¯0n
Bolzano, Bcrnard J9
Le 8ourgeois Genti/bomme
¦Nolícrc} ¯8, I 69-¯0n
Bradlcy, !rancís Mcrbcrt I 64n
Brccht, Bcrtolt I 0¯, I 08, I I 6-I¯
palacc ol dogshít I I 8, I 80n
Brcntano, !ranz J9
Brunncr, Lmíl IZI, I 8Zn
Bubcr, Nartín I08
thc Cabbala IJ8
Caµita/ ¦ Narx} I J 8
W
Z0+ 1 ÏLL7

catcgoncs
abstractions produccd by thc
mìnd 48
ancicnt phìlosophy and
hylozoìsm 8ó-6
lorm and mattcr 66
intcrnal dcvclopmcnt 9¯
Categories ¦Aristotlc} Zó
causality
ó:ó,-¸ ¯4-ó
and chancc ¦ ¬_¸ì ¯ ó
Iormal ¯4
Irccdom ¯6
goals ¦ -cèo;} 6J
idcntity ¯ó
inhcrcnt ìn thc vorld óZ
moving ¯4
scnsiblc appcarancc JJ
chancc ¦-o_¸ì ¯ ó
changc 8I
Arìstotlc`s ìntcrcst ìn ó6-8
and ontology 8¯
prcsupposcs unchangcabìlity
ó¯
Chrìstianìty
Aristotlc`s dualism in hcavcn and
carth ¯8
mctaphysìcal spcculation 6-¯
monothcìsm 90
mystìcism I00, IJ8
nccd lor good/divinc 84
rc-cmcrgcncc ol mctaphysics
I9-Z0
cognition J4
common scnsc 6J
Comtc, Augustc ó-6, I48-9n
conccpts
abiding ¯Z-J
abstraction óó-6
arc thcmsclvcs ìn thc ob¡ccts ó6
conclusìon dravn lrom purc 8Z
dctcmporalization ol mcanìng
¯0-I
dìvinity 88
dravìng conclusions lrom 88
ol thc non-conccptual 6¯-8
Tbe Con[essions ¦ Kousscau} I ¯¯n
cosmology I J
Tbe Critique o[ ]udgement ¦Kant}
6J, IZó-6, I 8Jn
Tbe Critique o[ |ractica/ Reason
¦ Kant} I4J
moral lav acting upon cmpirical
vorld Z¯-8
Tbe Critique o[ |ure Reason ¦Kant}
and !lato Z0
culturc
dcath IJ0-I
dcmolishing IZ ¯
laìlurc IZ¯-8
industry ol I ¯¯-8n
man·madc IJ0
and mctaphysics IZI-8
narrov-mindcdncss I I 8
rcsurrcction and abolition I I 9
sclI·prcscrvatìon IZ9
supprcssion ol naturc I I 8
Curtì us, Ludvig I 68n
dcath
dillcrcnt mcanings I 06-¯
Mcìdcggcr`s mctaphysics I 84n
and mctaphysics I J0-8
old agc and idcntity I J4-ó
rcconcìliation to IJJ-6
5chopcnhaucr I 8ón
timc IJJ
Ícmocrìtus 9
Ícscartcs, Kcnc
dualìsm ol body and soul 8J
libcratcd lrom tradìtìon IJ9
nominalist protcst against
scholasticism 60
|rinciµ/es o[ |bi/osoµby Z8
substancc Z8
thc dialcctic
antinomics, doctrinc ol ó¯
Aristotlc and 4¯, 48
positivc momcnts I4Z
problcm oI mcdiatìon 69
synthcsìs 6ó-6
Dia/ectic o[ En/igbtenment ¦Adorno
and Morkhcimcr} I08
Íuns 5cotus, |ohn 8
1 ÏLL7 Z0ó
!bncr, !crdínand IZI, I 8Zn
cducatíon IJZ
!lcatíc school I6, 8I

cmotions
dcadcníng ol aIlcct I IZ
a príorí ol I 6ón
æ  æ  4 
cmpircism
mcdíatíon 4J
sacríhccd ín sclI-rctIcctíon 9ó
Lpícurcanísm 9¯
cpístcmology 44
antíthcsís bctvccn tradítíon and
cognítíon IJ8-9
attcmpt to rcconcílc conccpts ol
lorm and mattcr 4Z
cntvíncd víth mctaphysícs ó
see a/so knovlcdgc
csscnccs
Musscrl`s rcgíon ol Z¯
víthín or víthout Z6-¯
£tbics ¦ 5pínoza) Z8
cvíl
appropríatíon ol languagc IZJ
and trívíalíty I Ió

cxrstcncc
absurdíty I 09
alhrmatton I 0J-4, I I 0-I I
dcath as thc mcaníng ol I JI
guílt I IJ
Ham/et and transícncc IJ6
non-cxístcncc | µj o:) óZ
tímc IJJ
cxístcntíalísm I 06

cxpcrcncc
rclatíon to !latoníc ldca I 8
rcstríctíon on thínkíng about
truth IZ4-ó
cxtcrmínatíon camps I 0I , I04,
I I ó-I6, I ¯8n
poctry altcr Auschvítz 1 I0-I I ,
I¯9n
Iaíth
and knovlcdgc I 64n
!cucrbach, Iudvíg A.
