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-Is an oral or written report of a past, present, or future event. It should be factual, truthful, accurate, unbiased, and
- is the communication of selected information on current events.
Elements of News
-The news happened recently (Since the last edition).
-Its new, otherwise, wed call It olds.
-Almost every story has some timeless aspect.
-This element emphasizes the newest angle of the story. The more recent the event, the more interesting it is to the
Ex.: A teen driver is hit by another car at the intersection of Miller and Russell today, in the newspaper tomorrow.

-No, not as in money.
-Its related to something else in the news.
Ex.: A story on how many accidents have occurred at this intersection in the last few years.

-War, elections, sports.
-Anytime there is a struggle.
-This may involve physical or mental conflict man versus man, man versus animals, man versus nature, or man
versus himself.
Ex.: In an election year a lot of stories about the election are news. The conflict in Iraq is news.

-The subject of a story has an impact on how people live their lives
Ex.: A story on a new curfew that will take effect or a street that is under construction, or a scientific

-Elected, wealthy, famous
-Some people are more prominent than others by reason of wealth, social position or achievements.
Ex.: If I choke on a pretzel, its not news. When the president does, it is news.

-Closeness, either because of geographical proximity or because of relationship.
-This may refer to geographical nearness as well as to nearness of kinship or interest
Ex.: News about the area (Geographical) or news about things of interest/concern to locals (Relationship)

Human Interest
-Warm and fuzzy feeling
Ex.: Olympic athlete bios, Dateline Survivor stories

-Weird stuff
-Strange or unnatural events, objects, persons, and places.
Ex.: Something bizarre that just doesnt fit anywhere else.

-This adds color to the story.
-The more picturesque the background and the more dramatic the actions are, the more appealing the story is to
the reader.

-Since the dawn of history, sex has always interested man. Stories of sex are usually related to stories of romance,
marriage, divorce, and the varied activities of men with women.

-Important names make important news. Also, the more names there are in the story, the better.

-Whatever is significant to the life of an individual is interesting to him.

-The onward and forward march of civilization or the progress of a country is chronicled step by step in the

-Stories of animals, especially those with talents are good reading matter because of their human-interest value.

-Sweepstakes numbers, vital statistics, election results, score in games, casualties, fatalities, price of goods, and
ages of woman make good news.

Three goals of Journalism
Types of News Stories
Scope or Origin
Local news
-Report of events that take place within the immediate locality.
DOTC extends MRT-3 operating hours
MANILA, PhilippinesAs part of the government solutions to the anticipated traffic buildup in Metro Manila with the
implementation of 15 major construction projects this year, the transport department on Thursday said it would extend the
Metro Rail Transit Line 3s (MRT-3) operating hours starting next week.
The longer operating hours, which will kick off on Feb. 24, will be done in stages over a four-week period, the
Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) said in a statement. A decision will be made afterward on
whether or not to make the new schedule permanent, it added.
The MRT-3 currently runs from 5:30 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. but congestion, especially during peak hours, means that
commuters often have to wait for more than an hour just to get inside the station.
The DOTC said that for the first phase of the testing period from Feb. 24 to March 7, the MRT will start operations at
4:30 a.m. in the North Avenue station and at 5 a.m. in the Taft Avenue station.
From March 10 to 21, it will extend the evening runs up to 10:30 p.m. in the North Avenue station and 11 p.m. in the Taft
Avenue station, in addition to the earlier opening hours.
According to the DOTC, after the four-week testing period, the MRT-3 Office will make its recommendation [to the
transportation department] on whether the extended operating hours may be regularized, based on its impact on
commuters, daily train maintenance requirements and the additional cost of operation.
Our limitations are on maintenance and costs. For maintenance, the coaches have to be checked every night to ensure
safety, DOTC spokesman Michael Sagcal said.
It seems that we will be able to shorten the turnover process without compromising actual maintenance hours. As for
costs, the testing period will allow us to project how much more we need to spend to make it sustainable over time, he
Sagcal said the DOTC was always looking for ways to serve the public better. We want to deliver convenient, efficient
and safe transportation options, especially with the governments push to improve infrastructure over the next few years,
he stressed.
The DOTC previously announced that the Philippine National Railways would
begin its Special Coach service to ply the Tutuban to Sta. Rosa route as another mitigating step to help ease traffic.
Together with the Light Rail Transit (LRT) Authority, it was also finalizing options through which LRT Lines 1 and 2
could accommodate more travelers who would be affected by the various construction works in Metro Manila.

National news
-News that takes place within the country.
Fake tourist guides nabbed in Davao
DIGOS CITY, Philippines At least 16 mountaineers from Manila fell victim to a group of tourist guide-poseurs here but
their sad experience still ended up in celebration after they were allowed to proceed to Mt. Apo on Thursday for free.
Ryan de Vera, leader of La Cuerdas mountain climbers, said they had planned to scale the countrys highest peak a few
months ago and dealt with Rodel Javenis, who introduced himself as a licensed tour guide for the Apo climb.
After finalizing the schedule of their trek and paying about P700 each in Ids, permits and other documents, de Vera said
they flew to Davao.
We only knew Rodel Javenis through text messages and cellular phone calls, he said, without elaborating on how they
met Javenis.
De Vera said as they were preparing for their flight to Davao, Javenis demanded more money, which made them
Thats why we called up the tourism office of Digos and found out we were about to become further victims of bogus
people, he said.
De Vera said his group agreed to work with the city tourism office and the police here through calls for the arrest of
the poseurs, who managed to forge IDs that were to be issued to trekkers.
Edgardo Elera, city tourism and promotion officer, said he and city police director Supt. Querubin Manalang immediately
formed a team and arrested Javenis and two other suspects, identified as Michael Javenis and Omar Piosca.
The suspects, all residents of Davao City, were arrested while escorting the 16 mountaineers from Davao City to
Barangay Kapatagan here on Thursday.
Elera said the city government was thankful to the mountaineers because Javenis and his gang had been giving officials a
headache for years now.
We already received reports about his modus operandi and now we caught them red-handed, Elera said.
As a gesture of appreciation for their cooperation, Elera said the mountaineers were given free pass to Mt. Apo via the
Kapatagan trail here.
Kapatagan is among the three gateways to the countrys highest peak. The two others are in Kidapawan City in North
Cotabato and in Sta. Cruz town in Davao del Sur.
The Mt. Apo Summer Trek lures at least 4,000 climbers each season in March and in October because of the
challenges posed by its treacherous passes.

