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QS, MEASUREMENT

,
DOCUMENTATION, SMM
Prepared by: Prepared by:
Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti
School of Quantity Surveying & Construction
Management
Contents: Contents:
General QS services
Measurement process
Attributes of QS
Traditional preparation of BQ
Modern preparation of BQ
Standard Methods of Measurement
QS Services
In general;
QS offers its clients (developer/owner, consultant, contractor
or sub contractor) a wide range of professional services in the
areas of project/ construction management, quantity
surveying, cost/ contract /claim/ planning solutions according
to their requirements in a most cost effective and efficient
manner.
QS is managed by a group of highly qualified and experienced
professionals providing Project management, Construction
Cost Consultancy, Estimation, Quantity Take-off,
Construction Cost Databases, Specification and Construction
Material Databases etc.
The Measurement Process /
Quantity Take-off
The main purpose measurement
process is to produce quantity for the
measured works to prepare for Bills of
Quantities.
A Bill of Quantities is prepared for
tendering purposes.
Using BQ, contractor is able to price
the work with a minimumeffort.
The quantification of the work is done
either by the main contractor,
subcontractor, or package
contractor.
Attributes of a Quantity Surveyor
Ability to describe clearly, fully and precisely the
requirements of the designers and arrange the
Bills of Quantities.
The contractor·s estimator can
quickly, easily and accurately arrive
at the estimated cost of the work.
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Attributes of a Quantity Surveyor
Ability to describe clearly, fully and precisely the
requirements of the designers and arrange the Bills
of Quantities.
The surveyor must be:
‡ careful and accurate in making calculations
‡having systematic and orderly mind
‡be able to visualize the drawings and details
How to achieve this ? How to achieve this ?
Divisions of bill preparation
Traditionally, the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages:
1. The measurement of the dimensions and the compilation
of the descriptions from the drawings and specification.
This process commonly known as taking taking- -off off ..
2. The preparation of the bill.
o This involves the calculation of volumes, areas, etc
( (squaring squaring the the dimensions) dimensions)..
o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the
squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet
(abstracting) (abstracting) to collect similar items together and
present themin recognized bill order.
o Fromthis abstract, the draft bill was written (billing) (billing)..
Development of bill preparation
The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for direct
input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use of
standard libraries of descriptions, and the lengthy collating and the bill
preparation processes is carried out automatically.
WinQs
CatoPro
MasterBill
QS Elite
Snape Vector, etc
TOPIC:
Measurement & Bills of Quantity
Prepared by:
Ms Noorhidayah Sunarti
012-6254776
daia0310@yahoo.com
The Measurement Process /
Quantity Take-off
The main purpose measurement
process is to produce quantity for the
measured works to prepare for Bills of
Quantities.
A Bill of Quantities is prepared for
tendering purposes (selection process
to contract an eligible contractor for the
project).
Using BQ, contractor is able to price
the work with a minimumeffort.
The quantification of the work /
measurement / taking-off is done
either by the QS consultant (Client),
QS of main contractor or
subcontractor or Estimator.
The Measurement of Quantities for The Measurement of Quantities for
Building Works Building Works
Main objective:
To produce the document for the list of quantities
(bills of quantity). The quantities meaning the
estimated amount of building works / trade works
for specific building elements.
The quantities needed to ensure the exact
amount of trade works in completing the building
/ project.
The measurement is based on the principles and
rules of measurement set up in manual of STANDARD
METHODS OF MEASUREMENT FOR BUILDINGWORKS.
Standard Methods of Measurement (SMM) Standard Methods of Measurement (SMM)
Function:
To standardize the method of preparing the measurement
for building works and civil engineering works. Contains
of rules and principles of measurement.
Malaysian Standard Methods of Measurement for
Building works. (SMM2) ² Institution of Surveyors
Malaysia (ISM) (adapted fromSMMby RICS(UK)
Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement for civil
engineering works (CESMM) ² CIDB (adapted from
CESMMby ICE / FCEC(UK)
Standard Methods of Measurement for
Building Works (SMM)
Set out rules for the measurement
and description of building works.
SMM2 is a document that provides
not only a uniform basis for
measuring building work but also
embodies the essentials of good
practice.
Without using it, a set of rules the
quality of BQ can vary widely.
Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement
for Civil Engineering Works (CESMM)
To be used in conjunction with the
Conditions Of Contract for Civil
Engineering Works.
Does not deal with the preparation of BQ
for mechanical & electrical engineering
work, building work or work which is
seldom encountered in civil engineering
contracts.
If any such work to be included in the
contract, such work shall be measured in
accordance with their respective SMM
and shall be stated in the Preambles to
the BQ.