anthropomorphic dívínity 9ó
Iorcc I 0
lorm ¦ µcµ;¸)
abstractíons produccd by thc
mínd 48
Arístotlc Jó-6
autonomy uscd ín ímmortalíty
argumcnt ¯I-J
and bcíng 6I
changc conhncd to 8I
c:cp¸cm 8J
ctcrnal rclatíonshíp víth mattcr
86-8
goal 6Z-J
ímmancnt not transccndcnt JJ
logíc 99
madc ínto truc rcalíty 6I
mattcr ycarns tovards 8J-4
ncccssíty ín antíthcsís víth mattcr
¯J-4
!latoníc ldcas J, I ó-I9, 6I
æ 
prmary status ovcr mattcr
J6-4I, 4Z, 49-ó0, óZ
rclatcd to mattcr ín momcnts 4I
socíal orígín 4ó
!rancc, Anatolc IJó-6
lrccdom
causalíty ¯6
and guílt I IZ-IJ
Mcgcl I ¯8n
unmcdíatcd antíthcscs ol uè¸ and
µc
µ;
7
¯6
!rcnch Kcvolutíon ¯9
!rcud, 5ígmund I I ¯
cgo-drivcs I J4, I 8ó-6n
Cchlcn, Arnold I 84n

gcncsis
dístínct lrom valídíty J9
rclatíon to valídíty 4Z
truth contcnt ol conccpts 44
Gesta/t Jó
gnostícísm I0, IJ8, I ó0n
goal ¦-cèo;}
lorm and mattcr 6Z-J
Cod
cxístcncc/non-cxístcncc 9
Cocthc, |ohann VolIgang von
I ¯-I 8, 8¯
M
Z06 I ÏLL7
Cogartcn, !ricdrich IZI, I 8Zn
Cohlkc, !aul I ¯Zn
good
highcst good ìs highcst purposc
96
nccd ol mattcr lor lorm 84
guilt
and lrccdom I IZ-IJ
Maag, Karl Mcinz J8, Ió9n, I 6I n
Ham/et ¦ 5hakcspcarc} IJ6
Mauscr, Arnold Ió8-9n
Mcgcl, Ccorg V. !.
thc absolutc ¯9, IZZ
abstract cxistcncc IJó
Aestbetics I I 0
8Z
I4Z
agcnt oI movcmcnt
conccpt oI rcihcation
dchnition ol logìc 9Z
dialcctic 6ó, 8I , 86
doctrinc oI positivc ncgatìon
I44
cquatcs lrccdom vìth dcath
I08-9
Irccdom I ¯8n
History o[ |bi/osoµby 6ó
indìviduatìon ¯9
Logic Z9, ó0, 8I , 8Z-J
mcdìation Z9, 4J
motivc to do ¡usticc to dilIcrcnccs
96-¯
ob|cctivìsm ó0
ontology and dialcctic 8I , 86
|benomeno/ogy o[ Sµirit
I08-9, I ¯ón
rcalìty oI thc ratiohal 8Z
Tbe Science o[ Logic
takcs 5chclling to task
I ¯4n
96
thcology I4Z
thought and bcìng 94, 99
transccndcntal analysìs 89
Mcidcggcr, Nartin ó8
and Aristotlc`s hrst scntcncc
Z0-J
8eing and Time ZI
carc/òoryc ZZ
Dasein IJ, I ¯¯n
dcath as spur to mctaphysics
IJ0-I, I JJ, I 84n
dcmolìshing culturc IZ¯
lrccdom and guilt I I Z
ìnvariant tcmporalìty 8¯
non-thcologìcal thcology I0¯
ontology I óó-6n
rationalìstic dcclinc ol
mctaphysìcs I 9
'Vhat is Nctaphysics:'
Mclvctius, Claud-Adrìcn
Mcraclitus I6
ctcrnal movcmcnt 8¯
Mcsìod 40
Mìppolytos I ¯ón
Ió4-ón
IJZ
History o[ |bi/osoµby ¦Mcgcl} 6ó
Mitlcr, AdolI I I6
Molmannsthal, Mugo von
' Chandos` lcttcr` lZJ
Morkhcìmcr, Nax IZó, I¯Zn, I 9¯
Dia/ectic o[ £n/igbtenment ¦vith
Adorno} I08
Crcck sclI-contcmplation I ¯Jn
human bcings IJ
ìnstinct Ior scll-prcscrvatìon
I J4, I 8ó-6n
motion 8J
non-idcntìty I 8ón
potcntìality and actuality I JZ-J
unìty oI cxpcrìcncc ol dcath IJJ
Mumboldt, Vìlhclm von IZJ
Mumc, Íavid
idcalìsm 6Z
substancc J0
Iusscr|, !dmund
contingcnt and lormal a prìori
óJ, I64-ón
idcalìsm I ¯4-ón
|deas: Genera/ |ntroduction to
|ure |benomeno/ogy Z8
mathcmatìcal vcrsus conccptual
validity 44
ontology J9
|ro/egomena to |ure Logic J9
rcgion ol purc csscnccs Z¯
1 ÏLL7 Z0/
sacríhcc ol thc cmpírícal 9ó
soul ¯Z
hylozoìsm I 4, 8ó, l óJn
Crcck cmancípatìon Irom I ó
ídca
see Iorm ¦ popç¸}
ídcalísm
Arístotlc`s objcctìvísm 69, 80-1,
89
conccpt ol rcíhcatíon I4Z
cvcrythíng rcducíblc to mìnd
9J
lorms ¦ cò¸) 6Z
Musscrl I ¯4-ón
!lato`s doctrínc ol ldcas I ó-I9
a príorì ó4
scnsíblc objccts as mcrc Iunctíons
6Z
sourcc Irom dualísm 80
and sub¡cctívíty 49, 69
uníty and dìvcrsíty 90
|deas· Genera/ |ntroduction to
|ure |benomeno/ogy
¦Musscrl) Z8
ídcntíty
and dívcrísíty 96-¯
momcnt ol causalíty ¯ó
old agc and dcath I J4-ó
unìty and dívcrsíty 90
ídcology 44
Chrístíaníty I0ó
culturc I I 9
mcdíatcd by culturc and
knovlcdgc IZ9-J0
and tcmporal cvcnts I 0J-6
ímmortalìty
autonomy ol lorm ¯I-J
ínductívc and dcductívc thought
IJ, I óIn
ínhníty
ancícnt díslíkc Ior 88
Iorcígn to antìquíty ó¯-8
lslamíc phílosophy
ratíonalísm J9
rclatíon to thcology 6-¯
Tbe ]argon o[ Autbenticity
¦Adorno} I 06, I JI
|aspcrs, Karl I JI
|cvs
lookìng lor alhrmatívc art IZ4
]ocl, Karl I68n
5t |ohn oI thc Cross IJ9
Kalka, Íranz IJ 0
mctaphysícal cxpcricncc IbIn
and !roust IJ6
thcologícal catcgorícs IZI
Kant, lmmanucl
avoíds hypostasís ín qucstìon oI
ímmortalíty ¯J
catcgorícs díIlcrcnt lrom
Arìstotlc`s Zó
changc and thc unchangíng ó¯
cognítíon ín gcncralíty and
ncccssíty ¯9
conclusions dravn Irom purc
conccpts 8Z
Critique o[ ]udgement 6J,
IZó-6, I 8Jn
Critique o[ |ractica/ Reason Z8,
I4J
doctrìnc oI antìnomícs ó¯, ó8
Iccling oI sublímc IZó-6
lorm and possíbílìty 6ó-6
ímpcratìvc I I6
knovlcdgc and Iaíth I 64n
mctaphysícs Z, ¯, l4J, I4¯n
Metaµbysics o[ Mora/s Z8
moral lav actíng upon cmpírícal
vorld Z¯-8
non-scnsíblc and scnsìblc óó,
I 6ón
noumcna and phcnomcna JJ
and !lato Z0
possíbílíty, rcalíty and ncccssíty
J¯, óó, 6ó-6
rcason and Iaíth óZ
substancc J0
su¡ cctívc constìtutíon ol physícal
vorld I I
synthctìc | udgcmcnts 4ó
^4
W
Z08 Î PLL7
Kant ( cont. ¦
tclcology 6J
uníty ín dìvcrsity J4
Kicrkcgaard, 5orcn
mind/Cci:t IZZ
K/etne Proust-Kommentare
¦Adornoj IJ6
knovlcdgc
conccpt oI rcìhcatíon I4I-Z
c/o:o: ¦to knovj ZI-Z
and Iaíth I64n
gcncsís and valídìty J9
mcdíatcd by culturc IZ9-J0
ín philosophical spcculatíon I I ó
sub¡cctìvíty 48
tcmporalíty 4ó
Kogon, !ugcn I 09, IZó
Köhlcr, Vollgang I I
Koyrc, Alcxandrc Z8
Krícck, !rnst I JI , I 84n
languagc
appropríatcd by cvíl IZJ
momcnts ol rcalíty 68
rcligìon I 8Zn
vríttcn and spokcn IJ¯
Lcìbnìz, Cottlrícd Vílhclm
thc bcst oI all possíblc vorlds
I 0ó
nomínalíst protcst agaínst
scholastìcísm 60
spírítualìsm J, 4
Lcssíng, Cotthold !phríam 96,
I ¯ón
Lcucíppus 9
Líncoln, Abraham Z
Lockc, ]ohn I0ó
íntIucncc ol !latoníc ldcas I 6
prímary and sccondary qualitícs
I óJ-4n
logìc
Mcgcl`s dchnìtíon 9Z
rcIcrs to scnsíblc mattcr ó4-ó
rclatíonshíp to mctaphysícs ó
validity oI lorms 99
Logic ¦Mcgcl j Z9, ó0, 8I , 8Z-J
Tbe Loued Òne ¦Vaughj IJ0
Nach, Lrnst 6Z
malc and lcmalc dualísm ¯8
Narx, Karl
accumulatíon ol míscry I óI-Zn
conccpt oI rcìhcatìon I4I-Z
hístorical matcríalísm 8, I 6Zn
narrov-míndcdncss oI culturc
I I 8
matcríalism
Lcucíppus and Ícmocrìtus 9
Narxìsm 8, I 6Zn
and mctaphysícs I óZn
mathcmatícs
thc inhnítc unknovn ó¯-8
mattcr ¦ uè·¡}
a prìori óJ-ó
absolutcly índctcrmìnatc óZ-J
Arístotlc`s conccpt ¯4, 80-1,
I6¯-8n
conlcrrcd only víth possìbílíty
64
distingushcd lrom bcìng 6I
ò:op:; ¦ potcntíalítyj 6J-4
hrst mattcr ¦npo-¸ uè¸} 66-¯
Iortuítousncss óJ
goal ¦-c´èo;} 6Z-J
hylozoìsm 8ó-6
ímpcrlcctíon aríscs lrom 7¯-9
logic ultímatc rclcrs to ó4-ó
mcrc potcntíalíty 6I
mythícal catcgorics ¯ó-6
rclationshìp víth lorm J6-4I ,
49-ó0, óZ, ¯J-4, 8J-4, 86
and sub|cctívísm 6J
substratc 60-I
mcaníng, abscncc ol I 0ó-6
mcdíatíon
abstractíon ol thc scnsíblc óó-6
dchnìng J I
laílurc oI 4J
Iorm and mattcr J6, 4I, 4J, 84
gcncsís and valídíty J9
gcnctíc mcanìng vìthín truth 4ó
ímmcdíatc ncccssary lor ó¯
Kícrkcgaard`s conccpt ol IZZ
knovlcdgc and culturc IZ9-J0
and modcration 4¯
I ÏLL7
Z0¬
movcmcnt 8Z
ol substancc Z9-JZ
mcntal sphcrc
logíc ó4-ó
see a/so ídca, lorm
Metakritik det £rkenntnistbeorie
¦Adorno} 9ó, 99
mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc I J9-40,
I 8I n
lruítlcss vaítíng I 4J-4
rclígíous I J8-9, l 8I n
transccndcntal I 00, I44-ó
mctaphysícs
aIhrmatívc I 0J-4
as brcach bctvccn ídcas and
phcnomcnal vorld I9
changc ín sclI and íts substancc
I0¯-8
conccpt oI non-conccptual mattcr
6¯-8
and culturc IZI-8
and dcath IJ0-8
dchníng I-ó, I9ó-6
cncompasscs all doctríncs about
ob|cctívc vorld 8
cntvíncd víth cpístcmology and
logíc ó
lallabílíty I4I
highcst good ís híghcst purposc
96
ídca morc rcal than cmpírícal
J6-4I
ídcology and tcmporal cvcnts
I 0J-6
ínductívc and dcductívc IJ, IóIn
Kant's crítíquc ¯
and matcríalísm I óZn
occultísm místakcn lor J-4
opcnncss 68, I4I
rc-cmcrgcs ìn Mìgh Níddlc Agcs
I9-Z0
rclatíonshíp víth thcology 6-8
rclcvancc oI thc tcmporal I 0I-Z
sclI-cvídcnt truths scvcrcd lrom
contcxr ¯¯
slíps ínto matcríal cxístcncc I I ¯
structural rclatíonshíps ¯6
thíhkíng 98-9
tímc IJJ-6
valucs ídca and rcason ovcr
mattcr óJ
Metaµbysics ¦Arístotlc} IZ
dualísm oI Iorm ahd mattcr ¯4
hov ís changc possíblc: 8I
motíl ol Iorm and changc ó6
thc unmovcd movcr ó9
see a/so Arístotlc
Metaµbysics o[ Mora/s (Kant} Z8
mínd/Cci:t
Kícrkcgaard IZZ
Minima Mora/ia ¦Adorno} I40
Nolícrc ¦ ]can-Baptístc !oquclín}
Le 8ourgeois Genti/bomme ¯b,
I69-¯0n
moral phílosophy I I6-I¯
æ 
motion
agcncy 8Z
cllcct ol movcr
human bcíngs
mcdíatíon 8Z
I ¯I-Zn
8J
movcmcnt ís thc rcalízatíon oI
thc possíblc 8I-4
movíng causc ¯4
thc unmovcd movcr 40, ó8-9,
¯6, 88, 96, I ¯Z-Jn
Nurc, CcoIIrcy K. C. ó0, I64n
#  4 
mystictsm
occultísm J-4, I4¯-8n
rclígíous IJ 8, I 8 I n
5chclcr Ió0n
spírítualísm J-4
naturc ¦çúo:;} ZZ

ncccsstty
ó:ó,-µ ¯4-ó, 8Z
matcríal ¯J-4
Negatiue Dia/ectics (Adorno)
I9I-ó
lco-!latonísm IZ, I J8
lcvton, lsaac 8Z
Nicomacbean £tbics ¦Arístotlc} 4¯
Iíctzschc, !rícdrích
thc 'back vorld` Z-J, I4¯n
complaínts about mctaphysícs Z
`10 1 ÏLL7
narrov-míndcdncss ol culturc
I I 8
lohl, Mcrman I4Z
nomínalísm 8, 88
appropríatíon ol languagc
IZJ
Arístotlc I9, Z6, J8
dchncd Z6
mcdíatíon oI substancc J0
protcst agaínst scholastícísm
60
noumcna
Kant JJ
nuclcar vcapons I04, 1 I6
ob|cctívc vorld
mctaphysícs cncompasscs
doctríncs about 8
sub| cctívc constítutíon ol I I
Òn tbe |our[o/d Root o[ tbe
|rinciµ/e o[ Sugcient Reason
¦ 5chopcnhaucrj ¯J
ontology IJ
a príorí ó4
Arístotlc ZZ-J
and changc 8¯
charactcr ol hnítudc ó8
conccpt ís itscll ín thc ob|cct
ó6
dchcícncy ol doctrínc ol
ínvaríants ¯I
gcncsís and valídíty J9
Mcgcl 86
Mcídcggcr Ióó-6n
!lato 4
rclatíon ol partícular to thc
unívcrsal J8
rclígíon I 8Zn
5artrc`s ncv vícv I0I
scholastícísm I 66n
scparatc csscnccs 96
thought and catcgorícs ol bcíng
99
uníty ín dívcrsíty J4-ó
optícs ó4
Òrganon ¦Arístotlc) Zó, Z8
Ctto, KudolI
rclígíous mystícísm I 8I n
oúo/o, ~pó-¸ ¦prímary substancc)
4Z, 80-I
Cvíd I69n
panpsychísm see hylozoísm
!armcnídcs I 6
absolutc oncncss samc as
thínkíng 90-I
ín !lato díaloguc I ¯
|armenides ¦!latoj I 7, J4, ó¯,
Ió4n
partícípatíon I ¯
partícular and unívcrsal
Arístotlc J8
Arístotlc's dclíbcratíons Zó-6
attríbutíon ol rcalíty J0-I
índívíduatíon ¯9-80
prcccdcncc oI unívcrsal 88
pcrlcctíon
Chrístían hcavcn and carth
¯8
cquatcd víth rcalíty 89-90
ímpcrlcctíon aríscs lrom mattcr
¯¯-9
|baedrus ¦!latoj I¯
phcnomcna
Kant JJ
phcnomcnology
a príorí and thc scnsíblc óJ-4
|benomeno/ogy o[ Sµirit ¦Mcgclj
I08-9, I ¯ón
phílosophy
ancícnt 8ó-6, 97, I 94-ó
archaísms ó8
lashíons I 0
hrst , npó-¸ ç:èoooç/o} 40
| ustílyíng I I J-Ió
mcaníng through structurc ín
catcgorícs ¯6
mcthodology and nuancc óI ,
óJ
monothcístíc tcndcncy 90
opcnncss 68
or hístory 6ó
1 ÏLL7
Z1 1
prc-| udgcmcnt ín lavour ol
príncíplcs 4J
proccss and rcsult I 9Z
proccss ol díllcrcntíatíon 6
rclatcs to tcndcncícs rathcr than
lacts I I 0-I I
task ol undcrstandíng I I4
truth ín contradíctíons óJ
undcrstandíng and crítícísm
64-ó
physícs 8Z
!lato
absolutc pcrlcctíon cquatcd víth
absolutc rcalíty 89
and Arístotlc I ¯-I 8, Z0, I ó4n
changc ó6, ó7
doctrínc ol bcíng 8I
doctrínc ol Idcas J, I ó-I 9, JJ,
6Z
immortalíty ¯J
knovlcdgc and ímagínatíon
I 64n
monothcísm 90
non·cxístcncc ol scnsíblc mattcr
óZ
thc Cnc ín thc Nany J4
parablc ol thc cavc I 6
|armenides I ¯, J4, ó¯, I ó4n
|baedrus I 7
scnsory cxpcrícncc Z9
scparatíon ¦_opo,ô,ì Z6-¯
spíríts 4
Tbeaetetus I 6, Z9
unívcrsal comcs hrst J9-40
!latoníc Acadcmy 9¯
poctry
altcr Auschvítz I I 0-II, I ¯9n
polítícs
praxís 9Z
|o/itics ¦Arístotlc) 4¯
posítívísm I I4-I ó
logíc 68
thcory ol stagcs ó-6
possíbílíty
Arístotlc and mattcr 64
causc ¯4
potcntíalíty ¦ òúvaµ: ) J6, J¯,
¯4
æ
praxis
ín thc lacc ol cvíl IZ6
moral scnsc and makíng scnsc
9I-Z
polítícal 9Z
prímary and sccondary qualítícs
I 6, I óJ-4n
see a/so substancc
|rinciµ/es o[ |bi/osoµby ¦Ícscartcs}
Z8
probabílíty ¯ó
|ro/egomena to |ure Logic
¦ Musscrl) J9
!roust, Narccl
Bcrgottc`s dcath I Jó-6, I 86n
mctaphysícal cxpcrícncc
IJ9-40, I4J
psycho-physícal parallclísm I 0-I I
|sycbo/ogy. Tbe Nature and Rea/ity
o[ tbe Sou/ ¦Bcck) ¯I-J
purposc
mattcr cndovcd víth I04
!ythagorcans 9Z
Kalls, Cunthcr I 60-In
rcalísm 8
rcalíty
actualíty ¦ cvcp¸:a) 6J-4
lorm 6J
ídca morc rcal than cmpírícal
J6-4I
languagc 68
only partícular thíngs J0-I
rcason
crítíquc ol thcologícal catcgorícs
98-9
rcíhcatíon
Narx I4I-Z
rclígíon
cxpcrícnccs JJ8-9
languagc I 8Zn
Kícsc, Adam 4Z
Kousscau, ]can·|acqucs
Tbe Con[essions J¯¯n
M
Z1Z 1 ÏLL7
5aínt-5ímon, Claudc·Mcnrí dc
Kouvroy, Comtc dc ó
5artrc, |can-!aul
absurdíty ol cxístcncc I09-I 0,
I I I
cxístcncc ovcr bcíng I0I
íntcrprctatíon ol mcaníng I0ó
5chclcr, Nax I 0, Ió9-60n
gcncsís and valídíty J9, 4ó
mystícal spcculatíon I ó0n
tvo vorlds thcory I 6Z-Jn
urgc ol lcclíng I ¯I n
valíd a príorí óJ-4
5chcllíng, Írícdrích V. ]. von JO,
96, IJ0
mattcr 6J, I 66-¯n
posítívc phílosophy JJ8, I 87n
Die We/ta/ter I ó0-In
scholastícísm I 9
nomínalíst protcst 60
ontology I 66n
substancc Z8
5chopcnhaucr, Artur
dcath I 8ón
doctrínc ol thc dcníal ol thc Víll
to Iívc I0ó, I ¯6n
Òn tbe |ourjo/d Root oj tbe
|rinciµ/e oj Su[cient Reason
¯J
opposítíon to alhrmatívc
mctaphysícs I0ó
príncíplc ol thc blínd Víll I0ó
thoughts ol mortalíty I JZ
urgc and cognítíon I `0-In
Tbe Wor/d as Wi// and
Reµresentation I JZ
5chvartz, Lduard I 68n
5chvcppcnhauscr, Mcrmann IZZ
æ 
scicncc
ínductívc thought I J
mctaphysícs as lundamcntal
posítívísm ó-6, I I4
Tbe Science oj Lo¿ic ¦Icgclj
das Seiende 4
scll
I 0
I ¯4n
changc ín mcta physícs
líquídatíon oI thc cgo
I 0¯-8
J08-I I
scnscs
cxístcncc ol scnsíblc mattcr
óZ-J
cxpcrícncc 4J
ímmcdíacy Z9
Kant`s scnsíblc and non·scnsíblc
óó
mcdíatíon óó-6
as mcrc lunctíon 6Z
non-bcíng ol thc scnsíblc I6, J8
scparatíon ,¡opoµô;} Z6-8, JZ
5hakcspcarc, Víllíam
Ham/et and transícncc IJ6
æ 
socicty
dcath as socíal phcnomcnon I3J
lortuítous cnds ¯ó
guílt I08
motíls lrom íntcrnal argumcnt-
atíon ol índívídual
phílosophcrs 97-8
socíology 4ó
soul
Bcck's thcsís on thc rcalíty ol
7I÷3
ratíonal doctrínc ol I0¯