Foreign news
-News that takes place outside the country.
115 killed, 1,500 buildings razed in Nigerian town
BAMA, Nigeria The latest attack by suspected Islamic extremists in Nigerias northeast has left 115 people dead, more
than 1,500 buildings razed and some 400 vehicles destroyed, witnesses said Thursday, as a traditional ruler accused the
military of being scared to confront the militants.
Sitting amid the smoking ruins of his palace, the shehu, or king, of Bama, Kyari Ibn Elkanemi, charged that the
government is not serious about halting the Islamic uprising in a region covering one-sixth of the country, far from oil
fields that make Nigeria Africas biggest petroleum producer.
Wednesday nights attack on Bama town, an agricultural and commercial center, came the day the leader of the Boko
Haram terrorist network warned leading Nigerian Muslim politicians and religious and traditional leaders that his fighters
will target them for pursuing democracy and Western-style education.
In the video message, punctuated by the crackle of automatic gunfire, Abubakar Shekau said: The reason I will kill you
is that you are infidels, you follow democracy. Whoever follows democracy is an infidel and my enemy. Shekau
spoke in the local Hausa and Kanuri languages in the video, obtained by the AP Thursday through channels that have
provided previous communications.
Many more Muslims than Christians have been among the thousands of people killed in the 4-year-old rebellion by his
Boko Haram the nickname means Western education is forbidden which aims to transform Nigeria into an Islamic
state, even though half the more than 160 million citizens are Christians.
The shehus attack on the government and the military came the week Nigerias Defense Ministry has been defending
itself after the governor of the state most affected by the uprising, Kashim Shettima of Borno, told President Goodluck
Jonathan that Boko Haram are better armed and better motivated than security forces.
According to Shehu Ibn Elkanemi, Boko Haram has established recognized camps which are known to many of our
people but the security are afraid to approach them. Each time the civilian JTF (vigilante force) wants to go, the security
will not allow them.
Brig. Gen. Chris Olukolade, the Defense Ministry spokesman, said in a statement this week that recent attacks are being
perpetrated by extremists who are fleeing the militarys aerial bombardment and follow-up ground assaults on forest
Olukolade said they have the militants on the run.
Attacks like the one on Bama would appear to contradict that.
Gov. Shettima said the attacks are becoming more frequent and deadly. At least 150 people were killed in weekend
attacks on eight Borno villages; at least 11 killed in another village attack on Monday; one soldier and an unknown
number of civilians killed when militants attacked the home of a retired general on Tuesday; 39 killed and more than
1,000 homes burned down on Feb. 11. The figures are conservative as victims often die in the hospital without any report
being made.
Jonathan appeared to respond almost immediately to the Borno governors request for more resources as an AP reporter
watched a convoy of trucks transporting tanks and other armored vehicles and heavy weaponry into the war zone on
One truck overturned on a narrow bridge in Adamawa state, plunging into a river and injuring several soldiers.
In Bama on Thursday, the chief nursing officer at the general hospital, Muhammadu Shuwa, told The Associated Press
that they admitted 200 patients wounded in the attack and 17 died of injuries.
Akura Satoma, leader of youth vigilantes in Bama, said they recovered and buried 98 bodies some shot, some
beheaded, others killed in fires that the militants set with homemade bombs.
Satoma said his group and the military killed many extremists, but that he could not give a figure because the militants
quickly collect their dead. He appeared in awe of the militants tactics.
The way they operate is so amazing because as soon as their member is killed, they pick the corpse, he said. They
seemed to have specific people for designated duties: while some were shooting RPGs (rocket-propelled grenades), others
are planting bombs, others are breaking shops and houses and looting food items and other consumables which they haul
into waiting trucks. Some others, like the teenagers, were seen helping to deliver ammunition while others were helping in
picking corpses.

Dateline news
-News preceded by the date and place of origin or place where it was written or filed.

Chronology or sequence
Advanced or anticipated
-News published before its occurrence, sometimes called dope or prognostication.

Spot news
-News that is gathered and reported on the spot. It deals with unscheduled information demanding
immediate publication.

Coverage news
-News written from a given beat. Both spot news and coverage news are good examples of first-hand

Follow-up news
-A sequel to a previous story. Having a new lead of its own, it is a second, third, or subsequent chapter of
a serial.

Straight news
- News that contains facts given straight without exaggeration. Its main aim is to inform and pass the
news and it uses the summary lead.

- is when a complete story is reported by the media, which thoroughly views issues from all angles. The
stories are based on facts and truth and not rumors and speculations. A news writer captivates the readers
by making them feel like they are part of the story.

Fact story
-This is a plain exposition setting forth a single situation or a series of closely related facts that inform.

Action story
-A narrative of actions involving not mere simple facts but also of dramatic events, description of persons
and events, perhaps testimony of witnesses, as well as explanatory data.

Speech report
-A news story usually written from a public address, talks, and speeches.

Quote story
-Speeches, statements, and letters, and to some extent, interviews when reported, are regarded quote

Interview story
-A news report written from an interview.

Routine story
-Celebrations, enrollment, graduation, election stories reported year in and year out.

Police reports
-Accident, fire, calamity, crime stories, etc.
4.1 quake jolts Tagbilaran City
MANILA, Philippines A magnitude 4.1 earthquake struck Tagbilaran City, Bohol at 10:24 a.m. Friday, the Philippine
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said.
Phivolcs said the epicenter of the tremor was located 40 kilometers east of Tagbilaran City.
It had a depth of nine kilometers, Philvocs said.
Intensity III was felt in Cebu City and in Loboc town in Bohol.
Philvocs said no casualty and damage was reported.