The Bills of quantity prepared by Quantity Surveyor
based on measurement from the construction
drawings / building plans and specification
prepared by the designers/ engineers.
This document were itemized all the quantities for
each categories of works applied in constructing
the buildings. E.g. building works, mechanical,
electrical works, civil, structural works,
infrastructure works, etc.
The contractor will priced /estimate all the works
associated in completing the buildings during pre-
construction stage.
The Bills of Quantities The Bills of Quantities
BQ is part of legal tender / contract document which will
be used to bind the agreement between the client and the
contractor in terms of:
Detailed of construction works to be done on-site ²
building works, infrastructure works, building services
works, water & sewerage systems, etc.
The materials used ² standard / quality
The standard workmanship /construction methods,
The needs / requirements of the builders on-site in
implementing the jobs on²site ² e.g. temporary
offices, storage, shelter / hostel for workers
The Bills of Quantities The Bills of Quantities
Advantages of using BQ Advantages of using BQ
According to Seeley (1997),
Avoids the need of for all of the tendering contractors to
measure the quantities of work themselves before
preparing an estimate. (if yes, wasteful duplication of
efforts and an increase in Contractor·s overhead).
BQ prepared in accordance to SMM ensure that an
adequate description of work in a recognized format is
given to all tendering Contractors and all tender on the
same basis.
The detailed breakdown of the contract sum (in BQ
format) permits proper financial management of the
contract.
Disadvantages of using BQ Disadvantages of using BQ
The absence of BQ leads to greater
variability, increase risk in
estimating and consequently more
disputes.
The binding parties of a Contract The binding parties of a Contract
Client Client: has intention to build building-
developer, owner, funder, etc.
Contractor Contractor: a person / company who has
expertise & experience to build building /
infrastructure works, water and sewerage
system and install the building services-
electrical, mechanical.
Basic contents of typical contract Basic contents of typical contract
documents documents
Conditions of contract
Contract drawings
Specification
Preambles
Bills of quantities
Schedule of rates
Purpose / Objectives / Roles Purpose / Objectives / Roles
Project stages Explanation
PRE-
CONTRACT
(before
official
contract
signed
between
client ²
contractor)
Tendering
stage
To enable the contractor to tender to a project &
price the described works.
To control in ordering materials and assessing the
labour requirement for the contract.
POST-
CONTRACT
(contract
signed and
the selected
contractor
started their
works till
completion
stage)
Construction
stage
Provides basis for valuation of variation work and
adjustments for the final account.
Provides basis for valuation of monthly progress
payment referring to the working progress on site.
Project
completed
After being priced, it provides a good basis for
cost analysis which subsequently will be used in
future contract especially for cost planning works.
(cost data)
Types of Bill of Quantity Types of Bill of Quantity
Types of Bill similarities differences
Fixed
price/ lump
sum
yThe architects and engineers
prepare detail construction
drawings.
yQS measures the quantities
in detail based on the
construction drawing
yThe QS prepare BQ based
on the measurement.
yVirtual completion of the
design proceeds the signing of
the contract.
yBoth the quantities and unit rates form
part of the contract
y A detail breakdown of all the quantities is
shown in the BQ
yThe empty bill is supplied to the contractors to
tender / price the described works/ project.
Approximate yThe QS prepares BQ but subjected to later
adjustment.
yOnly unit rates form part of the contract.
yThe signing of the contract and beginning of
the project may proceed before the whole
design is complete.
yThe empty bill is supplied to the contractors to
tender / price the described works/ project.
Drawings
and
specification
yThe contractors are supplied with drawings
with full specifications.
yNo empty bill is supplied to the contractors.
yThe contractors prepare their own BQ.
ySuitable for small project (less than
RM500,000)
Basic contents of Bills of Quantities Basic contents of Bills of Quantities
Preliminaries
Specifications of materials and
workmanship
Preambles (only in Bill of Approx Qtty)
Measured works bill
Schedules of rates (only in Bill of Approx Qtty)
Preliminaries Preliminaries
It must:
Contain a definition of the scope of works definition of the scope of works and
details of the proposed form of contract / project. details of the proposed form of contract / project.
Contain a detailed description of the administrative
mechanism / temporary facilities to implement the
contract / project.
Contain list of drawings and any special instructions
to the contractor ² highlighting the method of
pricing and presenting tenders and other site
information.
Specification Specification
A concise description of materials
and workmanship, standard or quality
of workmanship.
It must convey the architect and
engineer·s requirements.
Measured works Measured works
Includes detailed descriptions of building, mechanical
and electrical works presented in accordance with SMM.
This enables the contractors· estimator / QS to price
individual itemof work.