5pcnglcr, Csvald 6¯, I IZ
thc Apollonían soul I 68n
5pínoza, Baruch
Itbics Z8
nomínalíst protcst agaínst
scholastícísm 60
æ & 
sput
Geist ó8
and thought 90-I
5toícísm 97
contcxt ol guílt I IZ
5tríndbcrg, August
8/ack 8anners IZ6
structurc
mcaníng ín phílosophícaÌ thCmC8
¯6
sub|cctívísm
Arístotlc 48-9, 9J
thc díalcctíc 48
pcrson undcrgoíng ob¡cctívc
cxpcrícncc I09
valídíty and knovlcdgc 48
1 ÏLL7 Z1 J
substancc Z6, I ó6n, Ió¯n
ímmcdíacy ol cxtcrnal vorld
Z8-J0
prímary ¦~pó-¸ ouÕ/o} JI
sccondary ¦ òcú-cpo: oúÕ/o} JI-Z,
JJ, J¯, 40
tvo csscnccs comc togcthcr lor
rcalíty 66
tclcology 6J
causc ¯6
cxístcncc ol Cod 9ó
hnal causc ¯J-4
Jhalcs
prímary substancc 40, 4I
Tbeaetetus ¦llato} I 6, Z9
thcology I J
anthropomorphìc dívíníty 9ó
Arístotlc claìms no íntcrvcníng
actìvíty ol Cod 97
catcgorìcs and ratíonal crítíquc
98-9
ol crísís IZI-J
non-thcologícal possìbílítícs
I0¯
ontology I 66n
posìtìvísm ó-6
prìmc movcr and thc Cnc
89-90
rclatíonshíp to mctaphysícs J,
6-8
I 8-I 9
94-ó
IZI
sccularìzatíon
scll·rcIlcctìon
takíng rclugc ín
tclcology 9ó-6
and thought 88-90
thc unmovcd movcr ó8-9
thought
Arìstotlc and hylozoìsm I J
gloríhcatìon ol purc thcory >Z
knovlcdgc ol condìtíonal and
uncondítíonal ¯-8
and praxís 9I-Z
spírìt ¦:oõ,} 90-I
thcology 94-ó
thínkíng ol thínkíng I ¯4n
valuc/validíty ºJ-4
Jíllích, laul I 8Zn, I 94

timc
cxístcncc IJJ-6
-óòc -: ¦índìvídual thíng} Jó, J6,
J8, 40-I
torturc I06, I09
Améry`s cxpcrícncc I ¯9n
truth J9
conccpt ol rcíhcatìon I4I-Z
ín cxtrcmc sítuatíons IZ4-ó
thc hístory ol phílosophy

ímplícd gcnctìc mcanìng 4ó
ín phílosophícal contradíctíons
óJ
scll-cvídcnt truths scvcrcd lrom
contcxt ¯¯
scparatíon lrom gcncsís ol
conccpts 44
thc unboundcd ¦ô~c:po:} 66-7
unìty and dívcrsìty
Arístotlc` s Cnc ín thc Nany
JJ-ó
ídcntíty ol díllcrcnccs 96-7
ontology J4-ó
unìvcrsal see partícular and
unìvcrsal
utopía I JZ
valídíty

dístínct lrom gcncsìs J9
mathcmatìcal vcrsus conccptual
44-ó
rclatìon to gcncsís 4Z
sub|cctívìty 48
ol thìnkìng ín ìdcalísm 9J-4
virtuc
dìanoctíc 9Z
Voltaìrc ¦!rançoís N. Arouct}
loscs laìth ìn thc bcst possíblc
vorld I0ó, I06
rcsponsc to Lìsbon carthquakc
I ¯6-¯n
var
atrocítícs I I6
B
Z1+ 1 ÏLL7
Vaugh, Lvclyn
Tbe Loued Òne IJ0
Vcbcr, Allrcd J8, Ió8-9n
Die We/ta/ter ¦5chcllìngj
I ó0-In
Vcscnhaltígkcít 4
'Vhat ís Nctaphysìcs:` ¦ Mcídcggcr}
I ó4-ón
Víttgcnstcín, Ludvìg I96
Tbe Wor/d as Wi// and
Reµresentation ¦ 5chopcnhaucrj
I JZ
Zcllcr, Lduard Z4-ó, I 6I-Zn, I 94
Arístolc on motìon I ¯I-Zn
causalìty I 68-9n
dìvínc actíon I7Jn
mattcr 80, I67n, I7In