Science news
Developmental news
Sports stories
Pacers trade Granger to 76ers for Turner
INDIANAPOLIS The Indiana Pacers pulled off one more bold move before Thursdays trading deadline.
Less than three weeks after signing Andrew Bynum, Indiana sent Danny Granger and a 2015 second-round draft pick to
Philadelphia in exchange for former first-round pick Evan Turner and forward Lavoy Allen.
The teams confirmed the deal late Thursday after the NBAs league office approved it. The draft pick originally belonged
to Golden State.
Yahoo! Sports first reported the trade.
Indiana now adds two young forwards players who could help them as they attempt to dethrone two-time defending
NBA champion Miami and finally win their first NBA title. But they had to give up Granger, a fan favorite who was once
considered the face of the franchise.
We thank Danny for his 8 1/2 seasons with us and we appreciate everything he did for us in his time here, president of
basketball operations Larry Bird said in a statement. We felt we needed to make this trade to strengthen the core unit and
our bench. In Evan and Lavoy, we think we got two really good players that can help us and we look forward to what they
can bring.
What the rebuilding 76ers are getting is 30-year-old forward who missed all but five games last season with a knee injury
and almost the first two months of this season with a strained left calf. Granger, who led Indiana in scoring for the five
straight seasons before his knee injury, also has an expiring contract, and Philadelphia will get another pick in a draft
many believe will be rife with talent.
The trade also could help teams on both ends of the NBAs spectrum.
Indiana has now picked up three former 76ers this month Bynum, Turner and Allen in an effort to add more scoring
punch for their expected playoff showdown with Miami. The Pacers already have the best record in the East (41-13) and
lead the Heat by two games in the chase for home-court advantage.
Philadelphia, meanwhile, went into Thursday with the second-worst record in the league at 15-40 and now appears poised
to make a run at surpassing Milwaukee for the worst mark in the NBA.
In a flurry of moves, the 76ers picked up a handful of draft picks, a few veterans and lost two of their top four scorers.
Turner, a 6-foot-7 guard, was the No. 2 overall draft pick in 2010 after winning college basketballs player of the year
award. He was averaging a team-high 17.4 points, 6.0 rebounds and 3.7 assists and could become a free agent after this
season. He has averaged of 11.5 points, 5.5 rebounds and 3.2 assists per game in 3 1/2 NBA seasons.
Granger was averaging 8.3 points since returning from a strained left calf in mid-December, but he has career averages of
17.6 points, 5.1 rebounds and 2.0 assists. He played in the 2009 All-Star Game and was voted the leagues Most Improved
Player in 2008-09.
The 76ers also sent Spencer Hawes, their top rebounder, to Cleveland earlier in the day. He was averaging 13.0 points and
8.5 rebounds in the final year of his contract.
But Philadelphia certainly loaded up on second-round picks.
In addition to getting Indianas choice, the 76ers also acquired two second-round picks, forward Earl Clark and center
Henry Sims in the deal with Cleveland and added guard Eric Maynor from Washington in a three-way deal that netted a
2016 second-round pick from Denver and a 2015- second-round pick from New Orleans.
And the usually cost-conscious Pacers now look like they are loading up on big bodies for the playoffs.
Theyve added the 7-foot Bynum, a former All-Star who missed all of last season in Philly because of knee injuries. This
season, he signed with Cleveland as a free agent before getting traded to Chicago and then released. Indiana signed
Bynum on Feb. 1 and though he has not played, coach Frank Vogel said he didnt expect Bynum to play for a few weeks.
Allen, a 6-foot-9, 255-pound forward, was averaging 5.2 points and 5.4 rebounds with Philadelphia.
To clear room on the roster, Indiana waived Orlando Johnson, a second-year guard they obtained in a draft night trade in
Orlando is a great kid, said Bird. We appreciate everything hes done for us and hope he has a long and successful


Minor forms
News brief
-A short item of news interest, written like a brief telegraphic message, giving mainly the result with

News bulletin
-It is similar to the lead of a straight news story. Its aim is just to give the gist of the news.

-This is a short news feature usually used as filler, e.g., Quirks in the news.

-A bulletin that conveys the first word of an event.

Qualities of a Good News writer
-A good writer is highly investigative in his approach. He seeks to find out at minimum the answers to the
following questions: Who, What, Where, When, Why, How

Dream and reality

A good writer knows the communication reality. He
strongly believes that a message sent is not a message received. A messages success depends upon the fulfillment
of the following points:

Social Contact

The persons who are communicating have to be
in touch with each

Common Medium Both parties must share a common language or means of

The message has to be imparted clearly.


The message has to
be received, properly understood and interpreted.

Know internal biases and shape perceptions

They try to find the resistance of their readers. For this they collect all information about their readers and
then prepare a game plan.

Good writers are strong communicators. They have the art of strong oral and written communication
skills. They use the rhetorical devices to exhibit standard behavior to influence their readers. They know
that all readers want strong ethics and morality on the part of the writer, cooperation, goodwill, efficiency, trust,

Knowledge of medium
Good writers user their medium: language in the most effective manner and according to the reception
level of their readers.

News Structure

Fiction and Drama News Story

Writing the News Story
1. Write the story right away.
2. Play up the dominant points.
3. Be accurate and truthful.
4. Avoid editorializing and writing libelous materials.
5. Give the source of the news.
6. Write names in full when these are mentioned for the first time.
7. Identify the names mentioned.
8. Watch out for errors of fact and grammar.
9. Observe the guidelines of clear and effective writing.
10. Adopt a paper style sheet for consistency.
Some suggestions on preparing ones copy:
Type copy on standard-size copy paper, double or triple-spaced to give room for proofreaders marks.
Write a one or two-word slug in the upper left hand corner to indicate the subject of the story.
Complete sentences and paragraphs on the same sheet of paper.
Avoid splitting words at the end of the line.
Write more at the end of every sheet, except the last one which should be mark # or 30. These marks,
together with the slug line should be encircled.

The Lead
The lead, or opening paragraph, is the most important part of a news story. With so many sources of information
newspapers, magazines, TV, radio and the Internet audiences simply are not willing to read beyond the first paragraph
(and even sentence) of a story unless it grabs their interest. A good lead does just that. It gives readers the most important
information in a clear, concise and interesting manner. It also establishes the voice and direction of an article.
Functions of a Lead
Introduces the news story
Tells the story in capsule form
Answers right away the questions that the reader would naturally ask
Types of Lead
-It brings the central issue of discussions at first.
-It tells readers what they want to know in a creative manner.
-If the reader only read the lead, he or she would have a solid grasp of the story
Twelve persons were killed & at least 50 injured and hospitalized when a bus and car smashed into each other. Bus got
fire and collided with the car which resulted into this accident. This mishap took place near Gurgaon in the morning.
-Use when story has direct relevance or public interest to reader
-Many editors dislike question lead on the basis that people read newspapers to get answers, and not to be asked
-If the question is provocative, it may be used as a lead.

A. Who Lead
-Used when the person involved is more prominent than what he does or what happens to him.
Ex: President Noynoy Aquino addressed the PMA graduates in Baguio City on April 20.

B. What Lead
-Used when the event or what took place is more important than the person involved in the story.
Ex: The NSSAT will be given November 24 to all graduating high school students desiring to enroll in
the fourth-year college course.

C. When Lead
Ex: April 15 is the deadline for filing of Income Tax Returns at the BIR.

D. Where Lead
Ex: The Philippines will be the site of the next Miss Universe contest.

E. Why Lead
Ex: Because of poverty, around a hundred students dropped out from school last year. This was learned
from PNU President Nilo L. Rosas.
Statement or Direct Quotation
-This lead can be extremely effective if quote is good and important.
-Then, paragraphs is used to explain the quote.
-This lead is generally used in speech reporting.
I will start looking for a secular state in India from Kashmir to Kerala excluding Tami Nadu for me to reside and work. If
I am not be able to find such a place in the country then I would seek a country that does entertain an artist like me. I
could leave the country like MF Hussain, said the actor speaking to the press. Indias one of the finest actor and film
maker, Kamal Hassan is disappointed. Lot of drama has been happening from few days and his latest movie
Vishwaroopam is not yet released in Tamil Nadu.
Punch, Capsule or Catridge
-Short & punchy to attract the readers.
-Blunt, explosive statement to summarize the article.
President Pratibha Patils foreign visits have cost the public exchequer Rs.205 crore, surpassing the record of all her
predecessors. Since assuming office as the countrys first woman president in July 2007, Ms. Patil has undertaken 12 trips
covering 22 countries across four continents. She has four more months to go in her five-year tenure and a trip to South
Africa is said to be on the anvil. (Punch Lead)
Caught in a controversy over the Presidents travel expenses amounting to over Rs 200 crore, Rashtrapati Bhawan
spokesperson on Tuesday said that comparisons of the number of foreign visits by various Presidents was misleading.
President Pratibha Patils office also said that the visits were necessary to deepen bilateral cooperation. (Summary Lead)
Blind Identification
-If the person concerned is not well-known in the community, his/her name is less important than other salient facts
that identify the person.
1. An 80 year old woman instead of her name.
2. A police inspectors son was attacked with a knife by some miscreants on Mount Road this evening. The victim
Pratap Daniel, 20, has been admitted to a private hospital and his condition is critical
Funny or Gag
-The lead is written in a funny way.
-This is written on rare basis depending upon the story
-Generally, used in a feature.
-In this lead, short sentence or phrase is used in a straight forward manner.
-This is used in an important news. Since this lead hits the reader like a bullet.
Mahatma is no more. Indira Gandhi is shot dead
Narrative or Sequence
-This lead starts at the middle of an event.
-It carries the reader through the event and give a surprising twist at the end of the story.
He paused for a second to gaze upon it. Then slowly he reached down and laid his hands upon it feeling the skin. He
turned aside and carefully selected the knife. Sweating now, he lifted it up and then , suddenly brought it down. Red, Red
it was everywhere.
Cut shouted the director. Thus ended the first shot of Sanjeev Kumar. Three retakes later and it was done. And what
followed is history.
Oddity or Freak
-Begin with uncommon or odd statement.
-Unusual approach to attract the readers.
For sale: One elephant . The City Park Commission is thinking about inserting that ad in the newspaper.
Wanted: Supporters from among the opposition parties who can vote from the NDA govt. to save it from a possible defeat
in coming election in Utter Pradesh.
-This lead stress on the circumstances under which the incident took place.
-Generally, used in Human Interest Story.
A 60 year old retired bank employee raised his voice when 2 unidentified persons entered in his house for robbery in
Shakarpur area. Fortunately, a police van was standing nearby. They reached at the spot and rescued the women.
-Jerky, exciting phrase used if facts justify it.
-Short, clipped words, phrases and sentences, sometimes separated with dashes and dots.
-To create certain mood in the story, often, this is descriptive in nature.
Midnight on the bridgea scream a shot a splash a second shot a third shot
Rohit has less learning ability. Rohit has severe problem in speech. Rohit is an autisic. But still he manages like a normal
child. (rest of the story)
Suspended Interest/Delayed
-This lead work as a stimulators of interest among readers.
-After the lead, story runs in chronological order, so reader has to read the whole story to get the climax.
-The reader must get the story by reading to the end of the story
Fourteen year old Akbars appeal to the judge to let him remain with his Hindu guardian instead of transferring him to his
Muslim mother has shot Aiku Lal Sandil to national headlines. However, for the tea vendor from Baradari, lucknow,
taking in Akbar wasnt something he thought twice about. Having been raised by a Muslim man himself, Sandil couldnt
just look away when he found the six year old lost boy in a Lucknow park eight years ago. (rest of the story)
Historical or literary-Allusion
-This lead draws attention on some characters or event in history or literature that is familiar to average readers.
-The religious books and literary works are used as reference points by writers.
Lastly, Nirbhaya died after 15 days struggle. She fought for the life like Jhansi ki Rani, but her life ended as the infection
of body could stopped, said doctor team member.
-A descriptive lead describes how an event happened rather than simply telling what the event is about.
-Writer try to paint the event/place/person through words.
-This lead can help in creating the mood of the story.
Allahabad: At the Kanchi Shankaracharyas camp, a 24 hour mantra jaap (chanting of hyms) echoes across sector 6 of the
70-sq km large kumbh city. Adjacent to the Kanchi Peeth camp, the SGPC team at the kumbh prepares for the afternoon
langar (community lunch). Hundreds of pilgrims, visitors, and homeless at the kumbh have already queued up for the
lunch. Across the road, the gate of new dharma guru Asaram Bapus enclosure dwarfs the rest. Its gaudy like a poor
-This lead attempts to play on proverb, quotation, song titles or phrase.
Jo Jeeta Wahi Sikandar Hindu nationalist leader Narendra Modi has won a convincing victory to secure a fourth
successive term as chief minister of Indias Gujarat state. With all the votes counted, Modis Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) has won 115 seats in the 182-seat assembly, the election commission says.
Direct-Address or Direct Appeal
-This lead directly speaks to the reader.
-It addresses the reader directly as you.
-It enhances the interest of the reader as it directly talk with them.
You might not get relief from breezy wind as meteorological department said the weather are going to be same for next 15
days more.
If you are one of 30 million Americans working for a company with a private pension plan, Congress has given you a new
bill of rights. It is the Employment Retirement Income Secutiry Act and it promises that if you have worked long enough
to earn pension, you will receive one at retirement age. Nothing including bankruptcy, plant closings, dismissal or
resignation can stand in the way.
-Grabbing readers attention by comparing extremes the big with little, comedy with tragedy, old age with
youth, past with the present and so on.
A private is having funds in crores and international facilities where a municipal school is lacking in its basic need of
teachers. The XYZ public school management has agreed that they have 28,000,000 is too high. (now, the rest of the story
will tell how the situation is there)
Similarly, corruption in politics could be one reason.
Tips for Writing a Lead
The Five Ws and H: Before writing a lead, decide which aspect of the story who, what, when, where, why,
how is most important. You should emphasize those aspects in your lead. Wait to explain less important aspects
until the second or third sentence.

Conflict: Good stories have conflict. So do many good leads.

Specificity: Though you are essentially summarizing information in most leads, try to be specific as possible. If
your lead is too broad, it wont be informative or interesting.

Brevity: Readers want to know why the story matters to them and they wont wait long for the answer. Leads are
often one sentence, sometimes two. Generally, they are 25 to 30 words and should rarely be more than 40. This is
somewhat arbitrary, but its important especially for young journalists to learn how to deliver information
concisely. See the OWLs page on concise writing for specific tips. The Paramedic Method is also good for
writing concisely.

Active sentences: Strong verbs will make your lead lively and interesting. Passive constructions, on the other
hand, can sound dull and leave out important information, such as the person or thing that caused the action.
Incomplete reporting is often a source of passive leads.

Audience and context: Take into account what your reader already knows. Remember that in todays media
culture, most readers become aware of breaking news as it happens. If youre writing for a print publication the
next day, your lead should do more than merely regurgitate yesterdays news.

Honesty: A lead is an implicit promise to your readers. You must be able to deliver what you promise in your
What to Avoid
Flowery language: Many beginning writers make the mistake of overusing adverbs and adjectives in their leads.
Concentrate instead on using strong verbs and nouns.

Unnecessary words or phrases: Watch out for unintentional redundancy. For example, 2 p.m. Wednesday
afternoon, or very unique. You cant afford to waste space in a news story, especially in the lead. Avoid clutter
and cut right to the heart of the story.

Formulaic leads: Because a lot of news writing is done on deadline, the temptation to write tired leads is strong.
Resist it. Readers want information, but they also want to be entertained. Your lead must sound genuine, not
merely mechanical.

Write a news story based on the given information.
1. Alturas, California Four people dead Two people wounded
44 year old Sherrie Rhoades Thursday afternoon California shooting


2. 7 people killed Davao City Friday
Davao drug den Police raid


3. San Miguel Coffee Mixers February 21 Friday
Game 4 Rain or Shine Elasto Painters
Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer

Copy reading
-editing or correcting errors made by the reporter.
-is much like the work of a communication arts teacher correcting compositions, except that he uses different
Duties of a copyreader based on:
Errors in facts
Shorten sentences and tighten paragraphs.
Rewrite the story completely if it is poorly written.
Rewrite the lead or the first few paragraphs whenever necessary, but must never tamper with the facts
unless he is sure of his corrections.
Delete all opinion, speculations and statements on news which are without attribution or sources.
Watch out for slanting or any attempt to present the story in a subtly biased way.
Watch for libelous statements.
Write headlines
Cut a story to size or to the required length if necessary.
Challenge facts, claims, or reports when they sound anomalous, illogical and incredible.
Recheck figures and totals.
Check attributions and see to it that they are properly identified.

Errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, usage, organization
Errors in coherence, unity, emphasis
Errors in style
Straighten out ungrammatical construction
Check sluglines and paging sequences
Cross-out adjectives in news which tend to make a story sound over-written.
See that the papers style requirements are strictly followed. Check names, addresses, title, designations,
identifications, figures, etc.
A Good Copyreader is:
Confirm facts and verify names
Check dates and time

A master of detail and of broad knowledge
Know books, plays, magazine, reviews
Know names, localities, history, human nature

A master writer, a super reporter
Skillful in the use of words, sentences, paragraphs
Writes concisely

Careful, patient, creative, and can distinguish sound inference from editorializing

Willing to read long articles word for word

One must know facts of the story

High sense of grammar and wide vocabulary

Critical eye
Can easily detect errors

Especially in making copy reading marks

For referencing of facts

Knowledgeable on appropriate symbols
Qualities of a Good Copyreader
These qualities are not developed overnight; these are attained through constant practice and learning from own
mistakes. The talent in writing prospers when it is nurtured.
A Copyreaders tools
Heavy black pencil for correction and eraser
Scissors, paper clips, paste, copy paper
Copy baskets
Style book
Reference sources
Dictionary, encyclopedia
Copy reading procedure
1. Place your name or initials on each piece of copy, usually on the upper right hand corner.
2. Encircle the guideline (Short title, name of reporter).
3. Mark the copy for the printer (Size, type, column width, etc.) and encircle all instructions.
4. Read through for a general understanding of the entire story.
5. Correct all mechanical errors and obvious errors in fact.
6. Verify other facts.
7. Read to determine whether any essential information is omitted or any irrelevant or improper details are
8. Read again to improve upon the construction.
9. Improve the general writing.
10. Check the length.
11. Reread to see if it reads smoothly and for corrections.
12. Write the headline.
13. Pass on the editor.
Do and Donts on Copy reading
Reducing copy
The length of a story may be reduced in several ways:
Cut the last paragraph or paragraphs (If the copy has been written to meet the cut-off test)
Omit any other unimportant sentence or paragraph
Boil down the entire story
A. Combine several sentences by changing one sentence to a subordinate clause or phrase.
B. Change clauses to phrases, phrases to words.
C. Substitute a single vivid noun or verb for a noun phrase or verb phrase.

Expanding copy
Requires additional information, not padding.
Insert phrase, sentence or paragraph of additional material
If more is inserted than can be legibly written in the space between the lines, clip the copy, insert
the sentence or paragraph and paste on a fresh piece of copy paper

Use of period
-Omit the period in abbreviations of offices, schools and organization.

Use of comma
-Use commas to set off identification
Ex. Dr. Reyes, Pilipino department head
-Omit commas in age, time distances, measurements, etc.
Ex. 11 years 9 months 17 days

Use of the colon
-Use the colon to introduce a series of names, statements, etc.
Ex. Officers elected were: Juan de la Cruz, President; Jose Rizal, Vice-president; and Manuel Marquez, Secretary

Use of the semicolon
-Use the semicolon to separate a series of names, addresses or identifications
Ex. David David, 441; Manuel Manuel, 424;

Use of the dash
-In a sentence containing commas, dashes may be used to set off parenthetical expressions
Ex. The household rushes to her aid, but Alcantara the man who could have prevented the incident was
nowhere in sight.

Use of hyphen
-Omit the hyphen in the title
Ex. Vice principal
-Use the hyphen in a compound title
Ex. Secretary-treasurer

Us of parenthesis
-Use parenthesis to insert a word within a title
Ex. San Fernando (La Union) Lions

Use of the quotation marks
-Do not use quotation marks in names of newspapers, magazines, ships or animals

Use of the apostrophe
-Do not use the apostrophe to form the plural of capital letters or the plural of figures
Ex. SPs, 1980s
-But plurals of lower-case letters need apostrophes
Ex. xs, ys

College degrees
-Abbreviate scholastic degree
Ex. A.B., B.S.E, etc.

Companies, corporations
-Abbreviate company, corporation, incorporated, brothers, limited , at the end of the name of the business

Countries, provinces, places
-The names of some countries may be abbreviated
-Abbreviate Saint, Santo, Santa, Fort, and Mount in names

-Allowances are name for abbreviations or contractions in headlines. Some words which should not be used in
body matter may be used in headlines, such as Xmas or govt.

-Abbreviations of government, civic and school agencies and organizations do not have periods

Streets, avenues
-Abbreviate streets, avenue, boulevard, drive, road, after a name.

-Use per cent not the symbol % in body matter. The symbol may be used only in tabulations.
-Use and not the symbol & except when part of name.

-Abbreviate names of months when followed by a date. Spell out when no definite date follows
Ex. Dec. 25, 2014, February 14

-Titles are abbreviated when used before a persons full name or before his first names initial and his surname.
Ex. Dr. Carlo Q. Reyes

-Our fundamental rule is to use the simpler, shorter form when a word has more than one spelling. This idea is to
save space and to enhance reading ease.
Ex. Judgment not judgement, enrolment not enrollment,
-Avoid Briticisms.
Ex. Honor not honour, organize not organize

-Data, agenda, memoranda, and similar words derived from the latin are plural and take plural verbs.
Ex. Beau, beaus, tableau, tableaus

Commonly-used symbols in copyreading
Copyreader and journalist understand a special language, made, mostly of symbols, to represent certain actions on
revising articles.

Copy reading examples
A. Letter and word changes

Those b oys - close up space

Pam let - insert letter h

Avail of - insert word

B. Punctuation marks

They call her Sibuyas Queen because (Quotation mark)

Mr. Reyes said goodbye (Comma)

C. Numbers and abbreviations
Ill see you in Sept. (Spell out)
Doctor Reyes (Abbreviate

Copyreading tips and techniques
Concentration is Key
-If youre going to spot mistakes, then you need to concentrate. That means getting rid of distractions and
potential interruptions. Switch off the cell phone, turn off the television or radio and stay away from the email.

Put it on Paper
-People read differently on screen and on paper, so print out a copy of your writing. If you read aloud, your ear
might catch errors that your eye may have missed.

3. Watch Out for Homonyms
-Homonyms are words that share the same spelling or pronunciation, but have different meanings.
Switching accept with except or complement with compliment could be disastrous, so pay attention to them.

4. Watch Out for Contractions and Apostrophes
-People often mix their and theyre, its and its, your and youre and so on. If there is something that can hurt the
credibility of your text, it is a similar mistake. Also, remember that the apostrophe is never used to form plurals.

5. Check the Punctuation
-Focusing on the words is good, but do not neglect the punctuation. Pay attention to capitalized words, missing or
extra commas, periods used incorrectly and so on.

6. Read it Backwards
-When writing we usually become blind to our own mistakes since the brain automatically corrects wrong
words inside sentences. In order to break this pattern you can read the text backwards, word by word.

7. Check the Numbers
-Stating that the value of an acquisition was $10,000 instead of $100,000 is definitely not the same thing. What
about the population of China, is it 1,2 million or 1,2 billion? Make sure your numbers are correct.

8. Get Someone Else to Copy read It
-After checking all the previous points, do not forget to get a friend to proofread it for you. You will be amazed at
the mistakes youve missed. A second person will also be in a better position to evaluate whether the sentences
make sense or not.

The Headline
Too often the headline is the most neglected part of writing an article. People just gloss over it without taking
much time to consider it. In their minds, its the cherry on top.
No, friends; its not. The headline is the sundae.
What is a headline?
A headline is an abstract sentence

Usually it is only five to ten words

It is a complete thought

It has a subject and a verb, and often an object
The goal is to grab the reader
Ask yourself this question as you compose a headline:
If people see my five to ten words, will they know what the article is about?
It's not hard to find examples of headlines that answer that question in the negative. Sure, they may have a couple
of words that point to a subject, but they don't answer what's it about?
A good headline checklist:
Answers many Ws as possible
Should summarize the news story
Should catch attention
Should grammatically be correct
Is balanced, fair and in good taste
Is active rather than passive
Use short familiar words
Use only commonly accepted abbreviations
Qualities of Headline writers
Possess a keen sense of news values
Able to pick out significant thoughts
Expert with words expressive, active, short words
Accurate in grammar
Clever in expressions
Classes of Headlines according to purpose
1. Headlines designed to inform
Ex.: House Okays $450M Aid

2. Headlines designed to intrigue
Ex.: Tanodbayan Jumped Gun on Retrial?
What to do?
Understand the story completely before writing its headline.

Base the headline on the story's main idea, which should be in the lead or introduction.

Don't use in the headline facts that are not in the story.

Don't repeat the exact wording of the story in the headline.

If a story qualifies a statement, the headline should also.

Avoid ambiguity, insinuations and double meanings.
Word choices
Be specific, accurate, clear and concise.

Don't repeat key words in the same headline.

Avoid unclear or little known names, phrases and abbreviations.

Don't use pronouns alone and unidentified.

Alliteration should be intentional and not change the general tone of the story.

Avoid headline speak such as hit, flay, rap, hike, nix, nab, slate. Be more precise.
Some words to remember:
Complex Simple
Monumental Big
Terminated Ended
Witness See
Purchase Buy
Utilize Use
Majority Most
Reside Live
Procure Get
Proceed Go
Contribute Give
Request Ask
Endeavor Try
Summon Call
Category Class
Prevaricate Lie
Incarcerate Jail
Inaugurate Start
Facilitate Help
Inundate Flood
Criticize Blast
Enumerate Cite
Conference Confab
Investigate Grill
Welcome Hail
Family Kin
Connect Link
Beverage Drink
Capture Nab
Reject Nix
Approve Okay
Customary Usual
Demise Death
Exceedingly Very
Expensive Dear
Police Cop
Facilitate Help
Concerning About
Commence Begin
Currently Now
Proceed Go
Acquaint Tell
Conflagration Fire

No headline may start with a verb.

Headlines are complete sentences or imply complete sentences.

A linking verb can be implied rather than spelled out.

If a story is about past or present events, write present tense verbs.

If a story is about future events, use the infinitive verb (to leave, to work).

To be verbs, such as is, are, was and were should be omitted.
Use punctuation sparingly.

Don't eat up space with the conjunction and. Instead, use a comma.
Ex.: Principal and parents meet on school rules for next year
Principal, parents agree on new school rules
Don't use the articles a, an and the. They waste space unnecessarily.
Ex.: A new fire engine helps make the houses safer
New fire engine helps make houses safer

A great headline can also communicate a full message to its intended audience, and it absolutely must lure the
reader into your body text.
Rules in Writing Headlines
Write a headline that is easy to read. The simple declarative subject-predicate sentence is easy to write and read.
Give the main idea in the first line the who-what angle.
In a head with 2 or more decks, make the top tell the most significant points of the story and no other.
Avoid heads that can have double meanings.
Write nothing in the headline that isnt in the story.
Avoid repeating key words or ideas, in a headline with two or more decks.
Dont use names unless persons are well-known.
Be specific. Avoid generalities.
Dont editorialize. State facts; avoid opinions.
Make a complete statement dont use labels. Every head should have a verb, stated or implied.
Reflect the tone of the story. Features should have feature heads.
Avoid using a negative verb.
Avoid obvious alliteration except in feature heads.
Use forceful, dynamic verbs.
Omit weak verb if clearly implied.
Use present tense for past events.
Use the infinitive group for future events.
Use short familiar words.
Avoid splitting
A verb phrase
Names that belong together
A preposition and its object, especially in the top line
An adjective and the noun it modifies
Dont begin a headline with a verb; it may sound imperative.
Use only commonly accepted abbreviations.
Dont permit tense conflicts when using time words
Dont use the articles a, an, the.
Use numbers only if important; write numbers in figures. Write them out in words if the figure will occupy more
space and will be more difficult to read. Use B and M for billion and million.
Avoid tombstone heads.
Minimize punctuations.
Heres a few simple tips to do the trick:
1. Use numbers
Theres a reason why so many copywriters use numbers in their headlines. It works.
Do an experiment: Go to the grocery store, and scan the magazines in the checkout lane. Look at the front-page article
It doesnt matter if its a fitness magazine or a tabloid; many of them will be using numerals to start off the headline.
There arent really any rules (as far as I know) regarding what numbers work best, but people typically only remember
three to five points. That said, sometimes a really obscure number like 19 or 37 can catch peoples attention.
2. Use interesting adjectives
Here are some examples:
3. Use unique rationale
If youre going to do a list post, be original. For example consider the following:

If possible, never use things. Please, for the love of Pete, dont use things. You can do better than that.
4. Use what, why, how, or when
These are trigger words. I typically use why and how the most, because Im often trying to persuade or enable
Typically, youll use either a trigger word or a number. Rarely does it sound good to do both.
5. Make an audacious promise
Promise your reader something valuable.
Will you teach her how to learn a new skill? Will you persuade her to do something shes never done before? Will you
unlock an ancient mystery?
What you want to do is dare your reader to read the article. Without over-promising, be bold. Be seductive (in the most
innocuous way possible, of course). Be dangerous.
And then deliver what you promised.
Heres a simple headline-writing formula: Number or Trigger word + Adjective + Keyword + Promise
Example: Take the subject bathing elephants. You could write an article entitled, How to Bath an Elephant or Why I
Love Bathing Elephants.
Or you could apply this formula and make it: 18 Unbelievable Ways You Can Bathe an Elephant Indoors

Styles in Headlines
The total headline is made up of one or more units. These units are arranged in various combinations. The
particular arrangement of each unit, the number of units, the size of print and the position on the page indicate the editors
estimate of the importance of the story.
Some term all units decks, others make distinctions: the first called the top is the most important and is set in
large type. The others, called banks or decks are set in smaller types.
Mechanics of Headlines.
The printing of headlines involves mechanical problems. Headline space is restricted and headline type is large.
The effect of a headline depends much on a pleasing arrangement of words, letters, and spaces. The headline writer must
consider the purely mechanical problem of numbers and length of words, and even the width of the letters making up the
Counting the Units
Every paper has standard column width, usually about 12 ems (2 inches). It also has certain sizes and styles of
type that are used for headline decks. For each size and style of type, a definite number of type units fill the column width.
Not all letters and type characters are equally wide. The width of the average lower-case letter is taken as one unit.
Kinds of Headlines
Flush-left (No count) head
-The most common and easiest style. It is made up of two or more lines aligned only on the left side,
leaving the right margin uneven. It is called no count because it may be any length provided it will go in
the column. However, no line should be less than half the width of the column/s occupied by the head.

College junior is
a hit on the court,
tops in ace serves

Strict-count heads
Streamer (banner, flag)
-Striking boldface head extending across the top of the page. It denotes news of major importance. It
usually leads into a second deck which appears directly under the banner in one or more columns, usually
at the right of the page

_______Daily Breeze_______
Talks resume as market strike deadline nears

-Consists of a single line that usually occupies the full width of the column/s occupied by the article.

Dropline (Stepline)
-Consists of two or more lines with about same number of letters, the first set flush with the left-column
rule, each successive line set a little further to the right, until the last line is flush against the right column

Hanging indention
-Is made up of several lines, the first line occupying the full column width and each successive line is
intended a like distance at the left. This hanging indention is never used alone.

Pyramid (Inverted pyramid)
-Consists of 2 or more lines, each with a decreasing number of letters, the longest line at the top and
graduated down to the shortest line. The first line should fill the column width; the last line should be at
least one-third of the column width; and the intermediate lines should be centered so as to give an even
slope on each side.

-2 or more equal lines reaching both the left and right column rules.

Umbrella (Skyline)
-A special name for the streamer that appears at the very top of the page above even the name of the

-A streamer at the top of an inside page.

Boxed head
-Is surrounded by borders on 4 sides to give it prominence. It is called modified box head when there are
less than 4 sides with rules.

Other Kinds:
Jump head (Run-over head)
-The title of a story that has been jumped. The jump head is followed by the words Continued from p.__. Or the
like. If the original head is a short-single unit, the jump head may be a duplication.

-A short title of a portion of a news story. It is set boldface and occupies more than half the column width.

-A short single line placed above the main head. It may be in much smaller type, underlined, and set flush left or

Teaser (Kicker)
-Serves to intrigue rather than to inform. Unlike the real headline, it may not be a complete sentence.
Speakers name
Folo head
-Used on news related to the main story and run on the same column under the main headline.
Write your own headline based on the given leads below.
1. This evening at about 9:30 p.m. at Ford's Theatre, the President, while sitting in his private box with
Mrs. Lincoln, Mrs. Harris and Major Rathburn, was shot by an assassin, who suddenly entered the box
and approached behind the President.
2. Less than 3 years ago, two college friends decided to build a website to exchange their favorite videos.

Today Your Tube is owned by Google and gets over 25 million unique visitors to the site each month.
3. Standing tall and straight, easy to smile, unfurrowed brow under glistening eyes, Mary told of her
dramatic attitude change, having seen her business results turn around after bringing in a consultant.
4. High seas, strong winds and heavy overcast provided the setting for a dramatic mission of mercy in the
North Atlantic on the first day of the year.
5. The President is dead. Friday the 13th is over, but the casualty list is still growing.
6. How does your website conversion rates compare to other sites in your industry?
7. Your website conversion rates will increase by 50% in one month.

You will see measurable increases in web results if you follow our new "10 Points to Web
Success"program announced this week.
8. "You really don't know what freedom is until you have had to escape from terrorist captivity", says Tom
Dennon, an Air Force pilot stationed in Iraq.
9. Starting on Friday, October 5, 2007, the popular luxury fashion brand, Prada is opening it's floor for a brand new
fall line, "Vivid Allure". The line is sure to bring a new approach to everyday fashion finds, and it won't take you
long to see how.
10. After a long evening, Mikol Branch, 28-year-old, Minneapolis man did what was least expected of him. Though it
has been said that alcohol and drugs have played a large role in the offense, bystanders claim there was, "No
excuse for this kind of behavior". The black lab, Sparky, had been a lifelong friend and a loyal companion.
Links used for:
Constantino-Pangilinan, Estelita.1988. Journalism Handbook Revised Edition. National Book Store, Inc.

Copy reading

Headline writing

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