This section also includes Prime cost sum (P.C) and
Provisional sum(Prov. sum)
P.C. sum² used for works to be carried out by nominated
sub-contractors, statutory authorities or for
goods to be supplied by nominated suppliers.
Prov. Sum- used for works which cannot be fully detailed or
for costs which are unknown at the time bills are
prepared.
Preambles Preambles
Define the rules governing the method of
measurement of the works and contain instruction
as to what is to be included within unit rates and/or
lump sumprices.
The preambles do not define the scope of works.
Schedule of Rates
Consists of unit of works that are grouped
according to trade and work content and are
presented in tubular form.
Each table is referred as ¶schedule·.
The schedule of rates comprises a number of
schedules that when combined, cover all items
of work likely to be encountered in the contract.
Divisions of bill preparation
Traditionally, the preparation of BQ divides into 2 distinct stages:
1. The measurement of the dimensions and the compilation
of the descriptions from the drawings and specification.
This process commonly known as taking taking- -off off ..
2. The preparation of the bill.
o This involves the calculation of volumes, areas, etc
( (squaring squaring the the dimensions) dimensions)..
o Then followed by entering the descriptions and the
squared dimensions on the an abstract sheet
(abstracting) (abstracting) to collect similar items together and
present themin recognized bill order.
o Fromthis abstract, the draft bill was written (billing) (billing)..
Traditional Techniques of BQ preparation Traditional Techniques of BQ preparation
Process Description of works
Measuring / taking-off QS will analyze the drawings / plan received from
engineers· / architect.
Prepare query list (if necessary)
Measuring from drawings and entering the dimensions on
to specially ruled dimension paper
Working up / squaring Calculating and totaling the area, length, volume, numbers,
item of the dimensions to obtain the exact quantities for
each measured item in the dimension sheet.
Transfer to abstract
sheet
Collecting the totals form dimension paper on to an
abstract to produce a final total for each individual
description.
Billing Reproducing the items from the abstract on to bill paper in
draft form ready for typing.
Preparation of billing
item description Qty unit rate amount
1.0 Supply to site 125mm x 125mm
pressure treated timber piles of
6m lengths with provisions of
galvanized mild steel anti split rail
at both ends.
320 NR RM100.00 RM32,000.00
2.0 Drive 125mm x 125mm timber
piles to required depth
1,920 M RM12.00 RM23,040.00
3.0 100mm thick Grade 15 lean
concrete.
115 M2 RM18.00 RM2,070.00
4.0 Grade 35 concrete at brick
retaining wall
8 M3 RM180.00 RM1,440.00
5.0 Bringing to and removing from site
all plant required for this section of
the work
ITEM RM1,800.00 RM180.00
Development of bill preparation
The utilization of computerized system is become more integrated for direct
input of quantities sand formulation of descriptions through the use of
standard libraries of descriptions, and the lengthy collating and the bill
preparation processes is carried out automatically.
WinQs
CatoPro
MasterBill
QS Elite
Snape Vector, etc
SETTING DOWN DIMENSION SETTING DOWN DIMENSION
Prepared by:
Ms Noorhidayah Sunarti
012-6254776
daia0310@yahoo.com
Dimension Paper
Dimension are taken / measure from
the drawings by the taker-off.
Column 1 = timesing timesing / dotting on / dotting on
column column (where multiplication and
addition of the dimensions can be
recorded)
Column 2 = dimension column dimension column (in
which the measurements are set
down as taken from drawings and
normally expressed in two
decimal point.
Column 3 = squaring column squaring column (in
which are set out the calculated
volumes, areas, etc)
Column 4 = description column description column (in
which is written the description of
the work to which the dimensions
apply.
Column 5 = Waste Waste (in which
preliminary calculations /
sketches are made/ shown)
1 2 3 4 5
Units of Measurement
Cubic measurement = m3
Square or superficial measurement = m2
Linear measurement = m
Enumerated items ² Nr/ Nos.
Items
Expressions of Measurement / Rules
in setting down the dimension
The dimension are normally expressed to two decimal points.
It is important that the insertion of the horizontal lines which determines
whether the dimension is intended as linear, superficial, or cubic measurement.
Rules in setting down the dimension:
Timesing
Rules in setting down the dimension:
Dotting-on
Rules in setting down the dimension:
Alterations in dimensions
Reminder:
‡Deletions with
correcting fluid are
not encourage.
‡It is best to nil
entirely and write out
again the dimensions.
Rules in setting down the dimension:
Anding-on
Note:
Anding-on , deductions
shall be in similar form of
dimension.
Rules in setting down the dimension:
Deductions
Where a deduction is to be made, the
description is preceded by Deduct which
is often abbreviated to Ddt.
An example as follows: